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Abstract

Bedal, L.-A., K.L. Gleason, J.G. Schryver, and (with reports by J. H. Ramsay and J.Bowsher). 2007. “The Petra Garden and Pool Complex, 2003-2005.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 51: 151–176.
... The history of Petra's monumental architecture and historical development has been described by many authors [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Some scholars have concentrated on technical and location aspects of water supply and distribution systems within Petra [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21], while other surveys [16,[22][23][24][25][26][27] have concentrated on the water control and distribution technology available to Nabataean water engineers from Roman and other eastern and western civilizations through trade and information transfer contacts during Petra's expansion period (100 BC-AD 300) period. This paper was designed to add further depth to the hydraulic engineering technology used in the design and operation of Petra's three major pipeline water supply systems serving the urban center of Petra: The Siq system sourced from the Ain Mousa spring, the Ain Braq system, and the Wadi Mousa system. ...
... Petra's openness to foreign influence is demonstrated in the city's monumental architecture that reflect elements of Greek, Persian, Roman, and Egyptian architectural styles integrated into Nabataean monuments [1][2][3][4][5][6]28,29]. Later Roman occupation of Petra past 106 AD exhibits Roman pipeline technologies employed to expand the marketplace, the Paradeisos Pool Complex [8,9], and city precincts responding to increased water demands for an expanding population as the city's status advanced as a key trade and emporium center. Petra's ability to manage scarce water resources to provide constant potable water supply for its permanent population of~20,000 citizens with Examination of three of Petra's major water conveyance pipeline systems using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis permitted discovery of the rationale behind design selections utilized by Nabataean hydraulic engineers. ...
... The superimposed grid system (A, B, C; 1, 2, 3) defines 1.0-km 2 grid boxes to enable the location of numbered Appendix A features. Figure 1 represents the present state of knowledge of the location of pipeline structures from personal field exploration and survey results from previous site explorers [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]18,21]. Due to erosion and soil deposition landscape degradations over~2000 years, as well as reuse and pillaging of piping elements by later inhabitants of the area, many terracotta pipeline sections are now missing from their original holding channels, obscured by subterranean placement, or are yet to be discovered. ...
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The principal water supply and distribution systems of the World Heritage site of Petra in Jordan were analyzed to bring forward water engineering details not previously known in the archaeological literature. The three main water supply pipeline systems sourced by springs and reservoirs (the Siq, Ain Braq, and Wadi Mataha pipeline systems) were analyzed for their different pipeline design philosophies that reflect different geophysical landscape challenges to provide water supplies to different parts of urban Petra. The Siq pipeline system’s unique technical design reflects use of partial flow in consecutives sections of the main pipeline to support partial critical flow in each section that reduce pipeline leakage and produce the maximum flow rate the Siq pipeline can transport. An Ain Braq pipeline branch demonstrated a new hydraulic engineering discovery not previously reported in the literature in the form of an offshoot pipeline segment leading to a water collection basin adjacent to and connected to the main water supply line. This design eliminates upstream water surges arising from downstream flow instabilities in the two steep pipelines leading to a residential sector of Petra. The Wadi Mataha pipeline system is constructed at the critical angle to support the maximum flow rate from a reservoir. The analyses presented for these water supply and distribution systems brought forward aspects of the Petra urban water supply system not previously known, revising our understanding of Nabataean water engineers’ engineering knowledge.
... On Egyptian gardens with pools (most without islands, but often with pavilions nearby), see WILKINSON 1998;NIELSEN 2001, 172;180;BEDAL 2004, 110-111;128-133;KAPPEL & LOEBEN 2011, 7-12;and LOEBEN, supra, 32. 94 BEDAL 2004;BEDAL, GLEASON, & SCHRYVER 2007;2011, Fig. 1;BEDAL et al. 2013;EVYASAF 2010, 33-35. occupied the rectangular terrace north of the pool. ...
... Kovach, 1987;Amiran et al. 1994;Ambraseys et al. 1994;Guidoboni, 1994) causing heavy damage in Petra. Strong earthquakes occurred in 363 and 551 caused massive disruption at the TWL and other major temples in Petra (Russel, 1980;Guidoboni, 1994;Bedal et al., 2007). According to studies focused on seismic hazard assessment in Jordan (Jimenez 2004, Jimenez et al. 2005, the study area is characterized by moderate seismicity. ...
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The paper describes the main outcomes of a multidisciplinary study conducted to support the Jordanian authorities in developing a long-term management and conservation strategy for the Temple of the Winged Lions (Petra, Jordan). Field investigations included geotechnical tests, geoelectrical surveys, passive and active seismic tests. Geophysical methods were performed to reconstruct lithological and structural features of the subsoil. Passive seismic recordings were implemented to highlight possible seismic motion amplification phenomena and estimate the fundamental resonance frequency of the site through a spectral ratios technique. Active seismic tests were implemented aiming at the reconstruction of shear wave profiles across the site. Finally, a 1D numerical analysis of the seismic site response, based on the subsoil model reconstructed by means of geophysical investigation, was carried out in order to address future seismic risk mitigation actions for the temple.
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The Petra Garden and Pool Complex in the ancient city center has been dated based on stratigraphy and an array of diagnostic finds. The present study of the coarse wares from selected contexts at the site (augmented by amphorae and fine wares) aims to show corroborative evidence from the ceramic assemblage to support the dating of three major phases in the history of the complex: the construction of the monumental Nabataean garden and pool complex in the end of the 1st century BCE, the Roman renovations in the early 2nd century CE and, last but not least, the second destruction that ended the occupation of the complex, most probably at the end of the 6th century CE. The overall purpose of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge of Petra coarse-ware pottery from the Nabataean and Roman periods.
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