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Effect of germination on total dietary fibre and total sugar in selected legumes



Legume is a plant in the family of Fabaceae (or Leguminosae) that is cultivated and consumed throughout the world. Legume's role in human health appears to be limited because of several limiting factors such as low protein and starch digestibility, poor mineral bioavailability and high antinutritional factors. Germination is defined as a process that occurs during seed growth that starts with uptake of water until the emergence of radicle through the surrounding structure. It has been suggested that germination is a cheaper and more effective technology that can improve the quality of legumes by increasing their nutritional value. This study was conducted to compare changes in dietary fibre and total sugar compositions after germination process in kidney, mung, soy beans and peanuts. Total dietary fibre was found to be significantly increased (p < 0.05) in all germinated samples, with significant increased (p < 0.05) of soluble and insoluble dietary fibres. For total sugar content, germination increased the level of total sugars. Glucose was the highest available sugar in samples that increased after germination while arabinose was second available sugar that increased in germinated legumes except kidney beans. Overall, germination has improved nutritional properties of legumes in terms of dietary fibre and total sugar content but the changes are influenced by the type of legumes.
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International Food Research Journal 23(1): 257-261 (2016)
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1Megat, R. M. R., 1,2,3*Azrina, A. and 1,3Norhaizan, M. E.
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra
Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Laboratory of Halal Science Research, Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra
Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Research Centre of Excellence, Nutrition and Non-Communicable Disease, Faculty of Medicine
and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Effect of germination on total dietary bre and total sugar in selected
Legume is a plant in the family of Fabaceae (or Leguminosae) that is cultivated and consumed
throughout the world. Legume’s role in human health appears to be limited because of several
limiting factors such as low protein and starch digestibility, poor mineral bioavailability and
high antinutritional factors. Germination is dened as a process that occurs during seed growth
that starts with uptake of water until the emergence of radicle through the surrounding structure.
It has been suggested that germination is a cheaper and more effective technology that can
improve the quality of legumes by increasing their nutritional value. This study was conducted
to compare changes in dietary bre and total sugar compositions after germination process in
kidney, mung, soy beans and peanuts. Total dietary bre was found to be signicantly increased
(p<0.05) in all germinated samples, with signicant increased (p<0.05) of soluble and insoluble
dietary bres. For total sugar content, germination increased the level of total sugars. Glucose
was the highest available sugar in samples that increased after germination while arabinose
was second available sugar that increased in germinated legumes except kidney beans. Overall,
germination has improved nutritional properties of legumes in terms of dietary bre and total
sugar content but the changes are inuenced by the type of legumes.
Legume is one of important source of protein,
carbohydrates, dietary bre and oil (Tharanathan and
Mahadevamma, 2003). Several studies have shown
that consumption of legumes was linked to reduce risk
of cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and
diabetes, as well as lowering the cholesterol levels
(Jang et al., 2001; Khattak et al., 2007; Nöthlings
et al., 2008; Carbonaro, 2011). However, there are
several limiting factors such as low protein and starch
digestibility, poor mineral bioavailability and high
antinutritional factors (Ghavidel and Prakash, 2007;
Khattak et al., 2007; Fernandez-Orozco et al., 2008).
These limiting factors can be reduced by several
preparation techniques such as cooking, soaking,
dehulling and germination.
Germination is a process occurred during growth
period that starts with the uptake of water by the
dry seed and nished with the emergence of radical
(Vidal-Valverde et al., 2002). During this period,
storage components in seeds are degraded, use for
respiration and production of new cells to develop
new embryo (Hussein and Ghanem, 1999). Studies
show that germination can increase protein and
dietary ber, reduce tannin and phytic acid contents
and increase mineral bioavailability (Hussein
and Ghanem, 1999; Ghavidel and Prakash, 2007;
Khandelwal et al., 2010). Germination also was
reported to be associated with increase of vitamin
concentrations and bioavailability of trace elements
and minerals (El-Adawy et al., 2004; Khattak et al.,
2007; Kaushik et al., 2010).
This study uses kidney, mung, soy bean and
peanut as samples as these legumes are the most
consumed by Malaysians (APO, 2003). Peanuts are
mainly used in local dishes, as well as being processed
and produced as oil, peanut butter and margarine.
Soy beans are often being used as beverages while
other products such fermented soy bean cake, soy
bean curd and sauce are consumed as side dishes.
Mung beans can either be cooked or sprouted while
the dried beans are prepared as soup or snacks similar
as the kidney beans.
The aim of this study was to compare the effect
of germination on bre and sugar compositions
of legumes. It is hope that this study will provide
Kidney bean
Mung bean
Soy bean
Dietary bre
Total sugar
Article history
Received: 20 January 2015
Received in revised form:
29 April 2015
Accepted: 18 June 2015
258 Megat et al./IFRJ 23(1): 257-261
additional data on nutritional contents of germinated
and non-germinated legumes for further research in
future as well as developing new and improved food
functional ingredient in the market.
Materials and Methods
Dried kidney, mung, soy bean and peanut were
purchased from hypermarkets in Seri Kembangan,
Selangor, Malaysia. Legumes were stored in
refrigerator at 4°C before germination.
Legume samples were washed with 70% ethanol
for 2.5 min before further washed with sodium
hypochlorite for 15 minutes at room temperature.
Then, the samples were rinsed thoroughly until the
pH becomes neutral before being soaked in distilled
water for 6 hours. Later, the water was drained and
samples were left to germinate on wet muslin cloth
until the emergence of radical at maximum 5 mm.
After germination, legume samples were dried in
oven at 105°C and ground prior to analyses.
Total sugar analysis
Sample was vacuum evaporated to dryness and
concentrated sugars were redissolved in deionised
water and sonicated before ltered using Whatman
41 paper. Aliquot of 2 ml of ltrate was mixed with
acetonitrile and ltered through a 0.54 µm Millex
membrane prior to injection. Soluble carbohydrates
were determined by HPLC using amino bonded
column (250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 µm), isocratic
pump and refractive index detector. A mixture of
acetonitrile:water (75:25; v/v) was used as a mobile
phase with a ow rate of 1 ml/min. A mixture of
carbohydrate standards at a concentration ranging
from 2 to 10 mg/ml containing erythrose, rhamnose,
mannose, arabinose, xylose, fructose, glucose, and
galactose was used for monosaccharide identication
and quantication (Yang et al., 2008).
Total dietary bre analysis
Legume samples (1.0 ± 0.1 g) were digested
with α-amylase (0.1 ml), protease (0.1 ml) and
amyloglucosidase (0.3 ml) in a beaker. Heated (60°C)
95% ethanol was added and the solution was left
precipitated at room temperature overnight. Digested
samples were ltrated using Fibertec machine.
Crucibles containing residues from ltration was
dried and weighed. The procedure was repeated to
obtain insoluble dietary bre percentage and hence,
soluble dietary bre percentage (Prosky et al., 1988).
Statistical analysis
Every measurement of samples was in triplicate
to obtain higher precision of data. Data was analyzed
using SPSS software version 16.0. Paired T-test
was used to compare between non-germinated
and germinated legumes. Data was considered as
signicant when p value < 0.05.
Results and Discussion
Total sugar content
Total sugar was found to increase in all germinated
legume samples. In germinated kidney beans, total
sugar increased from 118.46 to 134.75 g/kg d.w. while
in germinated mung beans, it was increased from
122.07 g/kg d.w. to 157.4 g/kg d.w. For soy beans,
germination caused total sugar to increase from
157.53 g/kg d.w. to 194.86 g/kg d.w. and for peanuts,
germination increased total sugar from 118.61 g/kg
d.w. to 160.42 g/kg d.w. Comparison of all legume
samples, the most dominant available carbohydrate
was glucose and arabinose. After germination,
glucose was increased in most samples except mung
beans (decreased) while for arabinose, germination
caused this sugar to reduce in the samples.
Urbano et al. (2005) suggested that germination
process caused the metabolic changes in legume seeds
in which carbohydrate storage in the form of starch
and oligosaccharides were hydrolysed and caused
the increase of sugar levels. Furthermore, Martin-
Cabrejas et al. (2008) also suggested that during
germination, α-galactosidase activity was increased,
causing the break of α-1,6-galatosidic linkages and
thus, increase the amount of total sugar.
Total dietary bre content
Total dietary bre (TDF) was signicantly
increased (p < 0.05) in all legumes after germination. In
germinated kidney beans, TDF increased signicantly
(p < 0.05) from 36.6% to 59.9% while in germinated
mung beans, the TDF increased signicantly from
28.5% to 32.0%. TDF in soy beans increased
signicantly from 32.0% to 72.5% after germination,
while in peanuts; germination signicantly increased
TDF percentage from 21.6% to 39.9%. Among the
samples, germination signicantly increased (p <
0.05) soluble dietary bre (SDF) content. In kidney
beans, SDF was signicantly increased from 3.9%
to 6.7% after germination while in mung beans; the
SDF was signicantly increased from 3.7% to 5.8%.
In soy beans, germination signicantly increased
SDF from 8.2% to 17.4% while in peanuts, SDF was
signicantly increased from 5.5% to 9.1%. Similarly,
germination caused insoluble dietary bre (IDF) to
Megat et al./IFRJ 23(1): 257-261 259
increase in the studied samples. In kidney beans, IDF
was signicantly increased (p < 0.05) from 32.7% to
53.3% while in mung beans; the value was increased
from 24.8% to 26.2%. Signicant IDF increment was
found in soy beans from 23.8% to 55.1% while in
germinated peanuts, IDF was signicantly increased
from 16.0% to 30.8%.
Martin-Cabrejas et al. (2003) found that total
dietary bre content was increased after germination
in daylight and without daylight. They also found
that IDF and SDF bres were also increased after
germination. The result was similar to the current
study where it was found that TDF increased after
germination, alongside insoluble and SDF.
Dietary bre was regarded as one of the most
important ingredient in human diet (Dhingra et
al., 2012). The characteristics of dietary bre
such as particle size, bulk volume, surface area
characteristics, hydration, and adsorption as well as
binding of ions and organic molecules are highly
inuential in human digestive system (Guillon et
al., 1998; Raghavendra et al., 2006; Nassar et al.,
2008; Dhingra et al., 2012). It was observed that
addition of dietary bre components in foods such
as pasta, bakeries and biscuits improved the overall
qualities such as biochemical composition, cooking
properties and textural characteristics as well as the
taste (Tudoric et al., 2002; Sudha et al., 2007; Nassar
et al., 2008). Apart from that, dietary bre can also be
used to improve texture of meat products (Chevance
et al., 2000) as well as functional ingredients in milk
products (Sendra et al., 2008).
Table 1. Sugar proles of germinated and non-germinated legume samples
1 All values are expressed as mean (standard deviation). Total sugar is presented as g/kg dry
2 (*) indicates signicant change at (p < 0.05).
3 NG: non-germinated; G: germinated.
Table 2. Dietary bre content of germinated and non-germinated legume samples
1 All values are expressed as mean (standard deviation). Total sugar is presented as g/kg
dry weight.
2 (*) indicates signicant changes at (p < 0.05).
3 NG: non-germinated; G: germinated; SDF: soluble dietary bre; IDF: insoluble dietary
bre; TDF: total dietary bre.
260 Megat et al./IFRJ 23(1): 257-261
Martin-Cabrejas et al. (2003) found that TDF
in germinated peas was increased because of the
improved SDF and IDF levels. A different nding
was found by Martin-Cabrejas et al. (2008) in which
TDF was reduced after germination in cowpea, jack
and mucuna beans. Similarly, in germinated dolichos
and soy beans, total dietary bre was reduced. They
suggested that germination inuenced TDF content
differently according to types of legumes and light
conditions of the germination process. Benitez et
al. (2013) also suggested that the increased of TDF
was due to synthesis of new polysaccharides during
Total dietary bre was found to be signicantly
increased in all germinated legume samples, with
signicant increase of soluble and insoluble dietary
bres found in all germinated legume samples as
well. For total sugar content, germination caused it
to be increased in all samples. Glucose was found
to be the highest available sugar in all samples and
the value was increased after germination. Arabinose
was the second highest available sugar found in all
legume samples and it was increased in mung, soy
beans and peanuts after germination while in kidney
beans, the value was decreased.
This study was nancially supported by the
Research University Grant Scheme (RUGS) (Vote
no. 9199746). The authors would also like to thank
the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of
Medicine and Health Sciences, as well as Department
of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and
Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia for granting
permission to carry out this study and providing the
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Changing lifestyle and maintaining good health status has encouraged the demand for inexpensive functional food products. Sprouting is considered one of the best conventional techniques for improving the availability of nutrients that are beneficial to human health. Although germination is an efficient traditional approach, unfavourable ecological conditions cause seeds to enter dormancy, which slows sprouting. This article reflects the effect of novel processing techniques such as ultrasonication, pulse electric field, cold plasma, high-pressure processing, etc on the sprouting of seeds which affects seeds’ biochemical qualities and their potential to promote health. It has been observed that the employment of novel processing techniques has boosted the bioactive elements and promoted germination rates. Compared to raw seeds, sprouted seeds have higher levels of dietary fibre, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and phenolic compounds. As a result, sprouted seeds exhibit a variety of health-promoting qualities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, and better lipid metabolism.
... The duration of germination increased the fiber content of CowpeaS-Milk (P=0.02), with the highest fiber content found in the 12-hour germination treatment, namely 1.28%, while the lowest was found in the 8-hour germination treatment (0.91%) ( Table 1). The results of this study are in line with the findings of Megat et al. [30], that there was a significant increase in dietary fiber in the germination of legumes, kidney beans, green beans, and soybeans. The increased fiber content in sprouts occurs due to the process of structural carbohydrate synthesis, namely the formation of new cellulose and hemicellulose which are the largest components of cell walls [31]. ...
Conference Paper
This study aimed to obtain a formula of Cowpea sprouted milk rich in phenolic, vitamin C, protein, and dietary fiber based on the duration of germination. The experimental study used arandomized block design with 0-, 8-, 10-, and 12-hours germination time treatments, with 5 replications. Cowpeas were washed, soaked in warm water at 40°C for 10 hours, then drained ina basket, placed in a damp place, and sprayed with water once every 6 hours to germinate. Sprouts are washed, including the skin, blended with added water 8 times, filtered, so that a smooth liquid is obtained. Added 5% sugar into the smooth liquid, while stirring, is heated until it boils, called Cowpea sprout milk (CowpeaS-Milk). The product was determined for phenolic content (Follin Ciocalteau), vitamin C (Yodometry), fiber (oven), and soluble protein (Lowry). The data were tested using ANOVA, followed by the DMRT if there was a significant level of 5%. The duration of germination increased the levels of phenolic (P=0.003), fiber (P=0.02), soluble protein (P=0.05), and vitamin C (P=0.05). The best formula was obtained from CowpeaS-Milk with a germination time of 12 hours, containing phenolic antioxidants 4.67 mgGAE/g, vitamin C 75.8 mg/100g, dietary fiber 1.28%, and soluble protein 33%. Based on its nutritional content, CowpeaS-Milk is useful for people with Diabetes Mellitus.
... Sprouts also contain lower levels of anti-nutrients, making it easier for the body to absorb all the nutrients they contain. Studies have shown that when seeds are sprouted, the fiber they contain increases and becomes more available (3). The nutritional value of sprouts is rich. ...
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Many people suffer from a deficiency of essential micronutrients. Sprouts and microgreens can transform the whole idea of vegetables to resolve the need for a diet with fresh, nutrient-rich, and high content of phyto-compounds necessary for a healthy body. The study's main objective is to evaluate the growth of 6 different seeds, such as four legumes; fenugreek, mung bean, cowpea, horse gram and two grains, wheat, sorghum microgreens. All the seeds were cultivated in soil, water and coco peat, to estimate and compare the nutritional properties of the selected sprouts vs. microgreens. The growth of microgreens in each medium was evaluated, and the proximate and nutritional properties were analysed. In terms of the growth of microgreens, coco peat medium serves the best, as it retains water for a long and it is porous to provide better aeration for the roots and also the day of harvest is shorter. In terms of the nutritional property of microgreens, soil serves the best, as it contains more nutrients than any other medium. The study results showed sprouts are better sources of proteins and carbohydrates than microgreens. However, microgreens were characterized by a high content of carotenoids, chlorophylls and ascorbic acid. It also exhibiting higher anti-diabetic and anticholinergic activity than sprouts. In addition, the microgreens have more micronutrients like zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, potassium etc., than the sprouts. Finally, microgreens were better growing with coco peat and also sources for functional components for dietary supplements and sustainable agriculture.
Nutritional value and health benefits of sprouts is gaining multidisciplinary attention due to the positive relationship between sprouts consumption and human health. Legume sprouts have been reported in various mainstream scientific journals as green functional foods with bioactive benefits such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-cardiovascular and many others. Elucidation of factors that influence biochemical changes during sprouting is pivotal for optimization of sprout quality and nutritional value. Thus, this chapter discussed biochemical changes along legume sprouting, as well as changes in its primary and secondary metabolites in relation to human health benefits. Key factors associated with efficient legume sprouting such asgenetic make-up and sproutingconditions i.e., moisture, temperature, light/darkness, humidity and oxygenare discussed in detail to help guide household and commercial production. Also, food safety concerns linked with sprouts was discussed and emerging techniques for sprout microbial control and safety were evaluated.
Phytohormones, Indole acetic acid, Salicylic acid and Gibberellic acid, either alone or in combination was applied on wheat sprouts to improve its nutritional status. The experiment included estimation of total phenolic, flavonoids, peroxidase activity and phenylalanine ammonium lyase activity. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and FRAP assay. The results showed an increase in phenolic compounds, enzyme activity and antioxidant activity after treatment with the phytohormones. Phytohormone combinations were found to be more effective as compared to pure treatments. UHPLC-ESI-MS analysis was used to identify compounds in the control and treated samples. Phenolic acids, polyphenols, simple sugars, amino acids, dipeptides, lipids and fatty acids were detected. A multifold increase in the levels of phenolic compounds was observed in the phytohormone treated wheat sprouts.
Fermentation is the process by which organic substrates undergo chemical changes through enzymatic activity. In food production, fermentation mainly causes beneficial changes in the final product. Germination is a process in plant seeds that begins with the absorption of water by the embryo and then various changes occur due to enzymatic activity in the seed. During these two processes, many complex food compounds such as large carbohydrates and proteins are broken down into compounds with a simpler structure and are easy to digest and absorb. During the fermentation and germination processes, a number of substances are also produced, including essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals, along with functional compounds, including organic acids that are beneficial to the body. This chapter of the book deals with the different dimensions of the role of fermentation and germination processes in the production of bioactive substances in different types of food and how these two processes cause fundamental changes in the structure of macronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and finally result in the production of micronutrients and beneficial compounds. Fermented and germinated foods, particularly when produced under controlled situations, can be considered in the functional food class and contain health-promoting micronutrients.KeywordsFermentationGerminationFood bioactivesMicronutrientsFunctional foodHealth-promoting
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Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments (like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying) alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic-chemical methods. This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products.
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Mung bean, pea and lentil seeds were germinated for 72 hr and 120 hr at room temperature (25 2 C) to determine the changes in their chemical composition, antinutritional factors, in vitro digestibility and functional properties. Germination caused a significant (p < 0.05)="" decrease="" in="" total="" protein,="" fat="" and="" carbohydrate="" contents="" with="" increased="" germination="" time="" in="" all="" legume="" seed="" flours="" while="" non-protein="" nitrogen,="" ash="" and="" fiber="" contents="" were="" significantly="">p < 0.05)="" increased.="" mineral="" contents="" (na,="" k,="" ca,="" p,mg,="" fe="" and="" mn)="" increased="" during="" germination="" of="" legume="" seed="" flours.="" significant="">p < 0.05)="" decreases="" were="" observed="" in="" carbohydrate="" fraction="" contents="" (starch,="" reducing="" sugars,="" stachyose="" and="" raffinose)="" of="" legume="" seed="" flours="" during="" germination.="" germination="" resulted="" in="" a="" significant="">p < 0.05)="" decrease="" in="" the="" antinutritional="" factors="" of="" all="" germinated="" legume="" seed="" flours.="" the="" levels="" of="" trypsin="" inhibitors="" and="" tannins="" decreased="" in="" the="" first="" stage="" of="" germination="" (72="" hr)="" then="" increased="" gradually="" in="" the="" last="" stage="" of="" germination="" (120="" hr)="" but="" remained="" lower="" than="" the="" controls.="" reduction="" in="" phytic="" acid="" and="" hemagglutinin="" activities="" increased="" with="" increased="" germination="" time.="" germination="" significantly="">p < 0.05)="" improved="" in="" vitro="" protein="" digestibility.="" protein="" solubility="" indexes,="" water="" absorption="" and="" emulsification="" capacities,="" foam="" capacity="" and="" foam="" stability="" were="" significantly="">p < 0.05)="" improved="" with="" increase="" in="" germination="" time="" while="" fat="" absorption="">
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of germination on dietary fiber composition, starch availability and physicochemical properties in four non-conventional legumes (Vigna unguiculata, Canavalia ensiformis, Stizolobium niveum, Lablab purpureus) in order to improve the carbohydrate supply and to optimize native products of developing countries. Germination promoted a significant decrease of resistant starch along with an increase of available starch percentage. Total dietary fiber contents increased during germination and improved insoluble/soluble dietary fiber ratio. This process produced an increase of total sugar content, mainly due to the rise of cellulosic glucose from metabolic reaction undergone during germination. Moreover, physicochemical properties of germinated legume flours were modified, improving oil holding, water holding, water absorption and gelation capacities, whereas decreases of emulsifying and foaming capacities were detected. In conclusion, germination provides non-conventional legume flours with higher nutritional quality and better physicochemical properties than the raw flours.
After the extraction of coconut milk from the disintegrated coconut grating, the spent grating (residue) can be utilized as dietary fiber. The fiber was ground in a disc mill and grinding characteristics were evaluated by calculating work index (0.206kWh/kg) as well as Bond’s (0.065kWh/kg), Kick’s (0.047kWh/kg) and Rittinger’s (0.022kWh/kg) constants. The reduction in the particle size from 1127 to 550μm resulted in increased hydration properties (water holding, water retention, swelling capacity), which may be due to increase in theoretical surface area and total pore volume as well as structural modification. Beyond 550μm, the hydration properties were found to decrease with decrease in particle size during grinding. The fat absorption capacity was found to increase with decrease in particle size. The study of microstructures revealed that the grinding operation resulted in rupture of honey comb physical structure fiber matrix and resulting in flat ribbon type structure, thereby providing increased surface area for water and fat absorption.
Orange peel and pulp were analyzed for their proximate composition, water and oil holding capacity. Data showed that, orange peel and pulp had high amount of dietary fiber (74.87 and 70.64%, respectively) with high proportion of IDF, also it has high level of water and oil holding capacity. Biscuits prepared from blendes containing different proportion (0,5,15 and 25%) orange peel or pulp were also evaluated for chemical composition, rheological properties, physical characteristics and sensory evaluation. Data revealed that, incorporation of orange peel and pulp in biscuits formula increased dietary fiber form 2.73 to 15.31% and ash have the same trend, while protein and fat were decreased. Farinograph properties of the blended biscuits showed increase in water absorption, dough development time and stability, while dough mixing tolerance was decreased. The thickness of citrus by-product substituted biscuits increased, whereas width and spread ratio of biscuits decreased with increasing levels of orange peel and pulp. Highly acceptable biscuits could be obtained by incorporating 15% orange pulp and peel in the formulation.
The effect of different conditions of germination at a semi-pilot scale on the content of available soluble sugars, alpha-galactosides, vitamins B1 and B2, and inositol phosphates of beans, lentils and peas have been studied. Results obtained indicated that germination modified the nutritional composition of legumes depending on the type of legume and germination conditions. The storage compounds present in dry seeds (alpha-galactosides and higher forms of inositol phosphates) decreased because they were hydrolysed to glucose, fructose, IP4 and IP3, compounds that can serve as a source of energy for the new plant. Vitamin B2 suffered an important increase after germination whereas vitamin B1 did not change significantly. To achieve legume flours with enhanced nutritive value, 6 days of germination in the presence of light for beans and lentils, and in darkness for peas can be suggested.
Food legumes are widely consumed all over the world as these are good sources of dietary proteins, carbohydrates and minerals. Common domestic processing techniques like soaking, germination and cooking enhance the digestibility and nutritive value of legumes. The effects of soaking, germination (1, 2 and 3 day) and cooking (microwave, pressure and ordinary cooking) were studied on the carbohydrates, crude protein, mineral and vitamin content of soybean. Germination (2nd day) leads to significant increases in the sugar, crude protein, Ca, Cu, Mn, Zn, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid content. Microwave cooking resulted in greater retention of minerals and vitamins as compared to pressure cooking and ordinary cooking. Based on the results, germination (day 2) for soybean should be popularised as a simple process for naturally fortifying food with essential minerals and vitamins. While amongst cooking methods, microwave cooking could be suggested for soybean preparation. KeywordsProcessing-Nutrients-Germination-Cooking-Minerals-Vitamins
The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity and the content of antioxidant compounds in raw mung bean seeds and sprouts (Vigna radiata cv. emmerald) germinated for 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 days and of soybean seeds of Glycine max cv. jutro germinated for 2, 3 and 4 days and of Glycine max cv. merit germinated for 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. Antioxidant compounds, such as vitamin C and E, total phenolic compounds and reduced glutathione (GSH) were studied. Antioxidant capacity was measured by superoxide dismutase-like activity (SOD-like activity), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in unilamellar liposomes of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC). The results indicated that changes in the contents of vitamin C, vitamin E and GSH depended on the type of legume and germination conditions. Sprouts of mung bean and soybeans provided more total phenolic compounds than did raw seeds. The SOD-like activity increased after germination of mung bean seeds for 7 days, by 308%, while no change was observed in sprouts of Glycine max cv. jutro and an increase was observed after 5 and 6 days of germination (∼20%) in Glycine max cv. merit. PRTC and TEAC increased during the germination process and retentions of 28–70% and 11–14%, respectively, for soybean, and 248% and 61%, respectively, for mung bean were observed at the end of germination. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation increased by 389% in 5–7 days’ germination of Vigna radiata cv. emmerald sprouts, and 66% in Glycine max cv. merit sprouts whilst, in Glycine max cv. jutro, germination did not cause changes in lipid peroxidation inhibition. According to the results obtained in this study, germination of mung bean and soybean seeds is a good process for obtaining functional flours with greater antioxidant capacity and more antioxidant compounds than the raw legumes.