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The ergogenic effects of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia)

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... Long jack root (Eurycoma longifolia), one of the potential additional ingredients in MIPS, is purported to directly influence anabolic hormones, because it may increase serum testosterone concentrations. Indeed, studies in rats (31,52) and humans (9,11) have shown that long jack root ingestion significantly increases serum testosterone levels by roughly 150 and 37%, respectively. Tambi et al. (47) reported that 4 weeks of supplementation with long jack root extract increased serum testosterone concentrations (pre, 5.61 6 1.52 nM vs. post, 8.31 6 2.47 nM) in men experiencing late-onset hypogonadism, determined by both the Ageing Males Symptoms Rating Scale and serum testosterone levels below 6 nM. ...
... Individually, the aforementioned ingredients have been reported to mediate one or more of the following: (a) increases in serum testosterone levels (9,11), (b) enhancements of muscle size (43), and/or (c) enhancements of muscular strength (19). However, the combined effects of these ingredients have not been investigated despite the increasing popularity of MIPS. ...
... It is difficult to make effective comparisons of the potential synergistic effects of the combination of resistance training and individual ingredients, as most studies that examine the effects of individual ingredients do not include resistance training. Although not combined with resistance training, decreases in body fat associated with supplementation of long jack root are equivocal, as there is evidence to support (11), and refute (18) these outcomes. Importantly, the aforementioned studies involving long jack root supplementation were performed in rats, rather than human models, and used pure long jack root, rather than long jack root as part of an MIPS. ...
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Although multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) have increased in popularity due to their array of ergogenic ingredients, their efficacy and safety remain in question. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of supplementation with T+(TM) (SUP; Onnit Labs, Austin, TX), a MIPS containing longjack root, beta-alanine, and branch chain amino acids, and other proprietary blends, on strength, body composition, and hormones in young, resistance-trained men. Subjects were randomized to consume either T+(TM) (SUP; n=14; age, 21+/-3 years; body fat, 18.3+/-4.7%) or an isocaloric placebo (PL; n=13; age, 21+/-3 years; body fat, 21.5+/-6.2%) for 4 weeks. Both groups underwent a progressed four week, high-intensity resistance training protocol. Before and after the training protocol, mood state, body composition, blood hormones (also collected at mid-point), and maximal strength were measured. SUP had significantly greater increases in bench press (SUP, 102+/-16 to 108+/-16kg vs PL, 96+/-22 to 101+/-22kg; p<0.001) and total weight lifted (SUP, 379+/-59 to 413+/-60kg vs PL, 376+/-70 to 400+/-75kg; p<0.001) compared to PL. Additionally, deadlift strength relative to total body mass (as calculated as weight lifted/body mass; kg:kg) (2.08+/-0.18 to 2.23+/-0.16; p=0.036) and lean mass (2.55+/-0.19 to 2.72+/-0.16; p=0.021) increased significantly in SUP but not PL (2.02+/-0.30 to 2.15+/-0.36 and 2.56+/-0.31 to 2.70+/-0.36, respectfully). No other significant differences were detected between groups for the remaining variables. Supplementing with SUP enhanced resistance training adaptations independent of hormonal status, and thus SUP use may warrant inclusion into peri-workout nutrition regimens. This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01971723).
... However, the results of this study also did not seem to provide any beneficial effect of ElJ supplementation on endurance running performance. Since the supplementation of ELJ showed ergogenic benefits in studies by Hamzah and Yusoff[29] with supplementation of 100 mg over 5 weeks, whereas in subsequent studies by Ooi, et al.[26] and Muhamad, et al.,[28] with shorter supplementation period (0.67 mg ELJ for ½ h and 150 mg ELJ for 7 days respectively) did not, it is possible that the duration and dosage of supplementation was not sufficient to affect performance. It has been reported that ElJ in the form of water soluble extract i.e. ...
... Tambi, et al.,[24] have shown that ElJ (Physta®) improved the concentration of serum testosterone in hypogonadic men (men with low serum testosterone levels) and hence concluded that ElJ has potential as a natural substitute to testosterone. The ergogenic effect of ElJ in men has been demonstrated by Hamzah and Yusof[29] when they reported that water-soluble extract of ElJ (100 mg/day for 5 weeks) increased fat free mass, muscular strength and size. However, subsequent but limited studies did not seem to substantiate the ergogenic properties of ElJ on sports performance.[2628] ...
... Similarly, Muhamad, et al.,[28] reported that supplementation of ElJ at a dosage of 150 mg/day for 7 days also did not indicate any beneficial effect on endurance running capacity and selected physiological responses of recreational athletes in the heat. However, Hamzah and Yusof[29] have reported that supplementation of water soluble extracts of ElJ at a dosage of 100 mg/day for 5 weeks increased fat free mass, muscle strength and size in healthy adult males. Since data on the effectiveness of ElJ supplements on sports performance is still inconclusive, future studies with supplementation of ElJ at a higher dosage and for a longer duration may be warranted. ...
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Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions.
... The patent discloses a process whereby Eurycoma longifolia roots undergo an aqueous extraction combined with HPLC and size-exclusion chromatography to yield a bioactive peptide fraction (a 4300 dalton glycopeptide with 36 amino acids) that is responsible for its effects in maintaining testosterone levels. The bioactive fraction of Eurycoma longifolia root delivers a demonstrated ability to improve testosterone levels [41], increase muscle size and strength [43,44], improve overall well-being [45,46], accelerate recovery from exercise [47] enhance weight loss [48,49], reduce stress [50], and reduce symptoms of fatigue [51-53]. ...
... In men with low testosterone levels (average age 51 years), one month of daily supplementation with tongkat ali extract (200 mg/day) resulted in a significant improvement in serum testosterone levels and quality-of-life parameters [41], suggesting a role for tongkat ali as an “adaptogen” against aging-related stress. Another study of healthy adult males (average age 25 years), 100 mg/day of tongkat ali extract added to an intensive strength training program (every other day for 8 weeks) resulted in significant improvements in fat-free mass, fat mass, maximal strength (1-RM) and arm circumference compared to a placebo group [43]. These results indicate that tongkat ali extract is able to enhance muscle mass and strength gains, while accelerating fat loss, in healthy exercisers, and thus, may be considered a natural ergogenic aid for athletes and dieters alike. ...
... In two recent studies of young men undergoing a weight-training regimen [43,44] tongkat ali supplementation (100 mg/day) improved lean body mass, 1-RM strength, and arm circumference to a significantly greater degree compared to a placebo group. ...
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Background Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant commonly called tongkat ali (TA) and “Malaysian ginseng.” TA roots are a traditional “anti-aging” remedy and modern supplements are intended to improve libido, energy, sports performance and weight loss. Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being. Methods We assessed stress hormones and mood state in 63 subjects (32 men and 31 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized hot-water extract of TA root (TA) or Placebo (PL) for 4 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance set at p < 0.05 was used to determine differences between groups. Results Significant improvements were found in the TA group for Tension (−11%), Anger (−12%), and Confusion (−15%). Stress hormone profile (salivary cortisol and testosterone) was significantly improved by TA supplementation, with reduced cortisol exposure (−16%) and increased testosterone status (+37%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with tongkat ali root extract improves stress hormone profile and certain mood state parameters, suggesting that this “ancient” remedy may be an effective approach to shielding the body from the detrimental effects of “modern” chronic stress, which may include general day-to-day stress, as well as the stress of dieting, sleep deprivation, and exercise training.
... Eurycoma longifolia is rich in compounds such as eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and pasakbumin-B, which may play a role in its aphrodisiac properties [27]. Eurycoma longifolia is often referred to as an adaptogen, an agent that may rejuvenate the body through restoration [14,[28][29][30]. ...
... Studies supporting this hypothesis have shown that abstinence appears to increase testosterone levels [39,40]. As a higher standard deviation was observed in the treatment group after 12 weeks of supplementation, considering the adaptogenic nature of the herb, it may be postulated that the herb was most effective in subjects with lower baseline levels of testosterone [26,29,30]. ...
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Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.
... Several studies have investigated the use of TA for ergogenic benefits. Hamzah & Yusof (2003) tested 14 healthy male adults who were randomly given either 100 mg of an aqueous extract of TA or placebo and study participants performed an intensive strength training programme for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, in the group that consumed TA muscle strength increased by 6.78%, and the subjects had more lean muscle mass as compared to only 2.77% increase in muscle strength with no change in the muscle mass, in the placebo group. ...
... On the other hand, the short-term supplementation with E. longifolia Jack (150 mg daily for 7 days) did not positively affect endurance in running performance (Muhamad et al., 2010). In contrast, positive effects on muscle strength were observed with after 5 weeks of supplementation (Hamzah & Yusof, 2003). Similar results for short-term treatment of rats where observed by Solomon et al. (2013). ...
Article
The testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is characterised by numerous symptoms, including low libido, increased fat mass, fatigue, erectile dysfunction or osteoporosis, and up to 80% of men will experience some kind of ageing males' symptoms. This is caused by the age-depending decline in serum testosterone levels with concentrations being about 40-50% lower in men older than 60 years compared with young men. This significant decline in testosterone levels is further closely linked with medical conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes or hypertension. The conventional way of treating TDS is the testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), for which preparations are on the market. Apart from the beneficial effects of TRT, significant adverse side effects have been described, and prostate cancer (PCa) as absolute contraindication is debated. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) is natural alternative to TRT and has been shown to restore serum testosterone levels, thus significantly improving sexual health. This includes significant positive effects on bone health and physical condition of patients. In addition, a significant antihyperglycaemic effect and cytotoxicity against PCas cells has been shown. Thus far, at therapeutic concentrations, no significant side effects of the treatment were obvious. Therefore, TA might be a safe alternative to TRT.
... The question items in this domain were on moderate and vigorous activities, climbing, bending and kneeling, walking, and bathing/dressing, role physical, and vitality. The supplementation with E. longifolia improved strength in physically active male and female seniors between 57 and 72 years of age in an open pilot study and additionally increased muscle mass and fat free mass in men, in another study [10,11]. The ergogenic properties of the herb appear prevalent in these studies. ...
... However the increase was larger in the treatment (herbal) group compared to the placebo: 6.78% (p=0.006) vs. 2.77% (p=0.011) respectively [11]. Subjects on E. longifolia extract had improved significantly in fat-free mass, fat mass, maximal strength (1-RM) and arm circumference when compared to the placebo group. ...
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Eurycoma longifolia is traditionally known for its adaptogenic properties and often used for the general well-being and increased performance in daily life. Methods: In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 40 Malaysian men aged 30-55 years performed a battery of physical testings during which the ratio of Testosterone (T) to Epitestosterone (E) was analyzed. The daily intake was 300 mg of the freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia root (Physta®, Biotropics Malaysia) or placebo for a period of 12 weeks. Results: At the end of the study the T/E-ratio in the herbal group ranged from 0.03 to 2.95 and was not significantly different from values at baseline (p=0.49). Further, the ratio-values for E. longifolia compared to placebo did not change over time. The weight lifting force which measures muscular strength using back & leg strength test, increased significantly from baseline to end of the study in the herbal group by approximately 14 kg (p=0.0166). Conclusion: The ratios of testosterone to epitestosterone did not change during a 12-weeks E. longifolia intake. The data suggest that this herb does not exhibit “doping”- like effects. Instead, muscular strength improved significantly in the back and leg with E. longifolia supplementation rendering this herb good for physical performance minus the doping effects.
... Concoctions and extracts of the Tongkat Ali roots are most popular and famous for numerous ailments including malaria (Chan et al., 1986;Kardono et al., 1991), ulcers (Tada et al., 1991), fevers and as an aphrodisiac (Ang & Sim, 1997, 1998aAng & Ngai, 2001) as it has androgenic and profertility properties (Hamzah & Yusof, 2003;Tambi & Kadir, 2006;Tambi & Imran, 2010). Nevertheless, studies investigating the in vivo effects of treatment with this extract on male reproductive functions, particularly its effects on spermatozoa, are limited to sperm motility and sperm concentration or to the serum testosterone concentration. ...
... Given the short treatment period in the present study, a significant increase in lean muscle mass may only be achieved over a longer treatment period. Furthermore, Hamzah & Yusof (2003) showed that the androgenic effect of increased serum testosterone is increased muscle mass, therefore increased potential for generating greater force in the muscles, evidenced by enhanced strength. ...
Article
An aqueous extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) roots is traditionally used to enhance male sexuality. Because previous studies are limited to only few sperm parameters or testosterone concentration, this study investigated the in vivo effects of TA on body and organ weight as well as functional sperm parameters in terms of safety and efficacy in the management of male infertility. Forty-two male rats were divided into a control, low-dose (200 mg kg-1 BW) and high-dose (800 mg kg-1 BW) group (n = 14). Rats were force-fed for 14 days and then sacrificed. Total body and organ weights of the prostate, testes, epididymides, gastrocnemius muscle and the omentum were recorded. Moreover, testosterone concentration, sperm concentration, motility, velocity, vitality, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed. Whilst TA decreased BW by 5.7% (P = 0.0276) and omentum fat by 31.9% (P = 0.0496), no changes in organ weights were found for the prostate, testes and epididymides. Testosterone concentration increased by 30.2% (P = 0.0544). Muscle weight also increased, yet not significantly. Whilst sperm concentration, total and progressive motility and vitality increased significantly, MMP improved markedly (P = 0.0765) by 25.1%. Because no detrimental effect could be observed, TA appears safe for possible treatment of male infertility and ageing male problems.
... Clinical trials to support and substantiate the traditional use of E. longifolia with its aphrodisiac and ergogenic potency are limited. Previous human investigations have shown that this herb has various beneficial effects on health and can act as an " energy-booster "[18,19]. Recently, an open label, twomonth study in Asian males with hypogonadism and lateonset of hypogonadism (LOH) aged between 28–70 years, showed that a daily intake of 200 mg of E. longifolia water extract improved LOH expressed by a significant decrease in Aging Males Symptoms score (AMS) and increased serum testosterone levels[20]. ...
... Recently, an open label, twomonth study in Asian males with hypogonadism and lateonset of hypogonadism (LOH) aged between 28–70 years, showed that a daily intake of 200 mg of E. longifolia water extract improved LOH expressed by a significant decrease in Aging Males Symptoms score (AMS) and increased serum testosterone levels[20]. Literature-based evidence on the alleged ergogenic potency of (water) extracts of E. longifolia in intense strength training programs, general sport activities, for example, endurance running programs and health-related fitness exercises in recreational males and athletes are to some extent inconsistent; however, previous open and placebo-controlled studies with small sample sizes support various positive properties of this herb as an anabolic remedy[18,21,22]. The potential of the therapeutic efficacy as well as safety/tolerability of E. longifolia can only be demonstrated by robust randomized, controlled trials. ...
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Eurycoma longifolia is reputed as an aphrodisiac and remedy for decreased male libido. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study was carried out to investigate the clinical evidence of E. longifolia in men. The 12-week study in 109 men between 30 and 55 years of age consisted of either treatment of 300 mg of water extract of E. longifolia (Physta) or placebo. Primary endpoints were the Quality of Life investigated by SF-36 questionnaire and Sexual Well-Being investigated by International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Sexual Health Questionnaires (SHQ); Seminal Fluid Analysis (SFA), fat mass and safety profiles. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used to compare changes in the endpoints. The E. longifolia (EL) group significantly improved in the domain Physical Functioning of SF-36, from baseline to week 12 compared to placebo (P = 0.006) and in between group at week 12 (P = 0.028). The EL group showed higher scores in the overall Erectile Function domain in IIEF (P < 0.001), sexual libido (14% by week 12), SFA- with sperm motility at 44.4%, and semen volume at 18.2% at the end of treatment. Subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) significantly improved in fat mass lost (P = 0.008). All safety parameters were comparable to placebo.
... Due to its therapeutic benefits in traditional medicinal practices, E. longifolia has gained scientific interest among researchers, thus has increased its commercial value. The root extracts of E. longifolia have been proven to show anabolic properties (Hamzah & Yusof 2003), cytotoxic activity against tumour cells (Tee & Azimahtol et al. 2005), more potent antiplasmodial activity than chloroquine (Chan et al. 2004) and also anti-malaria properties (Chan et al. 1986). All these curative properties are provided by the 65 compounds that were detected in the E. longifolia root in the group of quassinoids, squalene derivatives and triterpenes (Kuo et al. 2003). ...
Article
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Eurycoma longifolia is one of the well-known herbal plants in Southeast Asian region due to its remarkable properties, especially the root part that can be used as aphrodisiac, anti-cancer, anti-malaria and anti-ulcer agent. Uncontrolled harvesting of this plant has reduced its population. Thus, an efficient protocol involving the induction of direct somatic embryogenesis from cotyledon culture of E. longifolia has been developed. 15% explants forming embryos were achieved on Modified Murashige and Skoog's (MMS) medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L zeatin plus 0.2 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). However, the addition of 0.12 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ) has increased the percentage up to 22.0%. The maturation phase occurred in the same medium, thus decreased the frequency of subculture and the genetic instability of the embryos. Secondary somatic embryogenesis growth of 20%, which was the highest percentage of growth, was achieved from the primary embryos that were cultured in the MMS medium with the treatment of 2.0 mg/L IBA plus 0.075 mg/L TDZ. The results indicated that the direct somatic embryogenesis obtained can be further used to develop a protocol for plantlet regeneration of E. longifolia.
... Root extracts of E. longifolia have long been used to treat fatigue [6], malaria [7], inflammation [8], and persistent fever [9]. In addition, it is known to have ergogenic effect [10] and to improve erectile dysfunction [11]. Due to these pharmacological effects, E. longifolia extracts are commonly used as dietary supplements or alternative medicine. ...
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Eurycoma longifolia (Simaroubaceae) is a popular folk medicine that has traditionally been used in Southeast Asia as an antimalarial, aphrodisiac, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial and in antipyretic remedies. This study evaluates the effects of Eurycoma longifolia extract on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme-mediated drug metabolism to predict the potential for herb-drug interactions. Methanolic extract of E. longifolia root was tested at concentrations of 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, and 1000 µg/mL in human liver microsomes or individual recombinant CYP isozymes. The CYP inhibitory activity was measured using the cocktail probe assay based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. E. longifolia showed weak, concentration-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2C19. The inhibitory effects on these CYP isozymes were further tested using individual recombinant CYP isozymes, showing IC50 values of 324.9, 797.1, and 562.9 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, E. longifolia slightly inhibited the metabolic activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2C19 but this issue requires careful attention in taking herbal medicines or dietary supplements containing E. longifolia extracts.
... [66] It is also known that long term consumption of E. longifolia is associated with boost in testosterone level in the body. Hamzah and coworkers [67] claimed that 5 weeks daily administration of aqueous extract (100mg) in men considerably improved muscular size and strength through enhancing mean arm circumference ( p<0.011) and lean body mass ( p<0.0012). This was further reconfirmed by a relatively well-structured study by Henkel and coworkers [68] whose findings suggested that the administration of 400mg (twice daily) of aqueous extract for 5 consecutive weeks was associated with substantial elevation of total and free testosterone concentrations as well as augmentation in muscular strength in physically active senior males and females (52-72 years). ...
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Eurycoma longifolia Jack is a tall slender shrub-tree which is well-reputed among the natives of South East Asia for its potent aphrodisiac effect. Its root extracts have shown important biological activities such as antitumor, antimalarial, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, Osteoprotective, and ergogenic which are mainly attributed to quassinoids. Commercially it is available in the form of drinks (along with other herbs), capsules, or loose powders. Based on available online databases it was realized that in spite of numerous reports on medicinal properties of E. longifolia, a review of recent developments regarding phytopharmacology, safety and toxicology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical applications was lacking. Therefore, this concise yet informative piece of work was prepared by pulling together trustworthy information from all the accessible published and unpublished scientific resources to serve as a reliable source of reference for future investigations.
... In older, hypogonadal men, four weeks of TA supplementation at 200 mg·day -1 increased serum testosterone levels (Tambi et al., 2012). A study of young men involved in a five-week weight training program found that TA 100 mg·day -1 of TA supplementation increase muscle strength and mass to a greater extent than placebo (Hamzah and Yusof, 2003). While there are studies suggesting the potential effectiveness of TA supplementation on increases in serum testosterone and subsequent improvements in muscle performance, our results suggest the contrary as we showed no preferential effect on the serum levels of testosterone and cortisol or muscle strength by NMDA supplementation. ...
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The effects of 28 days of heavy resistance training while ingesting the alleged testosterone-boosting supplement, NMDA, were determined on body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and hormones associated with the hypothalamopituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Twenty resistance-trained males engaged in 28 days of resistance training 4 times/wk while orally ingesting daily either 1.78 g of placebo (PLAC) or NMDA. Data were analyzed with separate 2 × 2 ANOVA (p < 0.05). Criterion measures involved body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and gonadal hormone levels [free and total testosterone, luteininzing hormome (LH), gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), estradiol], and were assessed before (Day 0) and after (Day 29) resistance training and supplementation. No changes were noted for total body water and fat mass in response to resistance training (p > 0.05) or supplementation (p > 0.05). In regard to total body mass and fat-free mass, however, each was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p < 0.05), but were not affected by supplementation (p > 0.05). In both groups, lowerbody muscle strength was significantly increased in response to resistance training (p < 0.05); however, supplementation had no effect (p > 0.05). All serum hormones (total and free testosterone, LH, GnRH, estradiol, cortisol, prolactin) were unaffected by resistance training (p > 0.05) or supplementation (p > 0.05). The gonadal hormones and cortisol and prolactin were unaffected by 28 days of NMDA supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. At the dose provided, NMDA had no effect on HPG axis activity or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle.
... Water decoction of its root is a well-known folklore medicine to enhance sexuality, fertility and anti aging (Ang and Sim, 1997;Ang and Sim, 1998a;Ang and Sim, 1998b). The plant contains quassinoid alkaloid (Miyake et al., 2009) with properties curing malaria, allergies, fevers and tumors (Jiwanjinda et al., 2002;Hamzah and Yusof, 2003;Kuo et al., 2004). It also contains tannins, high molecular weight polysaccharides, glycoproteins and mucopolysaccharides. ...
Article
Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack, family, Simaroubaceae) is traditionally used in Malaysia as health supplement for hypertension, diarrhea, aches, persistent fever, malaria, sexual insufficiency, dysentery, and glandular swelling. In this study, hydroalcoholic extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack was studied for its antioxidant and in-vitro anti-inflammatory properties. The antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging) was evaluated to determine the total antioxidant capacity of extract Eurycoma longifolia Jack. The DPPH assay showed significant antioxidant activity in all concentrations (10, 25, 50,100 and 250 µg/ml). The antioxidant property of the extract was compared with the values of ascorbic acid, a standard antioxidant. Human RBC (HRBC) stbilization method was utilized to evaluate the in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. The extract showed a significant anti-inflammtory activity in all the concentrations tested (25, 50,100, 250, 500 and 1000 µg/ml) and the activity was increased in a concentration dependent manner.
... Unlike for other adaptogens, a wealth of animal studies is available pointing out aphrodisiac and testosterone enhancing effects of the root extract of Tongkat ali (Ang & Sim, 1998a,b). In contrast, properly conducted human studies are not available, except for a few short notices (Hamzah & Yusof, 2003;Tambi, 2006Tambi, , 2009Tambi & Imran, 2010). ...
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Summary Standardized water soluble extract of the root of Eurycoma longifolia jack, a common Malaysian folklore medicine known to have testosterone enhancing effect, including anti stress, anti aging effect with normalizing growth hormone besides SOD activity is given to the male clients with idiopathic male infertility to evaluate its efficacy. Each client were given a dose of 200mg daily of the Extract and follow up semen analysis were done every three monthly cycle for three cycles. 75 men at least completed one full cycle. There were improvements in the follow up sperm concentration, percent motility and percent morphology. There were 11(15%) spon - taneous pregnancies. The remaining opted for ART procedures, 60% were able to do IUI and the rest IVF (20%)/ICSI (5%).
... The active ingredients are called quassinoids and are found in the root [14]. Studies have confirmed its aphrodisiac and ergogenic effects1516171819. Our previous study found that supplementation of EL to orchidectomised rats was able to maintain the bone calcium content. ...
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Background Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been shown recently to protect against bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats, the model for androgen-deficient osteoporosis. The mechanism behind this is unclear but it may be related to its ability to elevate testosterone levels or it may directly affect bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism involved by investigating the effects of EL extract on serum testosterone levels, bone biomarkers, biomechanical strength and gene expression of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF) in orchidectomised rats. Methods Thirty-two male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into: Sham-operated group (SHAM); orchidectomised-control group (ORX); orchidectomised and given 15 mg/kg EL extract (ORX + EL) and orchidectomised and given 8 mg/kg testosterone (ORX + T). The rats were treated for 6 weeks. The serum levels of testosterone, osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) were measured using the ELISA technique. The femoral bones were subjected to biomechanical testing. The tibial bone gene expressions of RANKL, OPG and MCSF were measured using the branch DNA technique. Results The post-treatment level of testosterone was found to be significantly reduced by orchiectomy (p < 0.05). Both ORX + EL and ORX + T groups have significantly higher post-treatment testosterone levels compared to their pre-treatment levels (p < 0.05). The bone resorption marker (CTx) was elevated after orchiectomy but was suppressed after treatment in the ORX + EL and ORX + T groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant finding for the femoral biomechanical parameters. The tibial OPG gene expression in the ORX group was significantly lower compared to the SHAM and ORX + EL groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion Supplementation with EL extract elevated the testosterone levels, reduced the bone resorption marker and upregulated OPG gene expression of the orchidectomised rats. These actions may be responsible for the protective effects of EL extract against bone resorption due to androgen deficiency.
... IGF-1 has anabolic effects on skeletal muscle mass, stimulates protein synthesis, decreases protein degradation, and increases the lean body mass212223 . EL supplementation has been found to increase the body mass index [24] and has ergogenic effects [25] in adult male subjects. Based on the findings of these studies, it is not surprising to find that the combination of EL and low-dose testosterone was able to maintain the weight gain in orchidectomised rats. ...
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Androgen-deficient osteoporosis in men is treated with testosterone therapy, which is associated with side effects. Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is known to possess androgenic properties and has been reported to protect bone from androgen-deficient osteoporosis in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combination therapy of EL and testosterone (T) in treating androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into: sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomized-control (ORX), orchidectomized with testosterone (ORX + T), orchidectomized with EL (ORX + EL), and orchidectomized with combined T and EL therapy (ORX + T + EL). EL was administered via oral gavages daily at the dose of 15 mg/kg. T was injected intramuscularly at 8 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg for the ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups, respectively. Following 6 weeks of treatment, the osteocalcin levels of ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups were significantly lower than the SHAM group (P < 0.05). The posttreatment CTX levels of ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups were significantly lower than their pretreatment levels (P < 0.05). Biomechanically, the strain parameter of the ORX + T + EL group was significantly higher than the ORX group (P < 0.05). Thus, the combination therapy of EL and low-dose T has potential for treatment of androgen-deficient osteoporosis. The lower T dose is beneficial in reducing the sideeffects of testosterone therapy.
... The pharmacological properties of EL have been widely studied. Over the years, pharmacological evaluations of this plant showed that it has antimalarial [82], antibacterial [83, 84], antitumor, and antioxidant [85, 86] properties. Recently, it was established that EL may be used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, or more specifically, male osteoporosis. ...
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Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack ( EL ), can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT. EL exerts proandrogenic effects that enhance testosterone level, as well as stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis. This will maintain bone remodelling activity and reduce bone loss. Phytochemical components of EL may also prevent osteoporosis via its antioxidative property. Hence, EL has the potential as a complementary treatment for male osteoporosis.
... We observed that this amount of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (150 mg daily for 7 days) had no beneficial effects on the participants' endurance running performance and physiological responses. However, it has been reported that Eurycoma longifolia Jack supplementation (150 mg for 5 weeks) can increase muscle strength [65] . Therefore, we believe that the supplementation period and maybe the dosage used in our previous study were still insufficient to elicit the beneficial effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance performance and physiological responses. ...
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The use of herbs as ergogenic aids in exercise and sport is not novel. Ginseng, caffeine, ma huang (also called 'Chinese ephedra'), ephedrine and a combination of both caffeine and ephedrine are the most popular herbs used in exercise and sports. It is believed that these herbs have an ergogenic effect and thus help to improve physical performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of these herbs on exercise performance. Recently, researchers have also investigated the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on endurance cycling and running performance. These investigators have reported no significant improvement in either cycling or running endurance after supplementation with this herb. As the number of studies in this area is still small, more studies should be conducted to evaluate and substantiate the effects of this herb on sports and exercise performance. For instance, future research on any herbs should take the following factors into consideration: dosage, supplementation period and a larger sample size.
... Unlike for other adaptogens, a wealth of animal studies is available pointing out aphrodisiac and testosterone enhancing effects of the root extract of Tongkat ali (Ang & Sim, 1998a,b). In contrast, properly conducted human studies are not available, except for a few short notices (Hamzah & Yusof, 2003;Tambi, 2006Tambi, , 2009Tambi & Imran, 2010). ...
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In most countries, millions of people are relying on herbal medicines as remedy for numerous ailments. In South-East Asia, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, also known as 'Malaysian ginseng' or Tongkat ali, is used to combat stress and disease and to improve physical strength. Moreover, the compounds of the roots of this plant are reported to have aphrodisiac and testosterone enhancing effects in the rat. Considering that human studies are not available, 76 of 320 patients suffering from late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) were given 200 mg of a standardised water-soluble extract of Tongkat ali for 1 month. The Ageing Males' Symptoms (AMS) according to the standardised rating scale and the serum testosterone concentration were taken. Results show that treatment of LOH patients with this Tongkat ali extract significantly (P < 0.0001) improved the AMS score as well as the serum testosterone concentration. While before treatment only 10.5% of the patients did not show any complaint according to the AMS scale and 35.5% had normal testosterone levels, after the completed treatment 71.7% and 90.8% of the patients showed normal values, respectively. Thus, Tongkat ali extract appears to be useful as a supplement in overcoming the symptoms of LOH and for the management of hypogonadism.
... This aqueous extract contains, among other things, tannins , high-molecular-weight polysaccharides, glycoprotein , mucopolysaccharides and quassinoid alkaloids, which exhibit anti-malarial, anti-ulcer, anti-tumor, antiparasitic and anti-pyretic activities567891011. Animal studies have shown that the anti-cancer, pro-fertility and aphrodisiac properties of this extract are mediated by its glycoprotein components [12, 13]. Recent human trials have proven its testosterone-enhancing and anti-stress or anti-aging effects, which are accompanied or mediated, respectively, by normalized serum growth hormone concentrations and elevated concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), an important anti-oxidant141516171819. ...
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This study investigated the effect of treatment with the proprietary standardized, water-soluble extract of the root of the Malaysian plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is thought to enhance male fertility with regard to higher semen volumes, sperm concentrations, the percentage of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility in male partners of sub-fertile couples with idiopathic infertility. A total of 350 patients were given 200 mg of the extract daily and follow-up semen analyses were performed every 3 months for 9 months. Of these 350 patients, 75 patients completed one full cycle of 3 months. Follow-up semen analyses in these patients showed significant improvement in all semen parameters. The proprietary extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack significantly improved the sperm quality in these patients, allowing for 11 (14.7%) spontaneous pregnancies.
... Historically, it has been used as medicine by the folk in it's countries of origin as a libido enhancer and to treat various sexual dysfunctions. It recently was reported that E. longifolia caused increased muscle strength and size when compared to a placebo [192]. Longilene peroxide (249), from E. longifolia, represents a new qualene-type triterpene. ...
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Chapter
Some of the areas of concern in andrology are erectile dysfunction, late onset hypogonadism, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and infertility. Often these are associated with depletion in androgens, particularly the testosterone hormone. Lack of physical, mental, and sexual vitality, particularly in elderly men, is recognized as a worldwide health problem, which is challenging medically as well as in healthcare. There are numerous traditional herbal products that claim to enhance male overall well-being and restore reproductive health. Proof of acceptance and relevance of herbal treatment in men’s health management are underlined by the tremendous number of publications as well as clinical data, which meet the highest quality, safety, and efficacy standards. This chapter reviews scientific evidence from clinical trials performed with well-known traditional herbs, claiming therapeutic benefits in men’s health: Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), and Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek). Furthermore, information of acceptance in terms of regulatory issues is summarized.
Chapter
The quest for herbal products that have medicinal values has uncovered several plants that have medicinal values of extreme health benefits that benefit men as well as women. One such herbal product that favors men’s health and can treat “andrological” problems is Tongkat Ali or Eurycoma longifolia jack. A decoction of its roots and bark has been used by the Malayan natives as health tonic and cures a host of ailments. Since it was uncovered by the British Colonist in 1930, this plant has been studied and found to be truly of value to men’s health. The water-soluble concentrate of E. longifolia extract is nontoxic and has been standardized and patented. Biochemical research and clinical trials have confirmed its use as an energizer, an ergonomic supplement, a natural testosterone booster, a powerful adaptogen, and a profertility supplement for men as well as a pro-erectile remedy. It can also be used to manage osteoporosis. The extract assists glycolysis and is beneficial for men with diabetes considering that hyperglycemia is one of the health factors affecting erectile dysfunction. Early studies have found E. longifolia to have anticancer properties on human prostate cancer cell lines and may well be beneficial for men with prostate cancer or acts as a prostate cancer protectant. All these properties are narrated in the treatise in the following.
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The modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton for motor recovery is presented in this paper. The dynamic modelling of the upper arm and the forearm for both the anthropometric based human upper limb as well as the exoskeleton was attained via the Euler-Lagrange formulation. A proportional-derivative (PD) architecture is employed to assess its effectiveness in performing joint-space control objectives namely the forward adduction/abduction on the shoulder joint and the flexion/extension of the elbow joint. An intelligent active force control (AFC) optimised by means of the Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) algorithm is also integrated into the aforesaid controller to examine its efficacy in compensating disturbances. It was established from the simulation study that the PD- PSOAFC performed notably well in catering the disturbances introduced to the system whilst maintaining its excellent tracking performance as compared to its pure classical PD counterpart.
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Eurycoma longifolia (EL) has been well recognized as a booster of male sexual health. Over the past few decades, numerous in vivo animal studies and human clinical trials have been conducted across the globe to explore the promising role of EL in managing various male sexual disorders, which include erectile dysfunction, male infertility, low libido, and downregulated testosterone levels. The aim of the present review is to analyze and summarize the literature on human clinical trials which revealed the clinical significance and therapeutic feasibility of EL in improving male sexual health. This systematic review is focused on the following databases: Medline, Wiley Online Library, BioMed Central, Hindawi, Web of Knowledge, PubMed Central and Google Scholar, using search terms such as “Eurycoma longifolia”, “EL”, “Tongkat Ali”, “male sexual health”, “sexual infertility”, “erectile dysfunction”, “male libido”, and “testosterone levels”. Notably, only human clinical studies published between 2000 and 2014 were selected and thoroughly reviewed for relevant citations. Out of 150 articles, 11 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of articles included were randomized placebo-controlled trials, multiple cohort studies, or pilot trials. All these studies demonstrated considerable effects of EL on male sexual health disorders. Among them, 7 studies revealed remarkable association between the use of EL and the efficacy in the treatment of male sexual disorders, and remaining 4 studies failed to demonstrate sufficient effects on male sexual health. In summary, there is convincing evidence for the prominence of EL in improving the male sexual health. The review also substantiates the use of current methodology in the development of novel and more rationale natural herbal medicines for the management of male sexual disorders.
Chapter
Tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia) is an herbal medicinal plant found in South East Asia and commonly called "Malaysian ginseng" due to its traditional use as a general health and "anti-aging" tonic. When used in modern dietary supplements, tongkat ali is intended to improve libido and energy, restore hormonal balance (cortisol/testosterone levels) and enhance both sports performance and weight loss. Laboratory evidence shows that eurycoma peptides stimulate release of free testosterone from its binding proteins and improve overall hormone profiles. More than a dozen rodent-feeding studies have demonstrated improved sex drive, balanced hormonal profiles, and enhanced physical function. Human supplementation trials show clear indications of reduced fatigue, heightened energy and mood, and greater sense of wellbeing in subjects consuming properly-standardized tongkat ali root extracts. Athletes would be interested in tongkat ali to help maintain normal cortisol/testosterone balance to prevent overtraining syndrome as well as to enhance post-exercise recovery.
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Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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ABSTRACT An evidence-based systematic review of tongkat ali (Eurycoma longifolia) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.
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Recent studies suggested that Eurycoma longifolia, a herbal plant, may have the potential to treat osteoporosis in elderly male. This study aimed to determine the effects of Eurycoma longifolia supplementation on the trabecular bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats (androgen-deficient osteoporosis model). Forty-eight-aged (10-12 months old) Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomised control (ORX), orchidectomised + 7 mg/rat testosterone enanthate (TEN) and orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 30 mg/kg (EL30), orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 60 mg/kg (EL60), orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 90 mg/kg (EL90). Rats were euthanized following six weeks of treatment. The left femora were used to measure the trabecular bone microarchitecture using micro-CT. Orchidectomy significantly decreased connectivity density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number compared to the SHAM group. Testosterone replacement reversed all the orchidectomy-induced changes in the micro-CT parameters. EL at 30 and 60 mg/kg rat worsened the trabecular bone connectivity density and trabecular separation parameters of orchidectomised rats. EL at 90 mg/kg rat preserved the bone volume. High dose of EL (90 mg/kg) may have potential in preserving the bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats, but lower doses may further worsen the osteoporotic changes.
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