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... Tier 2 implementers will be instructed to use training manuals and adherence checklists for Tier 2. The Tier 2 team will be trained on the use of a mental health screening instrument (SDQ) [47] and a multi-axial parent rating scale (Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Third Edition (BASC-3) [52]) and other instruments used in the study. Implementers will be introduced to a competency model for CBT [73]. ...
... We will also measure how many students are served per condition (penetration) [79], and pre-to post-changes in student mental health symptoms, as reported by parents (BASC-3) [52] and students (The Behavior and Feeling Survey-Youth Self Report) [80], and academic engagement (EvsD) [53], as reported by teachers. ...
... The primary endpoints related to school staff implementing the interventions are measures of number of interventions per condition (adoption) [85], perceived feasibility of intervention (FIM) [40], intervention appropriateness (IAM) [40], acceptability of intervention (AIM) [40], usability [41], and intervention content fidelity [86]. Primary endpoints related to student outcomes are number of students eligible for interventions who use interventions, divided by the total number of students eligible for interventions (penetration) [79], and pre-to post-changes in student mental health symptoms (measured by BASC-3) [52], which include Aggression, Conduct Problems and Anxiety, and level of Academic engagement measured by the Behavioral Engagement, Emotional Engagement, Behavioral Disaffection and Emotional Disaffection subscales of EvsD [53]. ...
Article
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Background An increasing number of schools in rural settings are implementing multi-tier positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) to address school-climate problems. PBIS can be used to provide the framework for the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) to address children’s mental health concerns. Given the large service disparities for children in rural areas, offering EBPs through PBIS can improve access and lead to better long-term outcomes. A key challenge is that school personnel need technical assistance in order to implement EBPs with fidelity and clinical effectiveness. Providing ongoing on-site support is not feasible or sustainable in the majority of rural schools, due to their remote physical location. For this reason, remote training technology has been recommended for providing technical assistance to behavioral health staff (BHS) in under-served rural communities. Objectives The purpose of this study is to use the user-centered design, guided by an iterative process (rapid prototyping), to develop and evaluate the appropriateness, feasibility, acceptability, usability, and preliminary student outcomes of two online training strategies for the implementation of EBPs at PBIS Tier 2. Methods The study will employ a pragmatic design comprised of a mixed-methods approach for the development of the training platform, and a hybrid type 2, pilot randomized controlled trial to examine the implementation and student outcomes of two training strategies: Remote Video vs. Remote Video plus Coaching. Discussion There is a clear need for well-designed remote training studies focused on training in non-traditional settings. Given the lack of well-trained mental health professionals in rural settings and the stark disparities in access to services, the development and pilot-testing of a remote training strategy for BHS in under-served rural schools could have a significant public health impact. Ethics and dissemination The project was reviewed and approved by the institutional review board. Results will be submitted to ClinicalTrials.gov and disseminated to community partners and participants, peer-reviewed journals, and academic conferences. Trial registration ClinicialTrials.gov, NCT05034198 and NCT05039164
... The BASC-3 PRS (Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2015) is a caregiverreport measure of emotional, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of children aged 2-21 years. The BASC-3 has well-established validity and reliability (α = 0.83-0.96, ...
... test-retest = 0.87-0.92; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2015). Caregivers rate the frequency with which they observe behaviors, ranging from (1) never to (4) almost always. ...
Article
Disparities in care for low-income children of color call for innovative culturally and linguistically responsive solutions to better engage marginalized populations in evidence-based interventions. In partnership with a community organization, the addition of natural helper support as an adjunct to Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT+NH) was examined as a strategy to increase recruitment, engagement, and retention in PCIT for families historically unreached by a university-based clinic. Natural helpers provided home-based skills practice and support for forty-two families whose parents were more racially and linguistically diverse and had lower income and lower caregiver education than the typical population served by the same program (i.e., program population). Families who received PCIT+NH had comparable or higher rates of engagement and improvements in clinical outcomes (i.e., decreased child externalizing and internalizing behaviors, increased child compliance, decreased caregiver stress, increased caregiver parenting skills) relative to the program population. Furthermore, higher doses of natural helper support were associated with higher rates on most measures of treatment engagement (i.e., treatment completion, completion of the Child Directed Interaction phase of treatment, PCIT sessions, homework in the Parent Directed Interaction phase of treatment), with the exception of homework in the Child Directed Interaction phase of treatment and overall session attendance rate. Next steps for testing the treatment engagement and clinical outcome effects of the PCIT+NH model are discussed.
... Holliman (2010) reviewed the following child assessment instruments that are frequently utilized in play therapy research: the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS II; Piers & Herzberg, 2002); the Behavior Assessment System of Children-2 (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004); the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI; Eyberg & Pincus, 1999); the Behavior Dimensions Rating Scale (BDRS; Bullock & Wilson, 1989); the Parent Child Relationship Inventory (PCRI; Gerard, 1994); the Parenting Stress Index (PSI; Abidin, 1995); and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBC; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001). ...
... Holliman reviewed multiple factors associated with each instrument including administration procedures, item-count, subscales, and age range. The concepts measured by the various instruments include self-concept, academic/intellectual abilities, and social functioning (PHCSCS II; Piers & Herzberg, 2002); clinical diagnosis, evaluation of educational services (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004); Disruptive behaviors, behaviors related to emotional problems (BDRS; Bullock & Wilson, 1989); Parents attitudes toward their children (PSI; Abidin, 1995); Adaptive and maladaptive behaviors, school, social, and activity-based competencies (CBC; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001). ...
Article
The Child Interpersonal Relationships and Attitudes Assessment (CIRAA; Holliman & Ray, 2013) is an instrument specifically designed to be a philosophically consistent assessment for children receiving Child Centered Play Therapy (Landreth, 2012). Most measures used in play therapy studies are focused on pathological behavior, whereas the CIRAA is a strength-based measure. The CIRAA has been examined for factor validity in studies that conducted exploratory factor analysis (Holliman & Ray, 2013) and confirmatory factor analysis (Chung, 2013). However, all research to date has focused on the total score of the CIRAA. The present study conducts a concurrent validity study on the Social Emotional Assets and Resiliency Scale, which was selected due to being a strength-based instrument (SEARS; Merrill, 2001). The concurrent reliability estimates were measured using a Pearson's product-moment correlation with scores that ranged from .67 to .89. As well, test-retest analyses were conducted on the total score and the sub-scales with reliability coefficients that ranged from .69 to .72. This new evidence supports the reliability of CIRAA scores, and their concurrent validity of sub-scales.
... Children's externalizing and internalizing behavior was assessed using the 150-item BASC-2 Parent Rating Scale (PRS; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998). This parent-report measure for children ages 6-11 includes eight clinical and adaptive continuous subscales, yielding a composite score on two dimensions of child psychopathology: Externalizing (Aggression, Attention Problems, Conduct Disorder, and Hyperactivity scales) and Internalizing (Anxiety, Atypicality, Depression, Somatization, and Withdrawal scales). ...
... Scores are normalized by age. Previous psychometric work demonstrated high test-retest reliability, internal consistency (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998), as well as convergent validity as demonstrated by significant correlations between the BASC-2 PRS and the Child Behavior Checklist, a theoretically similar measure (A. Doyle et al., 1997). ...
Article
Objective: African Americans living in low-income urban environments are disproportionately exposed to violence compared to other racial groups. Child exposure to community violence is linked to adverse psychological outcomes, including externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Emotion dysregulation may be one psychological process through which externalizing and internalizing behaviors develop in the context of childhood violence exposure. However, limited research exists on how different aspects of emotion dysregulation are affected by community violence exposure in children. Method: The present study examined whether violence exposure was indirectly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors via facets of emotion dysregulation in a sample of 94 African American mother-child dyads. Mothers and children completed measures to assess child community violence exposure, externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and emotion dysregulation (anger, sadness, and worry dysregulation). Results: Results indicated that maternal report of child community violence exposure was indirectly associated with externalizing behaviors via anger dysregulation and internalizing behaviors via worry dysregulation. Child report of community violence exposure was also indirectly associated with externalizing behavior via anger dysregulation; however, there were no significant associations with internalizing behavior. Conclusions: These findings suggest that certain components of emotion dysregulation serve as an indirect pathway of influence for community violence exposure on child behavior, and the pathways differ between externalizing and internalizing behavior outcomes. Emotion dysregulation may serve as an important potential treatment target in reducing long-term risks associated with violence exposure in urban communities of color. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... The Behaviour Assessment System for Children and Adolescents (BASC) Questionnaire (Reynolds and Kamphaus 2004), in the S3 self-report Spanish version for adolescents aged 12-18 years (Gonz alez et al. 2004), was used to assess self-esteem (reliability for the subscales ranging from 0.80 to 0.87). BASC-S3 consists of statements rated as true or false. ...
... BASC-S3 consists of statements rated as true or false. Self-esteem score was calculated by transforming raw scores into standard T scores with an average of 50 and standard deviations of 10 points, and dichotomised into "low" (<30) and "normal" (!30) according to the established cutoff point (Reynolds and Kamphaus 2004). ...
Article
Background: Self-esteem is a common indicator of psychological well-being, but its relationship with physical fitness components during adolescence is not fully understood. Aims: The aims of this study were to analyse the association of physical fitness components (low vs. high) with self-esteem in adolescents, and to examine the combined influence of physical fitness on self-esteem. Subjects and methods: A total of 225 participants (44% girls), aged 13.9 ± 0.3 years, from the DADOS (Deporte, ADOlescencia y Salud) study were included in the analyses. ALPHA-Fitness Test Battery was used to evaluate physical fitness components. The Spanish version of the Behaviour Assessment System for Children-3 questionnaire was used to asses self-esteem. Results: Our results showed differences on self-esteem between groups of cardiorespiratory fitness (low= 49.51 ± 12.03 vs. high= 55.01 ± 4.46; p < 0.05) and upper limb muscular strength (low= 53.87 ± 7.38 vs. high= 54.29 ± 5.99; p < 0.05). Lower limb muscular strength and speed-agility groups did not show statistical differences. Significant differences on self-esteem were found when comparing adolescents with a physical fitness index of ≤1 vs. 4 (52.66 vs. 55.28; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness and upper limb muscular strength are positively related with self-esteem. Moreover, our results revealed a combined influence of physical fitness on the self-esteem of adolescents.
... To assess internalizing problems in the current study, adolescents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition Self-Report of Personality (BASC-2 SRP; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). The BASC-2 SRP is a 176-item rating scale that measures the self-perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of adolescents ages 12-21. ...
... For the current study, the following subscales were used: anxiety, depression, sense of inadequacy, and self-esteem. The BASC-2 has been widely used in research and clinical settings, with strong evidence supporting its reliability and validity (please see the BASC-2 manual; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). ...
Article
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The general benefits model of social support suggests that adolescents who perceive low social support generally experience poorer mental health outcomes; however, less is known of whether adolescents who perceive deficient support from one source may be protected from internalizing difficulties if they are able to access sufficient social support from another source. The current study investigated siblings as a source of support and the potential for social support compensation within the home (i.e., sibling–parent) and school settings (i.e., teacher–classmate), as well as across individuals in these two important settings (i.e., sibling–classmate, parent–teacher). With a sample of 241 high school students (73% female), structural equation modeling examined whether social support compensation would be evidenced in relation to internalizing difficulties. Results indicated that at school the association between low classmate support and internalizing problems was buffered by high teacher support. At home, the association between low parent support and internalizing problems was buffered by high sibling support. Across settings, compensation was evidenced between both adult-based (i.e., teachers and parents) and peer-based (i.e., classmates and siblings) sources of support. Results indicated that although low social support is generally associated with higher internalizing problems, adolescents who are able to access support from other sources may experience fewer mental health challenges. These results highlight the importance of accessing a wide range of supportive relationships at home and school, as supportive relationships may protect against internalizing difficulties both within and across settings. Interventions that facilitate family and school relationships are implicated and will be discussed.
... Depressive symptoms. Adolescents reported on their depressive symptoms using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). BASC-2 is frequently used as a screening tool to assess social-emotional and behavioral competencies and problems of individuals from preschool to college and has been adopted by school psychologists in school systems in a number of major cities in the United States with diverse student populations (Liew et al., 2011;Merydith, 2001). ...
... BASC-2 (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). This value was also consistent with other studies on Asian American children (e.g., Huang et al., 2012). ...
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Depressive symptoms can be serious, but often overlooked, health risk factors, especially for Asian Americans who are vulnerable to acculturation stress but tend to underreport mental health problems. The present study examines how specific cultural values and parenting practices are associated with Chinese American adolescents' depressive symptoms. One hundred and nine Chinese American adolescents (61% females; M age = 15.93 years, SD age = 1.39 years) and their parents completed online surveys about their endorsement of traditional Chinese cultural values that reflect integrity and achievement as two forms of face-saving, parents' use of psychological control, and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Parents' endorsement of Conformity To Norms was positively associated with adolescents' endorsement of the same value, which further correlated positively with adolescents' depressive symptoms. However, adolescents' endorsement of Family Recognition Through Achievement was neither associated with parents' endorsement of the value nor with adolescents' depressive symptoms. In addition, while parental psychological control was positively related to adolescents' value belief in Conformity To Norms and depressive symptoms, parental psychological control was negatively related to adolescents' value belief in Family Recognition Through Achievement. The findings suggest the richness and complexities of the face-saving cultural values and the usefulness of unpacking parenting dimensions in understanding familial processes and developmental specificity among immigrant youth.
... The exclusion criteria were: major medical conditions, head injury, autism spectrum disorder, intelligence quotient (IQ) lower than 75, other neurological or psychiatric disorders (mild comorbidity of anxiety and depression not requiring treatment were not excluded), drug or alcohol abuse, active psychotherapy, acupuncture, hypnotherapy, and massage therapy. Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children 2nd Edition [BASC-2]) [54]. In addition, participants who were stabilized on medication at the time of the study were included (stabilization on medication implied receiving typical or atypical neuroleptic medication or antidepressant or psychostimulant medication over at least three months with no further improvement in symptoms and a willingness to keep dosage constant throughout the study). ...
Article
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Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) can be accompanied by neurocognitive impairment. Only a few studies have focused on executive function assessment in TS using design fluency, providing preliminary results. This study aimed to characterize the detailed design fluency profile of children with TS compared with neurotypical children, while addressing the central concern of frequent comorbidities in studies on TS by considering tic severity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and diagnosis. Methods: Sixty-one children aged between 6 and 15 years participated and were divided into a TS group (n = 28 (with ADHD n = 15)) and a control group (n = 33). Our objective was addressed by examining a wide range of measures of the Five-Point-Test, presumably sensitive to frontostriatal dysfunction. The total number of designs, repetitions, repetition ratio, unique designs, and numerical, spatial, and total strategies were examined for the total duration of the test (global measures) and at five equal time intervals (process measures). Results: The TS group produced significantly fewer numerical strategies. Groups did not differ in other global or process measures. ADHD did not affect performance. Conclusions: Children with TS do not inherently show general executive dysfunction but may present with subtle neurocognitive characteristics here revealed by comprehensive design fluency profiles.
... In order to be included in the study, all children had to be classified as having elevated levels of EBP according to parent/teacher reports. In order to meet inclusion criteria, children were required to have a tscore of 60 or above on the Hyperactivity, Inattention, or Aggression Scales of the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2) (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) parent or teacher reports, (b) be transitioning to kindergarten or prekindergarten, (c) have a verbal IQ above 65 (M = 86.97, SD = 17.86) on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 4 th Edition (WPPSI-IV) (Wechsler, 2012), and (d) attend a daily 8-week summer program. ...
Article
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The goal of this study was to examine whether parent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact parenting outcomes (i.e., parenting practices and stress) after group-based Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). The study included parents of preschoolers (Mage = 4.97) with autism spectrum disorder and co-occurring externalizing behavior problems (ASD + EBP; 37) and parents of children with EBP-only (n = 41) who participated in a multimodal behavioral intervention, including an 8-week group-based PCIT. Parents reported on their own ADHD symptoms, practices, and stress at pre-and-post-treatment. Accounting for child EBP, parental ADHD symptoms were predictive of higher negative and lower positive parenting at post-treatment, for parents in the ASD + EBP group but not the EBP-only group. Parental ADHD symptoms also predicted higher parenting stress for the ASD + EBP group only. Results of mediational analyses indicated that for the ASD + EBP group, the indirect effect of parental ADHD symptoms on negative and positive parenting through parenting stress was significant. Findings highlight the differential impact of parental mental health challenges on parenting outcomes. Specifically, parental ADHD symptoms seem to have a larger impact on treatment outcomes for parents of children with co-occurring presentations, which seems to be partially mediated by parenting stress.
... Concernant le vécu des élèves, la recherche s'est davantage portée du côté du confort scolaire global. Certaines échelles se rapprochent de notre champ scientifique et portent essetiellement sur la mesure du niveau de satisfaction : La Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS) (Huebner, 1994), la Quality Of School Life Scale (QSLS) (Epstein & McPartland, 1976) ou plus récemment la BASC-2 (Reynolds et al., 2011). Ces échelles, outre leur intérêt, ne correspondent pas -nous le présentons ci-après -à ce que notre étude veut mesurer. ...
Thesis
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This action-research aims at conceptualizing and experimenting a well-treatment device based on the set up of a secure learning environment and on the development of a pedagogic posture tailoring pupils’ learnings to their needs at school. Well-treatment recommendations from the medical community (ANESM, 2008) have been integrated in a Pupil Pedagogic Well-Treatment Charter for schools. Based on this Charter, the Well-Treatment Support Device implies a two-fold action: leading pupils to reflexivity; and assisting teachers with pedagogy. Those actions, neuro-pedagogical based, imply clarification, metacognition, pedagogic tailoring, reciprocal regulation and subjective communication. In addition, we have created and validated a Measurement Scale of Pupil’s School Perceptions in order to assess pupils’ well-being and thus the proposed Device efficiency. The results of experimentation on pupils in their last two years of elementary and first year of secondary school in two groups, which are with or without dys disorders, have proven the Charter efficiency and highlighted the positive impact of the Device on the pupils’ school perceptions. After defining the scope of a well-treatment philosophy and furthering the understanding of learning distress factors, we shall open new leads for a wide implementation of a pupil pedagogic well-treatment policy. Résumé : Cette recherche-action vise à la conception et à l'expérimentation d'un dispositif bientraitant fondé sur la construction d’un environnement d’apprentissage sécure et sur le développement d’une posture pédagogique d’attention aux besoins des enfants à l’école. Des recommandations bientraitantes issues du milieu médical (ANESM, 2008) ont été traduites en une Charte de Bientraitance Pédagogique et transférées en milieu scolaire. La déclinaison de cette charte en un Dispositif d’Accompagnement Bientraitant ajusté au contexte dans lequel il s’inscrit, comprend deux actions : d’une part un accompagnement des élèves à la réflexivité, et d’autre part un accompagnement à l’accompagnement des élèves auprès de l’enseignant. Ces actions d’obédience neuro-pédagogique portent sur l’explicitation, la métacognition, l’ajustement pédagogique, la récipro-régulation et la communication subjective. Nous avons par ailleurs conçu et validé une Echelle de Mesure du Vécu Scolaire pour évaluer le bien-être des élèves et l'efficacité du dispositif. Les résultats des expérimentations menées auprès d'une population d'élèves de cycle 3 sur deux terrains distincts, porteurs de troubles Dys- sur le premier, tout-venants sur le second, ont démontré l'efficacité de la charte proposée et des actions associées. Cette double expérimentation a mis en évidence l’impact positif du dispositif sur le vécu des enfants. Cette étude nous amène à préciser la portée d’une philosophie de l’accompagnement bientraitant et nous permet de mieux comprendre les facteurs intervenants dans la souffrance scolaire. Des pistes pour la mise en œuvre élargie d’une politique de bientraitance-pédagogique sont en outre proposées.
... During the interview, all youth are also screened for current mental health symptoms, including depression (i.e., mood difficulties, appetite changes, and sleep difficulties), anxiety (i.e., generalized anxiety, obsessivecompulsive symptoms, panic), psychosis, conduct problems and antisocial behavior, oppositional behavior, attention difficulties, mania, and posttraumatic stress. Additionally, youth complete widely-used self-report measures that assess for psychopathology, academic problems, and social/ peer difficulties, including the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS; Posner et al., 2008), the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC), and the Adolescent Self-Report (SPR; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2015). ...
... Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, Parent Rating Scale (BASC-2 PRS) was also collected to pre-screen children for major psychopathology (Reynolds et al., 2011). The BASC-2 parent rating scales contains composite scores and subscale scores. ...
Preprint
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Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are particularly at risk for adverse psychosocial consequences as a result of unexpected challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic. These children experience a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety, difficulties with cognitive flexibility, and a reduction in support services during the pandemic. Higher executive function (EF) has been previously found to be protective against negative mental health outcomes. Here we probed the psychosocial impacts of pandemic responses in children with ASD by relating pre-pandemic (EF) measures with mental health outcomes measured several months into the pandemic. We found that pre-existing inhibition and shift difficulties measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function predicted higher risk of anxiety symptoms, with shift difficulties also predicting elevated depressive symptoms during the pandemic. These findings are critical for promoting community recovery and maximizing clinical preparedness to support children at increased risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes.
... Depressive symptom measures consisted of the Children's Depression Inventory (57,80) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (56,90). Combined symptoms of anxiety and depression studies utilized a semi-structured interview (58) or the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (59,91). Outcome measures utilized for adults were also quite varied across studies. ...
Article
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Objective Concussion is a common yet heterogenous injury. Approximately 15–30% of cases present with persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS), continuing 4 weeks or more post-injury in children, youth, and adolescents, and 3 months or more in adults. There are known bidirectional links between PPCS and mental health outcomes. The focus of this scoping review is to explore the literature on mental health outcomes in individuals experiencing PPCS. Research objectives were to explore: (1) the mental health outcomes of individuals with PPCS and types of assessments used to identify mental health outcomes this group, and (2) how mental health outcomes compare in terms of similarities and differences among pediatric and adult populations with PPCS. Method Ovid MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases were searched. After title and abstract screening of 11,920 studies, 481 articles were reviewed. Twenty-five papers met inclusion criteria. Results were organized by mental health outcomes of pediatric and adult populations, separately. Results There was a significantly higher number of studies devoted to adult populations. Of the 25 studies, 19 (76%) focused on adults, while six (24%) focused on adolescents. In adult populations, studies focused on symptoms of: anxiety ( n = 2), depression ( n = 8), and anxiety and depression ( n = 9). Two studies assessed other emotional outcomes (10.5%). Within pediatric populations, an equal number of studies explored symptoms of: anxiety ( n = 2), depression ( n = 2), and anxiety and depression ( n = 2). No studies focused on other emotional outcomes. Studies ranged greatly in methods, design, and control group. Most studies reported higher psychiatric symptoms of anxiety and/or depression in those with PPCS compared to individuals with recovered concussion or healthy controls. Discussion This review contributes to the understanding of mental health outcomes in those experiencing PPCS. Mental health and PPCS requires greater attention in pediatric populations, and consider strategies for those experiencing PPCS and mental health impacts. Future studies should consider including a wider range of emotional outcomes in their design, not limited to anxiety and depression. Study results may lead to improvements and research in the identification, assessment, and management of PPCS and mental health.
... This approach highlight the importance of mediating factors that facilitate positive outcomes in the process of adapting to adversity (Van Breda, 2018). Scales like Resilience Scale for Adolescents (Hjemdal, Friborg, Stiles, Martinussen, & Rosenvinge, 2006) and Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) are used to measure resilience as a dynamic process. ...
Chapter
Resilience is broadly conceptualized as an individual's positive adaptation to adversity which includes not only functioning well under adversity and overcoming difficulties but also becoming stronger after that. Resilience has been theorized under three broad approaches, 1) as an outcome, 2) as a trait and 3) as a developmental process. Accordingly, the first set of research looks at outcomes after an adverse event (presence or absence of symptoms/distress and/or functioning, the second approach considers factors contributing to resilience and vulnerability, whereas the third approach looks at the process of developing and enhancing resilience. Blending of all these approaches is seen while formulating interventions for enhancing resilience. Mental health, happiness/ positive emotions, well-being/life satisfaction are considered as indicators of resilience. Mediating role of resilience in mental health and well-being has been established in the literature. Defining resilience for the purpose of research, assessment and formulation of intervention continues to be plagued with lack of clarity. However, the resilience-based interventions largely aim at prevention of mental health problems and promotion of well-being. Resilience-based interventions are carried out in individual and group formats with face-to-face and online modes. In addition, resilience interventions are used across age groups, settings and formats. These intervention programs are found to be helpful in increasing resilience, well-being, positive emotions, and coping across a number of groups such as students, working professionals, health service staff, individuals with medical and mental health conditions and those who work in emergency situations. Though resilience has been examined extensively, there is not enough clarity with respect to conceptualization, assessment, models of intervention and outcomes specific to resilience. Long-term studies for mental health outcomes are sparse. The chapter attempts to critically evaluate resilience with respect to the above-mentioned domains. Key words: Resilience, positive emotions, well-being, interventions, mental health
... The BASC-2 can be scored either by hand in about 30 min or by using the software profile. These scores are converted into T scores and percentiles [14]. It provided T-scores and percentiles for measurements of maladaptive behavior. ...
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Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder with three genetic classes. Patients with PWS are characterized by severe hypotonia, developmental delay, behavioral problems, learning disabilities and morbid obesity in early childhood if untreated. Data were collected through Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) from four study centers which evaluated patients with PWS. The Behavior Assessment System for Children 2nd edition (BASC-2) was chosen to provide behavioral assessment. Data from 330 participants ((64% 15q11-q13 deletion (DEL), 36% maternal disomy 15 (UPD)) were separated into three age groups and analyzed, 68% of whom were still actively receiving recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment. When comparing the BASC results by molecular subtype, parent-reported aggression was higher for the deletion than for the UPD cohort (p = 0.007). Participants who were on rhGH treatment showed lower scores for parent-reported hyperactivity and aggression (p = 0.04, 0.04, respectively), and a trend for anger control (p = 0.06) and teacher-reported attention problems and aggression (p = 0.01, 0.004, respectively). Additional adjusted analyses were undertaken and significant differences were noted in the GH versus non-GH treated groups for only teacher-reported aggression, which increased in the No GH treated patient group (p = 0.03). This study showed documented differences in PWS behavior by molecular class and rhGH treatment. RhGH therapy may be beneficial for certain behaviors in patients with PWS; however, observed differences need more studies for confirmation in the future.
... During the initial training (Phase 1) and retraining, members of the Tier 2 team/Tier 2 implementers and district coaches will be instructed to use training manuals and adherence checklists for TIPS and Tier 2. The Tier 2 team will be trained on the use of a mental health screening instrument (SDQ) [31] and a parent rating scale (Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Third Edition [BASC-3]) [46] and other instruments used in Tier 2. ...
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Background The school is a key setting for the provision of mental health services to children, particularly those underserved through traditional service delivery systems. School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a tiered approach to service delivery based on the public health model that schools use to implement universal (Tier 1) supports to improve school climate and safety. As our prior research has demonstrated, PBIS is a useful vehicle for implementing mental and behavioral health evidence-based practices (EBPs) at Tier 2 for children with, or at risk for, mental health disorders. Very little research has been conducted regarding the use of mental health EBPs at Tier 2 or how to sustain implementation in schools. Methods/design The main aim of the study is to compare fidelity, penetration, cost-effectiveness, and student outcomes of Tier 2 mental health interventions across 2 sustainment approaches for school implementers in 12 K-8 schools. The study uses a 2-arm, cluster randomized controlled trial design. The two arms are: (a) Preparing for Sustainment (PS)—a consultation strategy implemented by school district coaches who receive support from external consultants, and (b) Sustainment as Usual (SAU)—a consultation strategy implemented by school district coaches alone. Participants will be 60 implementers and 360 students at risk for externalizing and anxiety disorders. The interventions implemented by school personnel are: Coping Power Program (CPP) for externalizing disorders, CBT for Anxiety Treatment in Schools (CATS) for anxiety disorders, and Check-in/Check-out (CICO) for externalizing and internalizing disorders. The Interactive Systems Framework (ISF) for Dissemination and Implementation guides the training and support procedures for implementers. Discussion We expect that this study will result in a feasible, effective, and cost-effective strategy for sustaining mental health EBPs that is embedded within a multi-tiered system of support. Results from this study conducted in a large urban school district would likely generalize to other large, urban districts and have an impact on population-level child mental health. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number NCT04869657. Registered May 3, 2021.
... Behavior Assessment System for Children-Third Edition (BASC-3) [72] A comprehensive assessment of behavior and emotions for children and adolescents. Scales such as hyperactivity and attention problems are relevant behavioral ratings for ADHD. ...
Article
Executive function task (EF) deficits are hypothesized to underlie difficulties with self-regulation. However, tasks assessing EF impairments have only been weakly correlated with rating scales that index self-regulation difficulties. A community sample of children and youth aged between 8 and 20 years old were assessed longitudinally. Growth curve analyses and correlations were conducted to better understand how these two types of measures relate to one another across development, as well as the impact of age-related variance. EF was assessed using the Stroop Task and Trail Making test and behavioral ratings of self-regulation were captured using the SWAN scale. EF task performance improved steeply until age 14–15, whereas the SWAN Scale showed small age-related decreases. EF task performance was moderately correlated with age among 8–13-year-olds and to a lesser extent among 14–20-year-olds. SWAN scores were not significantly related to age in either group. Correlations were similar in an ADHD “at-risk” subgroup. EF task performance and parent ratings of attention regulation have different developmental trajectories, which may partly explain why correlations are low to modest in these samples. In particular, age-related variance is an important methodological consideration with significant implications for the assessment of self-regulation in children and youth with ADHD.
... The BASC-3 [25] is a comprehensive and standardized measure of child behaviors, encompassing both clinical behaviors and adaptive skills. The parent rating scales (PRS) for preschool (2-5 years; 139 items) and child (6- session, therapists ask how well the family thinks that day's strategies will work for them (also on a 1-5 Likert scale). ...
Article
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Parent-Child Care (PC-CARE) is a brief intervention for children with externalizing behaviors designed to address issues with their access to and retention in treatment. A growing evidence base of open trials and comparison studies support PC-CARE’s benefits, but no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of its effectiveness exist. The current study presents the first RCT of PC-CARE, a 7-session dyadic parenting intervention (trial number removed for blind review). Participants included a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 49 children (29% female) aged 2–10 years and their caregivers. Participants were randomly assigned to PC-CARE or waitlist control. Families participating in PC-CARE showed greater reductions in children’s externalizing behaviors, improvements in children’s adaptive skills, declines in parental stress, and increases in parents’ positive communication skills, compared to families on the waitlist. The results of this first RCT of PC-CARE support the effectiveness of this brief intervention in improving children’s behaviors.
... Caregivers completed the Behavioural Assessment System for Children, Second Edition-Parent Rating Scale (BASC-2-PRS) [66] to measure Internalizing Problems (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization) and Externalizing Problems (Aggression, Conduct, and Hyperactivity). The BASC-2 provides T scores that are age-and gender-normed; higher scores indicate worse symptoms. ...
Article
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Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) negatively affects brain development and increases the risk of poor mental health. We investigated if brain volumes or magnetic susceptibility, an indirect measure of brain iron, were associated with internalizing or externalizing symptoms in youth with and without PAE. T1-weighted and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) MRI scans were collected for 19 PAE and 40 unexposed participants aged 7.5–15 years. Magnetic susceptibility and volume of basal ganglia and limbic structures were extracted using FreeSurfer. Internalizing and Externalizing Problems were assessed using the Behavioural Assessment System for Children (BASC-2-PRS). Susceptibility in the nucleus accumbens was negatively associated with Internalizing Problems, while amygdala susceptibility was positively associated with Internalizing Problems across groups. PAE moderated the relationship between thalamus susceptibility and internalizing symptoms as well as the relationship between putamen susceptibility and externalizing symptoms. Brain volume was not related to internalizing or externalizing symptoms. These findings highlight that brain iron is related to internalizing and externalizing symptoms differently in some brain regions for youth with and without PAE. Atypical iron levels (high or low) may indicate mental health issues across individuals, and iron in the thalamus may be particularly important for behavior in individuals with PAE.
... Anxiety symptoms were measured using 10 self-report items from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). The child version was assessed at ages 11 and 12 and the adolescent version was assessed at ages 13 onwards. ...
Article
Although indirectly aggressive behavior and anxiety symptoms can co-occur, it is unclear whether anxiety is an antecedent or outcome of indirect aggression at the individual level and whether other personality traits can contribute to these longitudinal associations. Therefore, the between- and within-person associations among indirect aggression, anxiety symptoms, and empathic concern were examined across adolescence from ages 11 to 16 in a cohort of individuals followed annually ( N = 700; 52.9% girls; 76.0% White) controlling for direct aggression and demographic variables. Results of autoregressive latent trajectory models with structured residuals supported an acting out model at the within-person level. Specifically, anxiety symptoms positively predicted indirect aggression and indirect aggression negatively predicted empathic concern at each adjacent time point. These findings suggest that methods of reducing worries about the self and increasing healthy self-confidence could prevent indirect aggression and help build concern and compassion toward others.
... Children's evaluation has used clinical and interpersonal history interviews and BASC-2 (Behavior Assessment System for Children 2nd Edition) (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). In all the selected cases, specific symptoms of parental alienation (Gardner, 2001;Gardner, 2002) have been found, of mild or average intensity, as follows: ...
Article
Objectives. The effectiveness of a therapeutic approach for the divorced parents (on an individual level as well as on the couple) was studied; the therapeutic process was aimed at improving the connection between parents and, subsequently, the child-parent relationship. Material and methods. The study includes five divorced couples that have been submitted to psychological evaluation at the request of the legal system of Romania, between 2019-2020. Both the children and the parental dyad have been evaluated in relation with awarding custody, in cases with moderate to high level of parental conflict – the cases had in common the child’s rejection of one of the parents. For the parents’ evaluation, Parenting History Survey, Parental Stress Index, Parental Competency Questionnaire and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire have been used, together with a checklist of child’s rejecting behaviors towards one of the parents. Following evaluation, the parents have been included in a psychological intervention program, consisting of individual sessions and sessions for the parental dyad. The inclusion criteria have been: conflictual parental relation, no psychiatric pathology of parents and absence of pre-divorce parental abuse history. Results. The results have shown that the couples tended to improve their capacity to respect the children’s program of personal interaction with the other parent and that the frequency of rejecting behaviors toward the other parent diminished. Conclusions. Children’s post-divorce adjustment is strongly impacted by the quality of the parental relationship and this, in turn, can be improved by specialized therapeutic intervention. Developing an intervention program adapted to the post-divorce needs of the family helps children in integrating the divorce and preserving their emotional balance.
... The BASC-3, collected via parent ratings (BASC-PRS), was used to assess clinical outcomes relevant to ADHD phenotypes during the same visit that task fMRI data were gathered (Reynolds CRK, 2015). T-scores from BASC-3 clinical indices, clinical scales, and content scales were used, including the ADHD Probability Index, Attention Problems, Hyperactivity, and Executive Functioning. ...
Article
Background Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), widespread in North America, is associated with increased Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and may be a modifiable risk for ADHD phenotypes. However, the effects of moderate exposure to POPs on task-based inhibitory control performance, related brain function, and ADHD-related symptoms remain unknown, limiting our ability to develop interventions targeting the neural impact of common levels of exposure. Objectives The goal of this study was to examine the association between prenatal POP exposure with inhibitory control performance, neural correlates of inhibitory control and ADHD-related symptoms. Methods Prospective data was gathered in an observational study of Canadian mother-child dyads, with moderate exposure to POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as part of the GESTation and the Environment (GESTE) cohort in Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. The sample included 87 eligible children, 46 with maternal plasma samples, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of Simon task performance at 9–11 years, and parental report of clinical symptoms via the Behavioral Assessment System for Children 3 (BASC-3). Simon task performance was probed via drift diffusion modeling, and parameter estimates were related to POP exposure. Simon task-based fMRI data was modeled to examine the difference in incongruent vs congruent trials in regions of interest (ROIs) identified by meta analysis. Results Of the 46 participants with complete data, 29 were male, and mean age was 10.42 ± 0.55 years. Increased POP exposure was associated with reduced accuracy (e.g. PCB molar sum rate ratio = 0.95; 95% CI [0.90, 0.99]), drift rate (e.g. for PCB molar sum β = −0.42; 95% CI [-0.77, −0.07]), and task-related brain activity (e.g. in inferior frontal cortex for PCB molar sum β = −0.35; 95% CI [-0.69, −0.02]), and increased ADHD symptoms (e.g. hyperactivity PCB molar sum β = 2.35; 95%CI [0.17, 4.53]), supporting the possibility that prenatal exposure to POPs is a modifiable risk for ADHD phenotypes. Discussion We showed that exposure to POPs is related to task-based changes in neural activity in brain regions important for inhibitory control, suggesting a biological mechanism underlying previously documented associations between POPs and neurobehavioral deficits found in ADHD phenotypes.
... Internal consistency for this measure was moderate over time (α = 0.71-0.84). The BASC-2-PRS (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) was completed by the mother at baseline, 6-month and 12-months follow-up assessment visits as a measure of child externalizing and internalizing problems as well as adaptive skills. Internal consistency reliability coefficients ranged from 0.79 to 0.85 for the Externalizing subscale, 0.85 to 0.86 for the Internalizing subscale, and from 0.87 to 0.91 for the Adaptive Skills subscale. ...
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Parent-Child Interactions (PCI) is a home visit parenting intervention designed to promote positive parenting and deter punitive approaches to child behavior management. With attention to the importance of providing efficacious interventions for families from diverse backgrounds, this study used a subsample from a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) to examine the efficacy of PCI intervention among Latinx participants. PCI was offered to 170 at-risk Latinx mother-child dyads, of whom the majority were primarily Spanish speaking. Dyads were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list control condition. Path analysis modeling was used to examine parenting outcomes as a mediator of program efficacy between group assignment and children's long-term functioning. Results suggest that Latinx parent and child functioning benefited from PCI intervention 6 months following intervention. Specifically, model results indicated significant indirect effects of the PCI intervention on (1) cooperative child behavior and (2) children's externalizing behaviors 6-months posttreatment via parenting at post test, with mother-child dyads assigned to the treatment condition, relative to the control, demonstrating better functioning 6-months posttreatment. Overall, findings contribute to increased understanding of parenting intervention implementation among Latinx families. Recommendations for future study are discussed.
... Reid et al. (2000) also provide support for the use of separate norms for behavioural ratings based on gender. In fact, several rating scales have already provided separate nor™ tables for males and females (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992;ARS;DuPaul et al., 1998). ...
Thesis
p>This thesis tested the first part of a new theoretical model, aiming to contribute to the understanding of sex differences in the prevalence of Disruptive Behaviour Disorders (DBDs) in boys and girls. Specifically, gendered perceptions of DBDs, as expressed by parents and prospective educators, were examined. An analogue methodology using written descriptions of child disruptive behaviour followed by rating scales assessing several perceptual dimensions like severity and untypicality was used, along with the SDQ (Goodman, 1997) and rating scales of adults’ emotional reactions and sense of self-efficacy. The first of four studies demonstrated that perspective educators consider DBDs as more untypical in girls rather than boys. This finding was replicated in all studies. The second study showed that prospective educators consider hyperactivity as more severe in boys, whereas the third study established that mothers rate DBDs as equally severe in both sexes. The fourth study showed that correlates of severity and untypicality are different in quality and strength for mothers and prospective educators. For mothers, ratings of severity are mostly related to the emotions evoked by the child’s behaviour, whereas, for prospective educators, they are mostly related to their sense of self-efficacy to handle the child’s behaviour, which is lower in the case of hyperactive boys. To summarise, this thesis has shown that parents and prospective educators have several gendered perceptions of child disruptive behaviour, with higher untypicality conferred to girls’ hyperactive behaviour. Moreover, the role of the adult toward the child and the specific DBD subtype examined seem to influence these differences. Implications of these findings for socialisation practices and referral attitudes that might relate to the reported sex difference in the prevalence of DBDs are discussed.</p
... Parents filled out two standardized questionnaires for the children: first, the Parent Report form of The Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children (BASC; Reynolds and Kamphaus, 2004) measures adaptive and behavioral problems in the community and at-home settings. The test can identify and differentiate between attention problems and hyperactivity. ...
Article
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Daily classroom activities that require children to perform visual search (VS) tasks are common across all educational levels: from searching for a missing piece of a puzzle in kindergarten to solving equations in college. However, VS tasks are often not performed in isolation, but rather students are maintaining information related to an ongoing task that loads working memory (WM). Unfortunately, it is still unclear how these processes interact and evolve in development. The present work aims to study how a concurrent visual WM (VWM) load can modulate VS performance based on the Developmental Model of Endogenous Mental Attention (Pascual-Leone and Johnson, 1999, 2005, 2021). A sample of kindergarten, elementary (2nd and 4th grades), middle school (6th grade), and college students looked for real-world photorealistic targets while maintaining similar objects in VWM in a dual-task paradigm. VWM load was manipulated using high and low memory load conditions. Additionally, looking for potential modulations related to individual differences, we studied the relationship between IQ, VWM span, and executive functions with VS efficiency. Finally, we also registered reported measures of potential strategies employed during the VS task. The results from a large sample of 147 participants between 5 and 25 years old revealed that even the youngest children could efficiently perform a VS task with a concurrent VWM load, replicating previous results found in adulthood. However, we found a slight increase in false alarms and commission errors when memory was highly loaded for all the participants regardless of age. As expected, we found positive correlations between VS efficiency and IQ and VWM span measures. Interestingly, the proportion of participants who used tracking organization strategies increased with age in all cases. However, although cognitive strategies to remember the target became more complex as age increased, it was only significant under the low VWM load conditions. The results seem relevant to understanding the development of VS based on the Model of Endogenous Mental Attention and the design of training.
... The Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) is a questionnaire that assess children's behavior across a variety of domains (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). Caregivers completed either the child form for youth ages 6-11 or the adolescent form for youth ages 12-21. ...
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Group social skills interventions (GSSIs) are among the most commonly used treatments for improving social competence in youth with ASD, however, results remain variable. The current study examined predictors of treatment response to an empirically-supported GSSI for youth with ASD delivered in the community (Ntotal=75). Participants completed a computer-based emotion recognition task and their parents completed measures of broad psychopathology, ASD symptomatology, and social skills. We utilized generalized estimating equations in an ANCOVA-of-change framework to account for nesting. Results indicate differential improvements in emotion recognition by sex as well as ADHD-specific improvements in adaptive functioning. Youth with both co-occurring anxiety and ADHD experienced iatrogenic effects, suggesting that SDARI may be most effective for youth with ASD without multiple co-occurring issues. Findings provide important directions for addressing variability in treatment outcomes for youth with ASD.
... Building on these 13 studies that suggested child characteristics may mediate the link between maternal and child depressive symptoms [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37], the present study examined child adaptability (i.e., a child's capacity to flexibly respond to stressors in the environment [38][39][40][41]) as a potential mediator between maternal and child depressive symptoms. ...
Article
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Maternal depressive symptoms are linked with child internalizing concerns, such as depressive symptoms. The impact that maternal depressive symptoms have on the onset and maintenance of child depressive symptoms might be especially salient in families of color who are low-income because of elevated rates of maternal depressive symptoms and environmental stressors in those populations. The relationship between maternal and child depressive symptoms might be partially explained by a child’s capacity to flexibly respond to stressors in the environment, a construct known as adaptability. A simple mediation model was conducted with a sample of low-income, Black/African American and Latina mothers and their children (n = 128). Results suggested that child adaptability partially mediated the link between maternal and child depressive symptoms. We discussed how this study can inform research and practice that aim to assist low-income families of color with mental health needs.
Article
We examine the relationships of executive functioning problems (EFP) to academic cheating in a sample of 855 adolescents. Participants completed assessments of inattention, hyperactivity, and depression using the BASC-2, as well as peer-reports of externalizing behavior. After controlling for known predictors of cheating (e.g., demographics and depression), multiple regression analyses indicated that inattention emerged as a predictor of greater cheating behaviors (R² = 0.20). We also found that the positive relation between inattention and cheating was mediated by hyperactivity.
Article
An expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, Organizational behavior and human decision processes 50:179–211, 1991, Ajzen, Journal of Applied Social Psychology 32:665–683, 2002) which incorporates affective, moral, and personal belief variables with Ajzen’s original social, behavioural, and cognitive factors has not yet been applied to bullying and bully-victimization in junior high school students. This study addresses this gap by applying this expanded version of TPB with a sample of 342 junior high school students (Mage = 12.27, 207 girls and 135 boys) from seven schools from a large Western Canadian municipality. Overall, 11.08% of participants were classified as students who bully others (“bullies”) and 13.21% as students who bully others and are also victimized themselves (“bully-victims”), with boys reporting higher levels than girls. Structural equation modelling was used to test a TPB-informed model to explain the relations between psychological adjustment, self-concept, attitude and beliefs about aggression, perceived control, intention, and bullying behaviour. The final models accounted for 40% of the variance in bullying and 34% of the variance in bully-victimization, although the models differed. Both bullying behaviour and bully-victimization were predicted by less support for the victim, normative beliefs supporting aggression/bullying, and less well-developed moral reasoning about aggression, which was, in turn, predicted by higher levels of sensation seeking and hyperactivity (both) and depression and lower ego strength (bully-victim only). For bullying behaviour, there was a direct effect of internalizing behaviour on control. In contrast, attitude and beliefs about aggression and anger control mediated the relations between internalizing/externalizing behaviour and bully-victimization. Implications of this work are discussed, including anti-bullying attitude and belief initiatives.
Article
Background: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit behaviour challenges and deficits in executive functions (EF). Psychostimulant medications [e.g., methylphenidate (MPH)] are commonly prescribed for children with ADHD and are considered effective in 70% of the cases. Furthermore, only a handful of studies have investigated the long-term impact of MPH medication on EF and behaviour. Aim: To evaluate behaviour and EF challenges in children with ADHD who were involved in an MPH treatment trial across three-time points. Methods: Thirty-seven children with ADHD completed a stimulant medication trial to study the short- and long-term impact of medication. Children with ADHD completed three neuropsychological assessments [Continuous Performance Test (CPT)-II, Digit Span Backwards and Spatial Span Backwards]. Parents of children with ADHD completed behaviour rating scales [Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF) and Behaviour Assessment System for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2)]. Participants were evaluated at: (1) Baseline (no medication); and (2) Best-dose (BD; following four-week MPH treatment). Additionally, 18 participants returned for a long-term naturalistic follow up (FU; up to two years following BD). Results: Repeated measure analyses of variance found significant effects of time on two subscales of BRIEF and four subscales of BASC-2. Neuropsychological assessments showed some improvement, but not on all tasks following the medication trial. These improvements did not sustain at FU, with increases in EF and behaviour challenges, and a decline in performance on the CPT-II task being observed. Conclusion: Parents of children with ADHD reported improvements in EF and behaviours during the MPH trial but were not sustained at FU. Combining screening tools and neuropsychological assessments may be useful for monitoring medication responses.
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This study describes the behavioral and emotional adjustment of 77 children and adolescents 3 months post-treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), compared to 52 age and sex-matched healthy peers. Parents, teachers, and self-report ratings on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) were utilized to measure psychological function. While overall mean scores were in the average range for both groups, parents and teachers rated patients higher on behavior symptoms, internalizing problems and adaptive skill difficulties. No significant differences between groups were observed on self-report, and inter-rater correlations were low to moderate. For the ALL group, maternal university completion was associated with elevations on parent report of behavioral problems, while no other factors predicted either parent or teacher report on other scales. Findings indicate that a subset of patients will require specialist psychosocial support to optimise their adjustment following treatment completion.
Article
This study has two objectives: (1) to report the results of a large-scale, longitudinal evaluation of the WITS Programs that included a large sample of elementary school children (n = 1967) from 27 rural schools (including 16 program schools) and (2) to examine and discuss the effects of average developmental trajectories and of heterogeneity in children’s development on intervention outcomes. Data comprise baseline (spring) and four follow-up assessments (5 Waves) from children (N = 1967) and their parents and teachers. WITS stands for Walk away Ignore, Talk it out, and Seek Help (www.witsprograms.com). The children in the intervention schools declined more slowly than those in the control schools in their reports of relational victimization. Children in the intervention schools also declined faster in aggression and emotional problems relative to children in control schools. Moderation analyses showed that intervention group children with higher baseline levels of emotional problems declined faster in emotional problems than those with lower problems at baseline. In addition, children in grades 3 and over completed school climate questionnaire and children in control schools who had more negative perceptions of school climate at baseline showed greater increases in these negative perceptions compared to children in the intervention schools. We discuss the potential impact of average trajectories of child development and the within-child heterogeneity in assessments for the interpretation of the findings. We also conclude by highlighting evaluation design modifications that may improve our future ability to examine the effects of preventive interventions for elementary school children.
Article
Objective: A broad spectrum of emotional-behavioral problems have been reported in pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but with considerable variability in their presence and nature of expression, which hampers precise identification and treatment. The present study aimed to empirically identify latent patterns or behavioral phenotypes and their correlates. Methods: Data included parental ratings of emotional-behavioral status on the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition (BASC-2) of 81 children (mean age = 11.79, standard deviation [SD] = 3.93) with TLE. The nine clinical subscales were subjected to unsupervised machine learning to identify behavioral subgroups. To explore concurrent validity and the underlying composition of the identified clusters, we examined demographic factors, seizure characteristics, psychosocial factors, neuropsychological performance, psychiatric status, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results: Three behavioral phenotypes were identified, which included no behavioral concerns (Cluster 1, 43% of sample), externalizing problems (Cluster 2, 41% of sample), and internalizing problems (Cluster 3, 16% of sample). Behavioral phenotypes were characterized by important differences across clinical seizure variables, psychosocial/familial factors, everyday executive functioning, and HRQoL. Cluster 2 was associated with younger child age, lower maternal education, and higher rate of single-parent households. Cluster 3 was associated with older age at epilepsy onset and higher rates of hippocampal sclerosis and parental psychiatric history. Both Cluster 2 and 3 demonstrated elevated family stress. Concurrent validity was demonstrated through the association of psychiatric (i.e., rate of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) disorders and psychotropic medication) and parent-rated HRQoL variables. Significance: Youth with TLE present with three distinct behavioral phenotypes that correspond with important clinical and sociodemographic markers. The current findings demonstrate the variability of behavioral presentations in youth with TLE and provide a preliminary framework for screening and targeting intervention to enhance support for youth with TLE and their families.
Chapter
According to the American Psychiatric Association, individuals with attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This chapter discusses the prevalence of ADHD and how it manifests in children and adolescents, reviews current perspectives on the neurobiology of ADHD, and considers its impact on a variety of neurocognitive functions and methods for assessing each area, and concludes with a discussion of treatments and interventions. A wide variety of risk factors should be inquired about during an ADHD evaluation. Children and adolescents with ADHD often demonstrate difficulties with learning and memory, which should be distinguished from learning disorders. Several commonly recommended school supports for ADHD are described. The chapter also focuses on four commonly employed psychosocial interventions: social skills training, peer intervention, Cognitive Behavioral training, and parent training. The following three well‐researched treatment recommendations are discussed: dietary supplements, neurofeedback, and physical exercise.
Article
Summary Background Suicide in children is a pressing public health concern. The increasing number of deaths by suicide and emergency visits for suicidal ideation and self-harm in children might not be fully representative; it is likely that many more children are in distress but do not seek out help. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of existing studies to quantify the prevalence of suicidal ideation and self-harm behaviours among children in the community aged 12 years and younger. Methods In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Web of Science via OVID from database inception to Feb 28, 2022, for articles published in French or English that reported estimates of prevalence of suicidal ideation (including suicide planning) and self-harm behaviours (namely, self-harm, suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury) in children aged 12 years and younger. Reference lists were also searched; case studies, qualitative studies, and health-care visit studies were excluded. The outcomes were suicidal ideation, suicide plan or attempts, and self-harm. We used a random-effects model to calculate the overall pooled prevalence of suicidal ideation and self-harm behaviours for all timeframes combined and for ever versus the past 12 months for suicidal ideation. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tool to evaluate the risk of bias in each study. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020179041. Findings 28 articles, encompassing 30 studies overall, met the inclusion criteria, aggregating findings from 98 044 children (of whom 46 980 [50·5%] were girls and 46 136 [49·5%] were boys; six articles did not report sex or gender) aged 6–12 years. The pooled prevalence estimate was 7·5% (95% CI 5·9–9·6) for suicidal ideation from 28 studies and 2·2% (2·0–2·5) for suicide planning from three studies. The pooled prevalence was 1·4% (0·4–4·7) for self-harm from four studies, 1·3% (1·0–1·9) for suicide attempt from six studies, and 21·9% (6·2–54·5) for non-suicidal self-injury from two studies. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher in studies that included child-reported outcomes (10·9% [95% CI 8·1–14·5] for child only and 10·4% [6·8–15·5] for child and parent combined) than for parent-only reported outcomes (4·7% [3·4–6·6]; p=0·0004). The prevalence of suicidal ideation and self-harm behaviours was similar in boys and girls (suicidal ideation, 7·9% [95% CI 5·2–12·0] for boys vs 6·4% [3·7–10·7] for girls; self-harm behaviours, 3·5% [1·6–7·2] for boys vs 3·0% [1·4–6·4%] for girls). Detailed ethnicity data were not available. High heterogeneity was identified across estimates (I²>90%), which was not well explained by the characteristics of the studies. Interpretation A high number of children in the general population can experience suicidal ideation and self-harm behaviours, thus underlining the need for more research on childhood suicide, including developmentally appropriate preventive strategies, such as youth-nominated support teams or dialectical behavioural therapy.
Article
The study of coping strategies in children and adolescents is a topic in line with the study of a healthy development, as the very fact of having coping skills serves as a guarantee for a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The general aim is the prediction of children coping (coping strategies used by students of elementary education, and in relation to four types of stressors known as the school, family, peer interaction and health) in terms of the impact of varying stress, coping, School, clinical and social maladjustment. Participants were 402 students, ranging from 9 to 12 years old. Results show that that the variable coping with the ACS, stress and clinical maladjustment predict, with different impact, coping strategy employed by children. This information attempts to be useful in the applied Educational. Key words: assessment, coping strategies, maladjustment, middle-childhood.
Chapter
An understanding of executive functioning begins with knowing the underlying neural substrates and integrated circuitry involved in higher‐order cognitive processing. Working memory and attention are acknowledged as fundamental aspects of executive functioning, and evaluating working memory and attention is seen as a critical component of assessing executive functions. Regardless of which direct and indirect measures are chosen, the neuropsychological assessment of children in general, and executive functioning specifically, is extremely complex. The Delis‐Kaplan Executive Function System (D‐KEFS) was one of the first instruments specifically designed to evaluate executive functioning. Trail‐making tests have been a popular procedure with both children and adults and have been incorporated into many neuropsychological batteries such as the D‐KEFS. Despite the challenges inherent to the accurate assessment of executive functions in children and adolescents, it is crucial to provide the foundation for effective intervention strategies.
Chapter
This chapter introduces the reader to the general topic of assessing effort and motivation across settings and also aims to validate its usefulness and importance in the school and pediatric clinic settings. Many terms are associated with assessing effort and motivation. The terms assist with explaining usage across specialties and purposes. The chapter provides operational definitions and clarification of frequently used terms to ensure continuity across disciplines. Performance validity testing (PVT) and its importance have been well established in the adult literature of clinical and forensic neuropsychological settings. For more than a decade, PVT has been considered an essential component of all neuropsychological evaluations, as outlined by the National Academy of Neuropsychology and the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology. Effort measures with the most comprehensive post‐publication literature history are those that have been developed for adults, although several more recent assessments were developed specifically for pediatric populations.
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Pathogenic variants in SPTAN1 result in abnormal neurodevelopment but limited information is available on the spectrum of neurodevelopmental profiles associated with variations in this gene. We present novel data collected at two time points over a three-year period on a nine-year-old patient with heterozygous de novo SPTAN1 variant, drug-resistant epilepsy, and left hippocampal sclerosis. Across evaluations, our patient's performance was highly variable, ranging from below age expectation to within age-expected range. The patient exhibited relative cognitive strengths at both time points on verbal-expressive tasks. Weaknesses were seen in her attention, executive function, psychomotor processing speed, fine motor, visual-motor integration, and social skills. Memory findings were consistent with left hippocampal sclerosis. Evaluations resulted in diagnoses with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.
Article
Measurement-informed care is a cornerstone of evidence-based practice and shared decision-making. A structured diagnostic interview specific to ADHD provides a globally agreed-on standard of evaluation. These interviews are accessible in the public domain in multiple languages and are helpful to clinicians new to the diagnosis of ADHD. Broad-based rating scales looking at multiple domains of psychopathology are critical to assuring recognition of comorbid diagnoses, which might otherwise be missed, differential diagnoses, and identification of the most prominent or treatable diagnosis. Recent innovations in computerized adaptive testing have improved the efficiency and accuracy of diagnostic screening. Rating scales specific to ADHD and disruptive behavior disorders establish the severity of the disorder and response to intervention. Age- and gender-normed symptom rating scales for ADHD capture clinically salient differences between what is normative in different demographic groups. An evaluation of functional impairment in ADHD has been critical to understanding the patient's perspective of the presenting problem. Best practice care for ADHD treatment goes beyond improvement to well-defined standards for both symptom and functional remission. Studies of executive function, emotional regulation, mind-wandering, and sluggish cognitive tempo have led to a richer understanding of the breadth and depth of associated deficits commonly experienced by ADHD patients. Psychometrically validated tools are available to complement every aspect of ADHD care and provide global standards for research.
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Background: Children in Flint, Michigan, have multiple risk factors for behavioural challenges, including exposure to lead during the Flint water crisis. However, their behavioural health status is largely unknown. Robust data from the Flint Registry can help understand the burden of behavioural outcomes and inform the allocation of resources. Objectives: This population-level evaluation of Flint children's behavioural outcomes aims to answer the question: What is the burden of parent-reported child behaviour problems in Flint Registry enrolled children? Methods: This cross-sectional study describes parent-reported behavioural outcomes of children 2-17 years old who enrolled in the Flint Registry between December 2018 and December 2020. Parents/guardians completed behavioural assessments including the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-3) Parent Rating Scale and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF2) Screening Parent Form. Demographics of enrolees were compared with census data. Composite BASC-3 T scores were compared with national norms. Distributions for clinically relevant categories of BASC-3 and BRIEF2 scores were examined across age and sex groups. Results: Of the 3579 children included in this study (mean age 9.73 ± 3.96 years), about half were female and 79.7% were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. Almost half of the children were reported to have clinically concerning scores on the BASC-3 Parent Rating Scale (44.7%) and the BRIEF2 Screening Parent Form (46.7%). Across most age and sex groupings, the reported adaptive skills were relatively low and behaviour symptoms relatively high. Conclusions: Results reveal a substantial burden of parent-reported behavioural problems in Flint Registry children. This is clinically significant and indicates that a large number of children may require comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation and potential medical and/or educational services. Recognising the potential for long-term manifestations of childhood exposures to environmental hazards, longitudinal surveillance is critical to continue to identify and support participants.
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Objective: Nonadherence to anti-seizure drugs (ASMs) is a significant problem in pediatric epilepsy and is linked to increased morbidity, mortality, clinically unnecessary medication changes, and increased healthcare costs. Family interventions can improve adherence. However, it is challenging to know which families will struggle with nonadherence and require intervention. This study aims to identify specific parent, family, child, and medical factors that predict which families most need family-based adherence interventions. Methods: Families enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a family-based adherence intervention completed measures assessing parent, family, child, and medical factors. Families also used an electronic adherence monitor. Adherence >95% was considered high adherence (not requiring intervention) and <95% was considered suboptimal adherence (requiring intervention). We conducted a stepwise logistic regression to assess demographic, medical, child, family, and parent predictors of membership to the suboptimal adherence group. Results: Of the 200 families of children with new-onset epilepsy who enrolled, 177 families completed the study. Of these families, 121 (68%) were in the high adherence group and 56 (32%) were in the suboptimal adherence group. Families with lower SES, children of color, lower general family functioning, and more parent distress were more likely to be in the suboptimal adherence group. Significance: We identified that parent and family factors, as well as sociodemographic characteristics predicted membership in the suboptimal adherence group. It is critical to find creative and practical solutions to assessing and intervening upon key adherence predictors. These may include streamlined screening for parental distress and family functioning, as well as recognition that families of lower SES and communities of color may be at heightened risk for suboptimal adherence.
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Pathogenic variants in SPTAN1 result in abnormal neurodevelopment but limited information is available on the spectrum of neurodevelopmental profiles associated with variations in this gene. We present novel data collected at two time points over a three-year period in a nine-year-old patient with heterozygous de novo SPTAN1 variant, drug-resistant epilepsy, and left hippocampal sclerosis. Across evaluations, our patient’s performance was highly variable, ranging from below age expectation to within age-expected range. The patient exhibited relative cognitive strengths at both time points on verbal-expressive tasks. Weaknesses were seen in her attention, executive function, psychomotor processing speed, fine motor, visual-motor integration, and social skills. Memory findings were consistent with those associated with left hippocampal sclerosis. Evaluations resulted in diagnoses including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.
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In 2019, 4.4 million referrals of maltreatment were made that affected approximately 7.9 million children. It was estimated that 9.3% of the referrals were related to child sexual abuse (CSA). To prevent negative psychosocial and health-related outcomes associated with CSA, CSA survivors often participate in a forensic interview, medical and behavioral health assessments, and behavioral health treatment while navigating other life disruptions or changing family dynamics precipitated by the CSA (e.g., change in custody or household, lack of contact with preparator, etc.). The assessment and treatment of pediatric survivors of CSA by multidisciplinary teams (MDT) can enhance families' engagement and participation with the legal process, medical evaluation, and behavioral health services. This paper explores the Nemours Children's Health, Delaware MDT's approach to assessing and treating CSA, explores benefits and barriers associated with the current model, and discusses public health implications of a MDT approach to addressing CSA.
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Background Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying developmental dyslexia (dD) remain poorly characterized apart from phonological and/or visual processing deficits. Assuming such deficits, the process of learning complex tasks like reading requires the learner to make decisions (i.e., word pronunciation) based on uncertain information (e.g., aberrant phonological percepts)—a cognitive process known as probabilistic decision making, which has been linked to the striatum. We investigate (1) the relationship between dD and probabilistic decision-making and (2) the association between the volume of striatal structures and probabilistic decision-making in dD and typical readers. Methods Twenty four children diagnosed with dD underwent a comprehensive evaluation and MRI scanning (3T). Children with dD were compared to age-matched typical readers ( n = 11) on a probabilistic, risk/reward fishing task that utilized a Bayesian cognitive model with game parameters of risk propensity (γ ⁺ ) and behavioral consistency (β), as well as an overall adjusted score (average number of casts, excluding forced-fail trials). Volumes of striatal structures (caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens) were analyzed between groups and associated with game parameters. Results dD was associated with greater risk propensity and decreased behavioral consistency estimates compared to typical readers. Cognitive model parameters associated with timed pseudoword reading across groups. Risk propensity related to caudate volumes, particularly in the dD group. Conclusion Decision-making processes differentiate dD, associate with the caudate, and may impact learning mechanisms. This study suggests the need for further research into domain-general probabilistic decision-making in dD, neurocognitive mechanisms, and targeted interventions in dD.
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Objective: Cognitive characteristics common to autistic individuals are often seen in adults with anorexia nervosa (AN), raising the question of whether autistic people and people with AN may share an endophenotype. We need to examine autistic characteristics during the early stages of AN to accurately parse true symptom co-occurrence from behavioural alterations due to prolonged illness. Methods: We conducted a post-hoc analysis examining autistic characteristics in 59 youth with AN. Adolescents and parents participating in a randomised-clinical trial for AN completed questionnaires probing autistic characteristics at baseline and treatment end. We categorised participants as above or below cut-offs of clinical indicators of autism using the Autism Probability Index (API) and the Autism Spectrum Quotient-10. Results: Rates of high autistic characteristics ranged between 0% and 36% depending on the instrument used and how the data was obtained (i.e., by informant report or self-report). Paternal report of autistic characteristics differed across treatment completers versus non completers and maternal report indicated lower weight gain for those with elevated characteristics. Conclusions: Low rates of autism and fluctuations in autistic features during treatment underscore the importance of longitudinal examinations of autistic characteristics in adolescents with AN. Future studies need to replicate findings in a larger adolescent sample. Trial registration: ClinicalTrails.gov Identifier NCT03928028.
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We aimed to identify subgroups of young children with differential risks for ADHD, and cross-validate these subgroups with an independent sample of children. All children in Study 1 (N = 120) underwent psychological assessments and were diagnosed with ADHD before age 7. Latent class analysis (LCA) classified children into risk subgroups. Study 2 (N = 168) included an independent sample of children under age 7. A predictive model from Study 1 was applied to Study 2. The latent class analyses in Study 1 indicated preference of a 3-class solution (BIC = 3807.70, p < 0.001). Maternal education, income-to-needs ratio, and family history of psychopathology, defined class membership more strongly than child factors. An almost identical LCA structure from Study 1 was replicated in Study 2 (BIC = 5108.01, p < 0.001). Indices of sensitivity (0.913, 95% C.I. 0.814–0.964) and specificity (0.788, 95% C.I. 0.692–0.861) were high across studies. It is concluded that the classifications represent valid combinations of child, parent, and family characteristics that are predictive of ADHD in young children.
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Loneliness is a relatively common problem in young people (14–24 years) and predicts the onset of depression and anxiety. Interventions to reduce loneliness thus have significant potential as active ingredients in strategies to prevent or alleviate anxiety and depression among young people. Previous reviews have focused on quantitative evidence and have not examined potential mechanisms that could be targets for intervention strategies. To build on this work, in this review we aimed to combine qualitative and quantitative evidence with stakeholder views to identify interventions that appear worth testing for their potential effectiveness in reducing loneliness, anxiety and depression in young people aged 14–24 years, and provide insights into the potential mechanisms of action. We conducted a Critical Interpretative Synthesis, a systematic review method that iteratively synthesises qualitative and quantitative evidence and is explicitly focused on building theory through a critical approach to the evidence that questions underlying assumptions. Literature searches were performed using nine databases, and eight additional databases were searched for theses and grey literature. Charity and policy websites were searched for content relevant to interventions for youth loneliness. We incorporated elements of Rapid Realistic Review approaches by consulting with young people and academic experts to feed into search strategies and the resulting conceptual framework, in which we aimed to set out which interventions appear potentially promising in terms of theoretical and empirical underpinnings and which fit with stakeholder views. We reviewed effectiveness data and quality ratings for the included randomised controlled trials only. Through synthesising 27 studies (total participants n = 105,649; range 1–102,072 in different studies) and grey literature, and iteratively consulting with stakeholders, a conceptual framework was developed. A range of ‘Intrapersonal’ (e.g. therapy that changes thinking and behaviour), ‘Interpersonal’ (e.g. improving social skills), and ‘Social’ Strategies (e.g. enhancing social support, and providing opportunities for social contact) seem worth testing further for their potential to help young people address loneliness, thereby preventing or alleviating depression and/or anxiety. Such strategies should be co-designed with young people and personalised to fit individual needs. Plausible mechanisms of action are facilitating sustained social support, providing opportunities for young people to socialise with peers who share similar experiences, and changing thinking and behaviour, for instance through building positive attitudes to themselves and others. The most convincing evidence of effectiveness was found in support of Intrapersonal Strategies: two randomised controlled studies quality-rated as ‘good’ found decreases in loneliness associated with different forms of therapy (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy or peer network counselling), although power calculations were not reported, and effect sizes were small or missing. Strategies to address loneliness and prevent or alleviate anxiety and depression need to be co-designed and personalised. Promising elements to incorporate into these strategies are social support, including from peers with similar experiences, and psychological therapy.
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The purpose of this study was to document the development of a short behavioral scale that could be used to assess preschoolers' behavior while still retaining adequate scale coverage, reliability, and validity. Factor analysis and item analysis techniques were applied to data from a nationally representative, normative database to create a 23-item behavioral screener to be used to identify children at risk. Screener sum scores were created and correlated with kindergarten and second-grade measures to assess validity evidence. Additionally, a receiver operating curve analysis created a cut score for making decisions about the need for further assessment. Based on the information collected, the 23-item screener was useful for assessing preschool-age students' behavior characteristics.
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A principal components analysis of the Teacher Rating Scale—Child (TRS-C) of the Behavior Assessment System for Children was conducted with a cross-sectional cohort of 659 children in Grades 1 to 5. A predictive validity study was then conducted with a 2-year longitudinal sample of 206 children. The results suggested that scores from the resulting 23-item screener had strong initial reliability and validity evidence. Predictive validity coefficients for the screener scores were acceptable for both behavioral and academic outcomes and equal to or better than those for the full TRS-C, comprised of 148 items. The practicality of the screener was documented by teachers' experiences. Administration time was less than 5 minutes per child, and no specialized teacher training was necessary. These results provide preliminary evidence that routine school screening via a brief teacher rating scale can increase the probability that children with behavioral and emotional problems may be validly identified for diagnostic and treatment services.
Chapter
The Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC–2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) is a multimethod, multidimensional system used to evaluate the behavior and self-perceptions of children, adolescents, and young adults aged 2 through 25 years. The BASC–2 is multimethod in that it has the following components, which may be used individually or in any combination: (1) two rating scales, one for teachers (Teacher Rating Scales, or TRS) and one for parents (Parent Rating Scales, or PRS), which gather descriptions of the child's observable behavior, each divided into age-appropriate forms; (2) a self-report scale (Self-Report of Personality, or SRP), on which the child or young adult can describe his or her emotions and self-perceptions; (3) a Structured Developmental History (SDH) form; (4) a form for recording and classifying directly observed classroom behavior (Student Observation System, or SOS), which is also available for PDA applications as an electronic version known as the BASC–2 POP or Portable Observation Program; and (5) a self-report for parents of children ages 2–18 years, designed to capture a parent's perspective on the parent-child relationship in such domains as communication, disciplinary styles, attachment, involvement, and others. Keywords: diagnosis; behavior; behavioral assessment; psychopathology
Essentials of behavioral assessment
  • M Ramsay
  • C R Reynolds
  • R W Kamphaus