Article

The role of social media during the pre-purchasing stage

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether social media may impact a customer’s purchasing decision during the pre-purchase stage of service consumption. Design/methodology/approach – This study implemented a primary field survey design and developed an online self-administered questionnaire. A total of 285 usable questionnaires were collected. Factor analysis was performed to condense the large set of independent variables, and multiple regression analysis was performed to test the study hypotheses. Findings – The results indicate that the benefits of social media do have a positive relation with customers purchase decision, but not all items are crucial to a similar extent. Functional (convenience, efficiency, information, sharing experiences) and monetary (free coupons, price discounts, special deals) benefits from social media were found to have a positive impact on customers’ purchase decision (H1, H2), while socio-psychological benefits were found to have no relationship with customers’ decision (H4). Still, hedonic benefits (amusement, enjoyment, entertainment, fun) were found to have a relationship with purchase decision (H3). Originality/value – While social media received much attention in research due to its rapid development and its popularity, there are still limited studies that investigated the effect of social media during the pre-purchasing stage. Findings of this study are expected to contribute to the growing body of hospitality research on social media. Additionally, this research is expected to assist hospitality businesses to understand customers’ behavior regards to social media and develop appropriate marketing strategies.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Some scholars have confirmed the significant role of SNSs, not only in terms of providing information but also promoting exchanges of experiences and values, and in turn, influencing brand attitude in the hospitality context [38][39][40]. Song and Yoo (2016) [38] argued that customers of hotels and restaurants perceive using SNSs in the early stages of the purchase-decision-making process as providing informational, economic, and entertainment value. They found that these dimensions of value derived from SNSs influence the final choice. ...
... Some scholars have confirmed the significant role of SNSs, not only in terms of providing information but also promoting exchanges of experiences and values, and in turn, influencing brand attitude in the hospitality context [38][39][40]. Song and Yoo (2016) [38] argued that customers of hotels and restaurants perceive using SNSs in the early stages of the purchase-decision-making process as providing informational, economic, and entertainment value. They found that these dimensions of value derived from SNSs influence the final choice. ...
... Some scholars have confirmed the significant role of SNSs, not only in terms of providing information but also promoting exchanges of experiences and values, and in turn, influencing brand attitude in the hospitality context [38][39][40]. Song and Yoo (2016) [38] argued that customers of hotels and restaurants perceive using SNSs in the early stages of the purchase-decision-making process as providing informational, economic, and entertainment value. They found that these dimensions of value derived from SNSs influence the final choice. ...
Article
Full-text available
The coffee industry has grown into a highly competitive management environment, which has led to the contemplation of differentiated marketing strategies as tools for business success. Practitioners operate their own SNS brand pages to encourage customers to participate and engage in two-way interpersonal marketing practices that can generate value co-creation. This paper aims to explore the relationships among the types of value offered by SNSs, brand attitude, and customer value-co-creation behaviors in the hospitality context, by employing the Value–Attitude–Behavior model. Data were collected via an online survey research company and analyzed by PLS-SEM using SmartPLS 3.0 and Jamovi 1.0 software packages. A quantitative research method was carried out with a total of 406 adults in South Korea who had had both on-site and SNS coffee brand experiences within three months of the survey. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. First, information-seeking, entertainment, and expressive value all had a significant positive effect on brand attitude. Second, brand attitude had a significant positive effect on both customer participation behaviors and customer citizenship behaviors. The results of the current study suggest useful implications in that the usage of SNSs as marketing communication tools can influence not only online but also offline brand attitudes and customer value-co-creation behaviors.
... Functional benefits is the sharing and exchanging of information through social media platforms [30]. Travel related purchases are viewed as very complex due to the lack of direct exposure to the product itself and needs extensive information search before making a final decision [15]. ...
... Social benefits states the various types of help and support that members can obtain and provide for through social media [30] Individuals can help each other by exchanging opinions and answering questions. As an example a person who have previously stayed in a hotel can help another person who is considering to stay at the same hotel by giving him information about room types and conditions, available menus and the quality of food answering his concerns. ...
... Psychological benefits refers to the sense of belonging and association with others in the community [30]. People join social media sites for psychological needs. ...
... The key thrust of the current study focuses on identifying factors that influence customers towards social media usage for purchasing decisions. Available literature in the field indicates a positive relationship between TAM dimensions in the context of social media adoption (Bogea and Brito, 2018;Singh and Srivastava, 2019;Song and Yoo, 2016). A more exhaustive understanding of social media adoption needs some additional factors to be taken into consideration. ...
... Keeping this in mind, the present study plans to examine the adoption of social media by customers by extending TAM with two external variables. Song and Yoo (2016) have examined the direct effect of various benefits of social media (functional, monetary, hedonic and socio-psychological) on customers' purchasing decisions. The same benefits have been considered by Alnsour et al. (2018) to establish a relationship between social media and purchase intention. ...
... People use social media for tangible returns in order to receive an economic advantage. Using social media, customers get timely information about discounts, offers, special deals, etc. (Song and Yoo, 2016;Wasko and Faraj, 2000). Brands are actively engaged on social media to update and educate customers about their products and services and reach the masses. ...
Article
Purpose The present study intends to shed light on behaviour of customers towards usage of social media for purchasing decisions. The study proposes an extension to technology acceptance model (TAM) to analyse the significance of monetary benefits and information reliability on customers' intention to use social media. Design/methodology/approach The sample was drawn from social media users of north-western region of India ( n = 622). The proposed model was tested using exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Findings Results indicate that monetary benefits and perceived ease of use have significant influence on customers' intention to use social media, while information reliability and monetary benefits significantly influence only through perceived usefulness. Practical implications The findings are valuable to marketers to acknowledge the potential of social media to reach to masses by providing timely and reliable information. The study also reveals that website/app developers should implement a user-friendly interface and reliable content to influence customers' usage behaviour. Originality/value The study is a unique attempt to examine the effect of monetary benefits and information reliability with TAM's key constructs in the context of social media adoption. Studies undertaken aforementioned dimensions are mainly concerned with examining direct contribution of social media and its effect on purchase decisions.
... Millennial are a generation that has grown in immediate gratification, they expose themselves as impatient, even on their own (Sweeney, 2005). Although social networks share the functions of traditional means of providing content to users, there are differences in the relationships between users and content (Song & Yoo, 2016;Elefant, 2011). Okazaki et al (2013) explains that network capacity, image transfer and personal extensibility provide businesses with new opportunities to be effective in reaching consumers. ...
... On the other hand, Snapchat reflected higher levels by spending time, sharing and improving social knowledge (Phua et al 2017). It is even established that the social environment significantly impacts the use of social networks (Song and Yoo, 2016, Elefant, 2011, Pelet et al 2017, Wang et al 2013. ...
... Sashittal et al (2016) explains that Millennial and the use of ephemeral content allows for greater linkage. This means that the purchasing actions are being influenced by the new social media with a different communication strategic approach in order to take advantage in decision making (Song & Yoo, 2016& Heinrichs et al., 2011Hastings & Saperstein 2010). Then decision making begins when the consumer needs, wants or wants to engage in buying and consumption behaviors, in response to certain stimuli (Molla et al, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research examines data on 454 participants from the millennial generation. Through the theory of uses and gratifications, the researchers analyze how content strategies employed by the Snapchat impact the use and sharing of content. In addition, motivations for impulsive purchases are analyzed. This exploratory study uses quantitative methodology through an applied survey. The researchers make use of partial least squares structural equations (SMART-PLS). The results contribute to the theory through the identification of gratification factors such as interaction, relationship management, purchase savings, information, interactivity, easy access to content, distraction, creativity, fun and dynamism.
... Kim et al. (2020) cited information quality as the most influential factor in social media engagement among restaurant customers. Relatedly, Song and Yoo (2016) discovered that functional benefits offered on hotels' and restaurants' brand pages significantly affected customers' post-engagement behavior. Yet, Kang et al. (2014) found no significant correlations between the impacts of consumer benefits and active engagement on a restaurant brand's Facebook page. ...
... However, customers did not exhibit engagement behavior when obtaining brand information. This pattern contrasts with the literature showcasing the positive effects of such functional benefits on customers' participation in brand page activities (Ben-Shaul & Reichel, 2017;Song & Yoo, 2016). Customers' perceptions can vary by industry, even for different brands in the same category. ...
Article
Customers’ value co-creation behavior plays an essential role on brand pages, which many hospitality firms adopt to create value with customers. However, current understanding of the elements, drivers, and dynamics of such behavior is limited. Based on the value co-creation literature, motivation–opportunity–ability theory, and the dual identification framework, this study sought to bridge this knowledge gap. Specifically, this research clarified customer engagement behavior (CEB) and customer citizenship behavior (CCB) as respective in-role and extra-role behaviors of value co-creation and revealed their positive relationship. Structural equation modeling indicated that motivations (seeking assistance and diversion), social presence, and brand knowledge positively influenced CEB, which then affected CCB directly and indirectly through customer–brand identification. Moreover, functional benefits did not trigger meaningful CEB, and customer–community identification had a minimal impact on CCB. Overall, these insights can help practitioners manage their brand pages more effectively to co-create value with customers.
... As growing number of people enjoy electronic music, various electronic music platforms have emerged. These music platforms provide customers with various personalized services, such as music recommendations and social networking [2]. These music platforms allow online artists to share their original music on the platform, providing an easy way for online artists to become online celebrities [3]. ...
... The process is repeated for each generated child node until the termination condition is reached. The termination conditions are set as follows:(1) Reach the set tree depth d(2) The samples on the node are less than the minimum number of samples s(3) The minimum mean square error reaches the salt value w 0 ...
Article
Full-text available
As one of the entertainment consumption products, pop music attracts more and more people’s attention. In the context of big data, many pop music listeners can determine the development trend of pop music to a large extent. In order to predict the trend of pop music, we can dig and analyze the audience’s preferences and preferences deeply based on massive user data. This paper proposes a music trend prediction method based on improved LSTM and random forest algorithm. The algorithm first performs abnormal data processing and normalization processing on the test data set. Then the important features are selected by the random forest algorithm and corrected by the rough set compensation system. Finally, the prediction is made by improving LSTM. In the experiment, RMSE and MAER are used as the performance evaluation indexes of the algorithm, and the results show that the proposed algorithm can better predict the music popularity trend. At the same time, the root means square error and mean absolute error index are improved obviously.
... In addition, this chapter presents the hypothesis, research gap, and critical literature review. Balakrishnan et al. (2014) begin by sketching a portrait of the new consumer, emphasizing its key characteristics, which stem largely from a need for authenticity and separate it from the so-called conventional customer (Bruno and Dariusz, 2013;Song and Yoo, 2016). Further research examined influencer marketing strategy for coping with marketplace shrinkage throughout the design and luxurious lifestyle sectors (Bronner and de Hoog, 2014). ...
... It revealed that digital advertisement and WOM influence consumers buying behavior. Websites are rich and fruitful places for e-marketing and for influencing buying decisions (Song and Yoo, 2016). Furthermore, (Stephen, 2016) found that using social media websites as more than just a marketing strategy does have the potential to encourage people to utilize social media in e-marketing at the stage of buying choice (identification of needs, searching for information, alternative evaluations, procurement decisions, and post-buying behavior). ...
Article
Full-text available
The research examined the impact of social media; social networking theory, word of mouth feedback loop, and creditability content on the consumer buying behavior in Pak-istan. The structured questionnaire shared using the convenience sampling between 650-700 participants. However, received 392 complete responses. The estimations revealed that there is a significant and positive impact of social media, social networking theory, word of mouth, feedback loop, and creditability content on the buying behavior in Pakistan. Social media plays an important role in consumer buying behavior, which means that people are more likely to search, buy and share products using social media channels. Due to Covid-19, the number of responses received was less than expected. Furthermore, the salary of the respondents was not included in the questionnaire, which could have given information that is more detailed. The study examined the in-depth impact of social media on the people of Pakistan considering their detailed demographic and socioeconomic factors as it lacked the evidence with in historical literature. The owners/managers to attract or retain the customers must build their online presence using the most used social channels like Instagram and Facebook. Future researchers need to create a precise yet comprehensive survey. The salary of the respondent can be used to determine the behavior of respondents having different salary levels.
... Social media has revolutionized many businesses' marketing strategies by allowing the consumer to have more information about the product and service. In addition, social media allows the consumer to be more interactive compared to traditional marketing strategies (Song, 2016). Studies have shown that customers who have more interactive experiences with the services process have been more satisfied with the service outcome and the brand. ...
... Furthermore, the dissertation addresses influencer marketing and how information gathering and evaluation have become an essential part of tourists choosing a destination (Karamehmedović, 2019). Social media has revolutionized many business and marketing strategies by improving customer information access and sharing when compared to traditional marketing techniques (Song, 2016). Studies have shown that providing a more inter-active experience leads to higher customer satisfaction with the service and brand. ...
... Social media has revolutionized many businesses' marketing strategies by allowing the consumer to have more information about the product and service. In addition, social media allows the consumer to be more interactive compared to traditional marketing strategies (Song, 2016). Studies have shown that customers who have more interactive experiences with the services process have been more satisfied with the service outcome and the brand. ...
... Furthermore, the dissertation addresses influencer marketing and how information gathering and evaluation have become an essential part of tourists choosing a destination (Karamehmedović, 2019). Social media has revolutionized many business and marketing strategies by improving customer information access and sharing when compared to traditional marketing techniques (Song, 2016). Studies have shown that providing a more inter-active experience leads to higher customer satisfaction with the service and brand. ...
... Social media has revolutionized many businesses' marketing strategies by allowing the consumer to have more information about the product and service. In addition, social media allows the consumer to be more interactive compared to traditional marketing strategies (Song, 2016). Studies have shown that customers who have more interactive experiences with the services process have been more satisfied with the service outcome and the brand. ...
... Furthermore, the dissertation addresses influencer marketing and how information gathering and evaluation have become an essential part of tourists choosing a destination (Karamehmedović, 2019). Social media has revolutionized many business and marketing strategies by improving customer information access and sharing when compared to traditional marketing techniques (Song, 2016). Studies have shown that providing a more inter-active experience leads to higher customer satisfaction with the service and brand. ...
... Social media has revolutionized many businesses' marketing strategies by allowing the consumer to have more information about the product and service. In addition, social media allows the consumer to be more interactive compared to traditional marketing strategies (Song, 2016). Studies have shown that customers who have more interactive experiences with the services process have been more satisfied with the service outcome and the brand. ...
... Furthermore, the dissertation addresses influencer marketing and how information gathering and evaluation have become an essential part of tourists choosing a destination (Karamehmedović, 2019). Social media has revolutionized many business and marketing strategies by improving customer information access and sharing when compared to traditional marketing techniques (Song, 2016). Studies have shown that providing a more inter-active experience leads to higher customer satisfaction with the service and brand. ...
... The type and size of this information relied on the ways of communication systems, upon which the set of society take into consideration their culture and customs, where the individual's purchasing behavior has been impacted by contacts and communications with others. The Song (2016) investigated the effects of rumors on a customer's purchasing decision during the prepurchase phase of product consumption examined rumors impact on a customer's purchasing decision during the pre-purchase phase of product consumption. ZHU (2017) revealed that the various types of rumors published on the internet have shown their possibility risk to business, especially on the business of consumable products. ...
... Social media has emerged as a powerful channel of information and communication. Significantly, social media has changed marketing practices for many industries, including the tourism and hospitality industries [2] [3]. ...
... Whereas, Yuksel et al. (2010) refer to the SM as a medium to nourish the emotional bond between the user and the brand. Additionally, this platform is used to foster and maintain the image of the brand which in turn strengthens the emotional attachment with a brand (Song & Yoo, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this research is to look into the relationship between social media marketing activities and brand attachment in the online marketing business, based on the indirect effect of perceived value and self-brand connections. For this reason, the study has used self-administered questionnaires to collect the data from 425 males from the major cities of Pakistan including Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, and Sialkot. Furthermore, based on the PLS-SEM technique the empirical findings show that social media marketing activities positively affect perceived value, self-brand connections, and brand attachment. Perceived value has a significant positive impact on brand attachment and mediates the influence of social media marketing activities on brand attachment. In addition to this, self-brand connections have a positive effect on brand attachment, and self-brand connections mediate the relationship between them. Thus, firms employing social media marketing activities successfully in their branding build upon a positive perception of the brand in the customer's mind resulting in customer attachment with the brand. This study can assist the e-commerce managers and brand managers in building strong customer attachment via perceived value and self-brand connections.
... Social media is beneficial for both consumers and Businesses. Consumers usually seek information from any available resource before they decide to buy, as a way of estimation of whether the product or service offered is referring to their needs and wants (Song & Yoo, 2016). Social Media also helped companies and businesses to build a reputation, empower the communication level with their customers, measure satisfaction, and bring a higher quality of products and services (Floreddu & Cabiddu, 2016). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to study the relationships between brand community engagement of customers on social media networks and customer behavioral intentions with regard to visiting restaurants where the theory of planned behavior was applied. A conclusive-descriptive, cross-sectional research design was selected in order to determine the degree to which Brand Community Engagement, Attitude (ATT), Subjective Norms (SN), Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC), Restaurant's Visit Intentions (INT) and Visit Behavior (B) are interrelated and associated. The results indicated that BCE does affect customers attitude towards dining out and visiting restaurants and that SN cannot moderate the strong relationship between ATT and intention. In addition, customer intention can weakly predict their behavior of visiting restaurants. The results of this study suggest that management of restaurants should pay attention to their marketing communication strategies through social media restaurant's communities and should focus on how to increase the engagement levels of customers beside understanding and may be changing their attitudes towards experiences in restaurants. This study examined the relationship between Restaurants Brand Community Engagement on social media and customer intentions to dine out and visit restaurants.
... However, when companies change their mentality from business-centered to consumer-centered thinking, they can see that social media bring them great opportunities for engaging consumers and listening to them for what they would like and need. As consumers spend more of their time on social media, purchase decisions have become highly influenced by interactions through these networks, a fact which has lead businesses to place more emphasis on marketing strategies which focus on two-way communication platforms to reach online consumers and take advantage of word-of-mouth (Song & Yoo, 2016). Internet-based social media are quickly merging into the domain of e-commerce as a wide range of applications has been adopted on e-commerce platforms because internet-based social media provide online retailers withgreat opportunities to build their brand, and to promote and sell their products (Qu, Wang, Wang, & Zhang, 2013). ...
Chapter
Several studies have approached the link between social media and e-commerce with different lenses, however, the study of motivations for sharing content specifically from e-commerce websites into social media has not been thoroughly approached and provides fertile ground for further exploration. This chapter uncovers which motivations serve as a background for individuals sharing intentions of e-commerce content. After a focus group with 7 individuals, results indicate participants focus more on intrinsic rewards than extrinsic ones when sharing, that self-interest is more predominant than reciprocity as a motivator for sharing, one-to-one exchanges are the preferential direction of exchange. Also, websites with cleaner designs and higher usability positively impact sharing intentions, experiences tend to be more likely shared than physical products, and participants are purposeful in their selection of sharing channels.
... Consumers utilise review intensity and valence, as well as message substance and style, to judge the reliability of the UGC (Filieri, 2016). Song and Yoo (2016) found that social media has a significant impact on visitors' purchasing decisions and pre-purchase selections. ...
Article
Full-text available
Decision making is a critical challenge under disruptive conditions. Information flow as critical component to decision making may exacerbate or mitigate the impact of disruptive conditions. Such highly complex and unpredictable conditions produce a high demand for information. Extant literature was found to be critical of unidirectional and sender-oriented models in crisis communication which essentially blocks the feedback loop and paralyzes the crisis managers to roll-out responses. However, the pervasive social media has created new patterns of dynamic information exchange to empower the individuals to be engaged in a more evidence-based participatory form of crisis communication to frame decisions. This study used social media analytics to identify the decision clusters arising out of information exchange over social media under disruptive uncertainties. The Theory of Complexity by Edgar Morin was used as the epistemological foundation of the study. Crawled data was used from the Tourism Tribe Facebook fan page. Normalized degree and betweenness centrality measures were used to analyse the semantic networks. Tourism Tribe exhibited the highest degree centralities for both before and during the pandemic-driven disruptions. Four individuals (names changed for anonymity) were identified to be the most influential in decision making based on information shared. The causality between uncertainty and decision revealed a wide array of decision parameters – health precautions to alternative leisure engagement. The study provided practical implications for a number of stakeholders. The tourism service providers and product designers are likely to get deeper insights into the choice and priorities of the tourists confronting disruptive conditions and may re-strategise tourism offers. The alternative leisure and recreational platforms (OTT, gaming platforms etc.) may introduce new products and/or re-design their schemes.
... At present, the introduction of various tourism products has made the amount of tourism information extremely large, and it is difficult for users to quickly locate the products they are interested in from a large amount of tourism information [1]. In order to compete for tourists and increase revenue, travel companies need to continuously meet the needs of tourists and formulate travel routes that meet the interests of tourists [2]. Tourism recommendation system is an essential means to solve the problem of tourism information overload. ...
Article
Full-text available
With improving people’s living standards, tourism has become essential leisure and entertainment. At present, it has begun to shift from a quantity-oriented tourism method to a quality-oriented tourism method. It is difficult for passengers to choose the route that suits them from the numerous routes. Given the above problems, this study proposes a travel route recommendation algorithm that combines a convolutional neural network and collaborative filtering. The algorithm uses a convolutional neural network to extract the latent features in the customer and travel itinerary data and then uses the matrix factorization method based on collaborative filtering to perform score prediction. The experimental results show that the algorithm can meet the travel requirements of different customers. At the same time, the recommendation accuracy of the tourist route is improved, and technology and method are provided for realizing the personalized recommendation service of the tourist route.
... This is especially important because according to Inversini and Masiero (2014) and Ayeh, Au and Law (2013), describing and explaining the role of social media in the tourism and travel industry involves cultural elements. Accordingly, further research on a variety of customer attributes is needed in order to increase our understanding of the impact of the perceived credibility of information on SNS on purchasing in tourism services (Song & Yoo, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the effect of consumers’ perceived credibility of information on SNS on their attitude and intention to adopt this information in the Arab world. The study adopted a quantitative research approach using a survey questionnaire conducted among 317 individuals. Structural equation modelling was conducted. The results highlighted that there are positive direct effects of authority cues, expertise, trustworthiness, social identity and argument strength on perceived credibility. Although both authority cues and transparency have non-significant direct effects on perceived credibility, they have positive direct effects on attitude and indirect effects on intention via attitude. Finally, the positive impact of credibility on intention is mediated by attitude. This study contributes to the literature on the credibility of information on SNS and its effect on consumers’ intention to adopt it.
... It is important to note that the communications in the virtual world are very rapid and news spreads faster than in any other form of communication over the internet. Social media have emerged as a powerful information and communication channel and have significantly changed the practice of marketing communication for many companies, including those in the tourism and hospitality industry (Song and Yoo, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper will highlight the review of previously reported data by numerous authors. Nowadays, widespread social media is used more and more especially in tourism. Recent trends in technology have observed the emergence of social networking sites such as Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube. These websites encourage users to share information on what they are doing, upload pictures of what they have been up to, and post blog entries in order to share their interests and activities with other users. From the industry perspective, more and more hotels or tourist destinations are using these social networking sites as communication tools with their guests. It is evident that people are depending on their peers’ reviews through these social networking sites before purchasing products and services. As a result, social networking sites are growing both in popularity and importance for consumers as well as corporate. Previous research regarding the use of social media among youth travellers has mainly focused on its impact on travellers’ travel planning process and there is consensus that travel decisions are highly influenced by social media. Considering that an answer to the research question of “will social media influence the travel decision of the youth travellers”, the aim of this study is to fill this research gap and to examine the influence of social media on youth travellers’ decision making. A proposed conceptual framework is developed in order to understand the influence of social media on travel decision making among youth travellers. The findings of this study are important to tourism online marketers in order to have a better understanding on youth travellers in the use of social media so that they can adapt online marketing strategies for this segment.
... Thus, social platforms have also been a phenomenon in destination marketing (Buhalis, 2000). Destination marketers use the social media forms for various reasons, such as to provide the kind of credible information (Hays et al., 2013;Nusair et al., 2013) that tourists need before booking and during their travel (Sigala et al., 2011), to promote destinations (Zeng, 2013;Song & Yoo, 2016), and to better understand and respond to consumer preferences (Dellarocas, 2003). According to Megatrends Travel (2017), tourists feel more comfortable if they have viewed virtual tours and reviews when choosing a destination since they reveal a positive influence. ...
Article
Full-text available
This is a study into the segmentation of social media users interested in traveling into groups and aims to ascertain if differences exist in benefits among segments. It is based on a survey that examines the benefits they see social media as having before, during, and after a trip to a destination, using their responses to generate a data-driven segmentation. Data from a total of 218 questionnaires were analyzed using factor and cluster analysis in sequence, specifically applying a hierarchical cluster analysis using the Ward method and a K-means algorithm. The analysis led to the identification of four useful types of social media user: info-seeker, communication-seeker, interaction-seeker, and hybrid segments, each of which seeks different things from social media and use it in different ways (e.g., to seek information, to see what other people have said about a destination, or to post their own experiences). As such, the implications of our findings offer useful insights for both scholars and destination marketers, highlighting the significance of offering appropriate marketing strategies for each type of segment.
... This one-of-akind feature allows you to change the campaign's entire plan in the middle of it. According to Song and Yoo (2016), social media plays a significant role in the pre-purchase decisions of visitors. Given the intangible nature of travel services and the potential risk during travel decision-making, the effect of social media on consumer behavior in the tourism and travel industry has received considerable attention (Minazzi, 2015). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Social networking is a series of Web 2.0-based applications that connect, communicate, and exchange ideas, views, perspectives, knowledge, and relationships among internet users worldwide. In the age of social media, businesses' marketing tactics have shifted from bringing products out to encouraging customers to buy things into their stores to foster a more engaging and mutually beneficial relationship. It is a significant player in the online tourism sector since it is a common and influential information source for tourists looking for destination-specific information. This study was conducted qualitatively, and this illustrates and discusses the role of social media marketing and how it works in the tourism and hospitality industries, with an emphasis on Bangladesh in particular, using a range of literature, including academic articles, journals, and books. This study would educate academics, researchers, politicians in …
... In addition, the usage of social media platforms allows consumers and businesses to deepen their emotional bonds (Yuksel et al., 2010). Social brand image is created, and then connections are generated, sustained, and developed (Song and Yoo, 2016). People's desire for interpersonal connections has been mirrored in the development of social media SM. ...
... It is a crucial contributing element for the customers' trust and purchase intention (Sethna et al., 2017). Song and Yoo (2016) pointed out that social media communication (SMC) has become an informative venue for communicating about the experiences related to the brand. It is a widely used tool for effective marketing functions and activities. ...
... The consumers rely strongly on the information sources during the PS and the evaluation of information and learning the beliefs takes place during the SMC (sharing of information through chat discussions, forums and communities, and recommendation and referrals) which is based on socialization process. However, extant literature has focused on the association between social media and the pre-purchase stage of the service sector (Song and Yoo, 2016) and automobiles (Mahrous, 2016). Fotis et al. (2011) have discussed the use of social media during information search and decision-making behaviors, especially in the tourism industry. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between the dimensions of the pre-purchase information search (PS) such as direction (reliance on the information sources-RIS) and pattern (reliance on the utilitarian value-RUV), moderating role of the online shopping experience (OSE), and their influence on the behavior of the socialization agents (family communication (FC), peer communication (PC), TV advertising-TVAdv, social media communication (SMC)) for buying branded apparel. Design/methodology/approach This study used a questionnaire, and a total of 458 responses were obtained. A measurement model with the dimensions of the pre-purchase information search and socialization agents was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The conceptual model with hypotheses (direct and moderated effects) was analyzed using a moderated approach using Hayes Macros. Findings The findings confirm the significant influence of the dimensions of the PS (RIS and RUV) on the behavior of socialization agents for buying branded apparel with the strongest influence of RIS on SMC. The moderated effects of OSE between the dimensions of PS and socialization agents are found to be significant except for the relationship between RIS and FC. The direct effects of the RIS and RUV on the socialization agents are higher for consumers having high OSE and lower for consumers having low OSE. Originality/value The findings contribute to the growing body of literature on the PS, highlighting the importance of consumer socialization for the purchase decision of consumers in emerging markets. No previous studies have applied a psychological approach to explain the variation in the external search incorporating the dimensions like direction (RIS) and pattern (RUV), which did not receive research attention so far. This study uniquely sets a new direction for the researchers by establishing a theoretical linkage between the dimensions of PS that can act as antecedents and can significantly influence the behavior of socialization agents using the consumer socialization approach based on the social learning theory. The results reveal the strongest influence of SMC and establish the moderating role of OSE for the buying decision of branded apparel. The findings are valuable for online marketers who must acknowledge that social media is the strongest platform for reaching customers and must create a formal page for displaying their latest updates about their products and services. Marketers must engage all the family members through online contests and feedback sessions for developing trust for online shopping platforms.
... The "experience" factor is also related to social media influencer, so it is indicating the knowledge of social media influencer about the products or services he/she advertises and recommends. The experience of social media influencer indicates that the influencer has a good level of knowledge about the product or service that he/she refers to in posts and that he/she can advise his/her followers impartially as an expert, the experience of social media influencer and his/her ability to share reviews on SNS can contribute to enhance his position on SNS and increase the level of the followers confidence in e-WOM (Song & Yoo, 2016). ...
... The author further added that the media effects on health-related behaviour are linked to non-urgent risks and protective behaviours. Furthermore, Lin et al. (2016), Signorini et al. (2011) and Song and Yoo (2016) F o r P e e r R e v i e w 6 asserted that social media platforms are more convenient to generate information, provide emotional responses, disseminate the information timely, etc. compared to traditional media. The public highly relies on the media exposure to obtain relevant information such as terrorists' motives, aggressive actions, or critical situations that affect the tourists' selection and decision on holiday destinations both direct and indirectly (Amara, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 outbreak has caused a global turmoil which restricted movement and consequently, diminishing domestic and international travel. One that is severely affected is ecotourism in National Parks, that involves visiting fragile, pristine and undisturbed natural areas. One of the major concerns for ecotourists in destination decision-making is travel risk that could affect their safety. This study aims to examine their risk perception and how it affects the behaviour of ecotourists in Taman Negara National Park, Malaysia. The data was collected from 406 respondents and analysed using structural equation modelling. It is concluded that risk perception affects tourists’ decision-making, whereby health and safety information preference is the strongest predictor, and media’s influence has a very significant connection. This study has the potential of contributing to the management of ecotourism destinations in times of crisis. It also fills the literature gap on risk perceptions of ecotourists’ during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... It, therefore, enables many travelers to make adequate decisions regarding their trip decisions. The social media has transformed how organizations expose their details to the market and would possibly embark on reviews before posting any contradictory information [27]. ...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
Despite the variety of tourism platforms for travelers to use in trip planning, Social Media still a crucial and most used platform by travelers to plan for their trip. Social Media makes the trip planning more enjoyable to travelers compare to another way of enhances the travel experience of a group or individual. With the help of the internet, travelers can access social media to get any travel information, recommendation, asking questions to address the concern regardless of time and location as long as they are connected to the internet. The aim of this research is to explore how travelers use social media to assist them with trip planning and explore how is social media influences power in trip planning.
... Previous studies have proved that social media has a positive impact on tourists' travel intention, purchase tendency and decision-making (eg. Ayeh, Au, & Law, 2013;Song & Yoo, 2016;Xiang, Magnini, & Fesenmaier, 2015). The application of social media can affect tourists' travel intention and behavior, in turn, tourists' behavioral intention is influenced by the information sources they receive (Wang, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Chinese international students are becoming a more important field in the inbound and outbound tourism market. Despite the increasing use of social media for travel planning, little is known about how social media affects international students' travel intentions. This study investigates how social media affects international students' travel intentions by integrating the existing TAM model and TPB theory through an online survey. The results of this study shed light on the role of social media's perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of international students' attitudes, subjective norms, and desires in predicting travel intentions in China. This study verifies the theoretical validity and empirical applicability of the TAM model in the context of the TPB theory in the field of tourism planning, providing a basis for the decision of tourism industry stakeholders to develop new market segments. With the annual growth of the number of foreign students in China, the foreign student market has become an important tourism segment in China. At the same time, more and more international students in China use social media to search tourism information, make a tour plan and generate tourism behavior. However, little is known about how social media influences the formation mechanism of international students' intention to travel. Using the overseas students in Dalian as the sample, this study investigates the influence of social media on the mechanism formation of international students' intention to travel through a questionnaire survey. Building on the TAM integrated model and TPB theory, the results show that social media significantly influences the intention of overseas students to travel to China through constructing their information-sharing network. The usefulness of social media information and the ease of use of social media indirectly influence international students' intention to travel to China through the mediating role of their attitude, subjective norm and desire. This study verifies the theoretical validity and empirical applicability of TAM model and TPB theory in tourism planning. Meanwhile, it explores the influencing factors of social media on international students' travel intention and constructs its formation mechanism, providing a decision basis for tourism stakeholders to develop newmarket segments. The usefulness of social media information and the ease of use of social media indirectly influence international students' intention to travel to China through the mediating role of their attitude, subjective norm and desire. This study verifies the theoretical validity and empirical applicability of TAM model and TPB theory in tourism planning. Meanwhile, it explores the influencing factors of social media on international students' travel intention and constructs its formation mechanism, providing a decision basis for tourism stakeholders to develop newmarket segments. The usefulness of social media information and the ease of use of social media indirectly influence international students' intention to travel to China through the mediating role of their attitude, subjective norm and desire. This study verifies the theoretical validity and empirical applicability of TAM model and TPB theory in tourism planning. Meanwhile, it explores the influencing factors of social media on international students' travel intention and constructs its formation mechanism, providing a decision basis for tourism stakeholders to develop newmarket segments.
... It is against these backgrounds that researchers raise the following hypothesis: Millennials' use of ephemeral content through contributing, sharing, consuming and searching produces gratification effects and then affects Snapchat use's intensity. Song and Yoo (2016) define SNS usage as a space that facilitates interactive information, content and collaboration. U&G studies have concluded that social networks, like Snapchat, have an intensified usage among millennials (Alhabash & Ma, 2017;Stanley, 2015). ...
Article
Ephemeral content has become a vital marketing resource for companies, but its effects have rarely been addressed in academic literature. Through the theory of uses and gratifications (U&G), we explore ephemeral content, the impact of Snapchat use, and their impact on millennials’ purchase motivation. Through an electronic survey of 454 millennial-generation participants, analysed through SMART-PLS, theoretical contributions are presented in identifying modality-based gratifications and interactivity-based gratifications as two additional sources of gratification that generate the modality of Snapchat’s ephemeral content. The study theoretically reflects how much interaction and identification with the medium generates a positive involvement in the audience’s needs, thus explaining its reasons for use.
... The new ways that consumers use social media to make purchasing decisions have influenced every aspect of tourism marketing. They have considerably transformed the practice of marketing communication for numerous businesses, containing those in the tourism and hospitality industry, too (Song & Yoo, 2016). Tourism destination marketers have to comprehend the tourist decision process, in order to develop effective marketing strategies since consumer behaviour is the primary structure which marketing has to be based on. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The widespread use of the internet by individuals has brought companies to carry out their marketing activities on social media. Destinations offer goods and services for their customers, just like the companies. They present different kinds of tourism products under their brands. The aim of the destinations is to satisfy their customers' needs and wants. Modern tourists want to choose the best destinations that meet their needs in a short time. This chapter aims to present and discuss conceptually the significance of social media in destination choice of tourists. Therefore, the concept of social media, the relation between social media and the tourism industry, word-of-mouth and electronic word-of-mouth are discussed. Destination choice, the positive and negative effects of electronic word-of-mouth in the tourism industry is also discussed in this chapter. Moreover, a literature review about social media and tourists' destination choice has also been provided.
Article
Full-text available
The digitalization of communication means has revolutionized the way people observe and react to the social and political developments in their surroundings. The rapidly growing influence of social media prompted this exploratory research article on the use of social networking sites by politicians to build a cordial and strong relationship with the common citizens. This article focuses on investigating social media's influence on the relationship between politicians and citizens through the moderating effect of political slogans. Social media not only enables the politicians to directly communicate with the citizens but also encourages political participation of citizens in the form of feedback via comments on social networking sites. Political slogans play a significant role in the image building of a particular political force in the eyes of citizens. A quantitative analysis approach is utilized in this study. Data are collected via a survey questionnaire from a variety of social media users with a cross-sectional time horizon. In total, 300 people submitted their responses via the questionnaire, which was circulated in the first 2 months of this year (i.e., January and February 2022). The convenience sampling method was utilized for data collection across two cities in Pakistan. Smart PLS 3 has been used for hypothesis testing. The effect of the Moderator, i.e., political slogans of the basic four political parties of Pakistan are measured individually. Results show that the impact of social networking sites and politics on politicians' and citizens' relationships is positive and significant. This study can be a stepping stone for further related research to enable the politicians to make positive relationships with the citizens by effectively utilizing the social media platform.
Article
Full-text available
برخورداربودن تولیدکنندگان ازبازارمصرف داخلی درهرکشوری یکی ازعوامل رشدوتوسعه اقتصادی به حساب می آید. بازاریابی تاثیرگذاریکی ازشیوه های نوین بازاریابی دیجیتال است که بکارگیری آن می تواندمصرف کنندگان رابه سوی خریدومصرف محصولات داخلی سوق دهد. پژوهش حاضر،به شیوه کیفی وبااستفاده ازطرح نظام مند نظریه داده بنیاد،برای شناسایی مولفه های بازاریابی تاثیرگذاردرترغیب مشتریان به خریدمحصولات داخلی انجام شده است.باهدف دستیابی به بیشترین اطلاعات در مورد پدیده موردبررسی،بااستفاده ازروش نمونه گیری نظری وتکنیک گلوله برفی،مشارکت کنندگان پژوهش،که شامل اعضای هیات علمی دانشگاه،خبرگان بازاریابی،مدیران شرکت های تبلیغات وبرندبودند،انتخاب شده وتارسیدن به اشباع نظری از 17نفرازآنان مصاحبه عمیق ونیم ساختاریافته،بعمل آمد. باتحلیل اطلاعات، مولفه های بازاریابی تاثیرگذاردرراستای خریدمحصولات داخلی طی مراحل کدگذاری شناسایی ودرقالب الگو ترسیم شدند. نتایج پژوهش حاکی ازآن است که تغییرنوع ارتباطات ورفتارمصرف کنندگان،رشدفناوری وتغییرشیوه های بازاریابی باعث اقبال افرادبه سوی بازاریابی تاثیرگذارشده است. بازاریابی تاثیرگذار،دامنه شناخت مصرف کنندگان راتوسعه می دهد،احساسات وعواطف افرادرادرگیرمی کندوباعث تغییر رفتار خریدمی شود. این پژوهش همچنین مولفه هایی ازجمله انجام تحقیق،سناریو نویسی،ارائه الگوی متفاوت حسب بازار،استفاده از بازاریابی نامحسوس وبازاریابی یکپارچه رابه عنوان راهبردهای بازاریابی تاثیرگذارمعرفی می کندکه این راهبردهاخودتحت تاثیرشرایط زمینه ای و مداخله گرقرارمی گیرند. پیامدهای اجرای مطلوب بازاریابی تاثیرگذار،وفاداری مشتریان،افزایش فروش و درآمد،کاهش نرخ شکست،برندسازی ومزیت رقابتی برای سازمان هاوبرندهاخواهدبود.
Article
Purpose This study aims to draw upon boundary crossing theory to examine the transition of casino hotel guests’ revisit intentions from casino social media sites to casino properties, with the influence of the motivation–opportunity–ability model. Design/methodology/approach Under a quantitative approach, 20 casinos that operated official social media sites were selected, with a quota sampling method designed to assign 20 respondents for each casino. A structural model was used to explore the hypothesized relationships. Findings The results illustrate that ability and opportunity are crucial in enhancing social media revisit intention. They also reveal that casino and destination revisit intention can be boosted with increased social media revisit intention. Practical implications This study provides a fresh look into the relation across the boundary between the virtual and physical environment and illustrates a means by which casinos can be camouflaged as leisure and entertainment venues to strengthen their competitiveness in attracting tourists through social media. Originality/value This study offers new evidence for the linkage between online and offline behaviors with respect to how social media could transit into tangible travel propensity.
Chapter
Social media has been creating a strong presence among youth in making buying decisions. The convenience and the usage perception are also leading the youth to look at different social networking sites for more information. The advertising content on various social networking sites are also witnessing radical changes as per the ever-changing necessities. The integrated marketing communication has been instrumental in taking the marketing communication strategies to a different level. The study gives an insight to the marketing teams of the companies who bank upon the various social media platforms looking at exploring the different opportunities to enhance their business opportunities with reference to youth buying intentions. The findings reveal the influence of social media platforms on youth buying intentions.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the respondent's purchase intentions appropriate to the advertising variables. It therefore sum ups the consequences and impacts related to respondent's choice of advertising variables and purchase intentions of cryptocurrency. The unexplored market potential of cryptocurrency might be due to ineffective use of advertising to facilitate purchase intention. Interestingly, scanty empirical investigation could be found on the topic of advertising and purchasing intentions of cryptocurrency among developing economies of the world. Accordingly, the need for the research presented here is evident. The main purpose of the study is investigating the effects of advertising on purchase intention of cryptocurrency among young adult in Awka, Nigeria. This necessitated conducting a research for the evaluation of current advertising practices to check their effect on consumer purchase intentions. Data were collected from the sample of 138 individuals selected randomly. Presented questionnaire was used to collect data. Data analysis and interpretations was done through regression model and descriptive statistics. To check the impact of advertising, the advertising related variables were used which includes awareness, interest, desire, action of advertising on the dependent variable of consumer’s purchase intentions of crypto currency. The results declared most advertising related variables have significant impact on purchase intentions.
Chapter
This chapter examines the usage of social media in predicting consumer buying process. A mixed method approach has been applied, a cross sectional survey and in-depth interviews were conducted in three universities in Ghana. The responses were collected from individuals in the age group of 18 -30. Data was analysed using Logistics Regression and Thematic analyses. The findings revealed that the social media behaviour of young consumers could significantly influence their behaviour at the pre-purchase information search and evaluation levels. The findings suggest young consumers are more likely to use social media for marketing activities such as purchasing, hence industries should redirect more activities towards this digital channel. This implies that social media is driving young consumers into e-commerce and that presents a huge opportunity for business and marketers.
Chapter
The digital era has introduced many changes in the consumer marketplace. Social media and especially social networking sites redefined how consumers relate to and behave towards brands, as well as the brand-consumer relationship. Within this context and the heightened resistance to brand communication through traditional media, marketeers are turning to other strategies to connect with their customers and influence their consumer journey. One of these strategies is influencer marketing. In the last years, brands have used social media influencers as endorsers of their products and services, and as brand ambassadors. Digital influencers connect consumers and brands, strengthening their bond and allowing the brand to reach their target in a more natural way to influence the consumer buying process. In this chapter we will provide a narrative review on the role of digital influencers on the consumer decision processes.
Chapter
Social media (SM) tools have an immense potential in e-marketing and online shopping. However, there is a lack of researches on the use of social media platform as effective marketing tools. This study has aimed to investigate the revolution of social media in Saudi Arabia through understanding the impact of two popular SM platforms (Instagram and Snapchat) on the purchasing decision of Saudi customers through advertisements and blogger recommendations. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to develop a model, which was tested using Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results indicated a positive impact of social media platforms on the purchasing decision of young female users. Moreover, the effectiveness of these platforms in generating electronic-word of mouth (eWOM) among consumers was highlighted. However, further research is needed to promote marketeers and consumers' awareness in the digital marketplace.
Article
Full-text available
Availability of producers to a domestic consumer market in any country is one of the factors of economic growth and development. Influencer marketing is one of the new methods of digital marketing, which can be used to lead consumers to buy and consume domestic products. The present study, in a qualitative manner and through the systematic grounded theory method, has been done to identify the influencer marketing components in persuading customers to buy domestic products. In order to obtain the most information about the phenomenon, the researcher, using the theoretical sampling method, selected participants, including university faculty members, and managers of advertising and branding companies and At this stage, 17 participants underwent in-depth and semi-structured interviews so that theoretical saturation could be achieved. Based on results of information analysis, the components of influencers marketing in persuading consumers to purchase domestic products were identified through coding steps and a pattern was drawn. The results indicate that changing the type of communication and behavior of consumers, technology growth and changes in marketing methods have caused people to pay attention to influencer marketing. Influencer marketing expands the scope of consumer awareness, engages people's feelings and emotions, and changes shopping behavior. This research also introduces components such as research, Scenario writing , a market-based different model, using stealth marketing and integrated marketing as Influencer marketing strategies, which are influenced by the contextual and Interventional conditions. The consequences of proper implementation of influencers marketing will be customer loyalty, increased sales and revenue, reduced failure rates, branding and competitive advantage for organizations and brands.
Article
Tourists' purchase intention does not always lead to purchase behavior since there are significant differences in their influencing factors and mechanisms of formation. However, little research has examined and revealed these differences empirically. Through co-occurrence analysis of 345 tourists’ consumption-related studies and a further quantitative meta-analysis of 198 quantitative studies, this research shows that the formation of purchase intention is a more rational process, which is influenced by external factors related to information and quality through trust and avoiding cognitive dissonance (internal factors). Whereas the formation of purchase behavior is highly associated with service and environmental factors and usually a result of emotional response and satisfaction (internal factors). Moreover, meta-analysis reveals safety is the most important factor influencing purchase intention, followed by price, and service environment is most influential for purchase behavior, followed by product packaging.
Article
Objective: The study examines how consumer decision making process of millennials and plurals gets impacted due to social media influencers. The impact was measured by using social media influencers as exogenous construct and five stages of consumer decision making process as endogenous construct.Research Methodology: A theoretical model was developed by reviewing earlier literature available on different journals and websites. A sample of total 500 respondents was collected through structured questionnaire by using stratified proportionate sampling whereby count of plurals and millennials was 250 each. The data was examined through Smart PLS 3.0 by performing structure equational modelling. Findings: The results indicated that all the stages of consumer decision making process of millennials and plurals were impacted due to social media influencers. Furthermore, the highest impact was found on need recognition stage (H1), followed by post purchase behaviour (H5), purchase stage (H4), evaluation of alternatives (H3), and search of information (H2).Limitations: This research has few limitations as it was conducted in only northern states of India; however, further research can be conducted in other areas which may yield other productive results. Moreover, only behavioural aspect of consumer attitude was tested, rather cognitive and affective components of consumer behaviour can be considered in future research.Implications: Through this research, marketers can avail the opportunity to understand buying process of two generations: plurals and millennials which would be valuable for firms in strategizing digital marketing plans and policies to target both age groups on social media. This study has illustrated buying process of two generations in order to fulfil the literature gap as there was inadequate literature on plurals and millennials. Hence, both literature gap and originality have been attained and fulfilled.
Article
The study objects to how the pre-purchase of plurals is influenced by social media. Facebook, Snapchat, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube as the integrated social media platform were considered to examine social media usage and assess their impact on three dimensions of the pre-purchase stage including identification of needs, search information and evaluation of alternatives. A conceptual model for this study was developed using the previous literature. The study contains 250 plurals users as respondents; selected by adopting stratified sampling and snowball sampling. The empirical evidence was collected by surveying through a structured questionnaire. The dataset was analyzed using structure equational modeling in Smart PLS 3.0. Positive results have been found for social media influence on pre-purchase of consumer decision making process of plurals. Moreover, need recognition was highly influenced ( H 1 ), followed by search of information ( H 2 ) and evaluation of alternatives ( H 3 ). Among all social media platforms, Instagram was mostly used by plurals. This research was confined to the Punjab state of India only, though other areas can take this research further. Additionally, only plurals as generation cohort were chosen; however, millennials and alpha generations can be considered for future empirical testing. This study provides ample scope to marketers in understanding the pre-purchasing behavior of plurals and their social media usage, which could be beneficial for them in developing digital marketing strategies for targeting this age group through social media.
Chapter
The COVID-19 pandemic has not only a significant impact on public health but also severely affected the tourism sector, one of the drivers of the global economy. Although this situation crisis makes tourism highly vulnerable, the sector is also in a unique position to contribute to broader and just effective recovery plans and actions. This chapter considers the major significant impacts, behaviours, and experiences that four major tourism stakeholders are experiencing during the COVID-19 period. Research on (1) tourism demand, (2) tourism supply, (3) destination management organizations, and (4) policy makers will identify the main challenges and opportunities in tourism sector in the post-COVID-19 period.
Chapter
With the advent of the internet and the consequent emergence of social networks, a new era in the way of communicating and interacting began. Its influence on tourism and on the destination’s image also emerged. When the most followed person worldwide on social networks, Cristiano Ronaldo, regularly promotes the image of Madeira, where he was born, it is pertinent to assess the impact of this combination on the significant number of awards obtained by the Island over the past few years, within the scope of the World Travel Awards. The present work will answer two research questions: i) Do Cristiano Ronaldo influence, in a positive and significant way, the perception of the image of Madeira Island? ii) Do the island’s natural attributes overlap, in a positive and significant way, over the others, in the perception of the image of Madeira Island? The results, under a descriptive research plan—obtained from mix method approach with secondary data and a questionnaire with 477 participants—support the association of phenomena between the awards obtained by Madeira and the publications made by Cristiano Ronaldo on social networks. It is recognized by the respondents the influence that the football player has in the promotion of the Island, as well as the prevalence of natural factors compared to the others in the perceived image. The results give a relevant contribution to the various local stakeholders, from public entities to private operators, opening space for future investigations with the intervention of new participants in the study and other variables in the research.
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to detect the impact of rumors on social media on the purchasing behavior of food products. The descriptive approach on four rumors related to food products were identified in the Egyptian market. A sample of 387 participants were selected from consumers who use Facebook in Egypt. The primary data was collected via an E-Questioner method. The results indicated that there is a significant relationship between the rumors on social media, and purchasing behavior of food products. There is also a significant difference between the products and the impact of rumors. These results assure the importance of social media and its impact on a customer's decision to purchase food products. This article not only explains the importance of rumors on social media in the food sector but also enhances the understanding of the influence of social media on consumer's behavior. It also provides some insights for facing the rumors. Organizations are advised to adopt social media in their business.
Article
Full-text available
The social media is one of the new marketing tools for the hospitality industry of which stand-alone fine dine restaurants is a part. This tool has been explored in many other industries but for hospitality industry, this is relevantly underutilised tool of marketing. This tool has helped stand-alone restaurants with marketing efforts during the times of COVID pandemic. Marketing strategies when carried on social media are built around different aspects of the restaurants like menu, facilities, customer reviews, food bloggers/ critic's reviews, offer, photos, etc. This paper tries to find out the impact of COVID-19 of these different aspects and it also will focus on any new components if any has been utilised by the restaurants in Pune city. Most of the times during lock down period restaurants were merely operating only through food deliveries. No restaurants were allowed to serve customers as dine-in facilities were closed. Since unlock phase, restaurants were allowed to serve food within premise but with seating restrictions and new hygiene standards. The paper also tries to find out if these new normal conditions have affected different elements ofsocial media marketing campaigns.The data will be collected through formal questionnaire and interviews. The study will help the restaurants to develop efficient campaigns on social media platforms.
Article
Full-text available
Targeting millennial consumer's engagement organically by social media influencer marketing has been practiced extensively by fashion, lifestyle, and health-fitness marketers on Facebook. The existing paper formulates a systematic review of social media influencer marketing theories and models; proposing a conceptual framework to investigate, how millennial consumer's engagement can be amplified through Facebook influencer's quality mediated by perceived credibility. The first-stage in this study includes the PRISMA model developed through a systematic review approach and the second stage integrates a conceptual model focusing on the chosen three industries Facebook influencer's attributes engaging millennial consumers. The practical and academic implications show how millennials' likes, comments, and shares as engagement measures are impacted by influencers' content visibility and credibility. Indeed; millennials want to be famous easily by promoting their own lifestyle admiring a brand on social media and literature reveals that Facebook is one of the booming SNS earned millennials reliability regarding peer recommendation-reviews. Although, the existing studies' literature review may not be all-inclusive as influencers in niche areas are evolving and Facebook's advertising strategy is always updating. The future research can extend the proposed framework in collaborating fashion, lifestyle, and health-fitness local micro-influencers reach, informativeness, content fineness towards millennials' perceived credibility affecting cognitive and affective engagement dimensions. This study explores popular three industries urgency in adopting influencers expertise on Facebook for millennials, reviewing several theories and models; the first time. The researcher recommends the marketers who following trends should apply the proposed conceptual framework for nourishing millennial consumer's engagement in a long-term perspective.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Existing models of consumer consumption/evaluation are critiqued. A model of consumption/evaluation is then develop that is tailored to the consumption of services. An example of the consumption/evaluation of services is offered to clarify the model.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines the relationships travelers form with travel companies and destinations via Facebook. Based on a sample of over 6000 online American travelers, the research finds that travelers have goal-driven motivations to enter such “friendships” with travel companies, from which they mostly expect deals. In contrast, relationships with destinations are more likely based on emotional attachment. The study further finds demographic differences in the likelihood to enter such relationships as well as differences based on Internet skills and travel experience, thus providing insights regarding basic profiles of fans and their motivations. Implications for customer relationship management are discussed.
Chapter
Full-text available
Previous studies have looked at relationship creation and maintenance between travellers and companies on social networking sites (SNSs), but have neglected relationship termination. This study examined travellers who “unliked” travel-related companies and destinations on facebook and found demographic and psychographic differences, as well as differences in characteristics related to travel planning, travel behaviour, and internet use to those who have never terminated such a relationship. Travellers have different motivations for unliking travel-related companies or destinations. Travellers routinely unlike travel-related companies for perceived faults in their social media presence (end of promotions, posting frequency or relevance), while travellers tend to unlike a destination based on offline experiences.
Article
Full-text available
The Role of Social Media in the Promotion of University Libraries Bahar Biçen Aras, MBA; Huriye Çolaklar, PhD Abstract This study seeks to investigate the types and frequency of social media tools' use in academic libraries to determine their developmental impact in Turkey. It involves 66 universities in the Marmara region in total – 24 (or 35%) are public and 42 (or 65%) are private - and only 60 of them have libraries.This data was collected by reviewing the libraries' web pages and analyzing them with some statistical tests via MS Excel. The results revealed that, in the Marmara region, 64% of libraries in private universities and 36% of libraries in public universities use social media tools. While 95% of public universities' libraries use social media tools, 5% of them do not use them, and while 90% of the libraries of private universities use these tools, 10% of them do not. In addition, it was found that the rate of the social media tools used by both groups of libraries are different: 33% use Foursquare, 26% use Facebook, 15% use Twitter, 5% use Google Plus, 4% use Blogs, YouTube, or Instagram, 3% use Pinterest or Flickr, 2% use Wordpress, and 1% use RSS. Full Text: PDF DOI: 10.15640/jlis.v3n2a5
Article
Full-text available
Consumer behaviour in the services context has increasingly attracted research attention across all three stages of the consumption process. However, post- purchase behaviour seems to dominate consumer behav-iour research in the services field, with the other two stages—the pre- purchase and service encounter stages—being under- investigated and requiring further research attention. moreover, the consumer behaviour literature in services has gradually become delinked from the goods per-spective and has moved on from merely adapting models developed in the goods literature and trying to apply and contrast them to a service context. new models and approaches (e.g., the servuction model, the servicescape/environmental approach and relationship marketing) have increasingly been developed from a service perspective to explain consumer behaviour related to service experiences.the development of relationship marketing and the service- dominant logic have moved into the center of current thinking and research in the services arena. the service- dominant logic provides a promising consumer and marketing foundation and merits further development and empirical work. furthermore, conceptual models integrating the service- dominant logic with existing consumer models and frameworks are needed to gain a better understanding of service consumer behaviour. for example, this chapter illustrates that the service- dominant logic, relationship marketing and brand relationship frameworks could be integrated by using relationships as a common denominator of the three perspectives.
Book
Full-text available
Creating and marketing value in today’s increasingly service and knowledge-intensive economy requires an understanding of the powerful design and packaging of ‘intangible’ benefits and products, high-quality service operations and customer information management processes, motivated and competent front-line employees, a loyal and profitable customer base, and the development and implementation of a coherent service strategy to transform these assets into improved business performance.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We posit that store image drives impulse buying through positive affect, negative affect and urge to buy impulsively. We hypothesize that shopping enjoyment would drive impulse buying through positive affect, while impulse buying tendency would drive impulse buying through urge and self-regulation would drive impulse buying through negative affect. A mall survey conducted to test our structural model established strong support for our model, finding that store image drives impulse buying. Retailers may therefore focus on enhancing store image. Theoretically we integrate the store image literature with impulse buying and also methodologically we incorporate the Schmid-Leiman factor structure in our model. EXTENDED ABSTRACT India is in the midst of a major retailing boom as this sector is growing at 25-30% per year (A.T.Kearney, 2007). Some retailers are going overboard in enhancing store image while some others are focused on offering low prices. Does it make sense at all to spend money on beefing up store image in price-conscious India? In this context, we study the effect of store image on impulse buying behavior. Prior research (Bellenger at al. 1978) has studied the effect of display on impulse buying. However, we aim to significantly extend this by incorporating store image along with personality variables to explain the impulse buying phenomenon in a holistic manner. Similarly, while several antecedents to impulse buying have been found, no one has looked at the effect of store image. Drawing on prior research, we posit that store image drives impulse buying through positive affect, negative affect and urge to buy impulsively. We also hypothesize that shopping enjoyment would drive impulse buying through positive affect, while impulse buying tendency would drive impulse buying through urge and self-regulation would drive impulse buying through negative affect. We build a comprehensive model of impulse buying through the above hypotheses. We tested our model using a structured questionnaire with mostly established scales modified slightly on 733 respondents to a mall survey in the city of Chennai, India. Store image was measured through its layout, music, employee friendliness and lighting. We obtained a response rate of around fifty percentage and also obtained good reliabilities for all our constructs. We tested the model using structural equation modeling with EQS 6.1 and obtained an excellent fit for our model (÷ 2
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how hoteliers view social media as a branding strategy and elucidates the motivational factors that determine the adoption of social media as a branding tool. It was based on a survey of 491 hotels from the USA, the UK, and Egypt that ranged from one-star to five-star hotels. Data on hotels’ locations, grades, numbers of rooms, positions of respondents, usages and perceptions of social media, types of social media used by hoteliers, and perceptions were collected. A major finding of this paper is that higher grade hotels have a higher probability of using social media. Furthermore, the study reveals that hotels in the USA and the UK use social media more often compared with those in Egypt.
Article
Full-text available
The literature has generally held that interpersonal-based service encounters strongly affect the relationship benefits, though technology-based service encounters are increasing importance. However, there has been no systematic comparison of the impact of two service encounters on relationship benefits. We test hypotheses about the respective effects of both service encounters on different relationship benefits in two services industries. The results provide support for the proposal model and indicate that there are higher special treatment benefits when the technology-based service encounter is higher. In addition, the interpersonal-based service encounter has significant positive effect on the confidence benefit. However, the technology-based service encounter leads to significant negative effect on the social benefit.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This research extends Mehrabian and Russell's Stimulus‐Organism‐Response model to include both external (i.e. reputation) and internal source of information (i.e. website quality) as stimuli which affect consumers' response systems. The purpose of this paper is to test a more comprehensive model consisting of reputation and website quality (stimuli), cognition and emotion (organism) and purchase intention (response). Design/methodology/approach In total, 219 usable questionnaires were obtained at a large Midwestern university through online survey. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed for data analyses. Findings Reputation had a significant positive effect on consumers' emotion and significant negative effect on perceived risk. All four website quality dimensions had significant negative effects on perceived risk and significant positive effects on emotion, except for customer service. Perceived risk had a significant negative effect on consumers' emotion, and both perceived risk and emotion had a significant impact on purchase intention. Research limitations/implications This research employed convenience sampling, which resulted in a majority of female respondents. The results may be generalized to a limited extent. Originality/value This study allows for empirical examination of the different effects of various components of retail websites on emotion, perceived risk and behavioral intentions. This research will add value to the related literature by filling the void of previous research and also will provide practical implications for online retailers on designing and maintaining positive consumer response. Strength of the research lies in its ecological validity, since respondents were not simply all reacting to the same single stimulus.
Article
Full-text available
Drawing upon the social media phenomena in both practical and academic arenas, this study explored patterns and trends of social media research over the past fourteen years across four disciplines. Findings exhibit a definite increasing number of social-media-related studies. This indicates that social media have gained incremental attention among scholars, and who have, in turn, been responding and keeping pace with the increased usage and impact of this new medium. The authors suggest that future scholarly endeavors emphasize prospective aspects of social media, foreseeing applications and technological progress and elaborating theory.
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The primary,objective of this article is to examine,the impact,of preconsumption,affect on consumers’,postpurchase,evaluations. More specifically, we wanted to investigate how the two basic dimensions,of affect — pleasure,and,arousal — contribute,to customer evaluations of different types of services. To test our hypotheses, four service settings reflecting the quadrants,in Russell’s Circumplex Model of Affect were,chosen. Data were,collected at two points of time: at the preprocess,stage and immediately,after the core service delivery. The results of this study suggest that pleasure and arousal, the two dimensions,of emotional,responses,to the preprocess,service environment, may interact in determining postpurchase evaluations. The interaction,effect was,observed,for global satisfaction judgments and for repeat purchase behavior, thus suggesting that the combined effects of arousal,and pleasure,need,to be considered,in the design,of preconsumption service settings. 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Recently, the study of consumption-related emotions has received in-
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the role of attraction in the initiation, development and maintenance of relationships. Building on the extant social exchange literature and incorporating recent work in the marketing domain, attraction in professional services is defined as the extent to which relational partners perceive past, current, future or potential partners as professionally appealing in terms of their ability to provide superior economic benefits, access to important resources and social compatibility. A conceptual model is developed that (1) posits the determinants of attraction as economic, social and resource-based, and (2) incorporates the proposed relationships between attraction, trust, commitment, interaction and accommoda- tion/assimilation. The legal sector provides the context for the empirical research reported here. Specifically, the paper addresses relationships between barristers, solicitors and barristers’ clerks. Findings on the determinants of attraction are presented and a data-driven model developed which substantially expands previous understandings. This model presents the conditions for attraction, the lens through which attraction is viewed, and the elements of attraction. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications and directions for further research.
Article
Full-text available
Despite hospitality and tourism researchers’ recent attempts on examining different aspects of online word-of-mouth [WOM], its impact on hotel sales remains largely unknown in the existing literature. To fill this void, we conduct a study to empirically investigate the impact of online consumer-generated reviews on hotel room sales. Utilizing data collected from the largest travel website in China, we develop a fixed effect log-linear regression model to assess the influence of online reviews on the number of hotel room bookings. Our results indicate a significant relationship between online consumer reviews and business performance of hotels.
Article
Full-text available
Previous research provides evidence for a conceptual distinction between self-assessed and objective knowledge, and relatively little is known about the relationship between knowledge and information search. The current research provides empirical evidence for differentiating the two knowledge types. Furthermore, it suggests that the relative effects of the two types of knowledge on pre-purchase information search depend on the type of information source. Consistent with prior research, this study shows that self-assessed knowledge is strongly linked to the consumer’s use of personal sources of information, including internal memory searches and word-of-mouth communication. Conversely, objective knowledge seems to have a positive impact on the consumer’s motivation to seek external information (e.g. newspaper articles, mass media sources) about the service provider. Managerial implications for professional service providers are discussed
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Restaurant operators can process a greater number of customers and increase revenues by reducing service encounter duration during high demand periods. Actions taken to reduce duration may be experienced by customers as an increase in the pace of the service encounter. While achieving a reduction in duration may be appealing from a revenue perspective, will customers' perceptions of the resulting pace of the service encounter negatively impact their satisfaction? The aim of this paper is to propose that, in the context of restaurant experiences that are hedonic and extended in nature, the overall relationship between perceived service encounter pace and satisfaction follows an inverted U‐shape. Design/methodology/approach Respondents were asked to recall a recent (i.e. within the last three weeks) restaurant experience, write a description of that experience, and then complete scales that measured their perceptions of pace and satisfaction with the experience. Findings The relationship between perceived pace and satisfaction has an inverted U‐shape. This holds both at the level of the overall service encounter and by service stage within the encounter. The effect of perceived pace on satisfaction is moderated by service stage, with a greater tolerance of a faster pace during the post‐process stage than during the pre‐process or in‐process stages. Practical implications The results of this study have implications for the application of revenue management strategies for duration control. Management need to consider the negative effect that service encounter pace can have on consumer satisfaction. Service stage should also be factored into strategy development for duration control. Originality/value This paper extends the wait time literature, demonstrating that as the perceived pace of the service encounter increases, satisfaction increases, but only up to a point, beyond which it decreases as perceived pace continues to increase.
Article
Full-text available
Discusses assumptions of multiple regression that are not robust to violation: linearity, reliability of measurement, homoscedasticity, and normality. Stresses the importance of checking assumptions. (SLD)
Article
Full-text available
The construction of a framework of the multiple consumer benefits of a sales promotion is discussed. Through a series of measurement studies, the authors find that monetary and nonmonetary promotions provide consumers with different levels of 3 hedonic benefits (opportunities for value expression, entertainment and exploration) and 3 utilitarian benefits (savings, higher product quality, and improved shopping convenience). To address the second question, the researchers develop a benefit congruency framework, which argues that a sales promotion's effectiveness is determined by the utilitarian or hedonic nature of the benefits it delivers and the congruence these benefits have with the promoted product. Among other results, 2 choice experiments show that as predicted for high-equity brands monetary promotions are more effective for utilitarian products than for hedonic products.
Article
Full-text available
The Internet has the ability to serve as a more powerful medium than traditional print or broadcast media because consumers are able to interact with products in 3D multimedia environments, thus simulating a new form of experience—a virtual experience. However, very little research has explored the impact of this new type of experience, especially in combination with indirect (advertising) and direct (product trial) experience. Therefore, this study presents the findings from two laboratory experiments designed to empirically test both the single and sequential impact of consumer exposure to indirect, direct, and virtual experiences on brand attitude, product knowledge, and purchase intention when evaluating a digital video camcorder. The results indicate that exposure to a virtual experience preceding both indirect and direct product experience is more effective at influencing brand attitudes. The research proposition is that virtual experience from 3D product visualization is more similar to direct experience than to indirect experience in terms of consumer learning. Implications for business-to-consumer Internet marketing and e-commerce are discussed. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Full-text available
Social media are playing an increasingly important role as information sources for travelers. The goal of this study is to investigate the extent to which social media appear in search engine results in the context of travel-related searches. The study employed a research design that simulates a traveler's use of a search engine for travel planning by using a set of pre-defined keywords in combination with nine U.S. tourist destination names. The analysis of the search results showed that social media constitute a substantial part of the search results, indicating that search engines likely direct travelers to social media sites. This study confirms the growing importance of social media in the online tourism domain. It also provides evidence for challenges faced by traditional providers of travel-related information. Implications for tourism marketers in terms of online marketing strategies are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Many consumers consult online reviews before making (online) travel arrangements. Yet, little is known about the impact of these reviews on consumer decision making. This research applies consideration set theory to model the impact of online hotel reviews on consumer choice. An experimental study (N = 168) that includes review valence (positive vs. negative reviews), hotel familiarity (well-known vs. lesser-known hotels), and reviewer expertise (expert vs. non-expert reviewers) as independent factors shows that on average, exposure to online reviews enhances hotel consideration in consumers. This is because positive as well as negative reviews increase consumer awareness of hotels, whereas positive reviews, in addition, improve attitudes toward hotels. These effects are stronger for lesser-known hotels. Reviewer expertise has only a minor – positive – influence on review impact.
Article
Online activity in consumer’s behavior is gradually growing at a very fast rate with the tremendous involvement in social media and user created content on sites, like Face book, blogs, YouTube, LinkedIn, etc. In businesses, social media is generally used to spread the awareness about the products and services, promoting brands, to retain the existing customers and to find new prospects. Social media provide better relationship with the customers for the business.
Article
Impulse buying generates over $4 billion in annual sales volume in the United States. With the growth of e-commerce and television shopping channels, consumers have easy access to impulse purchasing opportunities, but little is known about this sudden, compelling, hedonically complex purchasing behavior in non-Western cultures. Yet cultural factors moderate many aspects of consumer's impulsive buying behavior, including self-identity, normative influences, the suppression of emotion, and the postponement of instant gratification. From a multi-country survey of consumers in Australia, United States, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Malaysia, our analyses show that both regional level factors (individualism-collectivism) and individual cultural difference factors (independent-interdependent self-concept) systematically influence impulsive purchasing behavior.
Article
Recently, there happens many purchasing cases encouraged by friends` recommendation in SNS (Social Network Service). This study investigates the effect of friend recommendation on consumers` purchasing heuristic. For this purpose, we compare the effect of friend recommendation with consumer recommendation in terms of trustworthy, specialty, relevancy. Usually, the frequency of friend recommendation is far lower than that of consumer recommendation. Hence, we examine how the effect of information source (friend recommendation or consumer recommendation) is moderated by the frequency of recommendation, as well. As results, this study finds out that, under the same frequency, friend recommendation does not have significantly stronger effect on the purchasing heuristic, although friend recommendation is evidenced as one of significant heuristic inducers. However, in terms of trustworthy, friend recommendation is significantly superior to the consumer recommendation. Moreover, under sufficiently higher frequency, friend recommendation works as better heuristic factor than consumer recommendation. The results deliver managerial implications in the perspective of understanding consumers` purchasing decisions and responding strategies of firms.
Article
The Internet has expanded rapidly and shifted from being solely an information access tool to being an interaction tool used by individuals to discover and share content, opinions, and information. To develop information connections, individuals are using a variety of technologies to access content and join virtual communities on various social networking sites. Of interest to researchers and organizations is the individuals’ perception of social networking sites using the identified dimensions of ease-of-use, usefulness, information quality, feeling, and usage intention. In this Web-based study, 226 participants from a professional discussion group provided information regarding their perceptions of social networking sites and access tool usage. The differences in these perceptions based upon the various access methods and various social networking tools are analyzed and reported. The results from simple main effect tests showed that differences exist in both access methods and social networking tool usage. The usage patterns based upon the access methods can have an impact on the usage behavior of social network sites. High-usage groups have the highest mean values for the perception dimension of ease-of-use for both access method and social networking sites. This suggests that organizations should accommodate and energize mobile users and design changes to their social networking sites to facilitate interaction and information sharing. Copyright
Article
Online community is an effective tool for building the relationship with consumers. Many hospitality firms (i.e., hotels and restaurants) have utilized online communities a new marketing channel to reach their consumers. Previous studies have identified four participation benefits (functional, social, psychological, and hedonic) in the member participation of community activities. In addition to these four factors, this study also added monetary benefit as a predictor of member participation. Demographic factors (i.e., age and biological gender) were proposed to influence the relationships between benefits and community participation. As results of member participation in online communities, trust and commitment toward hotel or restaurant brands have been considered as important factors that enhance consumer relationships with hospitality brands. The purpose of this study was to investigate benefit factors of member participation and the relationships between community participation, brand trust, and brand commitment in hotel and restaurant online communities. The present study investigated the conceptual model in two contexts, including hotel and restaurant Facebook fan pages. The data on the hotel Facebook fan pages were collected from both the panel of an online research company and the alumni of Iowa State University; whereas the data on the restaurant Facebook fan pages were only collected from the alumni of Iowa State University. After conducting confirmatory factor analysis, the present study identified four benefit factors (functional, hedonic, monetary, and social-psychological benefits) as the predictors of member participation in hotel and restaurant Facebook fan pages. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the conceptual model. Based on the results of SEM, hotel and restaurant studies showed different results. The results of the hotel study indicated that three benefit factors (functional, hedonic, and social-psychological benefits) positively influenced members' community participation; member participation positively influenced their trust toward a hotel brand. Biological gender had a significant moderating effect on the relationship between functional benefits and community participation in the hotel study. The results of the restaurant study indicated that two benefit factors (hedonic and social-psychological benefits) positively influenced members' community participation; member participation positively influenced their trust and commitment toward a restaurant brand; members' brand trust also positively influenced their commitment toward the restaurant brand. The findings of this study provide significant insights for the researchers and marketers. From the theoretical perspective, this is the first empirical research that investigated consumer benefits and responses (i.e., community participation, brand trust, and brand commitment) in online communities managed by hospitality firms. Thus, the study contributes to the understanding of consumer behavior in social media. From the practical perspective, the study suggests some strategies to effectively design hotel and restaurant Facebook fan pages, which can strengthen the relationships with current consumers and attract potential consumers.
Article
This article seeks to explore the domain of service encounter quality as it exists in a non-Western culture and proceeds to develop a culturally sensitive multiple-item scale, PAKSERV. Both classical testing methods and item response theory measures were used for scale purification. The scale shows high internal reliability, convergent and discriminant validity at the scale level, and moderate to high category discrimination and information content at the item level. Multiple antecedents of encounter quality are discussed to explain the variation in encounter quality evaluations. Hypotheses are developed about the impact of a personal value system, national culture orientation, and consumer context variables on how consumers assign the importance weights to the dimensions of encounter quality. Using conjoint analysis, hypotheses are tested and quality management guidelines for service managers are developed.
Article
This study is designed to: (a) investigate whether demographic and behavioral characteristics differ significantly among groups of online virtual community members; (b) identify factors that affect the community members’ loyalty; and (c) determine if the loyalty to an online virtual community would lead members to purchase products. A modified psychological sense of community scale coined by Davidson and Cotter (J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 116 (7) (1986)), and principles offered by McMillan and Chavis (J. Community Psychol. 14 (1986)), Bressler and Grantham (Community Commerce, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000), and McMillan (J. Community Psychol. 24 (4) (1996) 315) is used as a foundation to develop new measurements for this study. The four factors of membership, influence and relatedness, integration and fulfillment of need, and shared emotional connection were found to be associated with a sense of online virtual community. Sixteen variables were found to explain the four factors. This study was based on empirical investigation of 351 travel related online virtual community members. Factor analysis, ANOVA, and multiple regression procedures were used to test the hypotheses.
Article
Explains how social scientists can evaluate the reliability and validity of empirical measurements, discussing the three basic types of validity: criterion related, content, and construct. In addition, the paper shows how reliability is assessed by the retest method, alternative-forms procedure, split-halves approach, and internal consistency method.
The need to acquire restaurant services may be motivated by various reasons but, whatever the reason, the potential customer has to search for information on the desired service in order to compare the alternatives and make the best purchase decision. Knowing how potential clients make this information search is fundamental for restaurant company managers so that they can carry out marketing communications strategies that facilitate the selection of their restaurant by potential customers. This paper examines the external information search process carried out by potential customers. It aims to determine what information search activities are carried out and what the motivating factors are for these activities. A survey was used to analyse the services offered by restaurants in the city of Zaragoza in the north-east of Spain. The results of the survey and implications for restaurant managers are discussed.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore why young people use and participate in social networking sites (SNSs) with specific reference to Bebo. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative approach is employed in this paper with a view to exploring the uses and gratifications (U and G) that girls aged 12‐14 years, both seek and obtain from the Bebo SNS. The research is conducted in a school setting in Ireland. Findings – The findings indicate that the participants are actively using Bebo for their own personal motives and gratifications in terms of presenting and managing a certain identity and persona in a social context. Furthermore, the relatively impersonal nature of the online environment is seen to especially facilitate the young participants in negotiating the practicalities and difficulties that can arise offline, in terms of forging identities and managing relationships. Originality/value – U and G theory has attracted criticism in terms of a perceived limitation that it only serves to offer lists of reasons as to why audiences attend to the media, and furthermore, a perception that much of the extant U and G research has desisted from discerning between gratifications sought (GS) and gratifications obtained (GO). This paper affirms the appropriateness of the U and G theoretical approach in the context of online research. The authors conclude that SNS such as Bebo facilitate the participants in this paper in executing personal aims (for example, identity creation and management) with a view to obtaining certain gratifications (for example, peer acceptance). Therefore, a clear distinction but inextricable link is demonstrated between the GS and GO from participating in SNS.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for analyzing the dynamics of innovations emanating from ICT‐based service encounters. Many innovations are based on the direct encounter between employees and customers, and the paper aims to extend the analysis of such encounters to ICT‐based encounters. Design/methodology/approach The paper discusses and merges different approaches in the existing literature and examines different modes of ICT‐based customer/employee interaction to construct a framework that will help understand how innovations are developed on the basis of a service encounter, which is ICT‐based. Findings The implementation of ICT in services contributes greatly to the innovation of services, but in order to better understand innovations in ICT‐based employee/customer interaction, a “service approach” is one of the important ways to move forward. Research limitations/implications The service encounter approach offers a promising research avenue for understanding innovations from the ICT‐based service encounter. However, it needs to be adapted to the ICT‐based context and supplemented with additional approaches especially in the cases of ICT‐based services where the users also are producers. Originality/value The paper combines a service innovation approach with a service encounter approach and, furthermore, extends this combination to ICT‐based service encounters.
Article
Impulse buying generates over $4 billion in annual sales volume in the United States. With the growth of e-commerce and television shopping channels, consumers have easy access to im- pulse purchasing opportunities, but little is known about this sudden, compelling, hedonically complex purchasing behavior in non-Western cultures. Yet cultural factors moderate many as- pects of consumer's impulsive buying behavior, including self-identity, normative influences, the suppression of emotion, and the postponement of instant gratification. From a multi-country survey of consumers in Australia, United States, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Malaysia, our analyses show that both regional level factors (individualism-collectivism) and individual cul- tural difference factors (independent -interdependent self-concept) systematically influence impulsive purchasing behavior.
Article
Purpose The objective is two‐fold. The first is to describe contemporary and future penetration (i.e. analysis and understanding) in service encounter research. The other is to describe contemporary and future abstraction in service quality research. Design/methodology/approach The paper provides a conceptual discussion of new aspects of research into service encounters and service quality. Findings There are still flaws in the contemporary penetration of service encounters and the contemporary abstraction of the service quality construct. Research limitations/implications Service encounters and service quality pertain not only to human interactions, but also to the interaction between individuals and self‐service technology. The new aspects of service encounters and service quality described here are restricted to the interaction between individuals. It is argued that an extended penetration of service encounters, and an extended abstraction of the service quality construct, taken together, provide great potential for future research opportunities in services marketing. Practical implications The aspects of penetration discussed here have the potential to provide a more sophisticated understanding of the complexity and dynamics of service encounters. The aspects of abstraction described here have the potential to contribute to a more sophisticated level of measurement of the service quality construct. Originality/value A two‐fold approach is suggested that goes beyond the current state of the art in terms of penetration of service encounters and abstraction of the service quality construct. This is likely to trigger and encourage innovative research designs and alternative methodological approaches to new research problems. This might also stimulate innovative analytical techniques that could produce groundbreaking research findings, with important implications for practice.
Article
Purpose Although the inplementation of online social networking (OSN) within the hospitality industry is relatively new, its parameters possess unique implications for hospitality industry constituencies including guests, staff members, and management. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution, scope and types of online social networks and potential implications for hospitality businesses. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on an in‐depth review of literature, including intended and unintended consequences of social media. Findings While social networking can assist a hospitality firm in strengthening guest loyalty and satisfaction, it may also expose itself to unfair criticism and unfounded speculation. In addition, some hospitality firms have sponsored coworker sites in an attempt to incentivize interactivity by encouraging peer‐to‐peer and staff‐to‐administrator participation, only to risk exposure of negative relationships and strained working conditions. Research limitations/implications The literature related to hospitality OSNs is relatively sparse and thus this paper is intended to provide a basis for future investigation. Originality/value The literature related to hospitality OSNs is relatively sparse and thus this paper is intended to provide a basis for future investigation.
Article
With the growing importance of the Internet for travel planning, understanding the online domain of tourism is vital in order to identify the challenges and potential solutions for effectively marketing travel destinations. This study focuses attention on understanding the representation of the tourism domain on the Internet. Analyses of search results from a major search engine were conducted in order to assess: 1) the visibility of destination-related information; 2) the visibility of various industry sectors within destinations; and 3) the power structure of websites that represent a specific destination. The results show that although there is a huge amount of information indexed, travelers can only access a tiny fraction of the domain. Also, there are a relatively small number of websites dominating the search results. This study provides a number of important insights into the challenges facing the tourism industry with respect to representing a destination online.
Article
Previous research has shown that people are influenced by others when making decisions. This work presents three studies examining herding in product choices on the Internet. The first two studies addressed how two cues frequently found on the Internet, that is, sales volume and customer reviews, influence consumer on-line product choices. The third study examined the relative effectiveness of two recommendation sources. The experimental results revealed that subjects used the choices and evaluations of others as cues for making their own choices. However, herding effects are offset significantly by negative comments from others. Additionally, the recommendations of other consumers influence the choices of subjects more effectively than recommendations from an expert. Finally, implications of this work are discussed. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Online travel community has been considered central to models of Internet marketing and electronic commerce in the travel industry. The successful operation of an online travel community depends on the understanding of member participation in and active contribution to the online travel community. This study evaluates an integrated model of an online travel community using structural equation modeling. The results of the study indicate that participation in the travel community is driven mainly by social and hedonic benefits, while level of active contribution can be explained by three instrumental, efficacy, and expectancy related incentives. Implications for the development of a dynamic and sustainable online travel community are discussed.
Article
We investigate two key group-level determinants of virtual community participation—group norms and social identity—and consider their motivational antecedents and mediators.We also introduce a marketing-relevant typology to conceptualize virtual communities, based on the distinction between network-based and small-group-based virtual communities. Our survey-based study, which was conducted across a broad range of virtual communities, supports the proposed model and finds further that virtual community type moderates consumers' reasons for participating, as well as the strengths of their impact on group norms and social identity. We conclude with a consideration of managerial and research implications of the findings.
Article
Advances in information and communication technologies have fundamentally heightened organizational interest in knowledge as a critical strategic resource. However, organizations are finding that members are often reluctant to exchange knowledge with others in the organization. This paper examines why. We review current knowledge management practices and find that organizations are treating knowledge as a private good, owned either by the organization or by organization members. We propose that knowledge can also be considered a public good, owned and maintained by a community. When knowledge is considered a public good, knowledge exchange is motivated by moral obligation and community interest rather than by narrow self-interest. We provide support for the public good perspective by providing results from a survey examining why people participate and share knowledge in three electronic communities of practice. The results indicate that people participate primarily out of community interest, generalized reciprocity and pro-social behavior.