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... Presence of the heavy metals in the rhizosphere above the optimum levels not only limits yield and quality, protein and oil contents in particular, in food legumes, but these metals can accumulate in grains causing health concerns (Table 5). 43,44,123 Heavy metals, particularly Cd, Pb, Cr, and As are the main concern. Cd is toxic, causes oxidative stress in plants and is highly toxic to plants, animals, and humans. ...
... 125 Soybean has more potential for absorption and accumulation of heavy metals than cereals or other legumes such as common bean and peas. 123,126 The potential health risks associated with the accumulation of heavy metals, particularly Cd, in soybean cultivated in contaminated areas have been assessed. 123,127 Beans accumulate heavy metals in grains. ...
... 123,126 The potential health risks associated with the accumulation of heavy metals, particularly Cd, in soybean cultivated in contaminated areas have been assessed. 123,127 Beans accumulate heavy metals in grains. 128 It is reported that pea grains accumulate Fe and Zn while lentil grains have low levels of Pb. 123 The effects of Cr, Cd, and Cu was studied on yield and grain protein content in mung bean, and the effects on grain protein content varied. ...
Article
Grain quality and composition in food legumes are influenced by abiotic stresses. This review discusses the influence of abiotic stresses on grain composition and quality in food grains. Grain protein declines under salt stress due to the restricted absorption of nitrate from the soil solution. Grain phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium contents declined whereas sodium and chloride increased. However, under drought, grain protein increased whereas the oil contents were decreased. For example, among fatty acids, oleic acid content increased; however, linoleic and/or linolenic acids were decreased under drought. Heat stress increased grain oil content whereas grain protein was decreased. Low temperature during late pod-filling reduced starch, protein, soluble sugar, fat, and fiber contents. However, an elevated CO 2 level improved omega-3 fatty acid content at the expense of omega-6 fatty acids. Crop management and improvement strategies, next generation sequencing, and gene manipulation can help improve quality of food legumes under abiotic stresses.
... Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is one of the world's most important economic legume crops. It was demonstrated to have a higher potential for absorption and accumulation of HMs compared to numerous other crops including wheat (Lavado et al. 2001), rice (Li et al. 2008), bean and peas (Angelova et al. 2003). Several investigations have assessed the potential of health risks involved in the accumulation of HMs in soybean cultivated in contaminated areas (Angelova et al. 2003;Shute & Macfie 2006 easily taken up by plants, and its accumulation results in various toxicity symptoms such as root and shoot growth inhibition, leaf chlorosis, morphological alterations and plant death (Yadav 2010). ...
... It was demonstrated to have a higher potential for absorption and accumulation of HMs compared to numerous other crops including wheat (Lavado et al. 2001), rice (Li et al. 2008), bean and peas (Angelova et al. 2003). Several investigations have assessed the potential of health risks involved in the accumulation of HMs in soybean cultivated in contaminated areas (Angelova et al. 2003;Shute & Macfie 2006 easily taken up by plants, and its accumulation results in various toxicity symptoms such as root and shoot growth inhibition, leaf chlorosis, morphological alterations and plant death (Yadav 2010). Cd toxicity damages the photosynthetic apparatus, decreases carbon assimilation, induces alteration of cell cycle and division and disturbs cellular redox control (reviewed by DalCorso et al. 2010). ...
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Plants have a potential for the uptake and accumulation of essential and non-essential trace elements. The ability to take up and tolerate metals varies between and within species as well as between metals. For most metals, the mechanisms involved in plant tolerance, uptake and accumulation are still not fully known and it is not known to what extent the plant response is metal-specific rather than a general stress response. In the present study, the growth response of soybean to Cd, As, Al and NaCl was compared and contrasted to simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker analysis results for Cda1, a dominant gene located in a major quantitative trait locus that regulates Cd accumulation in soybean, to evaluate the hypothesis that general effect patterns are induced by the individual metals. Principal component analysis revealed that the root growth response was most diverse for Al exposure and decreased in the order of Al > As > Cd > NaCl. NaCl did not exert a differentiating effect, indicating response mechanisms similar, at least partially, to metal exposure. The applied stressors yielded a distinguishable pattern of root responses, indicating the potential of such screens to identify agents acting similarly or differently. The SSR marker analysis also facilitated characterization of the Cd accumulation potential of the 22 soybean cultivars studied, and thereby identification of cultivars with potential health risk under cultivation in Cd-contaminated soils.
... In general, numerous investigations have focused on estimating the potential human health risks of vegetables (Kachenko and Singh, 2006;Hao et al., 2009), rice and wheat grain in contaminated sites. Little attention has been paid to the assessment of health risks via consumption of soybean (Angelova et al., 2003;Shute and Macfie, 2006), although soybean is a staple food in diets of many parts of the world. Bojinova et al. (1994) reported that soybean and other beans belong to a group of crops that strongly accumulate heavy metals. ...
... Exceptionally high concentrations of Zn (310.00 mg kg −1 for FD and 275.00 mg kg −1 for ZX) were observed in the leaves of soybean, followed by roots, stems, seeds, and pods. The above results were similar to the findings of Angelova et al. (2003) that Zn and Cd were accumulated largely in the leaves of peas and beans grown in soils near the nonferrous metal works in Bulgaria. Previous study found that the translocation of foliar absorbed Pb to fruits or seeds of plants was insignificant (Chamberlain, 1983), while other literature reported that cereal grains could accumulate substantial amounts of Pb via foliar absorption (Bi et al., 2009). ...
Article
Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni in soybean (Glycine max L.) grown near the Dabaoshan Mine were investigated, and their potential risk to the health of inhabitants was estimated. In the Fandong (FD) and Zhongxin (ZX) villages, which are near the Dabaoshan mineral deposit, concentrations of Pb (0.34 mg kg−1 for FD), Cd (0.23 mg kg−1 for ZX) and Cr (1.14 and 1.75 mg kg−1 for FD and ZX, respectively) in the seeds of soybean exceeded the tolerance limit set by Chinese standards. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) from consumption of soybean seeds for FD inhabitants were 0.570, 0.170, 38.550, 142.400, 1.910 and 14.530 μg d−1 kg−1 boby weight for Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni, respectively. Our results indicate that soybeans grown in the vicinity of the Dabaoshan Mine accumulate some metals, and the seeds pose a potential health risk to the local inhabitants.
... These results lead to the conclusion that some plants such as garlic or onions have evolved mechanism to translocate the high amont of Mn to upper part of plant or to reduce Mn entry into the plant roots which may also represent some adaptive mechanisms of plant to stress caused by high Mn content in soil. Angelova et al. (2003) studied the absorption of heavy metals at several food crops (beans, lentils, chickpeas and soybeans) and they observed that the examined species, grown under the same agroecological conditions, differed considerably in their ability to absorb heavy metals from soil. Also, many scientists have found significant differences in the content of Mn and other heavy metals in different parts of the same plant (Cataldo et al., 1981;Guala et al., 2010;Skorbiłowicz et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Introduction and objective: Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for the plant and it is necessary for maintain physiological processes, notably photosynthesis, but its higher content in the soil may negative affect the plant, and consequently human health. The objective of this study was to examine the Mn accumulation in edible parts of tested food crops growing on soils near two Mn ore deposits in Bužim municipality (active Mn mine Bužim and Mn ore deposits Radostovo). Methods: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used to determine Mn content in soils and edible parts of different food crops; onions, cabbage strawberry, garlic, potato, pepper, beans and raspberry. Results: The content of Mn available forms, and accumulation in edible parts of examined food crops was significantly higher in soils in the area around Mn mine Bužim although the content of the total Mn in the soils at the site Radostovo were much higher. Considering that soils in the area around Mn mine Bužim are much more acidic than soils at the site Radostovo, it is evident that soil pH is one of the key factors in the assessment of Mn availability in soil. The results of study also showed that the content of Mn in edible parts of all tested food crops did not exceed the toxic value for Mn in plants (400 mg/kg). Conclusions: From the point of view of soil pollution with Mn, both examined sites can be considered suitable for production of healthy food.
... The soybean roots can accumulate the highest value of Pb-294.8 mg/kg, Zn-644.4 mg/kg, Cu-34.4 mg/kg, Cd-10.9 mg/kg (Angelova et al., 2003). In the roots of soybean were fixed and accumulated a great part of the heavy metals that had entered the soil, as soybean plants form a powerful root system with strong absorbing ability on depth as well as on width, including a great volume of soil. ...
Chapter
The modern situation regarding possible production of biodiesel feed stock from the trace element contaminated lands in Ukraine has been studied. This chapter presents the monitoring of heavy metal pollution in Ukraine which is based on the available literature of national and international scientific reports. The monitoring analysis shown Pb and Cr and Cu are dominant contaminants /pollutants. The regions of Ukraine as Kharkiv, Zaporizhia, Donetsk and Chernivtsi regions got a high level of Cr because there high concentration of industries. At the many areas of Ukrainian territory content of Ni, Zn and Co in the soil less than maximal permissible level. In Ukraine the sunflower, rapeseed and soybean are the most widespread oilseed crops which possible to use as for phytoremediation process and production of biodiesel and biogas. During last year’s Ukraine managed to improve oilseed yields (especially rapeseed) after their initial decline following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The biodiesel produced from oil seed crops has been discussed. The source of biodiesel usually depends on the crops amenable to the regional climate. The comparative characteristics of differ quality parameters of biodiesel from USA, Brasil, EU countries and Ukraine has been presented.
... The phosphate uptake system is extremely efficient, producing a greater difference in concentration between soil and cell than for any other minerals (Bondada and Ma, 2003). The accumulation of heavy metals depends on the type of the plants and above all on the parts of the plants and their surface (Angelova et al., 2003). ...
Conference Paper
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The aim of this paper was to propose a concept for in situ conservation of true service tree population in the mountains of Börzsöny, where we can find the largest continuous forest cover in Hungary. The true service tree is light demanding, drought tolerant scattered broadleaved forest specie. We found 159 true service tree individuals on 39 localities. We propose circle cuts around true service tree individuals to improve the light conditions for this light demanding tree specie. Through light condition improvement we induce fruiting of the mature individuals, what is the first condition for generative reproduction and conservation of this rare specie. Also economic motivation of forestry subjects is essential to have long lasting good conservation results of true service tree in he mountains of Börzsöny .
... This may be because the seed is well protected from various stresses (Li et al., 2004). Angelova et al. (2003) reported that the heavy metal accumulation in the seeds of leguminous crops grown at 0.1 and 15 km from a pollution source was considerably lower than it was in the roots and leaves. Based on the concentrations of the heavy metals in the aerial parts of the four plants and on the sources of air pollution and heavy metals in Riyadh city that are caused by traffic and industrial activities, the plants grown near industrial complexes and heavy traffic areas had the highest heavy metal concentrations in their leaves, pods and grains. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of the continuously increasing anthropogenic activities around Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on the accumulation of heavy metals in leguminous crops. This study determined whether four legume crops, Pisum sativum L., Vicia faba L., Glycine max and Vigna sinensis, could accumulate the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in their leaves, pods and grains during the summer when grown under conditions with ambient air pollution from heavy traffic and industrial activities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effect of the air pollution was examined by quantifying the protein and trace element Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in the leaves, pods and grains of the four plant species. Analysis of the results indicated that air pollution significantly increased the heavy metal concentrations in the leaves, pods and grains. Toxic concentrations of the heavy metals were found in the plants grown at L3, L4 and L5. In conclusion, the air pollution increases as the traffic, industrial activities and population density increase.
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Regular lentil consumption may improve health and prevent certain chronic diseases. Lentils have high antioxidant activity and contain proteins, essential amino acids, fiber, minerals, and bioactive compounds. However, few studies have investigated the physicochemical characteristics of lentils when subjected to various soaking and cooking methods. We aimed to evaluate the effects of different hydration and cooking practices on the hydration coefficient, cooking time, primary metabolism compounds (lipids, proteins, fibers, carbohydrates), energy value, soluble protein, color and texture characteristics, amino acid and mineral profiles, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and antinutritional factors (phytates and tannins) in lentils. Hydration water was preheated to initial temperatures of 25°C or 90°C. Lentils pre-hydrated with water at 90°C needed less cooking time, obtained greater softness, and had less decreases in amino acids, minerals, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity.
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The effect of Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis on plant growth, toxicological variables and Cu bioaccumulation was studied in white lupin and soybean plants treated with 1.6, 48, 96 and 192μM Cu. In both species, those plants grown in the presence of root nodule-forming symbiotic Bradyrhizobium showed less root and shoot growth reduction, plus greater translocation of Cu to the shoot, than those grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. The effective added concentrations of Cu that reduced shoot and root dry weight by 50% (EC50), and the critical toxic concentration that caused a 10% reduction in plant growth (CTC10%), were higher in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, and were in general higher in the roots whether the plants were grown with or without these bacteria. The production of malondialdehyde and total thiols was stimulated by Cu excess in the shoots and roots of white lupin grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, but mainly in those without the symbionts. In contrast, in soybean, the increases in malondialdehyde and total thiols associated with rising Cu concentration were a little higher (1.2-5.0 and 1.0-1.6 times respectively) in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium than without. Finally, the organ most sensitive to Cu excess was generally the shoot, both in white lupin and soybean grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Further, Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis appears to increase the tolerance to Cu excess in both legumes, but mainly in white lupin; plant growth was less reduced and CTC10% and EC50 values increased compared to plants grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Bradyrhizobium N2 fixation in both legumes would therefore seem to increase the phytoremediation potential of these plants when growing on Cu-contaminated sites.
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Cadmium (Cd) is a pollutant heavy metal that is naturally present in soils and highly toxic to biological organism even at low concentrations. Significant differences were observed among soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars in the uptake of Cd by root and its posterior translocation to the shoot and grain. The aim of this research was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed Cd concentration in soybean. A single population derived from a cross between the cultivars Harosoy and Fukuyutaka, which differ in seed Cd levels, were used for QTL analysis. The population consisted of 93 F(5:6) recombinant inbred lines (RILs), 93 F(6:7) RILs, 93 F(7:8) RILs, and 100 F(6:7) near-isogenic lines (NILs). A total of 220 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were genetically mapped on the 93 F(5:6) RILs population and clustered into 22 molecular linkage groups (MLGs) which covered a genetic distance of approximately 2400 centimorgans (cM). Analysis revealed one major OIL (cd1) on Chromosome 9 (MLG K) associated with seed Cd concentration. The cd1 was stable across years-generations and accounted for 82, 57, and 75% of the genetic variation in the RILs populations tested in the field. Effect of cd1 was verified by means of a NIL population developed from the F(5:6) RILs. The followup survey results indicated that the novel SSR markers Gm09: 4770663 and Gm09: 4790483 assigned to MLG K seemed to be suitable markers for selecting genotypes with low seed Cd concentration in soybean.
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