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Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of Emblica officinalis: A review


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From the ancient time, plants have been playing a key role for the betterment of mankind presenting as an extraordinary source of natural medicine. The complexity in formulating chemical based drugs as well as their health related side effects and uprising cost has led worldwide researchers to focus on medicinal plant research. Bangladesh has a vast repository of diverse plant species where about five thousand plants species have been claimed as having significant medicinal values. The researched papers on medicinal plants publishing from last few decades mention the activities of different plant bioactive compounds that are used widely in the treatment of various human ailments. Emblica officinalis is reported to possess bioactive compounds like tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, ascorbic acids and many other compounds which are confirmed to have diverse pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, radio-protective, hepatoprotective, antitissuive, immunomodulatory, hypolipedemic and many other activities. This medicinal plant is also reported to have anticancer, anti HIV-reverse transcriptase, antidiabetic, antidepressant, antiulcerogenic, wound healing activities and so forth. The current review paper summarizes the phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of the plant Emblica officinalis.Hasan et al., International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, January 2016, 5(2): 14-21
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Hasan et al., International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, January 2016, 5(2): 14-21
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Phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of Emblica
officinalis: A review
*Md. Rubaiyat Hasan, Md. Nasirul Islam and Md. Rokibul Islam
Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh
Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (FamilyEuphorbiaceae) also
known as Phyllanthus emblica, is commonly known as
‘Amla’ or ‘amlaki’ in Bengali and ‘Indian gooseberry’ in
English. This species is medium sized deciduous tree with
8-18 meters height and is native to tropical southeastern
Asia, particularly in central and southern India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, southern China, the Mascarene
Islands and Malaysia (Table 1). In India, Amla trees are
found throughout the forests of tropical area ascending
up to 4500 ft on hills (Rai et al., 2012; Thilaga et al., 2013).
Amla is rich in fiber, carbohydrate, iron and is reported as
the richest source of vitamin C (Singh et al., 2011) (Table 2).
The fruit is also used in a combination form known as
Triphala meaning three fruits which is a Thai traditional
herbal formulation composed of Emblica officinalis, Termi-
nalia belerica and Terminalia chebula (Phetkate et al., 2012).
Many herbal and patent drugs have been formulated
by the constituents of this plant (Rai et al., 2012). E.
officinalis primarily contains tannins, flavonoids, phenolic
compounds, saponins, terpenoids, ascorbic acids,
carbohydrates and many other compounds (Khan, 2009).
Supplements of fresh amla fruit is very favorable to
individuals suffering from anemia. The juice of fresh amla
fruit is given as diuretic, anti-bilious remedy and as a
tonic. It is also helpful in over thirst, dyspepsia, burning
sensation and other complaints of digestive system
(Kumar et al., 2012b).
Taxonomical classification of E. officinalis is summarized
in table 3.
This herb has many bioactive compounds including
apigenin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid,
quercetin, chebulagic acid, corilagin, isostrictiniin, methyl
gallate, luteolin and so on. Emblicanin A, emblicanin B,
phyllaemblicin B, punigluconin and pedunculagin are
tannins present in Emblica officinalis (Table 4). Glutamic
acid, proline, aspartic acid, alanine, and lysine are 29.6%,
14.6%, 8.1%, 5.4% and 5.3% respectively of the total amino
acids. The pulpy portion of fruit, dried and freed from the
nuts contains: gallic acid 1.32%, tannin, gum 13.75%;
albumin 13.08%; crude cellulose 17.08%; mineral matter
4.12% and moisture 3.83%. Amla fruit ash contains
chromium, 2.5 ppm; zinc 4 ppm; and copper, 3 ppm
(Kumar et al., 2012a). Nickel and lead metals were not
found in leaves of Emblica officinalis. The level of copper
was found higher in the sample leaves of Emblica officinalis
followed by chromium, manganese and zinc (Kumar et al.,
2013). Chemical constituents from different plant parts of
are illustrated below:
Leaves: It contains gallic acid, chebulic acid, ellagic acid,
chebulinic acid, chebulagic acid, amlic acid, alkaloids
phyllantine and phyllantidine (Khan, 2009).
Seeds: A fixed oil, phosphatides and a small quantity of
essential oil. The fixed oil (acid value 12.7; saponification
value 185; iodine value 139.5; acetyl value 2.03; unsaponi-
fiable matter 3.81%; sterol 2.70% ; saturated fatty acid 7%.
Contains linolenic acid (8.78%), linoleic (44%). oleic
(28.40%), steric (2.15%), palmitic (2.99%) and miristic acid
(0.95%) (Khan, 2009).
Barks: Contain leukodelphinidin, tannin and proanthocy-
anidin (Khan, 2009).
Roots: Contain ellagic acid and lupeol (Khan, 2009).
International Current
Pharmaceutical Journal
From the ancient time, plants have been playing a key role for the betterment of mankind presenting as an extraordinary source of
natural medicine. The complexity in formulating chemical based drugs as well as their health related side effects and uprising cost
has led worldwide researchers to focus on medicinal plant research. Bangladesh has a vast repository of diverse plant species where
about five thousand plants species have been claimed as having significant medicinal values. The researched papers on medicinal
plants publishing from last few decades mention the activities of different plant bioactive compounds that are used widely in the
treatment of various human ailments. Emblica officinalis
is reported to possess bioactive compounds like tannins, flavonoids,
saponins, terpenoids, ascorbic acids and many other compounds which are confirmed to have diverse pharmacological activities like
antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, radio-protective, hepatoprotective, antitissuive, immunomodulatory, hypolipedemic
and many other activities. This medicinal plant is also reported to have anticancer, anti HIV-reverse transcriptase, antidiabetic,
antidepressant, antiulcerogenic, wound healing activities and so forth. The current review paper summarizes the phytochemical
constituents, pharmacological activities and traditional uses of the plant Emblica officinalis.
Key Words: Euphorbiaceae, Amla, Bangladesh.
*Corresponding Author:
Md. Rubaiyat Hasan
Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Islamic University, Kushtia-7003
Contact No.: +880 1913 937 627
Antibacterial activity
Antibacterial activities of different solvent extracts and
isolated compounds from Emblica officinalis are shown in
table 5.
Antifungal activity
Antifungal property of E. officinalis was reported against
Aspergillus (Satish et al., 2007). Fruit ethanol and acetone
extracts showed moderate activity against Fusarium
equiseti and Candida albicans where Grisofulvin was used
as standard antibiotic (Hossain et al., 2012). Plant meth-
anolic extract of E. officinalis did not show antifungal
activity against phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger
F2723 (Bobbarala et al., 2009).
Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity
Galic acid equivalent as total phenolic content from fruit
and seed of E. officinalis has excellent antioxidant proper-
ties and play an important role as free radical scavengers
required in the maintenance of ‚redox homeostasis‛
responsible for diverse degenerative diseases (Prakash et
al., 2012). The methanolic seed extract of Emblica officinalis
has promising free radical scavenging activity of 1,1,
Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) in a concentration
dependant manner (Priya et al., 2012). Methanolic extract
of fruit pulp also have antioxidant and free radical
scavenging activity (Mehrotra et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2008a;
Liu et al., 2008b, Hazra et al., 2010, Majumdar et al., 2010).
Methanolic extracts of dried leaves of Phyllanthus emblica
was used for the comparative study of antibacterial and
antioxidant activity and the research work was ended
positively showing the extract has both these activities
(Shivaji et al., 2010). In a separate research work, it is seen
that the water extract of E. officinalis fruit prepared
according to Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia has a strong
potential for free radical scavenging, ferric reducing as
well as inhibiting ROS (reactive oxygen species) produc-
tion (Charoenteeraboon et al., 2010).
Insecticidal activity
Saponins which are important constituents of E. officinalis
have insecticidal or cytotoxic properties to certain insects
(Chaieb, 2010). Although saponins which had shown
insecticidal activity was collected from natural sources
other than E. officinalis. But as saponins are bioactive
compounds found in E. officinalis too, it is obvious that E.
officinalis might have insecticidal activity and further
evaluation can be conducted to get more precise evaluation.
Larvicidal and mosquitocidal activity
In a mosquitocidal property evaluation test Murugan et al.
(2012) observed larvicidal and pupicidal activities of
methanol extract of E. officinalis against the malarial vector,
Anopheles stephensi showing 98% mortality rate at 100 ppm.
The ethanol and methanol extracts of E. officinalis also
exerted 100% mortality (no hatchability) at 400 ppm and
above (Murugan et al., 2012). Jeyasankar et al. (2012)
Table 1: Botanical description of E. officinalis.
Central and southern India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, southern China, the
Mascarene Islands, South East Asia and Uzbekistan.
Rai et al., 2012;
Thilaga et al., 2013;
Khan, 2009
Medium sized deciduous tree, 8-18 meters height with thin light grey bark exfoliating in small
thin irregular flakes.
Meena et al., 2010
Dried fruits, fresh fruit, seed, leaves, root bark, flowers.
Khan, 2009; Kumar et
al., 2012b
Simple, sub sessile, closely set along the branchlets, light green having the appearance of
pinnate leaves.
Meena et al., 2010
15-20 mm long and 18-25 mm wide, nearly spherical or globular wider than long and with a
small and slight conic depression on both apexes. Mesocarp is yellow and endocarp is
yellowish brown in ripened condition
Khan, 2009
Globose, fleshy, pale yellow with six obscure vertical furrows enclosing six trigonous seeds in
2-seeded 3 crustaceous cocci.
Meena et al., 2010
Seedlings start bearing fruits in 7-8 years after planting, while the budded clones will start
bearing fruits from the 5th year onwards.
Kumar et al., 2012a
Fresh fruits are light green and ripe fruits turn light brown in colour. The average weight of the
fruit is 60 -70 g.
Kumar et al., 2012b
Greenish yellow, in axillary fascicles, unisexual, males numerous on short slender pedicels,
females few, sub sessile, ovary 3-celled.
Meena et al., 2010;
Rai et al., 2012
Four-Six, smooth, dark brown
Khan, 2009
Thick to 12 mm, shining grayish brown or grayish green
Khan, 2009
February - May and December - January
Rai et al., 2012
Mesocarp and endocarp that forms the hard stone which encages the seed
Patel and Goyal, 2011
reported that the larvicidal activity of Phyllanthus emblica
ethyl acetate leaf extracts. The study concluded that the
ethyl acetate extract of P. emblica exhibited the maximum
larvicidal activity (99.6%) with LC50 (lethal Concentration
brings out 50% mortality) value of 78.89 ppm against the
larvae of Aedes aegypti (Jeyasankar et al., 2012).
Antidepressant activity
Pemminati et al. (2010) has checked the antidepressant
activity of aqueous extract of fruits of E. officinalis in
inbred adult male Swiss Albino mice weighing 25-30g.
The test was carried out by forced swim test (FST) and tail
suspension test (TST). The result of this test showed the
antidepressant activity of E. officinalis as comparable to the
of standard antidepressant drug imipramine.
Immunomodulatory activity
Reports suggest that triphala can stimulate the neutrophil
functions in the immunized albino rats (Srikumar et al.,
2005). There was considerable dose dependent raise in
haemagglutination antibody titre, macrophage migration
index, hypersensitivity reaction, respiratory burst activity
of the peritoneal macrophages, total leukocyte count,
percentage lymphocyte distribution, serum globulin and
relative lymphoid organ weight in Emblica treated albino
mice indicating its ability to stimulate humoral and cell
mediated immunity along with macrophage phagocyte
(Suja et al., 2009).
Anti-inflammatory activity
E. officinalis showed anti-inflammatory activities in
carrageenan induced acute and cotton pellet induced
chronic inflammation in Sprague-Dawley rats by reducing
paw volume in acute inflammation and by decreasing
cotton pellet induced granulomas tissue lipid peroxida-
tion, the granulomatous tissue mass, myeloperoxidase
activity and plasma extravasation in chronic inflammato-
ry condition (Muthuraman et al., 2011). E. officinalis water
extract has reported to have inhibitory effect on the
synthesis and release of inflammatory mediators in rats
(Jaijoy et al., 2010).
Radioprotective activity
It has been reported that mice treated with Emblica
officinalis extract before exposure to different doses of
gamma radiation can reduce the severity of symptoms of
radiation sickness and mortality (Singh et al., 2006).
Similar delayed onset of mortality and reduction in the
symptoms of radiation sickness in mice were seen in
consecutively triphala treated mice before irradiation
when compared with the non-drug treated irradiated
controls (Jagetia et al., 2002).
Hypolipidemic activity
Amla fruit have been reported to have significant anti-
hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic
effect (Santoshkumar et al., 2013). Treatment with Emblica
officinalis caused significant reduction of Total Cholesterol
(TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG)
and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), and a
significant increase in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
levels in patients with type II hyperlipidemia. Both
treatments from E. officinalis and simvastatin produced
significant reduction in blood pressure; however, this
beneficial effect was more marked in patients receiving E.
officinalis (Gopa et al., 2012). Histopathological study of
thoracic aorta of Emblica officinalis treated group has
shown decrease in atherogenicity compared to untreated
high cholesterol diet fed rats. The data demonstrated that
Emblica officinalis formulation was associated with
hypolipidemic effects on the experimentally induced
hypercholesteremic rats (Kumar and Kalaivani, 2011). It is
also seen that E. officinalis treated rat showed more hypogly-
cemic and hypolipidemic activity than Phyllanthus acidus
treated diabetic rats (Modilal and Pitchai, 2011).
Cytotoxic effects
To evaluate the immunostimulatory and side effects of
Triphala in a clinical phase I, all the volunteers took
Triphala for two weeks (3 capsules per day). As complete
physical examinations, routine laboratory analysis and
immunological studies were performed before ingestion
and after initial meeting for 4 consecutive weeks. The
result revealed significant immunostimulatory effects on
cytotoxic T cells (CD3−CD8+) and natural killer cells
(CD16+CD56+). Both of them increased significantly when
compared with those of the control samples. However, no
significant change in cytokine secretion was detected. All
volunteers were healthy and showed no adverse effects
throughout the duration of the study (Phetkate et al., 2012).
Flavonoids, a group of essential bioactive secondary
metabolites of Emblica officinalis, were evaluated for
antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity and intestinal absorp-
tion. The research concluded that flavonoids from E.
officinalis and some other medicinal plants hold a good
prospective as nutraceutical & chemotherapeutics agents
because of their antioxidant potential, no cytotoxicity and
good intestinal absorptive property (Sharma et al., 2010).
But it is confirmed that the chloroform soluble fraction of
the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids have both
antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity (Rahman et al., 2009).
Anti-diabetic and hypoglycemic activity
Herbal formulations prepared by extracts of Tinospora
cordifolia, Trigonella foenum and Emblica officinalis were
Table 2: Nutritional value of Emblica officinalis (redrawn from
et al., 2011).
Chemical components
Fruits: Moisture
Mineral matter
Bulk elements Mg/100g
Net weight
1.2 mg/100g
Vitamin C
600 mg/100g
Nicotinic acid
0.2 mg/100g
Table 3: Taxonomical classification of E. officinalis.
Plantae (Plants)
Tracheobionta (Vascular plants)
Spermatophyta (Seed plants)
Angiospermae (Flowering plants)
Dicotyledonae (Dicotyledons)
officinalis Geartn.
evaluated for hypoglycemic effects and Oral Glucose
Tolerance Test (OGTT) in normal and Alloxan induced
diabetic rats and significant, marginal and very less
decrease in blood glucose level was observed when
different herbal combinations were used (Deep et al., 2011).
The polyherbal combination of extracts E. officinalis
(fruit), Momordica charantia (fruit) and Trigonella foenum-
graecum (leaves and seeds) had shown synergistic activity,
as the glucose levels were decreased more significantly by
the combination of extracts compared to the individual
extract when used separately in streptozotocin induced
diabetic rats (Satyanarayana et al., 2010). The aqueous fruit
extract of Phyllanthus emblica was evaluated on type-II
diabetes, triglycerides (TG) and liver-specific enzyme,
alanine transaminase (ALT). This study showed that in a
dose of 200mg/kg body weight the aqueous fruit extract
can significantly reduce the blood glucose level in alloxan-
induced diabetic rats (Qureshi et al., 2009). Another study
reports that Phyllanthus emblica treated rat showed more
hypoglycemic and hypo lipidemic activity than Phyl-
lanthus acidus treated diabetic rats when the effect of orally
administered aqueous extracts (350 mg/kg body weight)
of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica and Phyllanthus acidus on
serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin,
cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, protein, urea
and creatinine were examined in control and extract-
treated diabetic rats (Modilal and Pitchai, 2011).
Hepato-protective activity
The histopathological study of liver cells of rats was
examined by administering E. officinalis as a preventative
agent to reduce paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity and it
has been observed that fruit extract has the ability to
rectify toxicity or hepatic damage (Malar and Bai, 2009).
Another histological study was undertaken to demon-
strate the protective effect of 50% hydroalcoholic extract
of the fresh fruit of E. officinalis against chronic toxicity
induced by carbon tetrachloride and thioacetamide in rats.
From the liver sections of the tested rats, it was observed
that E. officinalis reversed the abnormal histopathology by
accelerating the regenerative activity and in a few cases,
the hepatocytic injury was found negligible in E. officinalis
treated group of rats (Mir et al., 2007).
Anti-cancer and anti-proliferative activity
E. officinalis exhibits its anticancer activities through
inhibition of activator protein-1 and targets transcription
of viral oncogenes responsible for development of cervical
Table 4: Properties, functions and some common sources of bioactive compounds isolated from E. officinalis.
Biological activity
Common sources
1460°C at 760
mmHg (BP)
Antioxidant activity, Anti-
secretory and cryo-protective
Phyllanthus emblica,
Terminalia arborea, and T.
Baliga and
Dsouza, 2010;
Mishra, 2013
1610.6°C at
Antispasmodic action
E. officinalis, Terminalia
Chebula, T. citrine, T.
Reddy et al., 2009
Chen and Li, 2006
Not con-
Antioxidant activity
E. officinalis
Madhuri et al.,
Not con-
Antioxidant activity
E. officinalis
Madhuri et al.,
Gallic acid
252° C (MP)
Radioprotective effect, chemopre-
ventive effect, anti-carcinogenic,
antioxidative, antimutagenic, anti-
allergic and anti-inflammatory
E. officinalis; T chebula; T
bellerica, C sinensis L.,
Arctostaphylos uva-ursiL.,
C avellana, O biennis, V
Baliga and
Dsouza, 2010;
Vazirian et al.,
2011; Negi et al.,
2005; Karamaæ
al., 2006
Ellagic acid
≥350 °C (MP)
Radioprotective and chemopreven-
tive effect, antityrosinase Activity,
antioxidant, antiproliferative, and
antiatherogenic Properties,
estrogenic/antiestrogenic Activity
E. officinalis, Castanea
sativa, Euca-lyptus
camaldulensis, Juglans
Baliga and
Dsouza, 2010;
O¨zer et al., 2007;
Papoutsi et al.,
316.5 °C (MP)
Radioprotective, chemopreventive,
hepato protective effect
E. officinalis
Baliga and
Dsouza, 2010;
Madhuri et al.,
Not con-
Not confirmed
E. officinalis
Khan, 2009
Not con-
Neuropharmacological activity
(CNS activity)
E. officinalis, P. discoides;
Seurinega suffruticosa
Khan, 2009;
Beutler et al., 1985
1448.6°C at
760 mmHg
Antioxidant activity
E. officinalis
Bhattacharya et al.,
1578.039 °C
at 760 mmHg
Antitumor activity, Antioxidant
E. officinalis
Chang et al., 1995;
et al.,
cancer thus demonstrating its potential efficacy for
treatment of human papillomavirus-induced cervical
cancers (Mahata et al., 2013).
An in vitro cytotoxicity was performed against five
human cancer cell lines and the activity was done using
100µg/ml of the ethanolic whole plant extract of E.
officinalis. Against lung (A-549) cell line plant extract
showed 82% growth inhibition. In case of liver cell line
(Hep-2), it showed no activity, whereas in colon 502713
cell line, the plant extract displayed maximum activity. In
case of IMR-32 neuroblastima cell line and HT-29 liver
human cancer line, the plant extract showed 97% and 98%
activity, respectively (Verma et al., 2012). E. officinalis fruit
extract at 50–100 μg/mL can significantly inhibit cell
growth of six human cancer cell lines, A549 (lung), HepG2
(liver), HeLa (cervical), MDA-MB-231 (breast), SK-OV3
(ovarian) and SW620 (colorectal). (Ngamkitidechakul et al.,
2010). HepG2 and A549 cells were treated with P. emblica
and T. bellerica extracts alone or in combination with
doxorubicin or cisplatin and effects on cell growth were
determined using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Both
the plant extracts demonstrated growth inhibitory activity
against the two cancer cell lines tested (Pinmai et al., 2008).
Studies also demonstrated that amla extracts are cytotoxic
and restrain the in vitro proliferation of some tumor cell
lines such as MK-1 (human gastric adenocarcinoma) and
B16F10 (murine melanoma) (Zhang et al., 2004).
HIV-reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity
Inhibition of HIV-Reverse Transcriptase (HIV-RT) by P.
emblica plant extract fractions was tested on Peripheral
Blood Mononuclear Cells. From this test it was observed
Table 5: Antibacterial activity of deferent solvent extracts and isolated compounds from Emblica officinalis.
Used extracts/
other compounds
Used organisms
Extract conc.
Max. zone of
showed highest
Extract or extract
conc. showed
highest activity
Ethanol, Acetone
(Fruit extract)
V. cholerae, S. aureus, P.
B. subtilis, Shigella dysenteriae,
S. pyogenous, E. coli,
B. megaterium
0.5 mg/disc
Shigella dysenteriae
Hossain et al.,
(Fruit extract)
E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P.
vulgaris, M. luteus, B. subtilis,
E. faecalis, S. faecalis
50 mg/ml
E. faecalis
Jyothi and Rao,
100 mg/ml
E. faecalis, K.
Petroleum ether,
(Fruit extract)
E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S.
aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. subtilis
10 mg/ml
S. aureus
Dhale and
Mogle, 2011
20 mg/ml
S. aureus
Methanolic seed
E. coli, S. aureus,
K. pneumoniae,
P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus
50 mg/ml
P. aeruginosa
200 mg/ml extract
Priya et al., 2012
100 mg/ml
E. coli
150 mg/ml
S. aureus
200 mg/ml
S. aureus
Polar flavanoides
(Leaf extract)
P. vulgaris, S. aureus, E. coli, S.
100 mg/ml
S. typhi
No significant
Bansod, 2012
500 mg/ml
S. aureus, E. coli, S.
1000 mg/ml
E. coli, S. typhi
flavanoides (Leaf
P. vulgaris, S. aureus, E. coli, S.
100 mg/ml
S. aureus, E. coli
500 mg/ml
E. coli
1000 mg/ml
P. vulgaris
Tannin (isolated
from leaves of
E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
B. subtilis, Shigella boydii,
Shigella flexneri, S. aureus, S.
0.5 mg/ml
5 mg/ml
Shinde et al.,
1 mg/ml
S. subtilis
1.5 mg/ml
E. coli, S. subtilis
2 mg/ml
E. coli
2.5 mg/ml
E. coli
3 mg/ml
E. coli
3.5 mg/ml
E. coli
4 mg/ml
E. coli
4.5 mg/ml
E. coli
E. coli
Tannin (isolated
from fruits of
E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
B. subtilis, Shigella boydii,
Shigella flexneri, S. aureus, S.
0.5 mg/ml
5 mg/ml
Shinde et al.,
1 mg/ml
1.5 mg/ml
E. coli
2 mg/ml
E. coli
2.5 mg/ml
E. coli
3 mg/ml
E. coli
E. coli
4 mg/ml
S. boydii
4.5 mg/ml
S. boydii
E. coli
that aqueous fraction and n-hexane fraction have highest
inhibition of recombinant HIV-RT (91% and 89%,
respectively) at 1 mg/ml concentration. Chloroform
fraction showed highest inhibition of HIV-RT at 0.5 mg/ml
and carbon tetrachloride fraction at 0.12 mg/ml concentra-
tion. At 0.12 mg/ml and 0.5 concentrations 50% of the HIV-
RT activity is inhibited in n-hexane fraction and carbon
tetrachloride fraction respectively (Estari et al., 2012).
Anti ulcerogenic activity
The ethanolic extract of E. officinalis has found highly
effective in controlling growth of H. pylori in-vitro with
minimum inhibitory control ranging from 0.91 to 1.87 µg/
µl. The result concluded that the plant ethanolic extract is
well retained with total phenolics, reducing power,
flavanoids and the antioxidant properties which make
amla a proper remedial use against H. pylori infection and
gastric ulcer (Mehrotra et al., 2011).
Antimutagenic and wound healing activity
An investigation on Swiss albino mice showed that 50%
methanolic extract of Emblica fruit can protect mice
against the chromosome damaging effects of the well-
known mutagen cyclophosphamide (Agrawal et al., 2012).
Ascorbic acid and tannins of E. officinalis, namely
emblicanin A and emblicanin B have strong antioxidant
action and it is proposed that the addition of these
antioxidants support the repair process of cells. Emblica
Table 6: Traditional uses of Emblica officinalis.
Used part
The fruit or fresh fruit is pickled or pre-
served in sugar. Used when dry.
One or two
fruits daily
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Baliga and Dsouza,
Leaves, fresh
fruit, seed
Decoction of leaves or decoction of seed,
dried grapes and sugar (for gargling) or
decoction of fresh fruit and compounds
containing equal part of Emblica seed,
chitrak root, chebulic myrobalan and pipli
is given.
Refrigerant and
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Patel and Goyal,
2011; Srivasuki,
Tablespoon of juice is mixed with a cup of
bitter gourd juice
taken daily
for two
Diabetes, eye
complication in
Kumar et al., 2012a;
Singh et al., 2011
Fruit, bark,
root, leaves
Fruit decoction is mixed with sour milk or,
bark partakes of the astringency of the
fruit. Decoction and evaporation of the root
solution produces an astringent extract
equal to catechu. An infusion of the leaves
with fenugreek seed is also given.
Diarrhoea, chronic
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Srivasuki, 2012
Root, leaves,
10 gm roots are taken and ground.
twice after
meal per
Pain killing, anti-
Dental problems
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Srivasuki, 2012
Leaves are squeezed and the juice extracted
A few
drops of
juice is put
in the ear
Grind the node and mix it with water.
After vigorous stirring it is filtered through
a cloth. Water drop is given to right ear left
sided teeth are in pain and vice versa.
Only few
The juice of the bark combined with honey
and turmuric is given
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Srivasuki, 2012
Fresh fruits or crushed fruits
Growth promoting
Hair growth
Singh et al., 2011;
Patel and Goyal,
A paste of the fruit is a useful application to
Headache, nausea
or vomiting
inhibitory effect
Kumar et al., 2012b;
Patel and Goyal,
Leaves, root
Decoction of the leaves or root bark mixed
with honey is applied to inflammations of
the mouth
bactericidal activity
Treatment of
aphthae or
aphthous stomati-
Kumar et al., 2012b
One teaspoonful of powder of the dry fruit
mixed with two teaspoon full of jaggery
twice daily
for a
Kumar et al., 2012a
increases cellular proliferation at the wound site, as
supported by a raise in the action of extracellular signal-
regulated kinase 1/2, along with an increase in DNA, type
III collagen, acid-soluble collagen, aldehyde content,
shrinkage temperature and tensile strength (Sumitra et al.,
In vitro propagation
A simple and one step reproducible protocol was
developed by Thilaga et al. (2013) for induction of high
frequency somatic embryogenesis from juvenile leaf
tissues of Emblica officinalis in vitro. Highest percentage of
callus (67.5%) was obtained on media containing 0.45 µM
2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic in combination with 22 µM 6-
benzylaminopurine. Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet
regeneration of Emblica officinalis was performed by using
in vitro germinated seeds derived cotyledon explants to
produce proembryos directly in MS media (Al-Sabah et al.,
2012). Another efficient protocol for in vitro shoot
proliferation of Emblica officinalis has been evaluated by
using nodal explants where MS medium was found the
best for shoot proliferation (Goyal and Bhadauria, 2007).
Traditionally E. officinalis have been used for the ailments
of different diseases in different countries for ancient
periods. Traditional uses of E. officinalis are summarized
in table 6.
Amla or Indian gooseberry has been playing a significant
role from ancient times in traditional medicine, Ayurveda
and in tribal medicine. The major group of phytochemi-
cals of like tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and
other polyphenolic compounds extracted from Amla has
been screened for diverse biological and biopharmaceuti-
cal investigations from last few decades. Some important
Amla phytochemicals like gallic acid, ellagic acid,
emblicanin A, emblacani B, quercetin, phyllantine,
phyllantidine and so forth have been confirmed as having
different biological activities like antioxidant, antimicrobi-
al, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitissuive, anti,
radioprotective, chemopreventive, wound healing
activities and so on. From the current investigation, it has
seen that some bioactive compounds from Emblica
officinalis are also common in other medicinal plant
species. These phytochemicals extracted from other plants
has been investigated for different bioscreening showing
significant results but have not been researched from
Emblica officinalis solvent extraction yet. Therefore, further
evaluation of unexplored bioactive compounds of Amla,
is needed which can reveal more and more new biological
activities of this potent medicinal plant.
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... The Ayurvedic valuable tree E. officinalis or amla has long been recognized for its therapeutic and pharmacological significance. E. officinalis is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family; it is also known by the common names Amla and Phyllanthus emblica in the botanical world [29,30]. The summary of the taxonomy of common names of E. officinalis is presented in Table 2. Specifically, central and southern India, Sri Lanka, southern China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Mascarene Islands, Malaysia, and tropical Southeastern Asia are home to the E. officinalis species. ...
... The E. officinalis appears to be a large tree with a height of 8 to 18 m, but in India, E. officinalis trees can be found throughout tropical forests that rise up to 4500 feet on hills [31,32]. The botanical description of E. officinalis is examined in Table 3 [29,33], which lists various parts of the plant, including fruits, leaves, seeds, bark, and flowers, that are used for various pharmacological effects. The most studied plant is E. officinalis, and reports indicate that it contains a variety of chemical components, such as gallic acid, amino acids, flavone glycosides, phenolic glycosides, flavonol glycosides, sesquiterpenoids, nor sesquiterpenoids, and rich fiber, carbohydrate, iron, tannins, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds. ...
... Source:Table 3is adapted from Hasan et al.[29], which is an open access article (Copyright © 2023 by authors) distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. ...
Full-text available
The ayurvedic herb Emblica officinalis (E. officinalis) is a gift to mankind to acquire a healthy lifestyle. It has great therapeutic and nutritional importance. Emblica officinalis, also known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. Amla is beneficial for treating illnesses in all its forms. The most crucial component is a fruit, which is also the most common. It is used frequently in Indian medicine as a restorative, diuretic, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, laxative , antipyretic, hair tonic, ulcer preventive, and for the common cold and fever. Hyperlipidemia is also known as high cholesterol or an increase in one or more lipid-containing blood proteins. Various phytocompounds, including polyphenols, vitamins, amino acids, fixed oils, and flavonoids, are present in the various parts of E. officinalis. E. officinalis has been linked to a variety of pharmacological effects in earlier studies, including hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, radioprotective, and hyperlipidemic effects. The amla-derived active ingredients and food products nevertheless encounter challenges such as instability and interactions with other food matrices. Considering the issue from this perspective, food component nanoencapsulation is a young and cutting-edge field for controlled and targeted delivery with a range of preventative activities. The nanoformulation of E. officinalis facilitates the release of active components or food ingredients, increased bioaccessibility, enhanced therapeutic activities, and digestion in the human body. Accordingly , the current review provides a summary of the phytoconstituents of E. officinalis, pharmacological actions detailing the plant E. officinalis's traditional uses, and especially hyperlipidemic activity. Correspondingly, the article describes the uses of nanotechnology in amla therapeutics and functional ingredients.
... E. officinalis fruit has been reported to possess a number of bioactive compounds including emblicanin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, quercetin, chebulagic acid, corilagin, phyllantine, and phyllantidine. These bioactive compounds have been confirmed to exert diverse pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycaemic, and immunomodulatory properties (Hasan et al., 2016). Consequently, E. officinalis fruit has become a major constituent in nutritional and pharmaceutical products. ...
The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of the supplementation of E. officinalis fruit extracts on the biochemical properties, antioxidant capacities, antimicrobial activities, and sensory attributes of pork meatballs under refrigerated storage at 4°C for 18 days. The meatball samples were divided into eight formulations including control, 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 0.2% distilled water and ethanolic extracts, 0.4% distilled water and ethanolic extracts, and 0.8% distilled water and ethanolic extracts. Aqueous fruit extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity ranging from 34.30 to 75.59%, with IC50 9.74 μg/mL as compared to the other extracts. These findings were in accordance with the highest total phenolic (1,550.22 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoid (19.35 mg CE/g extract) contents of distilled water crude extract, followed by methanolic extract, ethanolic extract, and acetonic extract, respectively. The meatballs supplemented with both ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than control and BHT samples, particularly at the highest concentration of 0.8%. Similarly, the lowest TBARS values were observed in the samples with 0.8% ethanolic extracts ranging from 0.08 - 0.45 mg MDA/kg of sample. In contrast, the meatballs supplemented with aqueous extracts yielded the lowest microbial counts of 1.94 - 4.90 log CFU/g in comparison with the samples supplemented with ethanolic extracts. This was in agreement with the lowest MIC and MBC values of aqueous crude extracts (3.98 mg/mL) against all the tested foodborne pathogens. Based on sensory analysis, supplementing the pork meatballs with either ethanolic or aqueous extracts resulted in decreased sensory attributes in a concentration-dependent manner. E. officinalis fruit extracts could have an impact on unpleasant sensory characteristics in the meatballs with increasing levels of supplementation.
... 19 Amla also act as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-aging and as a natural blood purifier as a skin health care products. 20 Honey is made by honey bees from fruit nectar. Western Honey bees are also known as Apis mellifera used for honey production. ...
Full-text available
Background: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is disorder of oesophagus that causes ulcer and erosion. Materials and Methods: A comparison based on the in-vivo study was carried out to determine the therapeutic efficacy of herbal formulation using Amla and Honey in combination with Pantoprazole and Rebamipide for the treatment of GERD. The effects of all above mentioned medications were also checked on intestinal motility. In vitro studies were carried out to determine the antispasmodic activity of Amla and Honey in comparison to acetylcholine by isolated rat ileum. In pylorus ligation GERD model, mono-therapy was performed by giving herbal formulation of Amla and Honey. In combination therapy Pantoprazole and Rebamipide, Amla and Honey with Pantoprazole and Rebamipide were given and their therapeutic efficacy was observed at the ends of 14 days. In charcoal meal motility test the distance travelled by charcoal in intestine was measured. Results and Discussion: Combination therapy have highest therapeutic efficacy in comparison to mono-therapy of natural combination of Amla and Honey against Pantoprazole and Rebamipide. In-vitro antispasmodic activity revealed that Amla and Honey formulation decreased the contractility pattern in concentration dependent manner against acetylcholine. In charcoal meal motility test highest intestinal motility were observed in Amla and Honey and can be given in GERD for easily digestion of food from stomach. Conclusion: Herbal combination of Amla and Honey in comparative evaluation decreases the Gastroesophageal reflux disease, intestinal mobility, and show antispasmodic activity in isolated rat's ileum. However, these combinations serve as a more potential agent for decreasing all the factors responsible for the reflux disease.
... Phyllanthus emblica L. (or Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), a prominent species from the Euphorbiaceae family is well-known as "Amlaki", "Amla" in Bangladesh. This species is a medium-sized deciduous tree that has the height of about 8-18 m and is endemic to southeastern Asia, namely central India and Bangladesh [66]. P. emblica has been reported to have phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, [67] alkaloids, proteins, glycosides, and amino acids [68], which exert a bunch of medicinal active properties, such as antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antiatherogenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and cytotoxic properties [69]. ...
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Diabetes mellitus is a life-threatening disorder affecting people of all ages and adversely disrupts their daily functions. Despite the availability of numerous synthetic-antidiabetic medications and insulin, the demand for the development of novel antidiabetic medications is increasing due to the adverse effects and growth of resistance to commercial drugs in the long-term usage. Hence, antidiabetic phytochemicals isolated from fruit plants can be a very nifty option to develop life-saving novel antidiabetic therapeutics, employing several pathways and MoAs (mechanism of actions). This review focuses on the antidiabetic potential of commonly available Bangladeshi fruits and other plant parts, such as seeds, fruit peals, leaves, and roots, along with isolated phytochemicals from these phytosources based on lab findings and mechanism of actions. Several fruits, such as orange, lemon, amla, tamarind, and others, can produce remarkable antidiabetic actions and can be dietary alternatives to antidiabetic therapies. Besides, isolated phytochemicals from these plants, such as swertisin, quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and other prospective phytochemicals, also demonstrated their candidacy for further exploration to be established as antidiabetic leads. Thus, it can be considered that fruits are one of the most valuable gifts of plants packed with a wide spectrum of bioactive phytochemicals and are widely consumed as dietary items and medicinal therapies in different civilizations and cultures. This review will provide a better understanding of diabetes management by consuming fruits and other plant parts as well as deliver innovative hints for the researchers to develop novel drugs from these plant parts and/or their phytochemicals.
... (Family-Euphorbiaceae) also known as Phyllanthus emblica, is commonly known as 'Amla' in Hindi and 'Indian gooseberry' in English. It is reported to possess bioactive compounds like tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, ascorbic acids and many other compounds which are confirmed to have diverse pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, hepatoprotective, antitussive, immunomodulatory, hypolipedemic and many other activities [8]. Platelet function must be well controlled to avoid thrombotic events [9]. ...
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Objective: In this study, we aimed to isolate a polyphenolic compound from a polyphenolic-rich fraction from Emblica officinalis fruits and also study its effect on adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen-induced in vitro platelet aggregation. Methods: The polyphenolic-rich fraction was prepared by 80% methanolic extraction. The residue was extracted successively with hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Ethyl acetate residue was selected for column chromatography because of its high polyphenolic content. It was subjected to repeated column chromatography of series with different eluents of increasing polarity. A brown amorphous powder was obtained from ethyl acetate: methanol (7:3) fraction. This sample was subjected to UV-visible spectrum, IR spectrum, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and electrospray mass spectrum (ES-MS) studies for its structural elucidation. Results: A compound, 5, 7, 4'-trihydroxy 3'-methoxy isoflavanone was identified from polyphenolic rich ethyl acetate: methanol (7:3) fraction separated from the 80% methanolic extract of Embica officinalis fruits by repeated column chromatography. Yield of the compound was 421.05 mg/kg. This compound exhibited antiplatelet activity well comparable with that of quercetin. Conclusion: The present study proved that the isolated compound 5, 7, 4'-trihydroxy 3'-methoxy isoflavanone exerts a significant inhibitory activity on ADP and collagen-induced in vitro platelet aggregation, which can be considered as an effective remedy for alleviating complications of cardiovascular diseases.
... Leaves contains gallic acid, chebulic acid, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, chebulagic acid, amlic acid, alkaloids phyllantine and phyllantidine etc. These phyto-Chemicals having capacity of biological activities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antitissuive, anti-radio protective, chemo preventive, wound healing activities and so on" [12]. "Traditional system of medicine like Ayurveda which are known for their healing capabilities can offer a lot more to the science of regenerative medicine. ...
Background: Skin is the largest organ in the body and performs a wide variety of different function. It play an important role in the injury of the skin. Burns (Dagdha Vrana) are significant health challenge and healing can result in scar formation. Within the herbal medicine tradition the concept of Tonification and Trophorestoration is well established. Concepts of regeneration and Trophorestoration in Ayurveda provide another dimension to the area of regenerative medicine. Acharya Charaka suggests to use drugs of Amalaki to prevent Vrana. Amalaki and Silver Sulfadiazine (SSD) are the two comparative drugs chosen to evaluate the Trophorestoration concept through Dagdha Vrana in Albino rabbits. Materials and Methods: After identification and phytochemical study of test drugs 18 adult Albino rabbits will be divided into 3 groups with six Albino Rabbits in each group. The burn wound will be induced by using metal disc, three groups have been taken in which first is control group, second is standard control, third is experimental group. Before applying experimental drugs to respective group the tissue sample will be taken from each of albino rabbits and from one of the healthy tissue sample of normal skin will be taken by Punch Biopsy for histopathalogical assay. Examination of wound area, swelling, redness, oozing will be observed. Macroscopic and Microscopic assessment of wound will be done on day 0th, 4th, 8th, and 15th, 21st day after burn. Simultaneously on 0th day and 21st day SOD and MDA test will be done. The remaining animals will be returned to the animal house for their reuse. Expected Results: Whether Amalaki Patra Mashi ointment has more effect on troporestoration property of Twacha in Dagdha Vrana (Burn wound) than Silver Sulfadiazine.
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder characterised by abnormally highly increased blood glucose levels. About 537 million adults (20-79 years) are living with diabetes and it is predicted to rise in number to 643 million by 2030 and 783 million by 2045. Despite many treatment options, the havoc of diabetes is increasing day by day, and along with this, it is becoming the causative factor for other diseases too. In Ayurveda, diabetes mellitus type 2 is similar to Madhumeha. Many herbal formulations are mentioned in the Ayurvedic literature for the treatment of Madhumeha in which Triphaladi kwatha is one of them. The present case is about a 39-year-old male patient who presented with weight loss, increase urine frequency, excessive thirst, pain in calf muscle and mild cramps in leg. The laboratory investigations showed increased fasting blood sugar level, post-prandial blood sugar level, and HbA1c. The patient was treated with Triphaladi kwatha (Ghanvati) and was advised proper diet and physical activity. After completion of therapy, a significant improvement was found in weight and other subjective symptoms. Fasting blood sugar level was reduced to 92 mg/dl from 102.9 mg/dl, Post-prandial blood sugar level decreased to 123 mg/dl from 210 mg/dl and HbA1c decreased to 5% from 5.9%. The observation indicated that Ayurvedic formulation along with proper diet and physical activity is helpful in the management of Madhumeha(diabetes mellitus type 2).
Exposure to zero gravity causes many physiological changes which may result to affect the health of people involved in space travel. The current review summarizes current knowledge on the start and progression of space motion sickness, bone loss, muscle loss, cardiovascular disorders, respiratory problems, and neuronal and hormonal problems. Around 70% of astronauts suffer from space adaption syndrome, fluid changes, and head motions. It has also been suggested that otolith asymmetries and Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation are the main causes of space motion sickness. The findings reveal that space flight directly affects the body's normal functioning. Despite an intense training routine, a study of historical data from piloted flights discovered that slow degradation of bone and muscle tissue, along with fluid losses, can eventually lead to kidney stones, musculoskeletal problems, bone fractures, and even problems with other organs of the body. Due to such problems focus is given to curing these problems associated with space travel. Medicines that are used in space and medicinal plants like Spirulina, and Ginseng that are of use for the treatment of these problems associated with space travel are discussed along with the treatment options available for such problems in space and the cautions that must be followed. Also, the herbal medication that can be used in outer space is taken into account. The findings of this study state the necessary precaution that needs to be taken by astronauts in outer space and also provides information for future research to be done on solving these problems.
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Candida albicans forms biofilm by associating with biotic and abiotic surfaces. Biofilm formation by C. albicans is relevant and significant as the organisms residing within, gain resistance to conventional antimycotics and are therefore difficult to treat. This study targeted the potential of spice-based antimycotics to control C. albicans biofilms. Ten clinical isolates of C. albicans along with a standard culture MTCC-3017 (ATCC-90028) were screened for their biofilm-forming ability. C. albicans M-207 and C. albicans S-470 were identified as high biofilm formers by point inoculation on TSA medium as they formed a lawn within 16 h and exhibited resistance to fluconazole and caspofungin at 25 mcg and 8 mcg respectively. Aqueous and organic spice extracts were screened for their antimycotic activity against C. albicans M-207 and S-470 by agar and disc diffusion and Zone of Inhibition was observed. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration was determined based on growth absorbance and cell viability measurements. The whole aqueous extract of garlic inhibited biofilms of C. albicans M-207, whereas whole aqueous extracts of garlic, clove, and Indian gooseberry were effective in controlling C. albicans S-470 biofilm within 12 h of incubation. The presence of allicin, ellagic acid, and gallic acid as dominant compounds in the aqueous extracts of garlic, clove, and Indian gooseberry respectively was determined by High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The morphology of C. albicans biofilm at different growth periods was also determined through bright field microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The results of this study indicated that the alternate approach in controlling high biofilm-forming, multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans M-207 and S-470 using whole aqueous extracts of garlic, clove, and Indian gooseberry is a safe, potential, and cost-effective one that can benefit the health care needs with additional effective therapeutics to treat biofilm infections.
Separation of polar compounds is challenging work due to poor retention and insufficient selectivity. In the present study, an efficient strategy for large-scale preparation of five polar polyphenols including three isomers from Phyllanthus emblica Linn has been established by preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography. Macroporous resin column chromatography was used for enrichment of the polar polyphenols. However, sugar and other ultra-polar impurities were co-washed out with the targets. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate/water (1/1, v/v) solvent system was developed to remove the ultra-polar impurities with the clearance rate at 95%. Finally, the targets were introduced to preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography for separation using ethyl acetate/n-butanol/acetic acid/water (2/7/1/10, v/v/v/v) solvent system. As a result, 191 mg of Mucic acid 1,4-lactone 5-O-gallate, 370 mg of β-glucogallin, 301 mg of gallic acid, 195 mg of Mucic acid 1,4-lactone 3-O-gallate and 176 mg of Mucic acid 1,4-lactone 2-O-gallate with purity higher than 98% were obtained from 1.5 g of sample. Mucic acid 1,4-lactone 3-O-gallate, Mucic acid 1,4-lactone 3-O-gallate, and Mucic acid 1,4-lactone 2-O-gallate are isomers. The results showed that high-speed counter-current chromatography could be well developed for separation of polar compounds from natural products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The objective of the study is to prepare and investigate the herbal formulation of Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum and Emblica officinalis for antidiabetic effects. Herbal formulations PD1, PD2 and PD3 were prepared using Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum and Emblica officinalis extracts. Herbal formulations were evaluated for hypoglycemic effects and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) in normal and Alloxan induced diabetic rats. In hypoglycemic study and OGTT, there was a significant decrease in Blood Glucose Level (BGL) in normal rats with formulation PD3, marginal decrease in formulation PD2 and very less decrease in formulation PD1. In diabetic rats PD3 shown significant decrease in Fasting Blood Glucose Level (FBGL) which was comparable to Glibenclamide while the effects of formulation PD2 and PD1 was not significant after treatment with prepared herbal formulations. These results were also supported by serum lipid profile and histological studies of liver and kidney.
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Phyllanthus emblica Linn. is widely used in Thai traditional medicine for treatment of various diseases. The fruit of P. emblica is known as a rich source of vitamin C, and also contains a mixture of phenolic compounds. In this study, the standardized water extract of P. emblica fruit was prepared according to Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Total polyphenol contents of the extract were equivalent to 34.22±1.74 g gallic acid/100g extract. Antioxidant activities of the P. emblica extract were evaluated by several methods, including DPPH and ABTS•+ radical scavenging assays and FRAP assays. The results showed that the extract has an ability of scavenging radicals generated by both DPPH and ABTS•+. Similar to Trolox, the water extract of P. emblica fruit also had a ferric reducing property. Additionally, the extract effectively inhibited H2O2-induced free radical production in human myeloleukemic U937 cells as measured by 2,7-DCF-DA. The results imply that the fruits of P. emblica are potential sources of natural antioxidants, which have free radical scavenging activity and might be useful for hepato-, cyto-, and radio- protection, as well as reducing oxidative stress in many pathological conditions.
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The present study was carried out to evaluate in vitro antibacterial and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis seed. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against gram positive and gram negative bacteria namely E.coli, P.aeruginosa, K.pneumoniae, S. aureus, Enterococcus by using agar well diffusion method. The antioxidant activity of seed extract was evaluated by using the free radical scavenging activity assay i.e DPPH method, hydrogen peroxide and reducing potential method. The extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against S. aureus (21mm) whereas lowest against P.aeruginosa (17mm). MIC values of extract against E.coli, S.aureus, K.pneumonia, P.aeruginosa and Enterococcus were 50, 50, 50, 25 and 50 mg/ml respectively. Gentamicin was used as a standard drug. Herbal extract showed maximum relative percentage inhibition against S. aureus (91.11 %) and lowest relative percentage inhibition against Enterococcus (59.17%). Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. The extract showed good radical scavenging activity. IC50 values for methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis for DPPH and H2O2 were found to be 15ug/ml and 32ug/ml and for ascorbic acid was found to be 12ug/ml for both DPPH and hydrogen peroxide method respectively. The result of present study conclude that seeds of E. officinalis contain high antibacterial and antioxidant property and can be further explored for the isolation of its bioactive compound.
Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration was established in amla using cotyledon explants. Cotyledon explants isolated from the in vitro germinated seeds produced proembryos directly in MS culture media containing 1 mg/l 2, 4-D and 0.1 mg/l Kinetin. somatic embryogeneic callus was produced in 5 mg/l 2, 4D and 1 mg/l Kinetin. Higher concentrations of 2, 4-D was found to be lethal to the cotyledon explants of amla. Somatic embryo multiplication and germination occurred in hormone-free MS culture media. Half strength MS nutrient with 15 g/l sucrose supported somatic embryo germination, in vitro rooting and plantlet growth. Somatic embryo desiccation supported in somatic embryo maturation and enhanced the rate of conversion of somatic embryos into rooted plantlets. Hardening of plantlets integrated with photoautotrophic culture system supported 100% survival during the greenhouse acclimatization of plantlets. this system of plant production in amla could be useful in large-scale plant production for fruit production and also for the crop improvement in amla through genetic engineering.
Aqueous extract of dried Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Amla) fruit pulp powder was evaluated for immunomodulatory effect on male Swiss Albino mice. The mice were divided into three groups. The first group received vehicle alone to serve as control. The second and third groups received the extract orally at 100 and 200 mg! kg body weight dose levels respectively per day for a period of 19 days. There was significant dose dependent increase in haemagglutination antibody titre, sheep red blood cells induced delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction, macrophage migration index, respiratory burst activity of the peritoneal macrophages, total leukocyte count, percentage lymphocyte distribution, serum globulin and relative lymphoid organ weight in Emblica treated mice indicating its ability to stimulate humoral as well as cell mediated immunity along with macrophage phagocyte.
Polar flavanoids and non polar flavanoids have been isolated from the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica (Amla) by chemical method. The isolated extract was screened for antimicrobial activities against Proteus vulgaris,Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. The extracts showed good to moderate activity against the pathogens.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a major human viral disease with about 33.2 million people infected worldwide. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90% of the HIV/AIDS population in the world. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-HIV activity of Phyllanthus emblica plant extracts. Extracts were prepared from dried fruit in n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors by ficoll-hypaque density gradient centrifugation method. A toxicity study was performed on all crude extracts by MTT assay using PBMCs isolated from whole blood. HIV-1 RT inhibition activity of the all solvent extracts of P. emblica was determined. AQF and HXF fractions show highest inhibition of recombinant HIV-RT (91% and 89% respectively) at 1 mg/ml concentration. CFF fraction shows highest inhibition of HIV-RT at 0.5 mg/ml and CTF fraction at 0.12 mg/ ml concentration. Experimental results thus suggested that the P. emblica plant extracts which have been tested in the present study exert their anti-HIV activity via inhibition of HIV reverse transcriptase activity. Thus the present study seems to justify the traditional use of plant for the treatment of infectious disease of viral origin. However, in order to assess the usefulness of this herb, it is necessary to isolate the active principle(s) from the crude and fractions, identify them and study their mechanism of action.
Cancer is a public health problem all over the world. Large number of plants and their isolated constituents have been shown to potential anticancer activity. Ethanolic whole plant extract of Emblica officinalis (syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) showed in vitro cytotoxicity against different human cancer cell lines such as lung, neuroblastima, and colon. There was no growth of inhibition recorded against liver cancer cell line. Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB) assay was done for in vitro cytotoxicity test assay. The in vitro cytotoxicity was performed against five human cancer cell lines namely of lung (A-549), liver (Hep-2) colon (502713 HT-29) and neuroblastima (IMR-32). The activity was done using 100μg/ml of the extract. Against lung (A-549) cell line plant extract showed 82% growth of inhibition. In case of liver (Hep-2) showed no activity reported, where as in case of colon 502713 cell line plant extract showed maximum activity. In case of HT-29 liver human cancer line and IMR-32 neuroblastima cell line plant extract showed 98% and 97% activity respectively.
The objective of this study is to induce experimental diabetes mellitus using Streptozotocin in normal adult Wistar rats and study the anti-diabetic activity of polyherbal formulation by comparison of changes in body weight, consumption of food and water, volume of urine and levels of glucose between normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrine disorder. Hypoglycemic agents from natural and synthetic sources are available for treatment of diabetes. Indian medicinal plants have been found to be useful to successfully manage diabetes. The effect of ethanolic extract of poly herbal formulation containing leaves and seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum, fruits of Momordica charantia, and fruits of Emblica officinalis was investigated in normal, glucose load conditions and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Significant hypoglycemic activity was exhibited by the poly herbal formulation.