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Historical Survey of Primary Productivity Research

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Abstract

From a recent paper on the history of the discovery of photosynthesis (Rabinovitch, 1971), it appears that many biologists equate photosynthesis with productivity and identify the raw materials of photosynthesis (water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight energy) as the direct controls of productivity. Photosynthesis and primary productivity are not so simply identical. Indeed, primary productivity—the actual energy bound into organic matter—is the product of photosynthesis. Yet primary productivity requires more than photosynthesis alone. The uptake and incorporation of inorganic nutrients into the diverse organic compounds of protoplasm are essential to the photosynthesizing organism. Temperatures govern annual productivity in various ways that do not result from temperature dependence of the photosynthetic process. On land, productivity is strongly affected by the availability of water, not primarily for use in the photosynthetic process itself, but to replace the water lost through the stomata that are open to allow carbon dioxide uptake.

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... Smil, 2000;Binkley, 2002). However, I found an inconsistency in the interpretation: the global plant productivity calculated by Lieth (1975) is much higher than that required to exhaust all atmospheric CO 2 in 21-22 yr. Ice-core analyses (e.g. ...
... Moreover, we now acknowledge that not only NPP but also heterotrophic respiration should be included to evaluate net ecosystem CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere. However, von Liebig von Liebig (1862) interpreted by Lieth (1975) 62.7-65.5 von Liebig (1862) reinterpreted in this study 36.3-38.8 Schroeder (1919) 16.6 Müller (1960) 10.3 Whittaker and Likens (1975) as IBP synthesis 52.9 Ajtay et al. (1979) 59.9 Field et al. (1998) (model estimation) 56.4 Saugier et al. (2001) 62.6 provided one of the earliest insights into the atmospherebiosphere interaction, and this is worthy of special note. ...
... This attempt is also intended to enhance our historical point of view concerning primary production research (e.g. Lieth, 1975). Hopefully, this Letter provides researchers the opportunity to look back on how global plant productivity has been investigated, and I welcome different opinions, counterarguments and suggestions. ...
... Smil, 2000;Binkley, 2002). However, I found an inconsistency in the interpretation: the global plant productivity calculated by Lieth (1975) is much higher than that required to exhaust all atmospheric CO 2 in 21-22 yr. Ice-core analyses (e.g. ...
... Moreover, we now acknowledge that not only NPP but also heterotrophic respiration should be included to evaluate net ecosystem CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere. However, von Liebig von Liebig (1862) interpreted by Lieth (1975) 62.7-65.5 von Liebig (1862) reinterpreted in this study 36.3-38.8 Schroeder (1919) 16.6 Müller (1960) 10.3 Whittaker and Likens (1975) as IBP synthesis 52.9 Ajtay et al. (1979) 59.9 Field et al. (1998) (model estimation) 56.4 Saugier et al. (2001) 62.6 provided one of the earliest insights into the atmospherebiosphere interaction, and this is worthy of special note. ...
... This attempt is also intended to enhance our historical point of view concerning primary production research (e.g. Lieth, 1975). Hopefully, this Letter provides researchers the opportunity to look back on how global plant productivity has been investigated, and I welcome different opinions, counterarguments and suggestions. ...
... [2] The importance of studying vegetation dynamics has been recognized for decades [e.g., Box, 1978;Lieth, 1975]. ...
... A key driver has been the interest in understanding the patterns of terrestrial vegetation productivity and its relationships with global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen [Cao and Woodward, 1998;Dixon et al., 1994;Lieth, 1975;Myneni et al., 1997Myneni et al., , 2001Schimel, 1998]. Vegetation productivity is the basis of all the biospheric functions on the land surface (excluding the very small contribution by chemosynthetic autotrophic organisms), and is simply defined as the production of organic matter through photosynthesis. ...
... [2] The importance of studying vegetation dynamics has been recognized for decades [e.g., Box, 1978;Lieth, 1975]. ...
... A key driver has been the interest in understanding the patterns of terrestrial vegetation productivity and its relationships with global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen [Cao and Woodward, 1998;Dixon et al., 1994;Lieth, 1975;Myneni et al., 1997Myneni et al., , 2001Schimel, 1998]. Vegetation productivity is the basis of all the biospheric functions on the land surface (excluding the very small contribution by chemosynthetic autotrophic organisms), and is simply defined as the production of organic matter through photosynthesis. ...
... [2] The importance of studying vegetation dynamics has been recognized for decades [e.g., Box, 1978;Lieth, 1975]. ...
... A key driver has been the interest in understanding the patterns of terrestrial vegetation productivity and its relationships with global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen [Cao and Woodward, 1998;Dixon et al., 1994;Lieth, 1975;Myneni et al., 1997Myneni et al., , 2001Schimel, 1998]. Vegetation productivity is the basis of all the biospheric functions on the land surface (excluding the very small contribution by chemosynthetic autotrophic organisms), and is simply defined as the production of organic matter through photosynthesis. ...
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... [2] The importance of studying vegetation dynamics has been recognized for decades [e.g., Box, 1978;Lieth, 1975]. ...
... A key driver has been the interest in understanding the patterns of terrestrial vegetation productivity and its relationships with global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen [Cao and Woodward, 1998;Dixon et al., 1994;Lieth, 1975;Myneni et al., 1997Myneni et al., , 2001Schimel, 1998]. Vegetation productivity is the basis of all the biospheric functions on the land surface (excluding the very small contribution by chemosynthetic autotrophic organisms), and is simply defined as the production of organic matter through photosynthesis. ...
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... The importance of studying vegetation dynamics has been recognized for decades [e.g., Box, 1978; Lieth, 1975]. A key driver has been the interest in understanding the patterns of terrestrial vegetation productivity and its relationships with global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen [Cao and Woodward, 1998; Dixon et al., 1994; Lieth, 1975; Myneni et al., 1997 Myneni et al., , 2001 Schimel, 1998]. ...
... The importance of studying vegetation dynamics has been recognized for decades [e.g., Box, 1978; Lieth, 1975]. A key driver has been the interest in understanding the patterns of terrestrial vegetation productivity and its relationships with global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen [Cao and Woodward, 1998; Dixon et al., 1994; Lieth, 1975; Myneni et al., 1997 Myneni et al., , 2001 Schimel, 1998]. Vegetation productivity is the basis of all the biospheric functions on the land surface (excluding the very small contribution by chemosynthetic autotrophic organisms), and is simply defined as the production of organic matter through photosynthesis. ...
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Accurate estimation of spatially distributed CO2 fluxes is of great importance for regional and global studies of carbon balance. We applied a recently developed technique for remote estimation of crop chlorophyll content to assess gross primary production (GPP). The technique is based on reflectance in two spectral channels: the near-infrared and either the green or the red-edge. We have found that in irrigated and rainfed crops (maize and soybean), midday GPP is closely related to total crop chlorophyll content. The technique provided accurate estimations of midday GPP in both crops under rainfed and irrigated conditions with root mean square error of GPP estimation of less than 0.3 mg CO2/m2s in maize (GPP ranged from 0 to 3.1 mg CO2/m2s) and less than 0.2 mg CO2/m2s in soybean (GPP ranged from 0 to 1.8 mg CO2/m2s). Validation using an independent data set for irrigated and rainfed maize showed robustness of the technique; RMSE of GPP prediction was less than 0.27 mg CO2/m2s.
... The net primary productivity (NPP) of vegetation refers to the total amount of organic matter produced by plants per unit time and unit area through photosynthesis minus the amount consumed by autotrophic respiration [3][4][5]. By reflecting the efficiency of plants in fixing and converting photosynthates, NPP is an important constituent of the surface carbon cycle, and also serves as a main factor in judging ecosystem carbon sinks [6]. ...
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... Based on ecological energetics introduced by Lindemann (1942), the International Biological Program (IBP) analysed the transfer efficiency between trophic levels of ecosystems worldwide from 1964 to 1974 (Lith, 1975). Measurements of production at all major trophic levels in land, freshwater and marine ecosystems were an essential tool for the program (Cooper, 1975;Le Cren & Lowe-McConnell, 1980, Westlake et al., 1998 and the following 50 years (Williams et al., 2019). ...
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The review intends to give an overview on developments, success, results of photosynthetic research and on primary productivity of algae both freshwater and marine with emphasis on more recent discoveries. Methods and techniques are briefly outlined focusing on latest improvements. Light harvesting and carbon acquisition are evaluated as a basis of regional and global primary productivity and algal growth. Thereafter, long-time series, remote sensing and river production are exemplified and linked to the potential effects of climate change. Lastly, the synthesis seeks to put the life achievements of Colin S. Reynolds into context of the subject review.
... Attempts to estimate global primary productivity began in 1862 with Liebig's estimate of 230-240 Gt CO2 year -1 for total terrestrial NPP (Lieth 1975). All of these processes are difficult to measure, however, and the first major effort involved studies conducted under the International Biological Program (IBP, 1964-74). ...
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Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) has commonly been estimated as about 120 Gt C year-1, based mainly on estimates from the International Biological Program (IBP, 1964-74, with 60 Gt C year-1 for net primary production, NPP) and an assumption that autotrophic respiration (RA) is about the same as NPP. This 2 x NPP assumption for GPP has been reinforced by some more recent studies that scaled up from short-term, temperate-zone site measurements using satellite data, with values of photosynthetic efficiency assumed to be constant. Analysis of the full IBP data-base suggests higher GPP and RA site values, especially in the tropics, and higher values for terrestrial totals and the global RA/GPP ratio. The CO2 source-sink behavior of terrestrial vegetation is determined largely by this ratio, and a larger ratio implies possibly larger biospheric CO2 sources under global warming but also possibly greater net CO2 uptake by early-successional vegetation. On the other hand, the IBP data have been discredited by both improved methods for estimating respiration in the field and by better understanding of the nature and determinants of maintenance versus growth respiration. Examination of this new respiration paradigm, plus two studies by other authors, suggests that terrestrial GPP probably is higher than 120 Gt C year-1, though not as high as the IBP data imply. The IBP data represent the largest, most geographically representative data-base available for stand metabolism, so it is perhaps useful to ask just how bad these data are, where and why, and whether they can be "rehabilitated" in any useful way. The largest uncertainty appears to be in the tropics, where landscape degradation is often severe and rehabilitation inherently difficult. Further study should focus on such critical needs, including better tropical metabolic data and methods for rehabilitating devastated tropical landscapes.
... The Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ) and waters to the south comprise the largest area of modern siliceous sediment accumulation in the world, accounting for 50-70% of the global removal of Si from the ocean [DeMaster, 1981;Trdguer et al., 1995]. This accumulation of biogenic (overwhelmingly diatom) opal in Southern Ocean sediments has been taken in the past as evidence of high primary productivity in the overlying surface waters [e.g., Lieth, 1975, Mort- lock et al., 1991. However, direct measurements of 14C uptake and satellite images of ocean color combine to indicate that the average primary productivity of the Southern Ocean is < 40 g C m '2 yr -•, lower than that of any other oceanic region except the permanently ice-covered central Arctic [Smith and Sakshaug, 1990;Comiso et al., 1993]. ...
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... The carbon balance approach to ecosystems dates back to the late 1960s (see e.g. Odum 1968, Lieth 1975, Whittaker & Marks 1975, Thornley 1976:ch.6, Kira 1978 but it really 'came of age' with the papers of Clark et al. (2001a, b) and Chambers et al. (2001Chambers et al. ( , 2004. ...
... Il existe plusieurs types de modèles pour simuler les flux de carbone de l'échelle locale à l'échelle globale. Les plus simples utilisent des relations empiriques entre la production végétale et des facteurs du milieu comme la température moyenne annuelle ou les précipitations annuelles (Lieth, 1975). Ils permettent de tenir compte des changements climatiques mais pas des changements de composition de l'atmosphère qui modifient aussi la production via la photosynthèse. ...
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... Models of this type are capable of predicting production on sites varying in radiation and soil moisture status, such as forests at different elevations and on different aspects (e.g., Running, 1981Running, , 1984b. Forest production models based on a simulation of evapotranspiration have been used to predict global patterns of net primary production, e.g., the INNSBRUCK model of Lieth (1975Lieth ( , 1984. An example of an extremely detailed process model of water and carbon dynamics in conifer-forest ecosystems is CONIFER { Sollins et al., 1979). ...
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... The relatively low primary productivity of the Southern Ocean went unrecognized for decades. As recently as the mid 1970s global productivity maps showed either large regions or a broad circumpolar band within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) where primary productivity was >200 g C m À2 yr À1 (e.g., Lieth, 1975). The perceived high productivity was based mainly on two lines of indirect evidence; the high biomass of seals, seabirds and other large carnivores in the region (Croxall and Prince, 1979; Brown and Lockyer, 1984) and the presence of diatom-rich siliceous sediments underlying much of the ACC (Goodell et al., 1973; DeMaster, 1981). ...
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Первинну продукцію компонентів надземної фітомаси (стовбура і крони) оцінено для дерев сосни звичайної, які ростуть переважно у чистих та мішаних (домішка від 1 до 3 од.) соснових насадженнях штучного походження Східного Полісся України. Насадження високопродуктивні (II, I, Ia і вище класів бонітету), середньо- та високоповнотні, ростуть у свіжих борах (А2), суборах (B2) та сугрудах (C2). Використано дані 80 тимчасових пробних площ (ТПП), які закладено у соснових деревостанах Сумської (36 ТПП) та Чернігівської (44 ТПП) областей. Зрубано й обміряно 900 модельних дерев (МД) сосни звичайної, з яких 226 МД опрацьовано з пофракційним оцінюванням компонентів надземної фітомаси та 674 МД – без оцінювання фітомаси крони. Обмір моделей і розрахунки первинної продукції компонентів надземної фітомаси дерев сосни звичайної виконано за допомогою удосконалених загальноприйнятих методів та розробленого алгоритму. Сукупність значень дослідного матеріалу характеризується їх нормальним розподілом за віком, діаметром, висотою дерев та відносною повнотою насаджень. Встановлено тісноту зв’язку між досліджуваними показниками модельних дерев сосни звичайної (від помірного – -0,31 < r < -0,50, до дуже високого – r > 0,91); слабкої тісноти зв'язок (0,11 < r < 0,30) виявлено між повнотою насаджень та часткою поточного об’ємного приросту з показниками компонентів фітомаси крони дерев. Розраховано регресійні математичні моделі для оцінювання абсолютного та відносного поточного об’ємного приросту деревини стовбурів, об’єму кори стовбурів, маси деревини, кори гілок і маси хвої в абсолютно сухому стані, в яких аргументами є вік та діаметр дерев (R2 = 0,72-0,92). Для частки хвої 1-го року зв’язок з віком дерев обернений та помірний, але значущий на 5%-му рівні (R2 = 0,33). Розроблені нормативні таблиці первинної стовбурової продукції деревини та первинної продукції надземної частини дерев сосни звичайної показали, що за однакового діаметра зі збільшенням віку дерев первинна продукція стовбурової деревини збільшується лише до певного віку, а досягнувши максимуму – зменшується. Зі збільшенням діаметра за однакового віку первинна продукція стовбурової деревини зростає. Первинна продукція надземної частини дерев, подібно до окремих компонентів надземної фітомаси, зі збільшенням віку та діаметра також збільшується. У типових лісорослинних умовах Східного Полісся середньовікове дерево (50 років) сосни звичайної в надземній частині може нагромаджувати 15,22 кг·рік-1 первинної продукції.
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Given the climate change scenario, the wetlands have stood out for acting substantially as atmospheric CO2 sinks from their fixation on plant biomass and peat bogs. However, the degradation of these ecosystems causes wetlands to move from CO2-fixing ecosystems to a source of greenhouse gases. Thus, quantifying and monitoring biomass is of great importance for preserving carbon stocks, and accurate carbon estimates can contribute to the preservation, loss prevention and restoration of these ecosystems. This study aimed to estimate plant biomass and organic carbon stocks of Scirpus giganteus species in Banhado Grande, from spectral data and field data. For this purpose, two methods were used: i) delimitation of the species area by Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) and Ramdon Forest data mining, integrating Sentinel 1 and 2A sensor images; and ii) correlation and linear regression analysis from field and spectral data from the PlanetScope and Sentinel-2A sensors. Vegetation collections were performed in an experimental area in Banhado Grande, municipality of GlorinhaRS, during an annual cycle. In GEOBIA, the Random Forest (RF) data mining method was used to classify vegetation species in Banhado Grande, aiming to delimit the area occupied by the species S. giganteus and to estimate the stocks of biophysical variables for their total coverage area. The regression equations involved as dependent variables (y): oboveground biomass and organic carbon, obtained directly in the samples, and as independent variables (x) the spectral bands and the vegetation indices (VIs). The statistical treatment involved the analysis of the correlation matrix (r) between the variables x and y; the simple and multiple linear regression analysis, with the following statistics: R², R²aj., RMSE, CV%, SD and residual analysis. As a result, the GEOBIA classification reached an accuracy of 91.3% and 91% for the Emerging class, corresponding to the S.gigantes area (1,507 ha). Considering the average values, a aboveground biomass stock of 8.63 tons/ha and 3.54 tons/ha of organic carbon were obtained for the class area. Vegetation indices were better correlated and preferable as predictor variables in the regression models. The most accurate model occurred with data from the PlanetScope and VI sPRI sensor from a simple linear regression. It generated an average estimate of 656.33 g/m² of biomass (RMSE = 157.10 g / m², 23.8% of the average observed biomass) and 270.81 g/m² of carbon (RMSE = 62.77 g / m², 23% of the observed average carbon). In addition to providing current estimates of biophysical variables with relative reliability, the use of these methodologies from the optical sensor and SAR data makes it possible to minimize field efforts and is especially useful for monitoring and inventorying carbon stocks. They also contributed to the recognition of Banhado Grande's environmental function as a blue carbon ecosystem.
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The health status of the ecosystem in the Huainan coal mining area was determined based on the net primary productivity (NPP) of vegetation which was simulated by using the GLOPEM–CEVSA coupled model. The characteristics of time-series changes in the NPP of vegetation were analyzed using a univariate linear regression method, and the characteristics of spatial changes were analyzed using the spatial analysis techniques of the geographic information system and spatial autocorrelation method. In addition, the correlations between the NPP and major climatic factors (temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration) and their significance were quantitatively analyzed using statistical analysis methods. The results are as follows: (1) the pixel-by-pixel regression analysis shows that within the study period, 30.52% of the area showed a significant increase, 35.74% showed no changes, and 2.36% showed a significant decrease in the NPP. Overall, the NPP in the study area increased slowly. (2) The spatial distribution of the areas with and without changes in the NPP was also determined. The spatial distribution data show that the NPP is high in the southern and northern areas; however, it is low in the central study area. These results are in agreement with the intensity of human activity (mining area construction and urban development). (3) From a vegetation perspective, high NPP values occurred mostly in croplands, followed by forestlands and grasslands. (4) The pixel-by-pixel correlation analysis of the NPP and the climatic factors of the same period showed some correlations between the annual NPP, the annual precipitation and the annual mean temperature. The data showed significant positive and negative correlations in few areas, and a relatively weak correlation between the annual NPP and annual sunshine duration. From the coupling view of the meteorological factors, it can be found that many pixels were jointly affected by the meteorological factors.
Chapter
Die Primärproduktion, im Wesentlichen der grünen Pflanzen, bildet heute in nahezu allen Ökosystemen die Grundlage jedweden Lebens auf der Erde. Sie bildet daher einen ganz wesentlichen Bestandteil der allgemeinen Ökologie. Entsprechend groß war seit langem das wissenschaftliche Interesse an der Erfassung, Analyse und dem Vergleich der Primärproduktion verschiedener Ökosysteme. Im aquatischen Bereich, speziell nach der Einführung verbesserter Messmethoden Anfang der 1950er-Jahre, hat dies zu einer kaum mehr überblickbaren Flut von Veröffentlichungen geführt. Im Verlauf der folgenden Ausführungen werden deshalb Literaturstellen meist nur beispielhaft aufgeführt. Wegen der konzeptuellen, methodischen und physiologischen Nähe der marinen Primärproduktion wird bei Zitaten keine Rücksicht auf die limnologische Natur des vorliegenden Handbuches genommen Für ein vertieftes Verständnis wird der Leser auf die zahlreichen Zusammenfassungen und die darin genannte Literatur verwiesen (Photosynthese: STEEMANN-NIELSEN (1975), HOFFMANN (1987), GEIDER & ÜSBORNE (1992), LAWLOR (1993), FALOWSKI & RAVEN (1997), LARKUM et al. (2003); Algenphysiologie: PLATT (1981), HARRIS (1978); Methoden: VoLLENWEIDER (1969), LI & MAESTRINI (1993), SCHWOERBEL (1994); Primärproduktion allgemein: GESSNER (1959), WESTLAKE et al. (1998)). Gute Übersichten über die Geschichte der Primärproduktionsforschung bieten LIETH (1975), PETERS ON (1980) und BARBER & HILTING (2002). Inhalt IV-9.2 Primärproduktion (autotrophe Produktion) Produktion aquatischer Systeme 1 Grundlagen 2 Begriff und Definitionen 3 Pigmente 4 Methoden 5 Respiration 6 Produktion und Außenfaktoren 7 Photosynthetische Profile 8 Primärproduktion in Binnengewässern 9 Literatur
Article
The steadily increasing injection of trace gases into the atmosphere and the large scale land use changes by human activities is the basis for the discussion of present and future climate changes with possibly significant feedbacks to the biosphere. The major component of the greenhouse gases is CO2. The atmospheric content of which is largely controlled by the biosphere. In order to calculate with sufficient enough accuracy sources, fluxes and sinks of the global carbon circulation a biosphere model was constructed which contains regional net CO2 assimilation levels, allocation of biomass in woody and herbaceous portions, litter production and decomposition, carbon transfer into soil and rivers, and land use changes from natural vegetation to different agricultural crops. These biosphere properties were cast into numerical equations of which 33 are discussed in this paper. Together with the known assessments of annual carbon dioxide release by the technosphere, the exchange balance atmosphere ocean, and changes of soil carbon content this model was used successfully to simulate the annual averages of the CO2 content of the atmosphere since 1860. The model known under the name Osnabrück Biosphere Model is being improved continuously. Its results are in several cases supported by field observations. Better validation is expected, however, when seasonal CO2 transfers of the biosphere can be simulated.
Article
Net primary productivity (NPP) is a fundamental ecological variable that provides information about the health and status of vegetation communities. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is increasingly being used to model or predict NPP, especially over large remote areas. In this article, seven seasonally based metrics calculated from a seven-year baseline NDVI dataset were used to model NPP over Alaska, USA. For each growing season, they included maximum, mean and summed NDVI, total days, product of total days and maximum NDVI, an integral estimate of NDVI and a summed product of NDVI and solar radiation. Field (plot) derived NPP estimates were assigned to 18 land cover classes from an Alaskan statewide land cover database. Linear relationships between NPP and each NDVI metric were analysed at four scales: plot, 1-km, 10-km and 20-km pixels. Results show moderate to poor relationship between any of the metrics and NPP estimates for all data sets and scales. Use of NDVI for estimating NPP may be possible, but caution is required due to data seasonality, the scaling process used and land surface heterogeneity.
Article
In the city of Mainz, values of the order of 340 pptv were observed with large variations indicating the vicinity of sources. In the rural community of Deuselbach the average mixing ratio was 147±28 pptv; over the North Sea the range was 65-196 pptv depending on wind direction, with the lowest values occurring for northerly winds from the open ocean. Over the open ocean, maximum mixing ratios were observed near 4°S with values of 175 pptv. At latitudes near 30°S the mixing ratio averaged 90.4 pptv, whereas at 30°N the average was 52.1 pptv. The lowest mixing ratios of 21 pptv were found near 50°N. From the observations and with the further assumption that CH3CN is vertically well mixed, its total mass content in the troposphere was estimated as 0.37-0.57 Tg. Global emission rates for various sources were estimated as follows: automobiles 0.27 Tg/year, oil-fired power stations 0.0035 Tg/year, and biomass burning 0.80 Tg/year. The total estimated source strength is 1.1±0.5 Tg/year. The tropospheric residence time of acetonitrile was calculated from these data as 0.23-0.90 year with a probable value of 0.45 year. Wet precipitation and reaction with OH radicals are known sinks for tropospheric CH3CN, but they can take up only 30% of the global emission rate. We suggest absorption in the ocean to be the major sink. -from Authors
Article
Primary productivity and production measurements and their relationship to observed variations in the concentrations of nutrients (N and P), CO2, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and solar radiation were studied in an 8 m deep sewage stabilization pond from October 1986 to December 1987. Two types of tests were carried out: short-term and long-term. The latter permitted the transformation of short-term measurements into daily measurements and the obtention of the relationship between the time of day and primary production. The measurement of primary production was performed using the 14C technique. The highest primary productivity values were detected during the spring-summer period, which was characterized by high temperatures and an increased degree of solar radiation. The maximum value was obtained during June (14.38 mg C mg Chl−1 day−1) and was accompanied by: (a) a decrease in the concentration of nutrients (N and P) and CO2, (b) an increase in pH levels and dissolved oxygen concentrations and (c) a significant proliferation of cyanobacteria (which indicated a low organic loading).
Article
We examined the cycling of organic carbon and biogenic silica in the water column and upper sediments of the Ross Sea, seeking to understand the processes leading to the formation of opal-rich, organic-poor sediments over much of the Southern Ocean. Between January, 1990 and December, 1994 we conducted three cruises, performing tracer incubation studies (C-14, N-15, Si-30, Si-32) to measure rates of primary production, nitrate-based ''new'' production, biogenic silica production and biogenic silica dissolution in the upper 50 m over most of the Ross Sea shelf in spring, mid summer and late summer. We deployed sediment traps from January, 1990 to early March, 1992 to measure the mid-water (250 m) and near-bottom gravitational fluxes of particulate organic carbon, nitrogen and biogenic silica year-round at three sites, and obtained sediment cores at 15 sites to assess the accumulation rates of organic carbon and biogenic silica in all known sediment regimes on the shelf. At 9 of those sites we also measured nutrient efflux from the sediments, enabling us to calculate benthic recycling fluxes of organic matter and opal. These data permit estimates of the annual production, near-surface recycling, vertical sinking flux, delivery to the seabed, benthic regeneration and long-term burial of both organic and siliceous material, integrated over a 3.3 x 10(5) km(2) area that covers 75 - 80% of the Ross Sea shelf. The resulting annual budgets for carbon and silica indicate highly selective preservation of biogenic silica over organic carbon between 50 and 250 m in the water column, as well as in the upper seabed. Selective preservation of silica within the upper 50 m is not indicated, and both organic matter and silica are transported from 250 m to the sea floor with virtually 100% efficiency. The SiO2/C mass ratios for surface-layer production, 250-m sinking flux, delivery to the seabed and long-term burial are approximately 0.85, 6.1, 6.2 and 27, respectively. This progressive enrichment in silica results in long-term burial of 5.8% of the biogenic silica and 0.17% of the organic carbon produced by phytoplankton in the surface layer, a factor of 30 greater preservation efficiency for silica than for carbon. Nevertheless, the ratio of opal burial to opal production in the Ross Sea is only about twice the apparent global average of 3% and < 1/3 of the estimated burial/production ratio for the Southern Ocean as a whole. It thus appears that both silica preservation and the decoupling between the cycles of silica and carbon must be even more effective in the waters overlying abyssal Southern Ocean sediments than they are over the Ross Sea shelf.
Article
The Barents Sea is divided into a northern and a southern part by the Polar Front (at about 75–76° N) where Atlantic waters descend under Arctic waters. Near to and north of the Polar Front, the spring bloom of phytoplankton is triggered by the stability induced in the upper 20 m by the melting of ice. The pycnocline is too strong to be eroded by wind. Primary productivity after the bloom is therefore small and largely regenerative. Underneath the pycnocline there is a 3–5 m thick layer characterized by dense, slow‐growing algal populations. New productivity north of the Polar Front is no more than 40 g C m a.In permanently open waters south of the Polar Front, the spring bloom starts in early May. Rhythmic wind‐induced mixing related to the atmospheric low‐pressure belt reaches an average 40–60 m depth in the growth season, and secondary phytoplankton maxima may arise. As a result, new annual productivity is more than doubled, i.e. 90 g C m a, relative to the same system without wind. Although productivity is highest south of the Polar Front, it is more concentrated north of it, in the sense that high new production is mainly related to a 20–50 km wide belt that sweeps the area following the ice edge northwards while the ice melts through the summer.
Article
Net primary productivity (NPP) is one of the most important ecosystem parameters, representing vegetation activity, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem services. To assess how well the scientific community understands the biospheric function, a historical meta-analysis was conducted. By surveying the literature from 1862 to 2011, I extracted 251 estimates of total terrestrial NPP at the present time (NPPT) and calculated their statistical metrics. For all the data, the mean±standard deviation and median were 56.2±14.3 and 56.4 Pg C yr–1, respectively. Even for estimates published after 2000, a substantial level of uncertainty (coefficient of variation by ±15%) was inevitable. The estimates were categorized on the basis of methodology (i.e., inventory analysis, empirical model, biogeochemical model, dynamic global vegetation model, and remote sensing) to examine the consistency among the statistical metrics of each category. Chronological analysis revealed that the present NPPT estimates were directed by extensive field surveys in the 1960s and 1970s (e.g., the International Biological Programme). A wide range of uncertainty remains in modern estimates based on advanced biogeochemical and dynamic vegetation models and remote-sensing techniques. Several critical factors accounting for the estimation uncertainty are discussed. Ancillary analyses were performed to derive additional ecological and human-related parameters related to NPP. For example, interannual variability, carbon-use efficiency (a ratio of NPP to gross photosynthesis), human appropriation, and preindustrial NPPT were assessed. Finally, I discuss the importance of improving NPPT estimates in the context of current global change studies and integrated carbon cycle research.
Article
The results of the activities, discussions and experimental work, of the Working Group on the Primary Productivity of Macrophytes in the course of the second GAP Workshop held in Haifa during 29 April–4 May, 1984 are presented.Concepts concerning some aspects of the primary production process and terminology associated with it are discussed, as well as their bearings on the approaches and methods for determining production and for the translation of short-term rates to long-term yields. A suggestion is made for a uniform usage of the presently inconsistently employed terms: primary production and primary productivity, for the process and the quality of the production, respectively.Specific growth rates, calculated from weekly weight determinations of cultured Gracilaria and Ceratophyllum prior to the workshop, were compared with growth rates calculated from photosynthetic- and respiration rates that were estimated during the workshop. These were obtained using O2, 14C and 12C techniques simultaneously on the same plant samples, incubated in the same environmental conditions under which the plants had been cultivated. Possible suitability and limitations of the techniques which were used for estimation of the photosynthetic rates of the plants studied, under the conditions experienced, to predict actual growth rates are discussed.
Article
Vertical distributions of particulate silica, and of production and dissolution rates of biogenic silica, were determined on two N-S transects across the Pacific sector of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current during the austral spring of 1978. Particulate silica profiles showed elevated levels in surface water and near the bottom, with low (35–110 nmol Si · 1−1) and vertically uniform values through the intervening water column. Both the particulate silica content of the upper 200 m and the production rate of biogenic silica in the photic zone increased from north to south, reaching their highest values near the edge of the receding pack ice. A significant, but variable, fraction (18–58%) of the biogenic silica produced in the surface layer was redissolving in the upper 90–98 m. Net production of biogenic silica in the surface layer (production minus dissolution) was proceeding at a mean rate of ca. 2 mmol Si · m−2 · day−1. This is ca. 4 times greater than the most recent estimate of the mean accumulation rate of siliceous sediments beneath the ACC. We estimate, based on mass balance, that the mean dissolution rate of biogenic silica in subsurface water column in the Southern Ocean is 1.2–2.9 mmol Si · m−2 · day−1.
Chapter
INTRODUCTION Detailed descriptions of specific aspects of the oceans are presented in other contributions to this volume. It is the purpose of this chapter briefly to review some of the major geographic features of the oceans and to outline the principal characteristics that must be included in any description of an open ocean or coastal area. Although the treatment will be largely qualitative, some attention will be devoted to the processes that control the regional characteristics and seasonal variations. It is only through a proper understanding of the influences of these processes that any rational attempts can be made to reconstruct the oceans of the past. In many of the problems our knowledge and understanding are so fragmentary that the answers we desire are still remote, but a better understanding of the basic features may point the way for further study and research on those topics that are particularly critical. The treatment will proceed from a discussion of the ocean features that depend principally upon latitude and atmospheric circulation to the influences that control the conditions in relatively small coastal areas. FEATURES THAT DEPEND ON LATITUDE It is an obvious fact that many of the physical, chemical, biological, and geological features of the oceans vary with latitude. In some instances the relationship is a relatively simple one, as in the case of average surface temperatures, while in others, such as the distribution of plankton organisms or the nature of marine sediments, the relationships are obscured by the influences of factors...
Article
An attempt is made to estimate the seasonal source function, Q, of CO2 on the basis of data for the biosphere, provided by Lieth, and for other sources. The variation of soil respiration appears to be the most uncertain factor. The resulting CO2 variations in the atmosphere are calculated for horizontal exchange coefficients, K, which vary with latitude. Comparison with observations given by Bolin & Keeling shows that the results are not very sensitive with respect to the assumed variations of Q and of K with latitude. Previous results on the 03 budget are used to calculate seasonal variations of tropospheric 03 for stratospheric injection rates, and K values which vary with latitude. It is concluded that tropospheric 03 may be a useful tracer for the study of the global exchange mechanisms between stratosphere and troposphere, and of related problems.
Die Landwirtschaft in ihren Beziehungen zur Chemie
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Productivity of the plant cover of the earth, general regularities of its distribution and relation to climatic factors
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Energy flux in ecosystems, In Ecosystem Structure and Function
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An unfolding discovery
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