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Aging Societies and the Changing Logic of Immigration

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... Dietzel-Papakyriakou 2012, p. 444 f.). Although all older peopleindependent of their backgroundare confronted with the processes of aging (like retiring, age-related decreases in health, and eventually the loss of a wife or a husband), older people with and without a migration background differ (e.g., Brown et al. 2009;Ciobanu et al. 2016;Jackson et al. 2005;King et al. 2017;Mutchler and Burr 2011;Population Reference Bureau 2013). This is because the situation of older migrants is characterized by a concurrency of migration-specific and age-specific strains (Özcan and Seifert 2006, p. 6). ...
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A substantial part of the older population in Germany already has a so-called migration background, but clearly in the next years and decades the rate will increase. Thus, the crucial questions are as follows: How are the older migrants in Germany faring? How are their living situations? What differences exist between migrants and native Germans as well as between members of different migrant groups and different migrant generations? This paper starts with a short overview about the migration history from and to Germany since 1950 and the most important facts of the socio-demographic characteristics of older migrants in Germany. After that, some theoretical considerations about the relation of migration and aging are drawn. Finally, the living situations of older migrants in regard to 1) employment and economic situation, 2) regional distribution and accommodation, 3) marital status, household structure, and intergenerational family relations, as well as 4) health and subjective well-being are examined. The paper ends with a short summary and a reflection on the need for further research.
... In this study, none of the participants described feelings of loneliness when asked to describe their sense of place in the country of origin. However, when describing their meaning of home in the USA., some participants described a sense of loneliness and isolation, much like other researchers have found (Brown et al., 2009;Sadarangani & Jun, 2015;Treas, 2008;Treas & Mazumdar, 2002). Social isolation has been associated with depressive symptoms, feelings of hopelessness (Golden et al., 2009), and increased risk of morbidity (Tomaka et al., 2006) and mortality (Patterson & Veenstra, 2010) and an important area for nursing research. ...
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Aim: To explore the meaning of home among older Hispanic immigrants who are "aging out of place." Background: Emerging evidence supports the concept of older persons ageing in place. Nurse researchers have demonstrated that older person who age in place have better physical, psychological and cognitive outcomes. Less, however, is known about older persons who are "aging out of place," meaning out of their country of origin. With the growth of home health care, there is a need to understand the older immigrants' meaning of home when ageing out of their country of origin. Design and method: An inductive, qualitative descriptive research design was used. Seventeen Hispanic participants, ranging in age from 65 to 83 years were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Findings: Two major finding of the study focused on participants' descriptions of home in their country of origin and in the USA. The majority of participants described their home in their native country as the community, countryside or town (pueblo) and in the U.S.A. as family. The level of social isolation and loneliness among participants was evident. Conclusions: Older Hispanic immigrants who are "aging out of place" integrate their past experiences of sense of place in their native country with their present experiences of home in the USA. The need to understand the role of the community and the family in the provision of nursing care in the home may be more important than the physical structure or setting in which it is delivered. Further intra- and cross-national studies are needed to provide a framework for understanding the issues of ageing and immigration globally. Implications for practice: Gerontological nurses need to recognise the complexity of family relationships for older Hispanic persons who are ageing out of place of origin and their risk of depression, social isolation, and loneliness.
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The "color line" has long served as a metaphor fo r the starkness of black/white relations in the United States. Yet post-1965 increases in U.S. immigration have brought millions whose ethnoracial status seems neither black nor white, boosting ethnoracial diversity and potentially changing the color line. After reviewing past and current conceptualizations of America's racial divide(s), we ask what recent trends in intermarriage and multiracial identi1/2cation-both indicators of ethnoracial boundary dissolution-reveal about ethnoracial color lines in today's immigrant America. We note that rises in intermarriage and multiracial identi1/2cation have emerged more strongly among Asians and Latinos than blacks and in more diverse metropolitan areas. Moreover, these tendencies are larger than would be expected based solely on shifts in the relative sizes of ethnoracial groups, suggesting that immigration-generated diversity is associated with cultural change that is dissolving ethnoracial barriers-but more so fo r immigrant groups than blacks.
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Deutschland gehört zwar nicht zu den klassischen Einwanderungsländern, es wird aber spätestens seit Mitte der 1950er Jahre durch ein hohes Maß an Zuzügen von verschiedenen Migrantengruppen geprägt (Bade & Oltmer 2004; Meier-Braun 2006>; Oltmer 2010). Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg gab es umfangreiche Wanderungsbewegungen. Zwischen 1945 und 1949 kamen etwa zwölf Millionen Menschen aus den ehemaligen deutschen Ostgebieten nach Deutschland, davon etwa acht Millionen nach West- und vier Millionen nach Ostdeutschland. Den Vertriebenen und Flüchtlingen deutscher Volkszugehörigkeit folgten ab 1950 die Aussiedlerinnen und Aussiedler mit ihren Familienangehörigen. Seit 1993 spricht man von ‚Spätaussiedlern‘, die nach dem Bundesvertriebenengesetz deutsche Volkszugehörige sind, unter einem Kriegsfolgenschicksal gelitten haben und nach 1992 ein Aussiedlungsgebiet verlassen haben. Die Zuwanderung dieser Gruppe umfasste im Zeitraum zwischen 1950 und 2010 etwa 4,5 Mio. Personen. Die nach der Gründung der beiden deutschen Staaten im Jahr 1949 bedeutsamste Zuwanderung ist allerdings jene der angeworbenen ‚Gastarbeiterinnen‘ und ‚Gastarbeiter‘ sowie ihrer Familienangehörigen in den Jahren zwischen 1955 und 1973. In diesem Zeitraum reisten 9,5 Mio. Personen ausländischer Herkunft in die Bundesrepublik Deutschland ein. Für die hier interessierende demografische Alterung der Migrantenbevölkerung spielen diese beiden Zuwanderergruppen eine zentrale Rolle.
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African Americans grappled with Jim Crow segregation until it was legally overturned in the 1960s. In subsequent decades, the country witnessed a new wave of immigration from Asia and Latin America-forever changing the face of American society and making it more racially diverse than ever before. In The Diversity Paradox, authors Jennifer Lee and Frank Bean take these two poles of American collective identity-the legacy of slavery and immigration-and ask if today's immigrants are destined to become racialized minorities akin to African Americans or if their incorporation into U.S. society will more closely resemble that of their European predecessors. They also tackle the vexing question of whether America's new racial diversity is helping to erode the tenacious black/white color line. The Diversity Paradox uses population-based analyses and in-depth interviews to examine patterns of intermarriage and multiracial identification among Asians, Latinos, and African Americans. Lee and Bean analyze where the color line-and the economic and social advantage it demarcates-is drawn today and on what side these new arrivals fall. They show that Asians and Latinos with mixed ancestry are not constrained by strict racial categories. Racial status often shifts according to situation. Individuals can choose to identify along ethnic lines or as white, and their decisions are rarely questioned by outsiders or institutions. These groups also intermarry at higher rates, which is viewed as part of the process of becoming "American" and a form of upward social mobility. African Americans, in contrast, intermarry at significantly lower rates than Asians and Latinos. Further, multiracial blacks often choose not to identify as such and are typically perceived as being black only-underscoring the stigma attached to being African American and the entrenchment of the "one-drop" rule. Asians and Latinos are successfully disengaging their national origins from the concept of race-like European immigrants before them-and these patterns are most evident in racially diverse parts of the country. For the first time in 2000, the U.S. Census enabled multiracial Americans to identify themselves as belonging to more than one race. Eight years later, multiracial Barack Obama was elected as the 44th President of the United States. For many, these events give credibility to the claim that the death knell has been sounded for institutionalized racial exclusion. The Diversity Paradox is an extensive and eloquent examination of how contemporary immigration and the country's new diversity are redefining the boundaries of race. The book also lays bare the powerful reality that as the old black/white color line fades a new one may well be emerging-with many African Americans still on the other side. Copyright © 2010 by American Sociological Association. All rights reserved.
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Little research examines lack of health insurance among elderly Black immigrants in the US. We use data from the 2008 American Community Survey to describe variation in insurance coverage and conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses of uninsurance. Among elderly Blacks, 1.7 % of the US-born were uninsured, compared to 8.4 % of the Latin American and Caribbean-born, 23.2 % of the African-born, and 9.3 % of those born in other regions. In multivariate models, relative to the US-born, the odds of being uninsured were significantly higher among each immigrant group. Among immigrants, the odds of being uninsured were 3.80 times higher among African-born than Latin American and Caribbean-born immigrants net of demographic and socioeconomic controls. This difference was explained by the inclusion of either year of immigration or length of residence. Relative to Latin America and Caribbean-born immigrants, the odds of being uninsured were significantly higher among immigrants from "other" regions only in the model that included the immigration-related variables. This suppression effect was evident when either length of residence or citizenship was controlled. Recently-arrived, elderly Black immigrants fall through the cracks of insurance coverage. Results are discussed in relation to public and private safety net options.
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Newcomer elderly immigrants, defined as adults older than the age of 65 who have arrived in the United States in the last 10 years, represent a growing sector of the American population. Newcomers who experience limited English proficiency, financial strain, and acculturative stress are at considerable risk of developing poor health outcomes. Nursing's focus on healthy aging and aging in place has largely ignored the experiences of these older adults, who are said to be "aging out of place." This concept analysis uses Rodgers's evolutionary method to define "aging out of place" and illustrates why existing theories of elderly migration do not necessarily apply to this population. The challenge for nurses is incorporating the family, with whom conflict may arise, into the care of these elders. Community-based strategies that enable social integration and create a greater division of labor in the care of newcomer elders are called for.
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