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Apparent usability vs. inherent usability experimental analysis on the determinants of the apparent usability



For the purpose of comparing the concept of the apparent usability with the concept of the intended inherent usability and the experienced inherent usability, two psychological experiments were conducted to see how much the apparent usability is related to the inherent usability. In both experiments, two kinds of usability concepts showed low correlations with each other. The result indicated that the apparent usability is a different concept from the inherent usability and is rather related to the visual impression of the interface. This result also means that the inherent usability is difficult to be understood by just looking at the interface and suggests that the interface designers have to make efforts to make the interface 'look' usable as well as to make it 'actually' usable.
Short Papers May 7-11 1995 CHI’95 MOSAIC OF CREATIVITY
Apparent Usability vs. Inherent Usability
Experimental analysis on the determinants of the apparent usability
Kurosu KaOli Kashirnum
Design Center, Hitachi Ltd.
5-2-1 Minami-aoyama, Mlnato-ku, Tokyo 107 JAPAN
Correlational analysis of the evaluation &la on the
apparent usability with the inherent usability mcasurea
Rvealed that the apparcmtusability is strongly affected by
the aesthetic aspectsrather than the inherent usability.
KEYWORDS: usability, screm layout
Interthce dcsigncm are making efforts to increase the
efficiency of the operation, to make the interface easy to
undcxstan4 Ato inmasc the safety of dafa &em mis-
OptXitiOllS. But such efforts ae had to bunderstood
unless the user actually uses it. That is to say, such
inherent usability is meaningless for the user if the
pmkt is not appealing enough fm them to buy it. This
is the reason why we started to study the determinants of
the appanmt usability. We think that the products should
be appamtly usable as well as inherently usable.
From among various aspects of the graphicaI interface
design, wselected the stxecn layout for the study of the
apparent usability. As afiist step, whave to collect
variations of the layout pattern. The way we adoptedwas
to let the subjects generate their own layout using the
same gmphical elements. The sample screen was taken
fmm the cash di.qmser which has ten numeric keys,
special numeric keys (thousands rai ten-thousands), the
Yen key (as adelimhcr), the cancel key, the correction
key, the main display ti the sub display (the figure of a
MYO as graphical elements.
Twenty-six subjects, including 9GUI dcsignem, 6
industrial designers, 8engineers and 3 sccrctaries,
participated in the experiment and were asked to locate
those elements on the computer exeen as they might
thhdc optimal in various senses The hard copies of the
saeen wre usedas stimuli in the evaluation mscamh.
Twenty-six layout patterns wae then evaluated in both the
functional aspect rmd the aesthetic aspect. Total of 252
subjects wem asked to rate these two aspects on the ten
point rating scales, i.e. how much they look to beasyto
usc (apparently usable) md how much they look
beautiful. The subjets included 156 students of the design
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school and 96 students of the psychology course of the
university. Becauseboth groups of subjects showed high
correlations in their judgments (0.679 for the apparent
usability and 0.783 for the beauty), we merged the datato
use in the analysis that followed.
Fig. 1shows the configuration of 26 layout samples on
the plane with the beauty (abscissa) ml the apparent
usability (ordinate). Relatively high correlation (0.589)
was obtained between these two scales which suggests
that the apparent usability is somewhat dated to the
aesthetic aspectof the layout pattern. Four typical sample
layouts aIOshown in Fig. 2. ‘Ihe upper right sample was
rated highly usable and highly beautiful, ad the lower left
sample was rated less usable and less beautiful.
What we have done next was to find out principal
determinants of the apparent usability. As for the
determinants, wc Iistcd out fastors that the intezfixe
designersareconsidering to enhamx the inherent usability.
From the hearing session with the interface designers,
following strategies weaefound or, at least, seemed to be
effective in the acturd design process. The list also shows
the measurement methods adopted in the analysis (in
1. Cognitive efficiency strategy
1.1 Glance sequence
The main display should be pkxed at the upper left comer,
becausethe user may start to look at the screen from there
then may go down right. Because the main display is
showing information that is nccesary for the subsequent
operation, it should be seen by the user fmt in the total
operation sequence. (The distance between the center of
the main display and the top left comer of the scmm in
1.2 Familiarity
The numeric keys should better be arranged mon the
telephone keypad (1 23 keys at the top IOW) mther than
the keys on the calculator (7 89 keys at the top row),
becausethe former has much familiarity for the ordinary
user. The horizontal alignmen is not leUnmnended
because of the inefficiency of the hand motion ad the
possible existence of the parallax causedby the thick glass
cover. (TVUCof the key pattern. <Nominal scale>)
1.3 Grouping
Keys should be mouped according to their functions. This
is b on the ;oncept of the perceptual grouping of the
Gestalt psychology. (Number of key groups.)
2. OpcrationaJ efficiency strategy
2.1 Operation sequence-1
CHI ’95 MOSAIC OF CREATIVITY May 7-11 1995 IShort Papers
Special numeric keys should be ananged as
the ten- thousands key fmt ard the
thousands key next to it, txmed on the
consideration of the U& of operation.
(Type of sequence. <Nominal @@)
2.2 Hand domkmce
Numeric keys should be pked at right on
the sercen. (The distance behveen the center
of the key 5 and the right edge of the scnmr
in cm.)
2.3 Operation sequence-2
The YerI key should he placed at the lower
right comer of the screen. (The distam
between the center of the Ycn key ad the
lower right comesof the screenin cm.)
3. Safety stmtegy
The and key should bpfao?d f% apart
from the main key block to avoid the
mistouch. (Ilre distance between the center
of the cancel key rmd the ccntcr of the key 5
in cm.)
Correlation coefficients zmd C4refficients of
contingency (for the nominal scale) weae
calcufatcd for each strategy measures of the
ineherent usability with the rating value of
the apparent usability. Values obtained were
unexpwtcdfy low in many casesas follows.
1.1 Glance scqucme ............... 0.000
1.2 Familiarity ..................... 0.730
1.3 Grouping ........................ 0.075
2.1 Operation sequence1......... 0.113
2.2 Hand dominmw ............... -0.127
2.3 Operation sequemx 2......... -0.306
3. Safety strategy ................... 0.137
These results show that the
=t usability is less cordatcd
the inherent usability
canpared to the apparent beauty
which showed the correlation
coefficient of 0.589. This suggests
that the usa may be strongly
affcctcd by the aesthetic aspect of
the interface even when they try to
evaluate the interfu in its
functional aspects dit is
suggested that the interface
designem should strive not only to
improve the inherent usability but
also brush up the apparent
usability or the aesthetic aspect of
the interface. Out next study will
focus on the determinants of the
aesthetic evahration of the
1. Kashimum, K. ad Kurosu, M.
The structure of the semen design
ad the cognitive prows (3).
Paper presented at 58th Japanese
Psychological Association, 1994
r=O.59 (N:252
. . . .. . . . . . .- ..-. -. ----- .,-__.. _..
av=5.8 m20 ~19
‘4 I
5’.0 5:5 6:0 6:5 7
Fig.1 Correlation between two kinds of judgments
for 26 layout samples.
High Usability Score and
Low Beauty Score (No.6) High Usability Score and
High Beauty Score (No.23)
Low Usability Score and
Low Beauty Score (No.17)
Fig.2 Typical sample layouts.
Low Usability !2cere and
High Beauty Score (No.13)
... More attractive goods are also perceived to be easier to use [51]. The positive effects of aesthetics have been validated in a variety of national cultures, including Japan [52], Israel [51], Switzerland [53], Germany [54], and the UK [55]. In addition, a range of goods, including cell phones [56], ATMs [51], web pages [55,57,58], and video games [54], have all been validated for their aesthetic importance. ...
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More information is often correlated with greater appreciation. Drawing on the model of aesthetic appreciation and aesthetic judgment in art psychology, this study aims to investigate changes in tourists’ aesthetic judgments of tourist crafts when provided with different background information. Blue calico, an art form created through white pulp dyeing and printing, is an intangible cultural heritage of China. The photographs used in this study illustrate typical examples of blue calicos that are commonly sold in tourist gift shops in Wuzhen, China. Data from a sample of 133 participants (49 women and 84 men) was analyzed using Two-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA. We examined to what extent respondents varied their assessments of the calicos based on author manipulation of background factors, such as commentaries by the artist or details about the production process. We found that tourists’ impressions of the aesthetics of blue calicos were predicted by background factors, especially those of tourists who were less interested in high arts. Specifically, blue calicos reported to tourists with names that conveyed an auspicious meaning predicted tourists’ assessments of the calicos as more aesthetically pleasing. Explanations of the production process also predicted an increased appreciation of calico aesthetics. Conversely, artists’ commentaries were not significantly correlated with an increased aesthetic merit of calicos. Understanding what may affect tourists’ assessment of art could help those in the tourism industry market souvenirs to drive sales and enhance tourists’ understanding and appreciation of intangible cultural heritage.
... For instance, in the case of when tracing the evolution of certain traits of an interface, which are perceived by the user through aesthetic sensitivity and intuition rather than usability assessment only. Aesthetics and usability perception have actually been proved to be related, to a certain degree (Kurosu and Kashimura 1995). It is also possible to trace factors leading to these transformations, for instance by analysing other materials included in the genetic documentation of the product. ...
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The paper proposes a methodology that combines theoretical and practical aspects from human-computer interaction (HCI) and genetic criticism to trace and analyse prototype evolution. A case study illustrates this type of enquiry by examining the iterations and the dynamics of change in the design and development of the Transviewer, an interface for digital editions. The initial assumption is that such an analysis can inform existing models in interface design and possibly provide new ground for discussion in humanistic HCI. For instance by fostering broader reflections on software production as a technological and cultural artefact and the gradual shaping of the principles and metaphors underlying the construction of a certain type of knowledge, argument, or interpretation through an interface. Cet article propose une méthodologie qui combine les aspects théoriques et pratiques de l’interaction homme-machine (IHM) et la critique génétique afin de repérer et analyser l’évolution de prototypes. Une étude de cas illustre ce type d’enquête en examinant les itérations et les dynamiques du changement dans la conception et le développement de Transviewer, une interface pour des éditions numériques. La supposition initiale est qu’une telle analyse peut offrir des renseignements sur les modèles existants de la conception d’interface et peut potentiellement fournir de nouvelles informations à la discussion autour de l’IHM humaniste. Par exemple, cela peut faciliter de meilleures réflexions plus élargies sur la production de logiciels comme artefact technologique et culturel, ainsi que sur la formation progressive des principes et métaphores qui sont à la base de la construction d’un certain type de connaissance, d’argument, ou d’interprétation à travers une interface.
... It is well known that subjective factors such as perceptions, judgments, emotions, motivation, and personal values influence the likelihood of a system being used and integrated into everyday life [27]. These subjective impressions can differ significantly from usability-oriented performance data [28]. Thus, evaluating the user experience is crucial for the development of a novel technical system. ...
Purpose An open source and free website called Mirror Effect Plus Protocol (MEPP)-website was developed with features to diminish cognitive load and support motor learning during facial exercises. Assessing patient’s perceptions is crucial when developing rehabilitation tools because patients’ willingness to use the tools strongly affect engagement in the rehabilitation process. This study compared clinicians’ and patients’ user experience with the MEPP-website versus a hobby-designed website. Materials and Methods Ten patients with acute severe Bell’s palsy and five clinicians were enrolled in a within-subject and crossover design. User experience was assessed with the Modular evaluation of Components of User Experience questionnaire. Wilcoxon-Signed-Rank test analysed user experience, and descriptive analyses explored the order effect. Therapeutic compliance was verified for the MEPP-website by an integrated feature. Clinicians’ descriptive statistics and subjective observations were also reported. Results Both patients and clinicians demonstrated a preference for the MEPP-website, whether they used it first or second. Despite this preference, compliance with the MEPP-website was reduced, although it tended to be better when used first. Conclusions MEPP- website during facial rehabilitation improved user experience. Better user experience likely optimizes how patients perform and facilitate their exercises. Factors affecting compliance with facial rehabilitation remain to be addressed. • Implications for rehabilitation • Recent data suggests that mirror effect therapy combined with drug therapy supports the recovery of severe Bell’s Palsy. • The specialized Mirror Effect Plus Protocol (MEPP)- website is a clinical computer-based tool developed to promote patients’ motor learning and diminish cognitive load during mirror therapy. • The MEPP-website increase clinicians’ accessibility to a specialized facial rehabilitation tool for mirror therapy. • Clinicians using the MEPP-website can also objectively and easily measure compliance to facial therapy with the MEPP-website.
... In usability testing, the functions, features, interactive methods, and perceived usability are the main considerations for evaluating the success of the interactive products. Meanwhile, there are two usability factors: inherent and apparent usability [38]. Inherent usability focuses on the ease of use, and apparent usability is related to aesthetics. ...
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In human-computer interaction, the visual interaction of user experience (UX) and user interface (UI) plays an important role in enriching the quality of daily life. The purpose of our study analyzes the use of brain-computer interface (BCI), wearable technology, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the aesthetic processing of visual neural response to UI and UX designs. Specifically, this review aims to understand neuroaesthetic processing knowledge, aesthetic appreciation models, and the ways in which visual brain studies can improve the quality of current and future UI and UX designs. Recent research has found that subjective evaluations of aesthetic appreciation produce different results for objective evaluations of brain research analysis. We applied SWOT analysis and examined the advantages and disadvantages of both evaluation methods. Furthermore, we conducted a traditional literature review on topics pertaining to the use of aesthetic processing knowledge in the visual interaction field in terms of art therapy, information visualization, website or mobile applications, and other interactive platforms. Our main research findings from current studies have helped and motivated researchers and designers to use convincing scientific knowledge of brain event-related potential, electroencephalography, and fMRI to understand aesthetic judgment. The key trend finds that many designers, artists, and engineers use artistic BCI technology in the visual interaction experience. Herein, the scientific methods applied in the aesthetic appreciation to human-computer interface are summarized, and the influence of the latest wearable brain technology on visual interaction design is discussed. Furthermore, current possible research entry points for aesthetics, usability, and creativity in UI and UX designs are explicated. The study results have implications for the visual user experience research domain as well as for interaction industries, which produce interactive projects to improve people’s daily lives. 1. Introduction A part of human nature is liking for beautiful things [1]. This idea covers a wide range of disciplines, including human-computer interaction (HCI), which includes hardware and software design and development. HCI is concerned with the design, evaluation, and implementation of interaction and computing systems for human use and the study of the major phenomena surrounding them, such as behavior and psychology demands [2]. Human-computer interface design is more specific, is considered the contact interface between the application and the end user ([3], p.1402), and concerns the user interface. The main parts of HCI or interface design are the user experience (UX) and user interface (UI) designs, which are related to the neuroaesthetic and aesthetic processing research. With the development of technology innovation globally, people have started to pay attention to user experience in enriching their quality of life. UX [4] is defined as “a person’s perceptions and responses resulting from the use or anticipated use of a product, system, or service.” Usually, UX is correlated with human emotion, perception, preferences, reflections, feelings, and psychological variations. The motivation of this study is to help designers and researchers use brain science technology to understand aesthetic judgment from visual interaction projects. This review article aims to provide an overview of design challenges and their solutions and of problems of discussing subjective aesthetic judgments in the daily design process and visual interaction markets. Moreover, this review summarizes the objective methods of measuring aesthetic appreciation and methods of solving scientific aesthetic judgment problems in visual user experience research. Therefore, the present review aims to analyze human neuroaesthetic processing of UX and UI designs and explore these developments in the visual interaction field. There are some differences between UX and UI designs, and UI is one of the interaction factors of UX; UX focuses on the entire experience concept or user journey towards a project, whereas UI is related to the visual format, such as animation and color selection [5]. For example, creative artistic therapy brain painting is a type of UX journey [6], but website interface aesthetic design is a type of UI design. The scope of the UX in the present study is focused on visual interaction experience. It covers many fields, such as virtual reality, augmented reality, art therapy, education, game design, public art, UI design, and information visualization. These fields strongly rely on visual content, and aesthetic processing and neuroaesthetics play essential roles here. Furthermore, neuroaesthetics of UX is broader than that of UI; it also involves spatial and temporal effects, environment, virtual space, and social interaction, and it covers more about rhetorical beauty than early first impression visions. Visual interaction is a critical part of UX, and therefore, neuroaesthetics can contribute to the development of current UX biofeedback. A past brain research review reported that 40% of stimuli concern visual content, 43% of stimuli combine visual and audio, 15% of stimuli contain audio content, and 2% contain others [7]. Neuroaesthetics has been described as a study investigating the neural substrates of aesthetic appreciation [8], and it comprises three aspects: “cognitive neuroscience of aesthetics,” “cognitive neuroscience of art,” and “cognitive neuroscience of beauty.” However, the sense of “beauty” or “aesthetic” is primarily subjective and is a part of neuroaesthetics. As a result, more researchers have started to study neuroaesthetics and analyze the possible methods to determine human aesthetic processing when perceiving everyday interactive things. To test visual biofeedback on beauty, visual stimuli are the first possible method in neuroscience to study the aesthetic feeling biofeedback through event-related potential analysis. Visual stimuli are regarded as the picture or color stimulus presented on a screen, which usually is used to evoke a visual evoked potential [9], containing static and dynamic stimuli. Many researchers utilize visual stimuli to test participants’ direct brain activity: for example, P100 is evoked with high color contrast [10] and P200 is sensitive to ugly images [11]. The second method uses time-frequency and topography analysis to study the activation area using electrodes when users observe visual elements. Usually, there are five bands, alpha, beta, theta, gamma, and delta; lower theta is associated with better UX design, and alpha is active with beautiful images [12]. These experimental methods can be implemented using brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), which are communication systems where people interact with external devices solely using brain activity [13]. The third professional method is to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain activation when looking at beautiful objects; the bilateral insular cortex shows a strong response in facially and morally ugly conditions [14]. Event-related potential, time-frequency, and topography methods have been focused on evaluating visual aesthetic processing and can contribute to UX and UI, as discussed in this review article. The main significance and contributions of this study are as follows:(i)Summary of the scientific aesthetic judgment through event-related potential, time-frequency, topography, and fMRI technology(ii)Finding the potential interactive methods to stimulate visual nerve and enhance the quality of user experience through artistic BCI(iii)Understanding and mastery of the brain data analysis and technology of aesthetic judgment on visual interaction projects(iv)Description of the contributions of aesthetic appreciation models related to the visual UX and UI designs(v)Discussion of the advantages and disadvantages, limitations, and SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of subjective and objective evaluations on visual interaction projects The novelty of this review is that it makes the connection between neuroaesthetics, user experience design, and visual interaction develop the quality of future interactive projects through scientific aesthetic appreciation approaches. Therefore, the present review has two main research questions. What aspects of aesthetic processing affect user interaction and user interface design? How do current researchers use noninvasive brain neurophysiology technology to understand visual biofeedback on UX and UI designs? The following sections explore the research review around these research questions: Section 2 describes the methods for finding relevant papers on aesthetic processing with UI and UX designs. Section 2.8.3 describes two neuroaesthetic models, top-down and bottom-up analysis. Section 3 discusses the comprehensive current studies on the uses of event-related potential (ERP), electroencephalograph (EEG), and fMRI for brain region analysis and the data that can aid in understanding the current aesthetic processing of UX and UI designs and in forecasting future developments. Section 3.11 summarizes all related research papers that developed UX and UI designs, including BCI paradigms, descriptions, participant information, and apparatus. It also involves the SWOT analysis. Section 4 discusses the advantages and disadvantages, literature comparisons with previous studies, and appropriate usage of brain technology in the visual interaction field. Section 5 contains conclusions. 2. Methodology The research method of this review is similar to the traditional literature review process. Although the systematic literature review is well defined, it was not used in our research because systematic literature reviews rely on a clear purpose and objective at the beginning of the research [15]. For this review, we read many articles and explored the relationship between brain aesthetic appreciation and human-computer interaction, which requires comprehensive understanding and wide reading knowledge to determine a meaningful topic. The traditional literature review process is creative and appropriate to explore a new topic in a review study and is suitable for a study that has not been strictly defined [16]. After wide reading, we used XMind software to draw a mind mapping figure and find the relationship within the research materials. However, future researchers can use a systematic literature review to explore higher research quality based on this review’s research findings. The electronic search for research material in this state-of-the-art review was conducted as follows: First, we typed the keywords to collect papers from the following search engines [17]: IEEE Explore, Springer, Elsevier, Frontiers, Taylor & Francis Online, Hindawi, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. The keywords used were “neuroaesthetic”/“aesthetic processing”/“brain aesthetic signal processing” + “visual interaction”/“human–computer interaction”/“human–computer interface”/“user experience design”/“user interface design” + “EEG or ERP or fMRI.” The publication year range selected was 2016 to 2021. Second, we also used the same keywords to search several target and top journals: Nature Publishing Group, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, and Interactional Journal of Human-Computer Studies/Interaction. Third, we also searched the References section of retrieved papers because some useful journal articles had cited similar or important papers on visual interaction and aesthetic judgment [16]. The overall literature review research progress is shown in Figure 1. Some representative papers related to aesthetic processing, aesthetic appreciation, and aesthetic judgments published before 2016 were considered, such as those on the topics of classical aesthetic models and neuroaesthetic theories.
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The current study integrated the Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and included information system quality (ISQ), user interface (UI), knowledge sharing motivation (KSM), the expectation confirmation model (ECM), safety management practices (SMP), interface aesthetics (IA), and perceived value (PV) to evaluate the logistics couriers’ experience while using an Online logistics platform. This research examines the relationships of KSM, SMP, and ISQ on the TAM’s, perceived usefulness (PU), and perceived ease of use (PEOU). In addition, it explores the relationship between UI on PEOU. Furthermore, to explore the impact of ECM, it examines the impact of confirmation (CON) on PU and satisfaction (SAT). Finally, this research explores the impact of logistics couriers’ SAT on continuous intention (CI). According to the findings of this study, UI did not have a significant association with PEOU. Furthermore, KSM was found to significantly impact PEOU, while having no significant effect on PU. Moreover, SMP was found to have no significance on PEOU, however, SMP was discovered to be in a significant association with PU. In addition, ISQ was found to significantly impact PEOU, PU, and, PV. Moreover, CON was in a significant relationship with PU, while not having a significant impact on SAT. Furthermore, IA did not significantly impact PV. Also, SAT was significantly impacted by PU, while not having any significant impact from PEOU, and PV. Besides, PEOU was discovered to significantly impact PU. Finally, SAT was found to be in a significant relationship with CI.
The article reports a longitudinal lab experiment, in which the influence of product aesthetics and inherent product usability was examined over a period of 7 weeks. Using a 2 × 2 × 7 mixed design, visual aesthetics (high vs. low) and usability (high vs. low) were manipulated as between-subjects variables whereas exposure time was used as a repeated-measures variable. One hundred and ten participants took part in the study, during which they carried out typical tasks of operating a fully automated coffee machine. We measured user experience by using the following outcome variables: perceived usability, perceived attractiveness, performance, affect, workload and perceived coffee quality (gustatory aesthetics). We found no effect of visual aesthetics on user experience (including perceived usability as the chief outcome variable), which is in contrast to a considerable number of previous studies. The absence of such an effect might be associated with influencing factors that have not yet been given sufficient attention (e.g., user identification with product, sensory dominance, characteristics of specific products).
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Purpose: This research aimed to evaluate medication software for a healthcare robot. Study I compared two software versions (RoboGen and RoboGen2) for system usability, speed and accuracy of medication entry; Study II evaluated system usability and community pharmacists’ views of RoboGen2. Methods: Study I had a within-subjects experimental design and recruited 40 Health Sciences students to enter different, comparable sets of prescriptions into the two systems, in randomized order, within a limit of 15 min. Screen activity was recorded to observe prescription errors. Study II had a cross-sectional observational design and recruited 20 community pharmacists using convenience sampling. Pharmacists entered three prescriptions using RoboGen2. Participants in both studies completed the System Usability Scale (SUS) following each task. Study I participants completed a questionnaire on system preference, and Study II participants a semi-structured interview. Results: Study I participants preferred Robogen2 ( p < 0.001) due to its sleek and modern layout, good flow, ease of use, and intuitive design. SUS scores [ t (40) = −3.40, p = 0.002] and speed of medication entry favored Robogen2 ( t = 3.65, p < 0.001). No significance was found in accuracy ( t = 1.12, p = 0.27). In study 2, pharmacists rated the usability of RoboGen2 below average. Themes from interviews were navigation and streamlining the system, ease of use, and integration with pharmacy software systems. Conclusion: Adding safety features and better aesthetics can improve the usability and safety of a medication prescription system. Streamlining workflow and pre-populating data can increase speed of prescription entry without compromising patient safety. However, a better approach is integration with pre-existing pharmacy systems to reduce workload while incorporating safety features built into existing dispensing systems.
Understanding the lives and interior structures of stellar objects is a fundamental objective of astrophysics. Research in this domain often relies on the visualization of astrophysical data, for instance the results of theoretical simulations. However, the diagrams commonly employed to this effect are usually static, complex, and can sometimes be non-intuitive or even counter-intuitive to newcomers in the field. To address some of these issues, this paper introduce TULIPS, a python package that generates novel diagrams and animations of the structure and evolution of stellar objects. TULIPS visualizes the output of one-dimensional physical simulations and is currently optimized for the MESA stellar evolution code. Utilizing the inherent spherical symmetry of such simulations, TULIPS represents the physical properties of stellar objects as the attributes of circles. This enables an intuitive representation of the evolution, energy generation and loss processes, composition, and interior properties of stellar objects, while retaining quantitative information. Users can interact with the output videos and diagrams. The capabilities of TULIPS are showcased by example applications that include a Sun-like star, a massive star, a low-metallicity star, and an accreting white dwarf. Diagrams generated with TULIPS are compared to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and to the Kippenhahn diagram, and their advantages and challenges are discussed. TULIPS is open source and free. Aside from being a research tool, it can be used for preparing teaching and public outreach material.
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Eco-feedback is a design strategy that reminds users of their resource consumption as they use a product. The ultimate goal is to promote pro-environmental behaviors in users by making them aware of the environmental impact of their consumption. The way these designs present resource usage information can significantly impact user perceptions. This paper investigates two aspects of resource usage presentation, quantitative feedback and emotional evocativeness, by evaluating 32 designs spanning electricity, materials, transportation, and water via surveys of 619 university students in the US and Saudi Arabia. Both these aspects are positively correlated with perceived product appeal and perceived effectiveness in encouraging sustainable behavior. It was found that presenting quantitative resource usage information was more helpful to respondents who could better estimate resource consumption, while the emotional evocativeness of a design aided respondents with lower and higher resource consumption knowledge to a similar degree. In addition, we found that images of living creatures and strong visual cues evoked strong emotions in users. Female participants, in general, responded more strongly than males to this emotional evocativeness. These experimental findings cast light on how to better design eco-feedback products to be more widely accepted.
The issue of tool adoption has been the subject of many investigations, which focus either on acceptability (evaluating intention to use, a priori) or acceptance (evaluating real tool use, a posteriori). There are many criteria in the literature explaining why a tool is accepted or rejected by users, but behavioral observations are rare. This work aims to study the relationship between acceptability and acceptance and to find out if there is a hierarchy between the criteria that lead a user to use a particular tool. We exposed participants to eight xylophones varying according to three criteria: Ease of use, Utility, and Aesthetics. We assessed acceptability and judgment of participants about xylophones with questionnaires, based on tool use observation in a video session, and after a short-term use (Experiment 1); we also measured acceptance after long-term use of five sessions during which participants learned to play xylophone (Experiment 2). The results suggested that previous exposure to the tool influenced the judgment of the user, indicating a difference between acceptability and acceptance and between observation and use of a tool. The results also indicate differences in the hierarchy of criteria. In the acceptability phase, user judgments are guided by Ease of use. However, during the acceptance phase, the Utility criterion has the greatest influence, whether in terms of tool preference, or time spent using tools.
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