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Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of Emblica officinalis: A review

  • Islamic University (Bangladesh) and Hallym University South Korea

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From the ancient time, plants have been playing a key role for the betterment of mankind presenting as an extraordinary source of natural medicine. The complexity in formulating chemical based drugs as well as their health related side effects and uprising cost has led worldwide researchers to focus on medicinal plant research. Bangladesh has a vast repository of diverse plant species where about five thousand plants species have been claimed as having significant medicinal values. The researched papers on medicinal plants publishing from last few decades mention the activities of different plant bioactive compounds that are used widely in the treatment of various human ailments. Emblica officinalis is reported to possess bioactive compounds like tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, ascorbic acids and many other compounds which are confirmed to have diverse pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, radio-protective, hepatoprotective, antitissuive, immunomodulatory, hypolipedemic and many other activities. This medicinal plant is also reported to have anticancer, anti HIV-reverse transcriptase, antidiabetic, antidepressant, antiulcerogenic, wound healing activities and so forth. The current review paper summarizes the phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of the plant Emblica officinalis.Hasan et al., International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, January 2016, 5(2): 14-21
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Hasan et al., International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, January 2016, 5(2): 14-21
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Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of Emblica
officinalis: A review
*Md. Rubaiyat Hasan, Md. Nasirul Islam and Md. Rokibul Islam
Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh
Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (FamilyEuphorbiaceae) also
known as Phyllanthus emblica, is commonly known as
‘Amla’ or ‘amlaki’ in Bengali and ‘Indian gooseberry’ in
English. This species is medium sized deciduous tree with
8-18 meters height and is native to tropical southeastern
Asia, particularly in central and southern India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, southern China, the Mascarene
Islands and Malaysia (Table 1). In India, Amla trees are
found throughout the forests of tropical area ascending
up to 4500 ft on hills (Rai et al., 2012; Thilaga et al., 2013).
Amla is rich in fiber, carbohydrate, iron and is reported as
the richest source of vitamin C (Singh et al., 2011) (Table 2).
The fruit is also used in a combination form known as
Triphala meaning three fruits which is a Thai traditional
herbal formulation composed of Emblica officinalis, Termi-
nalia belerica and Terminalia chebula (Phetkate et al., 2012).
Many herbal and patent drugs have been formulated
by the constituents of this plant (Rai et al., 2012). E.
officinalis primarily contains tannins, flavonoids, phenolic
compounds, saponins, terpenoids, ascorbic acids,
carbohydrates and many other compounds (Khan, 2009).
Supplements of fresh amla fruit is very favorable to
individuals suffering from anemia. The juice of fresh amla
fruit is given as diuretic, anti-bilious remedy and as a
tonic. It is also helpful in over thirst, dyspepsia, burning
sensation and other complaints of digestive system
(Kumar et al., 2012b).
Taxonomical classification of E. officinalis is summarized
in table 3.
This herb has many bioactive compounds including
apigenin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid,
quercetin, chebulagic acid, corilagin, isostrictiniin, methyl
gallate, luteolin and so on. Emblicanin A, emblicanin B,
phyllaemblicin B, punigluconin and pedunculagin are
tannins present in Emblica officinalis (Table 4). Glutamic
acid, proline, aspartic acid, alanine, and lysine are 29.6%,
14.6%, 8.1%, 5.4% and 5.3% respectively of the total amino
acids. The pulpy portion of fruit, dried and freed from the
nuts contains: gallic acid 1.32%, tannin, gum 13.75%;
albumin 13.08%; crude cellulose 17.08%; mineral matter
4.12% and moisture 3.83%. Amla fruit ash contains
chromium, 2.5 ppm; zinc 4 ppm; and copper, 3 ppm
(Kumar et al., 2012a). Nickel and lead metals were not
found in leaves of Emblica officinalis. The level of copper
was found higher in the sample leaves of Emblica officinalis
followed by chromium, manganese and zinc (Kumar et al.,
2013). Chemical constituents from different plant parts of
are illustrated below:
Leaves: It contains gallic acid, chebulic acid, ellagic acid,
chebulinic acid, chebulagic acid, amlic acid, alkaloids
phyllantine and phyllantidine (Khan, 2009).
Seeds: A fixed oil, phosphatides and a small quantity of
essential oil. The fixed oil (acid value 12.7; saponification
value 185; iodine value 139.5; acetyl value 2.03; unsaponi-
fiable matter 3.81%; sterol 2.70% ; saturated fatty acid 7%.
Contains linolenic acid (8.78%), linoleic (44%). oleic
(28.40%), steric (2.15%), palmitic (2.99%) and miristic acid
(0.95%) (Khan, 2009).
Barks: Contain leukodelphinidin, tannin and proanthocy-
anidin (Khan, 2009).
Roots: Contain ellagic acid and lupeol (Khan, 2009).
International Current
Pharmaceutical Journal
From the ancient time, plants have been playing a key role for the betterment of mankind presenting as an extraordinary source of
natural medicine. The complexity in formulating chemical based drugs as well as their health related side effects and uprising cost
has led worldwide researchers to focus on medicinal plant research. Bangladesh has a vast repository of diverse plant species where
about five thousand plants species have been claimed as having significant medicinal values. The researched papers on medicinal
plants publishing from last few decades mention the activities of different plant bioactive compounds that are used widely in the
treatment of various human ailments. Emblica officinalis
is reported to possess bioactive compounds like tannins, flavonoids,
saponins, terpenoids, ascorbic acids and many other compounds which are confirmed to have diverse pharmacological activities like
antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, radio-protective, hepatoprotective, antitissuive, immunomodulatory, hypolipedemic
and many other activities. This medicinal plant is also reported to have anticancer, anti HIV-reverse transcriptase, antidiabetic,
antidepressant, antiulcerogenic, wound healing activities and so forth. The current review paper summarizes the phytochemical
constituents, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of the plant Emblica officinalis.
Key Words: Euphorbiaceae, Amla, Bangladesh.
*Corresponding Author:
Md. Rubaiyat Hasan
Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Islamic University, Kushtia-7003
Contact No.: +880 1913 937 627
Antibacterial activity
Antibacterial activities of different solvent extracts and
isolated compounds from Emblica officinalis are shown in
table 5.
Antifungal activity
Antifungal property of E. officinalis was reported against
Aspergillus (Satish et al., 2007). Fruit ethanol and acetone
extracts showed moderate activity against Fusarium
equiseti and Candida albicans where Grisofulvin was used
as standard antibiotic (Hossain et al., 2012). Plant meth-
anolic extract of E. officinalis did not show antifungal
activity against phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger
F2723 (Bobbarala et al., 2009).
Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity
Galic acid equivalent as total phenolic content from fruit
and seed of E. officinalis has excellent antioxidant proper-
ties and play an important role as free radical scavengers
required in the maintenance of ‚redox homeostasis‛
responsible for diverse degenerative diseases (Prakash et
al., 2012). The methanolic seed extract of Emblica officinalis
has promising free radical scavenging activity of 1,1,
Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) in a concentration
dependant manner (Priya et al., 2012). Methanolic extract
of fruit pulp also have antioxidant and free radical
scavenging activity (Mehrotra et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2008a;
Liu et al., 2008b, Hazra et al., 2010, Majumdar et al., 2010).
Methanolic extracts of dried leaves of Phyllanthus emblica
was used for the comparative study of antibacterial and
antioxidant activity and the research work was ended
positively showing the extract has both these activities
(Shivaji et al., 2010). In a separate research work, it is seen
that the water extract of E. officinalis fruit prepared
according to Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia has a strong
potential for free radical scavenging, ferric reducing as
well as inhibiting ROS (reactive oxygen species) produc-
tion (Charoenteeraboon et al., 2010).
Insecticidal activity
Saponins which are important constituents of E. officinalis
have insecticidal or cytotoxic properties to certain insects
(Chaieb, 2010). Although saponins which had shown
insecticidal activity was collected from natural sources
other than E. officinalis. But as saponins are bioactive
compounds found in E. officinalis too, it is obvious that E.
officinalis might have insecticidal activity and further
evaluation can be conducted to get more precise evaluation.
Larvicidal and mosquitocidal activity
In a mosquitocidal property evaluation test Murugan et al.
(2012) observed larvicidal and pupicidal activities of
methanol extract of E. officinalis against the malarial vector,
Anopheles stephensi showing 98% mortality rate at 100 ppm.
The ethanol and methanol extracts of E. officinalis also
exerted 100% mortality (no hatchability) at 400 ppm and
above (Murugan et al., 2012). Jeyasankar et al. (2012)
Table 1: Botanical description of E. officinalis.
Central and southern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, southern China, the
Mascarene Islands, South East Asia and Uzbekistan.
Rai et al., 2012;
Thilaga et al., 2013;
Khan, 2009
Medium sized deciduous tree, 8-18 meters height with thin light grey bark exfoliating in small
thin irregular flakes.
Meena et al., 2010
Dried fruits, fresh fruit, seed, leaves, root bark, flowers.
Khan, 2009; Kumar et
al., 2012b
Simple, sub sessile, closely set along the branchlets, light green having the appearance of
pinnate leaves.
Meena et al., 2010
15-20 mm long and 18-25 mm wide, nearly spherical or globular wider than long and with a
small and slight conic depression on both apexes. Mesocarp is yellow and endocarp is
yellowish brown in ripened condition
Khan, 2009
Globose, fleshy, pale yellow with six obscure vertical furrows enclosing six trigonous seeds in
2-seeded 3 crustaceous cocci.
Meena et al., 2010
Seedlings start bearing fruits in 7-8 years after planting, while the budded clones will start
bearing fruits from the 5th year onwards.
Kumar et al., 2012a
Fresh fruits are light green and ripe fruits turn light brown in colour. The average weight of the
fruit is 60 -70 g.
Kumar et al., 2012b
Greenish yellow, in axillary fascicles, unisexual, males numerous on short slender pedicels,
females few, sub sessile, ovary 3-celled.
Meena et al., 2010;
Rai et al., 2012
Four-Six, smooth, dark brown
Khan, 2009
Thick to 12 mm, shining grayish brown or grayish green
Khan, 2009
February - May and December - January
Rai et al., 2012
Mesocarp and endocarp that forms the hard stone which encages the seed
Patel and Goyal, 2011
reported that the larvicidal activity of Phyllanthus emblica
ethyl acetate leaf extracts. The study concluded that the
ethyl acetate extract of P. emblica exhibited the maximum
larvicidal activity (99.6%) with LC50 (lethal Concentration
brings out 50% mortality) value of 78.89 ppm against the
larvae of Aedes aegypti (Jeyasankar et al., 2012).
Antidepressant activity
Pemminati et al. (2010) has checked the antidepressant
activity of aqueous extract of fruits of E. officinalis in
inbred adult male Swiss Albino mice weighing 25-30g.
The test was carried out by forced swim test (FST) and tail
suspension test (TST). The result of this test showed the
antidepressant activity of E. officinalis as comparable to the
of standard antidepressant drug imipramine.
Immunomodulatory activity
Reports suggest that triphala can stimulate the neutrophil
functions in the immunized albino rats (Srikumar et al.,
2005). There was considerable dose dependent raise in
haemagglutination antibody titre, macrophage migration
index, hypersensitivity reaction, respiratory burst activity
of the peritoneal macrophages, total leukocyte count,
percentage lymphocyte distribution, serum globulin and
relative lymphoid organ weight in Emblica treated albino
mice indicating its ability to stimulate humoral and cell
mediated immunity along with macrophage phagocyte
(Suja et al., 2009).
Anti-inflammatory activity
E. officinalis showed anti-inflammatory activities in
carrageenan induced acute and cotton pellet induced
chronic inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats by reducing
paw volume in acute inflammation and by decreasing
cotton pellet induced granulomas tissue lipid peroxida-
tion, the granulomatous tissue mass, myeloperoxidase
activity and plasma extravasation in chronic inflammato-
ry condition (Muthuraman et al., 2011). E. officinalis water
extract has reported to have inhibitory effect on the
synthesis and release of inflammatory mediators in rats
(Jaijoy et al., 2010).
Radioprotective activity
It has been reported that mice treated with Emblica
officinalis extract before exposure to different doses of
gamma radiation can reduce the severity of symptoms of
radiation sickness and mortality (Singh et al., 2006).
Similar delayed onset of mortality and reduction in the
symptoms of radiation sickness in mice were seen in
consecutively triphala treated mice before irradiation
when compared with the non-drug treated irradiated
controls (Jagetia et al., 2002).
Hypolipidemic activity
Amla fruit have been reported to have significant anti-
hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic
effect (Santoshkumar et al., 2013). Treatment with Emblica
officinalis caused significant reduction of Total Cholesterol
(TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG)
and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), and a
significant increase in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
levels in patients with type II hyperlipidemia. Both
treatments from E. officinalis and simvastatin produced
significant reduction in blood pressure; however, this
beneficial effect was more marked in patients receiving E.
officinalis (Gopa et al., 2012). Histopathological study of
thoracic aorta of Emblica officinalis treated group has
shown decrease in atherogenicity compared to untreated
high cholesterol diet fed rats. The data demonstrated that
Emblica officinalis formulation was associated with
hypolipidemic effects on the experimentally induced
hypercholesteremic rats (Kumar and Kalaivani, 2011). It is
also seen that E. officinalis treated rat showed more hypogly-
cemic and hypolipidemic activity than Phyllanthus acidus
treated diabetic rats (Modilal and Pitchai, 2011).
Cytotoxic effects
To evaluate the immunostimulatory and side effects of
Triphala in a clinical phase I, all the volunteers took
Triphala for two weeks (3 capsules per day). As complete
physical examinations, routine laboratory analysis and
immunological studies were performed before ingestion
and after initial meeting for 4 consecutive weeks. The
result revealed significant immunostimulatory effects on
cytotoxic T cells (CD3−CD8+) and natural killer cells
(CD16+CD56+). Both of them increased significantly when
compared with those of the control samples. However, no
significant change in cytokine secretion was detected. All
volunteers were healthy and showed no adverse effects
throughout the duration of the study (Phetkate et al., 2012).
Flavonoids, a group of essential bioactive secondary
metabolites of Emblica officinalis, were evaluated for
antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity and intestinal absorp-
tion. The research concluded that flavonoids from E.
officinalis and some other medicinal plants hold a good
prospective as nutraceutical & chemotherapeutics agents
because of their antioxidant potential, no cytotoxicity and
good intestinal absorptive property (Sharma et al., 2010).
But it is confirmed that the chloroform soluble fraction of
the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids have both
antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity (Rahman et al., 2009).
Anti-diabetic and hypoglycemic activity
Herbal formulations prepared by extracts of Tinospora
cordifolia, Trigonella foenum and Emblica officinalis were
Table 2: Nutritional value of Emblica officinalis (redrawn from
et al., 2011).
Chemical components
Fruits: Moisture
Mineral matter
Bulk elements Mg/100g
Net weight
1.2 mg/100g
Vitamin C
600 mg/100g
Nicotinic acid
0.2 mg/100g
Table 3: Taxonomical classification of E. officinalis.
Plantae (Plants)
Tracheobionta (Vascular plants)
Spermatophyta (Seed plants)
Angiospermae (Flowering plants)
Dicotyledonae (Dicotyledons)
officinalis Geartn.
evaluated for hypoglycemic effects and Oral Glucose
Tolerance Test (OGTT) in normal and Alloxan induced
diabetic rats and significant, marginal and very less
decrease in blood glucose level was observed when
different herbal combinations were used (Deep et al., 2011).
The polyherbal combination of extracts E. officinalis
(fruit), Momordica charantia (fruit) and Trigonella foenum-
graecum (leaves and seeds) had shown synergistic activity,
as the glucose levels were decreased more significantly by
the combination of extracts compared to the individual
extract when used separately in streptozotocin induced
diabetic rats (Satyanarayana et al., 2010). The aqueous fruit
extract of Phyllanthus emblica was evaluated on type-II
diabetes, triglycerides (TG) and liver-specific enzyme,
alanine transaminase (ALT). This study showed that in a
dose of 200mg/kg body weight the aqueous fruit extract
can significantly reduce the blood glucose level in alloxan-
induced diabetic rats (Qureshi et al., 2009). Another study
reports that Phyllanthus emblica treated rat showed more
hypoglycemic and hypo lipidemic activity than Phyl-
lanthus acidus treated diabetic rats when the effect of orally
administered aqueous extracts (350 mg/kg body weight)
of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica and Phyllanthus acidus on
serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin,
cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, protein, urea
and creatinine were examined in control and extract-
treated diabetic rats (Modilal and Pitchai, 2011).
Hepato-protective activity
The histopathological study of liver cells of rats was
examined by administering E. officinalis as a preventative
agent to reduce paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity and it
has been observed that fruit extract has the ability to
rectify toxicity or hepatic damage (Malar and Bai, 2009).
Another histological study was undertaken to demon-
strate the protective effect of 50% hydroalcoholic extract
of the fresh fruit of E. officinalis against chronic toxicity
induced by carbon tetrachloride and thioacetamide in rats.
From the liver sections of the tested rats, it was observed
that E. officinalis reversed the abnormal histopathology by
accelerating the regenerative activity and in a few cases,
the hepatocytic injury was found negligible in E. officinalis
treated group of rats (Mir et al., 2007).
Anti-cancer and anti-proliferative activity
E. officinalis exhibits its anticancer activities through
inhibition of activator protein-1 and targets transcription
of viral oncogenes responsible for development of cervical
Table 4: Properties, functions and some common sources of bioactive compounds isolated from E. officinalis.
Biological activity
Common sources
1460°C at 760
mmHg (BP)
Antioxidant activity, Anti-
secretory and cryo-protective
Phyllanthus emblica,
Terminalia arborea, and T.
Baliga and
Dsouza, 2010;
Mishra, 2013
1610.6°C at
Antispasmodic action
E. officinalis, Terminalia
Chebula, T. citrine, T.
Reddy et al., 2009
Chen and Li, 2006
Not con-
Antioxidant activity
E. officinalis
Madhuri et al.,
Not con-
Antioxidant activity
E. officinalis
Madhuri et al.,
Gallic acid
252° C (MP)
Radioprotective effect, chemopre-
ventive effect, anti-carcinogenic,
antioxidative, antimutagenic, anti-
allergic and anti-inflammatory
E. officinalis; T chebula; T
bellerica, C sinensis L.,
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiL.,
C avellana, O biennis, V
Baliga and
Dsouza, 2010;
Vazirian et al.,
2011; Negi et al.,
2005; Karamaæ
al., 2006
Ellagic acid
≥350 °C (MP)
Radioprotective and chemopreven-
tive effect, antityrosinase Activity,
antioxidant, antiproliferative, and
antiatherogenic Properties,
estrogenic/antiestrogenic Activity
E. officinalis, Castanea
sativa, Euca-lyptus
camaldulensis, Juglans
Baliga and
Dsouza, 2010;
O¨zer et al., 2007;
Papoutsi et al.,
316.5 °C (MP)
Radioprotective, chemopreventive,
hepato protective effect
E. officinalis
Baliga and
Dsouza, 2010;
Madhuri et al.,
Not con-
Not confirmed
E. officinalis
Khan, 2009
Not con-
Neuropharmacological activity
(CNS activity)
E. officinalis, P. discoides;
Seurinega suffruticosa
Khan, 2009;
Beutler et al., 1985
1448.6°C at
760 mmHg
Antioxidant activity
E. officinalis
Bhattacharya et al.,
1578.039 °C
at 760 mmHg
Antitumor activity, Antioxidant
E. officinalis
Chang et al., 1995;
et al.,
cancer thus demonstrating its potential efficacy for
treatment of human papillomavirus-induced cervical
cancers (Mahata et al., 2013).
An in vitro cytotoxicity was performed against five
human cancer cell lines and the activity was done using
100µg/ml of the ethanolic whole plant extract of E.
officinalis. Against lung (A-549) cell line plant extract
showed 82% growth inhibition. In case of liver cell line
(Hep-2), it showed no activity, whereas in colon 502713
cell line, the plant extract displayed maximum activity. In
case of IMR-32 neuroblastima cell line and HT-29 liver
human cancer line, the plant extract showed 97% and 98%
activity, respectively (Verma et al., 2012). E. officinalis fruit
extract at 50–100 μg/mL can significantly inhibit cell
growth of six human cancer cell lines, A549 (lung), HepG2
(liver), HeLa (cervical), MDA-MB-231 (breast), SK-OV3
(ovarian) and SW620 (colorectal). (Ngamkitidechakul et al.,
2010). HepG2 and A549 cells were treated with P. emblica
and T. bellerica extracts alone or in combination with
doxorubicin or cisplatin and effects on cell growth were
determined using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Both
the plant extracts demonstrated growth inhibitory activity
against the two cancer cell lines tested (Pinmai et al., 2008).
Studies also demonstrated that amla extracts are cytotoxic
and restrain the in vitro proliferation of some tumor cell
lines such as MK-1 (human gastric adenocarcinoma) and
B16F10 (murine melanoma) (Zhang et al., 2004).
HIV-reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity
Inhibition of HIV-Reverse Transcriptase (HIV-RT) by P.
emblica plant extract fractions was tested on Peripheral
Blood Mononuclear Cells. From this test it was observed
Table 5: Antibacterial activity of deferent solvent extracts and isolated compounds from Emblica officinalis.
Used extracts/
other compounds
Used organisms
Extract conc.
Max. zone of
showed highest
Extract or extract
conc. showed
highest activity
Ethanol, Acetone
(Fruit extract)
V. cholerae, S. aureus, P.
B. subtilis, Shigella dysenteriae,
S. pyogenous, E. coli,
B. megaterium
0.5 mg/disc
Shigella dysenteriae
Hossain et al.,
(Fruit extract)
E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P.
vulgaris, M. luteus, B. subtilis,
E. faecalis, S. faecalis
50 mg/ml
E. faecalis
Jyothi and Rao,
100 mg/ml
E. faecalis, K.
Petroleum ether,
(Fruit extract)
E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S.
aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. subtilis
10 mg/ml
S. aureus
Dhale and
Mogle, 2011
20 mg/ml
S. aureus
Methanolic seed
E. coli, S. aureus,
K. pneumoniae,
P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus
50 mg/ml
P. aeruginosa
200 mg/ml extract
Priya et al., 2012
100 mg/ml
E. coli
150 mg/ml
S. aureus
200 mg/ml
S. aureus
Polar flavanoides
(Leaf extract)
P. vulgaris, S. aureus, E. coli, S.
100 mg/ml
S. typhi
No significant
Bansod, 2012
500 mg/ml
S. aureus, E. coli, S.
1000 mg/ml
E. coli, S. typhi
flavanoides (Leaf
P. vulgaris, S. aureus, E. coli, S.
100 mg/ml
S. aureus, E. coli
500 mg/ml
E. coli
1000 mg/ml
P. vulgaris
Tannin (isolated
from leaves of
E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
B. subtilis, Shigella boydii,
Shigella flexneri, S. aureus, S.
0.5 mg/ml
5 mg/ml
Shinde et al.,
1 mg/ml
S. subtilis
1.5 mg/ml
E. coli, S. subtilis
2 mg/ml
E. coli
2.5 mg/ml
E. coli
3 mg/ml
E. coli
3.5 mg/ml
E. coli
4 mg/ml
E. coli
4.5 mg/ml
E. coli
E. coli
Tannin (isolated
from fruits of
E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
B. subtilis, Shigella boydii,
Shigella flexneri, S. aureus, S.
0.5 mg/ml
5 mg/ml
Shinde et al.,
1 mg/ml
1.5 mg/ml
E. coli
2 mg/ml
E. coli
2.5 mg/ml
E. coli
3 mg/ml
E. coli
E. coli
4 mg/ml
S. boydii
4.5 mg/ml
S. boydii
E. coli
that aqueous fraction and n-hexane fraction have highest
inhibition of recombinant HIV-RT (91% and 89%,
respectively) at 1 mg/ml concentration. Chloroform
fraction showed highest inhibition of HIV-RT at 0.5 mg/ml
and carbon tetrachloride fraction at 0.12 mg/ml concentra-
tion. At 0.12 mg/ml and 0.5 concentrations 50% of the HIV-
RT activity is inhibited in n-hexane fraction and carbon
tetrachloride fraction respectively (Estari et al., 2012).
Anti ulcerogenic activity
The ethanolic extract of E. officinalis has found highly
effective in controlling growth of H. pylori in-vitro with
minimum inhibitory control ranging from 0.91 to 1.87 µg/
µl. The result concluded that the plant ethanolic extract is
well retained with total phenolics, reducing power,
flavanoids and the antioxidant properties which make
amla a proper remedial use against H. pylori infection and
gastric ulcer (Mehrotra et al., 2011).
Antimutagenic and wound healing activity
An investigation on Swiss albino mice showed that 50%
methanolic extract of Emblica fruit can protect mice
against the chromosome damaging effects of the well-
known mutagen cyclophosphamide (Agrawal et al., 2012).
Ascorbic acid and tannins of E. officinalis, namely
emblicanin A and emblicanin B have strong antioxidant
action and it is proposed that the addition of these
antioxidants support the repair process of cells. Emblica
Table 6: Traditional uses of Emblica officinalis.
Used part
The fruit or fresh fruit is pickled or pre-
served in sugar. Used when dry.
One or two
fruits daily
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Baliga and Dsouza,
Leaves, fresh
fruit, seed
Decoction of leaves or decoction of seed,
dried grapes and sugar (for gargling) or
decoction of fresh fruit and compounds
containing equal part of Emblica seed,
chitrak root, chebulic myrobalan and pipli
is given.
Refrigerant and
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Patel and Goyal,
2011; Srivasuki,
Tablespoon of juice is mixed with a cup of
bitter gourd juice
taken daily
for two
Diabetes, eye
complication in
Kumar et al., 2012a;
Singh et al., 2011
Fruit, bark,
root, leaves
Fruit decoction is mixed with sour milk or,
bark partakes of the astringency of the
fruit. Decoction and evaporation of the root
solution produces an astringent extract
equal to catechu. An infusion of the leaves
with fenugreek seed is also given.
Diarrhoea, chronic
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Srivasuki, 2012
Root, leaves,
10 gm roots are taken and ground.
twice after
meal per
Pain killing, anti-
Dental problems
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Srivasuki, 2012
Leaves are squeezed and the juice extracted
A few
drops of
juice is put
in the ear
Grind the node and mix it with water.
After vigorous stirring it is filtered through
a cloth. Water drop is given to right ear left
sided teeth are in pain and vice versa.
Only few
The juice of the bark combined with honey
and turmuric is given
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Srivasuki, 2012
Fresh fruits or crushed fruits
Growth promoting
Hair growth
Singh et al., 2011;
Patel and Goyal,
A paste of the fruit is a useful application to
Headache, nausea
or vomiting
inhibitory effect
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Patel and Goyal,
Leaves, root
Decoction of the leaves or root bark mixed
with honey is applied to inflammations of
the mouth
bactericidal activity
Treatment of
aphthae or
aphthous stomati-
Kumar et al., 2012b
One teaspoonful of powder of the dry fruit
mixed with two teaspoon full of jaggery
twice daily
for a
Kumar et al., 2012a
increases cellular proliferation at the wound site, as
supported by a raise in the action of extracellular signal-
regulated kinase 1/2, along with an increase in DNA, type
III collagen, acid-soluble collagen, aldehyde content,
shrinkage temperature and tensile strength (Sumitra et al.,
In vitro propagation
A simple and one step reproducible protocol was
developed by Thilaga et al. (2013) for induction of high
frequency somatic embryogenesis from juvenile leaf
tissues of Emblica officinalis in vitro. Highest percentage of
callus (67.5%) was obtained on media containing 0.45 µM
2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic in combination with 22 µM 6-
benzylaminopurine. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet
regeneration of Emblica officinalis was performed by using
in vitro germinated seeds derived cotyledon explants to
produce proembryos directly in MS media (Al-Sabah et al.,
2012). Another efficient protocol for in vitro shoot
proliferation of Emblica officinalis has been evaluated by
using nodal explants where MS medium was found the
best for shoot proliferation (Goyal and Bhadauria, 2007).
Traditionally E. officinalis have been used for the ailments
of different diseases in different countries for ancient
periods. Traditional uses of E. officinalis are summarized
in table 6.
Amla or Indian gooseberry has been playing a significant
role from ancient times in traditional medicine, Ayurveda
and in tribal medicine. The major group of phytochemi-
cals of like tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and
other polyphenolic compounds extracted from Amla has
been screened for diverse biological and biopharmaceuti-
cal investigations from last few decades. Some important
Amla phytochemicals like gallic acid, ellagic acid,
emblicanin A, emblacani B, quercetin, phyllantine,
phyllantidine and so forth have been confirmed as having
different biological activities like antioxidant, antimicrobi-
al, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitissuive, anti,
radioprotective, chemopreventive, wound healing
activities and so on. From the current investigation, it has
seen that some bioactive compounds from Emblica
officinalis are also common in other medicinal plant
species. These phytochemicals extracted from other plants
has been investigated for different bioscreening showing
significant results but have not been researched from
Emblica officinalis solvent extraction yet. Therefore, further
evaluation of unexplored bioactive compounds of Amla,
is needed which can reveal more and more new biological
activities of this potent medicinal plant.
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... From Hasan, et al., 2016). ). ...
... Zhu, et al. (2013), also reported that Balakka fruit contains a lot of diterpenoid compounds, such as gibberellins, tritepenes, steroids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Tannins were also found in high concentrations in Balakka fruit and its extracts (Zhu et al., 2013as cited by Majee, et al., 2016, Hasan, et al., 2016. Table 2 can be seen the body weight profile of the rats before and after treatment, there was an increase in body weight in all treatment groups (normal rat group, doxorubicin group, extract group, treatment group 1 and treatment 2). ...
... The highest weight gain was found in the group of rats in treatment 2 of 28.9 g and the lowest weight gain was found in the group of doxorubicin rats of 16.14 g. This is because the administration of balakka fruit extract can affect energy metabolism because of the nutritional content, especially carbohydrates contained in the balakka fruit extract in treatment group 2. Hasan, et al., 2016). However, in the doxorubicin group, rat body cells in the doxorubicin group experienced cellular toxicity due to oxidative stress and the body used most of its energy to carry out cellular repairs to overcome the toxicity, resulting in the lowest weight gain. ...
... 25 The EO is widely used for the management of various ailments ie diarrhea, inflammatory disorder, jaundice, headaches, nausea, vomiting, hair fall etc. 26 Triticum aestivum L. (Wheatgrass). WG is a member of the family Poaceae (Gramineae). ...
... 74,75 The presence of EO as an ingredient in this formulation has proved to as vital organ protective also having strong chelating ability due to the significant amount of vitamin C in it. 26 The formulation also contains CP which has great nutritional value along with medicinal properties. 92 Likewise, WG, known as green blood also has remarkable nutritional importance and it contains chlorophyll which is considered to be helpful in the generation of Hb %. 93 The MC is also used as food although having great medicinal properties. ...
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Background and Purpose: Irochel is a polyherbal formulation, comprises ethanolic extracts of Emblica officinalis, Cucurbita pepo L, Triticum aestivum, Fagonia cretica, Momordica charantia, and Tribulus terristris. It is prepared for the management of iron overload in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients in which non-transfusion binds iron-produced reactive oxygen species ROS that causes severe damages to the organs leads to death. Research Study: In this study, phytochemical, antioxidant-DPPH assay, cytotoxicity, acute, and subacute toxicity in Wistar rats according to OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, was carried out. The pharmaceutical analysis was conducted following standard protocols. Results: The results exhibited that each herb has a rich amount of phytochemical constituents. The DPPH assay showed IC 50 values for Irochel and Gallic Acid 106.6 ± 4.28 [uM] and 21.8 ± 1.03 [uM], respectively. The LC 50 124.327 μg/ml was obtained in cytotoxicity. In acute toxicity (14 days) and subacute toxicity (28 days) studies, the results revealed no treatment-related toxic manifestations, or mortality. Therefore, LD 50 was found > 5000 mg/kg. However, there was some hematological and biochemical variations observed at 3 different doses of 2000, 300, and 50 mg/kg bw. Conclusion: Thus, Irochel has significant antioxidant activity and it is a safe drug for human use.
... The antihypercholesteremic activity of test drugs ingredients like Amla, Filfil Daraz, Zanjabeel, Post-e-Balela, Sheetraj Hindi might be responsible for weight reduction. [26,43,44,45,46,47] Hair is dry, brittle, and lackluster in low thyroid function and tend to fall out. [1] Rawal C et al., 2013 stated that, tablet hairback (Emblica officinalis one of its content) very effective in hair fall. ...
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Objective: Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinal disorders worldwide characterize as a clinical syndrome that occurs due to decreased functioning of thyroid hormones lead to varieties of clinical and biochemical signs and symptoms. Autoimmunity, 131 I-therapy, and thyroidectomy account for 90% of the causes of thyroid hormone deficiency. The use of levothyroxine is lifelong and controversial in certain conditions. Today, there is a need to seek herbs as an alternative therapy. The present clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Majoon-e-Falasafa and Safoof-e-Aqarqarha in Hypothyroidism-A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study. Methods: This study was carried out on 40 patients after the screening of 56 subjects. All enrolled patients were randomized by computer-generated random numbers into two groups, 30 in the test group (Majoon-e-Falasfa 10gm/day and Safoof-e-Aqarqarha 3.2gm/day) and 10 in the control group (levothyroxine 1.6µg/kg/day) for 45days, and assessing on subjective & objective parameters. All data analyses were done by using paired proportion tests and student t-test, before and after, to assess the effect of interventions. Result: The demographic data of both groups were similar at baseline. The all-subjective & objective parameters significantly improved (P<0.001) in both groups except weight change, loss of hair, free T3, and T4 (P>0.05). The TSH was significantly improved by 26.7% (P=0.013) in the test group and 50% (P=0.06) in the control group at baseline and after treatment. No significant difference (intergroup P>0.05) were observed in all subjective and objective parameters between groups at baseline and after treatment except free T4. Conclusion: The test intervention has an effect on subjective and objective parameters but the control group was superior to the test group. [Trial registration: CTRI/2018/02/011768].
... It is described as having a bārid (cold) and yābis (dry) temperament, and used in a wide variety of disorders including skin diseases, gastro-intestinal ailments, cardiac conditions, cerebral weakness, weakness of other vital organs and general debility etc. In fact, it is one of the most frequently used drugs, as a compulsory part of all iţrīfalāt (a type of oral semisolid preparation in Unani medicine, usually used for central nervous system and gastro-intestinal problems), and other compound formulations such as Jawārish Āmla, Anūshdarū, Safūf-i-Hāḍim etc [5,6,7]. ...
Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Family: Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinally important plant indigenous to tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia. The tree is 5-25 metres tall, deciduous, having deltoid-squamiform leaves and bears pale-green globose fruits 2-4 cm in diameter. In Unani medicine, it is widely used in compound formulations or in raw form in many disorders of central nervous system, gastro-intestinal system, skin, hair, general debility etc. In Ayurveda, it is classified as a rasayana, i.e., drugs which promote longevity and delay ageing. Āmla fruit is one of the richest sources of Vitamin C (478.56 mg/ 100 ml), alongwith important constituents such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium etc. recent researches on Āmla have revealed the presence of several biologically active substances with scientifically proven effects as anti-oxidant, anti-ageing, immunomodulatory, memory enhancing, protective towards vital organs such as liver, heart kidneys; anti-depressant, anti-cancer and many more beneficial effects. Most of the experiments have been carried out on Āmla fruit and are dose-Review Article Fazil and Nikhat; EJMP, 30(3): 1-13, 2019; Article no.EJMP.52964 2 dependent. Moreover, no toxic effects have been reported in any of the studies. This review focuses on the various biologically active components of Āmla and its relevance in modern pharmacology.
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Nowadays, fruits and herbs wine is a boon for the alcoholic beverage industry since it has a plethora of secondary metabolites (bioactives) with numerous pharmacological properties. The article aims to provide an overview of the possibility of making wine from a variety of nutraceutically active herbs and fruits. The different databases have been used to compile the information. Wine can be made from tropical, subtropical, and temperate fruits that are highly perishable, nutritionally diverse, and underutilised, such as raspberries, pomegranates, sweet potatoes, papaya, pineapples, and kiwi fruit. Herbal wine is beneficial to the alcoholic beverage industry because it has a large number of secondary metabolites (bioactives) with a variety of medicinal properties. Herbal and fruit wine provide biological functions and health benefits such as antioxidants, anti inflammatory activity, anticancer, anti-aging, and protection against cardiovascular problems, diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders. Among herbal and fruit wine constituents, phenolic compounds are important in conferring health benefits. Most significantly, phenolic substances like flavanols, flavanones, flavones, tannins, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and resveratrol can help prevent heart disease, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and other chronic diseases. This study focuses on the comparative health benefits of the bioactive chemicals which are present in the fruits and herbal wines. Wine includes physiologically active components that have the potential to improve consumer’s health. Various herbs and fruits used for wine making and their medicinal applications have been discussed in this paper.
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Triphala is a famous triherbal drug, comprising three herb fruits, including Terminalia chebula (Haritaki), Terminalia bellirica (Bibhitaki), and Phyllanthus emblica (Amalaki). It is enriched with vitamin C, polyphenols, flavonoids, sterols, saponins, etc., and is well-documented for its potent antioxidant, anticancer, chemoprotective, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects. This research was conducted to evaluate the synergistic antioxidative and cytotoxic potential of mixtures of the individual constituents of Triphala at their nonequivalent ratios along with the chemical characterization of individual constituents of Triphala to identify and quantify individual compounds. The antioxidative potential was measured using total antioxidant capacity (TAC), DPPH free radical scavenging assay, and total phenolic content (TPC) tests. The cytotoxic potential was assessed on brain cancer cells (N4X4) using MTT assay, and phytochemical characterization was performed by GS-MS analysis. Nonequivalent ratios of Triphala constituents exhibited significantly higher synergistic antioxidant and cytotoxic potential than the equivalent ratios of them. Moreover, the nonequivalent ratio where the quantity of Amalaki was doubled than the other two constituents showed the highest synergistic antioxidant and cytotoxic effect. GC-MS analysis of individual constituents of Triphala identified and quantified the presence of a wide array of compounds, and fatty acid, fatty acid ester, triterpene, and aminoglycoside remained the predominant class of compounds. Thus, it can be inferred that the observed bioactivities can be attributed to the phytocompounds characterized and extracts at the nonequivalent ratio of Triphala constituents where Amalaki is doubled can be more effective in treating oxidative degenerative diseases and glioblastoma.
Ethnopharmacological relevance Medicinal plants are considered as a healthcare resource and widely used by rural people in their traditional medicine system for curing neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases refer to incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive degeneration/death of nerve cells or neurons in the human brain. This review is mainly focused on the usage of different ethnomedicinal plants in the treatment of different neurodegenerative diseases in Himachal Pradesh. Study reveals total of 73 ethnomedicinal plants, which are used for treating different neurological disorders in different areas of Himachal Pradesh. The data is compiled from the different sources that described the detailed information of plants in tabular form and highlights the significance of different phytochemicals on neuroprotective function. The present study also provides the scientific data and clinical (in-vivo and in-vitro) studies in support of ethnomedicinal use. Aim of the study This review aims to provide information of ethnomedicinal plants which are used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in Himachal Pradesh. Materials and methods Information on the use of ethnomedicinal plants to treat various neurological disorders has been gathered from a variety of sources, including various types of literature, books, and relevant publications in Google Scholar, Research Gate, Science Direct, Scopus, and Pub Med, among others. The collected data is tabulated, including the botanical names of plants, mode of use and the disease for which it is used for curing, etc. Results There are 73 ethnomedicinal plants that are used to cure various neurological disorders, with the most plants being used to treat epilepsy problem in Himachal Pradesh. Conclusion Numerous phytochemicals and extracts from diverse plants were found to have a protective effect against neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidant activity is known to exist in a variety of herbal plants. The most common bioactive antioxidant chemicals having their significant impacts include flavonoids, flavones, coumarins, lignans, isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanins, and isocatechins.
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Our immune system depends on leucocytes or white blood cells which possess the power to produce antibodies to fight various disease‐causing pathogens. People have now realized the crucial role played by the immune system in keeping them healthy. Therefore, recent scenario has witnessed an upsurge in the demand of immunity boosting foods. The use of naturally available fruits as immunomodulators is so ubiquitous and just needs concrete scientific proofs for claiming its efficacy. Many studies have shown that fruits are abundant in bioactive compounds like vitamins (vitamin A, C, E, etc.), minerals, and phytochemicals (like β‐ carotene, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolics, etc.). These components have the potential to enhance our immunity by supporting the proliferation of lymphocytes, scavenging free radical species, reducing oxidative stress, improving anti‐inflammatory as well as immunomodulatory mechanism, and supporting aggregation of platelets. Thus, supplementation of diet with an appropriate amount of fruits daily could support body's natural defense by strengthening our immune response. In this preface, we attempt to summarize the significant role played by various phytochemicals and bioactive compounds of fruits in boosting our immune system.
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Aquaculture production is affected by disease outbreak, which affects the production, profitability, and sustainability of the global aquaculture industry. Antibiotics have been widely used to control various infectious diseases. Indiscriminate usage of antibiotics results in development of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. This current study aims to synthesize myrobalan-mediated green silver nanocolloids (MBNc) by using the extract of three myrobalans and characterized by using various physiochemical techniques. Antibacterial potential of MBNc was screened in vibriosis causing pathogens (V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus, V. Parahaemolyticus), and foodborne pathogen S. haemolyticus, isolated from infected fish. Further, the presence of ESBL genes including CTX-M-15 and Amp C was analyzed in control and MBNc-treated strains. From our studies, it was observed that MBNc was very effective in controlling the growth. MBNc confirmed the anti-biofilm property in all tested marine pathogens and effectively abolish the genes encoding CTX-M-15 in tested pathogens. Thus, MBNc can be formulated to control the growth of marine pathogens and it can be used as an alternative to antibiotics to prevent infection in cage culturing and aquafarming.
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Background: Modulation of non-specific immunity and other related activities of succulent parts of effective medicinal plants can prevent viral infections like COVID-19 through their dietary intake. Objective: The succulent parts of the medicinal plants with immunomodulation, anti-oxidation, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, etc . power can be used orally in the capsular form to prevent as well as to reduce the severity of symptoms of COVID-19. Methods: A proposal is displayed with a detailed description of related steps like the selection of medicinal plant parts consulting related reports, collection of biomedicines, validation of efficacy, dosing, encapsulation, storage, and transportation, etc . Results: The succulent bio-medicines against COVID-19 can be developed and marketed following only some adoptive research. Conclusion: Succulent bio-medicines can be prepared and marketed for the prevention and cure of different infectious and non-infectious diseases.
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The objective of the study is to prepare and investigate the herbal formulation of Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum and Emblica officinalis for antidiabetic effects. Herbal formulations PD1, PD2 and PD3 were prepared using Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum and Emblica officinalis extracts. Herbal formulations were evaluated for hypoglycemic effects and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) in normal and Alloxan induced diabetic rats. In hypoglycemic study and OGTT, there was a significant decrease in Blood Glucose Level (BGL) in normal rats with formulation PD3, marginal decrease in formulation PD2 and very less decrease in formulation PD1. In diabetic rats PD3 shown significant decrease in Fasting Blood Glucose Level (FBGL) which was comparable to Glibenclamide while the effects of formulation PD2 and PD1 was not significant after treatment with prepared herbal formulations. These results were also supported by serum lipid profile and histological studies of liver and kidney.
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Phyllanthus emblica Linn. is widely used in Thai traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases. The fruit of P. emblica is known as a rich source of vitamin C, and also contains a mixture of phenolic compounds. In this study, the standardized water extract of P. emblica fruit was prepared according to Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Total polyphenol contents of the extract were equivalent to 34.22±1.74 g gallic acid/100g extract. Antioxidant activities of the P. emblica extract were evaluated by several methods, including DPPH and ABTS•+ radical scavenging assays and FRAP assays. The results showed that the extract has an ability of scavenging radicals generated by both DPPH and ABTS•+. Similar to Trolox, the water extract of P. emblica fruit also had a ferric reducing property. Additionally, the extract effectively inhibited H2O2-induced free radical production in human myeloleukemic U937 cells as measured by 2,7-DCF-DA. The results imply that the fruits of P. emblica are potential sources of natural antioxidants, which have free radical scavenging activity and might be useful for hepato-, cyto-, and radio- protection, as well as reducing oxidative stress in many pathological conditions.
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The present study was carried out to evaluate in vitro antibacterial and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis seed. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against gram positive and gram negative bacteria namely E.coli, P.aeruginosa, K.pneumoniae, S. aureus, Enterococcus by using agar well diffusion method. The antioxidant activity of seed extract was evaluated by using the free radical scavenging activity assay i.e DPPH method, hydrogen peroxide and reducing potential method. The extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against S. aureus (21mm) whereas lowest against P.aeruginosa (17mm). MIC values of extract against E.coli, S.aureus, K.pneumonia, P.aeruginosa and Enterococcus were 50, 50, 50, 25 and 50 mg/ml respectively. Gentamicin was used as a standard drug. Herbal extract showed maximum relative percentage inhibition against S. aureus (91.11 %) and lowest relative percentage inhibition against Enterococcus (59.17%). Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. The extract showed good radical scavenging activity. IC50 values for methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis for DPPH and H2O2 were found to be 15ug/ml and 32ug/ml and for ascorbic acid was found to be 12ug/ml for both DPPH and hydrogen peroxide method respectively. The result of present study conclude that seeds of E. officinalis contain high antibacterial and antioxidant property and can be further explored for the isolation of its bioactive compound.
Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration was established in amla using cotyledon explants. Cotyledon explants isolated from the in vitro germinated seeds produced proembryos directly in MS culture media containing 1 mg/l 2, 4-D and 0.1 mg/l Kinetin. somatic embryogeneic callus was produced in 5 mg/l 2, 4D and 1 mg/l Kinetin. Higher concentrations of 2, 4-D was found to be lethal to the cotyledon explants of amla. Somatic embryo multiplication and germination occurred in hormone-free MS culture media. Half strength MS nutrient with 15 g/l sucrose supported somatic embryo germination, in vitro rooting and plantlet growth. Somatic embryo desiccation supported in somatic embryo maturation and enhanced the rate of conversion of somatic embryos into rooted plantlets. Hardening of plantlets integrated with photoautotrophic culture system supported 100% survival during the greenhouse acclimatization of plantlets. this system of plant production in amla could be useful in large-scale plant production for fruit production and also for the crop improvement in amla through genetic engineering.
Aqueous extract of dried Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Amla) fruit pulp powder was evaluated for immunomodulatory effect on male Swiss Albino mice. The mice were divided into three groups. The first group received vehicle alone to serve as control. The second and third groups received the extract orally at 100 and 200 mg! kg body weight dose levels respectively per day for a period of 19 days. There was significant dose dependent increase in haemagglutination antibody titre, sheep red blood cells induced delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction, macrophage migration index, respiratory burst activity of the peritoneal macrophages, total leukocyte count, percentage lymphocyte distribution, serum globulin and relative lymphoid organ weight in Emblica treated mice indicating its ability to stimulate humoral as well as cell mediated immunity along with macrophage phagocyte.
Polar flavanoids and non polar flavanoids have been isolated from the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica (Amla) by chemical method. The isolated extract was screened for antimicrobial activities against Proteus vulgaris,Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. The extracts showed good to moderate activity against the pathogens.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a major human viral disease with about 33.2 million people infected worldwide. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90% of the HIV/AIDS population in the world. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-HIV activity of Phyllanthus emblica plant extracts. Extracts were prepared from dried fruit in n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors by ficoll-hypaque density gradient centrifugation method. A toxicity study was performed on all crude extracts by MTT assay using PBMCs isolated from whole blood. HIV-1 RT inhibition activity of the all solvent extracts of P. emblica was determined. AQF and HXF fractions show highest inhibition of recombinant HIV-RT (91% and 89% respectively) at 1 mg/ml concentration. CFF fraction shows highest inhibition of HIV-RT at 0.5 mg/ml and CTF fraction at 0.12 mg/ ml concentration. Experimental results thus suggested that the P. emblica plant extracts which have been tested in the present study exert their anti-HIV activity via inhibition of HIV reverse transcriptase activity. Thus the present study seems to justify the traditional use of plant for the treatment of infectious disease of viral origin. However, in order to assess the usefulness of this herb, it is necessary to isolate the active principle(s) from the crude and fractions, identify them and study their mechanism of action.
Cancer is a public health problem all over the world. Large number of plants and their isolated constituents have been shown to potential anticancer activity. Ethanolic whole plant extract of Emblica officinalis (syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) showed in vitro cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines such as lung, neuroblastima, and colon. There was no growth of inhibition recorded against liver cancer cell line. Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB) assay was done for in vitro cytotoxicity test assay. The in vitro cytotoxicity was performed against five human cancer cell lines namely of lung (A-549), liver (Hep-2) colon (502713 HT-29) and neuroblastima (IMR-32). The activity was done using 100μg/ml of the extract. Against lung (A-549) cell line plant extract showed 82% growth of inhibition. In case of liver (Hep-2) showed no activity reported, where as in case of colon 502713 cell line plant extract showed maximum activity. In case of HT-29 liver human cancer line and IMR-32 neuroblastima cell line plant extract showed 98% and 97% activity respectively.
The objective of this study is to induce experimental diabetes mellitus using Streptozotocin in normal adult Wistar rats and study the anti-diabetic activity of polyherbal formulation by comparison of changes in body weight, consumption of food and water, volume of urine and levels of glucose between normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine disorder. Hypoglycemic agents from natural and synthetic sources are available for treatment of diabetes. Indian medicinal plants have been found to be useful to successfully manage diabetes. The effect of ethanolic extract of poly herbal formulation containing leaves and seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum, fruits of Momordica charantia, and fruits of Emblica officinalis was investigated in normal, glucose load conditions and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Significant hypoglycemic activity was exhibited by the poly herbal formulation.