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Abstract

The integration of general and vocational education is a perennial problem in education. Many educational thinkers have been caught by the question and came to the conclusion that the demarcation line between ‘Bildung’ (liberal education) and ‘Ausbildung’ (training) should pass away. When work is such a big part of human life, why should preparation for work not be part of general education? It seems that in recent years the pressure on both parts of the educational system to integrate, is rising and will lead to a rethinking of preparation for life for young people and will have consequences not only for secondary, but also for primary and for further and higher education (Lasonen, 1996).

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... Het begrip sleutelkwalificaties of key skills is respectievelijk uit Duitsland (Mertens, 1974) en de Verenigde Staten (Pratzner, 1978) afkomstig en duidt de kern van beroepsbekwaamheid aan. Ze hebben transfervermogen (Mertens, 1974) en volgens Pratzner (1978) zelfs loopbaanperspectief (zie Nijhof, 1998). Veel sleutelkwalificaties zijn in de loop der jaren geformuleerd, waardoor de behoefte is ontstaan deze tot een handzaam aantal te reduceren. ...
... In deze banen worden veel niet-specifieke vaardigheden aangeleerd. Het is echter de vraag in hoeverre de respondenten in staat zijn geweest de mate van transfer juist in te schatten (Nijhof, 1998). Kuijpers (2003) heeft haar studie beperkt tot loopbaancompetenties. Van belang is echter te vermelden dat zij aanvankelijk ten behoeve van loopbaanontwikkeling drie soorten competenties onderscheidt: werkcompetenties, leercompetenties en loopbaancompetenties, hetgeen overeenkomt met het onderscheid tussen werk-en werkgerelateerde competenties. ...
... Werknemers zelf kunnen het beste bepalen welke competenties voor hen relevant zijn en kunnen ook het beste aangeven wat de rol van de opleiding is geweest. Daarnaast wordt verondersteld dat zij het beste in staat zijn aan te geven hoe relevant loopbaanen leercompetenties zijn, al zijn de ervaringen niet altijd eenduidig (Moerkamp, 1996;Nijhof, 1998). De onderzoekspopulatie wordt benaderd via Regionale Opleidingscentra (ROC's). ...
... This stability stresses the question to what extent learning behaviour can be developed or changed. However, since growing emphasis is put on the importance of individual skills and differences for labour market functioning (Nijhof, 1997), the existing concept and measurement of 'learning style' from within the educational context may be valuable for analysing differences in labour market functioning. Not only learning outcomes may be affected by differences in learning behaviour or preferences, but labour market outcomes as well. ...
... General skills pertaining to cognitive abilities, personal characteristics and learning skills, are considered as key qualifications for people (e.g. Nijhof, 1997), but it remains unclear in most labour market research how these concepts can be measured. Presland (1994) advocates the use of the learning style concept because of its relevance for continuous development during work. ...
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... This stability stresses the question to what extent learning behaviour can be developed or changed. However, since growing emphasis is put on the importance of individual skills and differences for labour market functioning (Nijhof, 1997), the existing concept and measurement of 'learning style' from within the educational context may be valuable for analysing differences in labour market functioning. Not only learning outcomes may be affected by differences in learning behaviour or preferences, but labour market outcomes as well. ...
... And the question rizes what these characteristics are exactly and how to measure them. General skills pertaining to cognitive abilities, personal characteristics and learning skills, are considered as key qualifications for people (e.g. Nijhof, 1997), but it remains unclear in most labour market research how these concepts can be measured. Presland (1994) advocates the use of the learning style concept because of its relevance for continuous development during work. ...
... Nijhof, 1998) developed a three-stage skills-framework for outlining the different stages in which people learn different skills ( figure 8.1). The framework can help to detect where which skills have to be learned, where and in what way, and to distinguish between innate capabilities, learned skills, and essential core or generic skills (Nijhof, 1998). ...
... These include job-search skills, knowing how to present oneself to prospective employers, how to identify one's career options and opportunities and how to identify and evaluate job, education and training opportunities (ibid.). Stage three (System Thinking) includes understanding and ways for working in order to facilitate change (Nijhof, 1998). At this level in an organisation, tacit knowledge and skills that are necessary for competitiveness are built up. ...
... The aim of higher education is to sustain learning society (Dearing Report, 1997) where labour market relevant knowledge and skills as well as a set of personal competences are considered as crucial (Nijhof, 1998). The reason is that workers with sufficient and up-to-date competences are more productive and have more potential to remain employed (Buchel 2002). ...
... Semeijn et al (2006) suggest that educational competence of students is relevant for the quality of work (indicated by job level, horizontal mismatch and wages). For successful functioning and development, Nijhof (1998) considered the labour market relevant knowledge and skills as well as a set of personal competences as crucial. ...
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Recent debates emphasize the role of collective learning as a major factor in facilitating and maintaining competitiveness for clusters of small enterprises in developing countries. However, few studies on learning in industrial clusters in developing countries have analyzed the benefits from learning by looking at improved workers’ positions and conditions in the cluster. This paper fills this gap in the existing literature by focusing on whether workers in the furniture cluster in Metro Cebu (the Philippines) have access to upward mobility within employment in the cluster, based on their formal and informal learning. This paper demonstrates that their ‘embodied expertise’ is rewarded only to a small extent and labour movements are more the result of job insecurity than of pursuing opportunities for upward mobility within employment.
... Bynner, 1997) or "generic skills" (Stasz, 1998), whereas in continental Europe (e.g. Germany or the Netherlands) one speaks of "key qualifications" or "key competencies" (Bunk, 1994;Nijhof, 1998;Onstenk, 1997;Reetz, 1989aReetz, , 1989b. In the United Kingdom, key skills are often referred to as "core skills". ...
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Notwithstanding an impressive research tradition on key skills, no clear statistical criterion exists that is suitable to determine which skills may be considered key skills. This contribution proposes one possible methodology that can be used to identify key skills. Proposing an economic definition of the key skill concept and disentangling the direct and indirect effects of skills on productivity, we develop an empirical criterion for the identification of key skills. We apply this methodology to a dataset of employed vocational education graduates. We find that problem-solving skills, independence, oral presentation/speaking skills, accuracy/carefulness and initiative/creativity may be considered key skills.
... This dependency requires different skills and competences from people, which are not automatically acquired in the traditional educational context (Boyatzis et al., 1995). These new key qualifications are also called generic competences (Nijhof, 1998 requirements and the importance of personality features for job selection can be found in many job advertisements in magazines and papers. Catchy lines like 'a solid personality required', 'independence and flexibility are requirements' and 'we are looking for an ambitious, enthusiastic personality' are part of the job ads, time and again. ...
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In this study, we explore the value of personality characteristics in explaining success in labor market entry with a sample of graduates in economics from Maastricht University (the Netherlands). Specifically, the paper addresses the following twofold research question: does personality explain labor market outcomes, and how much weight does this ‘generic’ factor have compared to traditional human capital and individual preference variables such as study results, study field and demographic characteristics? Personality is measured both by separate indicators for traits as well as by the so-called ‘profiles’, based on combinations of these indicators. The results show that both measurement methods reveal significant personality effects, which are independent from the effects of traditional human capital variables, such as grade point averages in the academic program, and work experience. A key finding is that both types of factors have their own and independent effect on labor market outcomes.
... In order to introduce some order in understanding the diversity of human skills, many scholars have engaged in a quest for so-called core skills, sometimes called basic skills 2 or key competences. The term (Schlüsselqualifikation) was first introduced by Mertens (1974) to denote those skills that have a more permanent value in a time where specific skills may quickly be rendered obsolete and where workers need to be more flexible (for a description of the history of the concept of key qualifications, see Nijhof, 1998). Although this conceptualisation obviously does not in itself alter the complexity of the full range of human skills -which after all exists in the real world -it can to some extent be seen as a way of establishing priorities as to which particular skills should be measured. ...
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The REFLEX project is funded by the EU 6 th Framework Program (Contract No: CIT2-CT-2004-506-352) and several national funds. The project involves partners from sixteen countries (Abstract The last few decades have seen an increased awareness of human capital as one of the driving forces in economic development. This heightened interest in education and learning has been accompanied by a greater need to monitor and assess the stock of human capital. Since the 1990's several large-scale international surveys have been undertaken to measure skills. Most skills research focussed on aspects in the cognitive domain such as literacy and numeracy skills. Not withstanding the importance of these skills for dealing with the complexities of today's world, they nevertheless represent only a fraction of the skills and competencies that are assumed to be 'key'. In a way we could say that skills researchers find themselves confronted by the limitations of classical methods of assessing skills, such as large scale testing. In this paper we have developed a plea for using self-assessments as a complementary tool to assess skills. We give an overview of different methods that are being used to assess the stock of skills and the skills required by employers. Finally we discuss the advantages as well as some of the problems arising in the use of self-assessment.
... Labour market relevant knowledge and skills, as well as a set of personal competences are seen as crucial to successful functioning and development afterwards (see, e.g. Anderson & Marshall, 1994;Nijhof, 1998). ...
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In this study, the effects of several educational and non-educational indicators of competence on short-term labour market outcomes for university graduates are estimated. The research question is: to what extent do indications of specific and generic competence during the educational program predict labour market outcomes? Labour market outcomes in this study pertain to employment chances and quality of the job. We use data on specific and generic aspects of competence, all of which were assessed during the university programme, i.e. test scores on the attainment of domain specific knowledge, scores on group functioning, and the Masters' thesis result. In addition, some other indicators of human capital acquired outside education are used, i.e. relevant work experience and managerial experience. The results indicate a rather differentiated pattern for the value of specific and generic competence acquired during education for the labour market. Group functioning scores have large effects on attaining jobs on the academic level.
... Die belegte ge- steigerte Nachfrage an hoch qualifizierten Arbeitskräften drückt schließlich ei- nen erhöhten Kompetenz-und Qualifikationsbedarf auch an Hochschulabsol- ventInnen aus (vgl. dazuHammermann/Stettes 2016;Wheelahan 2007;Nijhof 1998). Dies geschieht laut Datenbeständen der Volkswirtschaft einerseits vor dem Hintergrund des Ersatzbedarfs für die demographisch bedingt aus dem Erwerbsleben ausscheidenden Fachkräfte und andererseits durch neu entste- hende Arbeitsplätze mit andersgearteten Tätigkeiten und Aufgabenprofilen (u.a. in Folge der Digitalisierung). ...
Chapter
Die LehrerInnenfort- und LehrerInnenweiterbildung nimmt – als dritte Phase der LehrerInnenbildung – eine wichtige Rolle im Rahmen der Professionalisierung ein. Ihr fällt dabei unter anderem deshalb eine besondere Rolle zu, da die Entwicklung von Expertise ein mehrjähriger Prozess ist, der sich bis weit in die Phase des Berufslebens hinein erstreckt. Lehrkräfte können annähernd vier Jahrzehnte im Berufsleben stehen – im Vergleich mit der Ausbildungsphase eine lange Zeit, die sie theoretisch mit (Fort-)Bildung verbringen können. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden zunächst die Begriffe Fort- und Weiterbildung (für Lehrpersonen) geklärt und anschließend deren Rahmenbedingungen erörtert. Ein weiterer Teil widmet sich den empirischen Befunden, die in Österreich zur Nutzung und zur Wirkung vorliegen. Abschließend werden zukünftige Handlungsfelder und Herausforderungen für das System der LehrerInnenfortbildung in Österreich skizziert
... Labour market relevant knowledge and skills, as well as a set of personal competences are seen as crucial to successful functioning and development afterwards (see e.g. Anderson & Marshall, 1994; Nijhof, 1998). ...
... Series 1318 (2019) 012033 IOP Publishing doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1318/1/012033 2 built in order to fulfill the competencies that are suitable for the career that will be taken by students [5]. Even current learning must be adaptive to the world of very fast communication, rapid decision making, and intellectual skills to solve very complex problems [6]. ...
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... Presently, work settingsare less structured and productivity is more dependent on individuals' contributions through,for example, interpersonal communication and teamwork. This dependency requires different skills and competencies from people, which are not automatically acquired in the traditional educational context (Boyatzis et al, 1995).These new key qualifications are also called generic competencies (Nijhof, 1998) ; examples of these generic requirements and the importance of personality features for job selection can be found in many job advertisements in magazines and papers. ...
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... Die belegte gesteigerte Nachfrage an hoch qualifizierten Arbeitskräften drückt schließlich einen erhöhten Kompetenz-und Qualifikationsbedarf auch an Hochschulabsol-ventInnen aus (vgl. dazu Hammermann/Stettes 2016;Wheelahan 2007;Nijhof 1998). Dies geschieht laut Datenbeständen der Volkswirtschaft einerseits vor dem Hintergrund des Ersatzbedarfs für die demographisch bedingt aus dem Erwerbsleben ausscheidenden Fachkräfte und andererseits durch neu entstehende Arbeitsplätze mit andersgearteten Tätigkeiten und Aufgabenprofilen (u.a. in Folge der Digitalisierung). ...
... Die belegte gesteigerte Nachfrage an hoch qualifizierten Arbeitskräften drückt schließlich einen erhöhten Kompetenz-und Qualifikationsbedarf auch an Hochschulabsol-ventInnen aus (vgl. dazu Hammermann/Stettes 2016;Wheelahan 2007;Nijhof 1998). Dies geschieht laut Datenbeständen der Volkswirtschaft einerseits vor dem Hintergrund des Ersatzbedarfs für die demographisch bedingt aus dem Erwerbsleben ausscheidenden Fachkräfte und andererseits durch neu entstehende Arbeitsplätze mit andersgearteten Tätigkeiten und Aufgabenprofilen (u.a. in Folge der Digitalisierung). ...
... Die belegte ge- steigerte Nachfrage an hoch qualifizierten Arbeitskräften drückt schließlich ei- nen erhöhten Kompetenz-und Qualifikationsbedarf auch an Hochschulabsol- ventInnen aus (vgl. dazuHammermann/Stettes 2016;Wheelahan 2007;Nijhof 1998). Dies geschieht laut Datenbeständen der Volkswirtschaft einerseits vor dem Hintergrund des Ersatzbedarfs für die demographisch bedingt aus dem Erwerbsleben ausscheidenden Fachkräfte und andererseits durch neu entste- hende Arbeitsplätze mit andersgearteten Tätigkeiten und Aufgabenprofilen (u.a. in Folge der Digitalisierung). ...
... The first perspective is, from the supply side, to identify the set of competences new graduate applicants need to boost their chances of employment. Among others, both generic abilities and professional/specialized competencies are continually confirmed as being directly related to labour market entry (Lee, 1986;Spencer & Spencer, 1993;Nijhof, 1998;Mason, 1998Mason, , 1999Stasz, 2001;Autor et al., 2003;Heijke et al., 2003;Bradley & Nguyen, 2004;Biesma et al., 2007;Felstead et al., 2007;Freire & Teijeiro, 2010;Elish, et al., 2010). The second perspective is, on the employer side, to explore how well acquired competences match required competencies (Teijeiro et al., 2013, Humburg & van der Velden, 2015. ...
... Die belegte ge- steigerte Nachfrage an hoch qualifizierten Arbeitskräften drückt schließlich ei- nen erhöhten Kompetenz-und Qualifikationsbedarf auch an Hochschulabsol- ventInnen aus (vgl. dazuHammermann/Stettes 2016;Wheelahan 2007;Nijhof 1998). Dies geschieht laut Datenbeständen der Volkswirtschaft einerseits vor dem Hintergrund des Ersatzbedarfs für die demographisch bedingt aus dem Erwerbsleben ausscheidenden Fachkräfte und andererseits durch neu entste- hende Arbeitsplätze mit andersgearteten Tätigkeiten und Aufgabenprofilen (u.a. in Folge der Digitalisierung). ...
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... Die belegte gesteigerte Nachfrage an hoch qualifizierten Arbeitskräften drückt schließlich einen erhöhten Kompetenz-und Qualifikationsbedarf auch an Hochschulabsol-ventInnen aus (vgl. dazu Hammermann/Stettes 2016;Wheelahan 2007;Nijhof 1998). Dies geschieht laut Datenbeständen der Volkswirtschaft einerseits vor dem Hintergrund des Ersatzbedarfs für die demographisch bedingt aus dem Erwerbsleben ausscheidenden Fachkräfte und andererseits durch neu entstehende Arbeitsplätze mit andersgearteten Tätigkeiten und Aufgabenprofilen (u.a. in Folge der Digitalisierung). ...
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Chapter
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Ability to learn, adaptability, flexibility and employability are just a few of the modern organisational concepts that reflect the new demands for the educational system. In the 1990 report of the Industrial Research and Development Advisory Committee of the Commission of the European Community (IRDAC), it was stated that skills shortages are hampering growth possibilities. Therefore, the need for adaptability to new skill requirements was stressed by this committee (IRDAC, 1990). The Dutch Scientific Council for Government Policy (with the Dutch shortcut WRR) emphasises the need for intellectual mobility and flexibility to keep up with the overall changes in the labour market (WRR, 1995). And the European Commission published a report “Teaching and Learning. Towards the Learning Society” that underscores the need for lifelong investment in education and training as the main instrument to improve Europe’s competitiveness and to combat social exclusion (European Commission, 1996).
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Transfer of training is of paramount concern for training researchers and practitioners. Despite research efforts, there is a growing concern over the "transfer problem." The purpose of this paper is to provide a critique of the existing transfer research and to suggest directions for future research investigations. The conditions of transfer include both the generalization of learned material to the job and the maintenance of trained skills over a period of time on the job. The existing research examining the effects of training design, trainee, and work-environment factors on conditions of transfer is reviewed and critiqued. Research gaps identified from the review include the need to (1) test various operationalizations of training design and work-environment factors that have been posited as having an impact on transfer and (2) develop a framework for conducting research on the effects of trainee characteristics on transfer. Needed advancements in the conceptualization and operationalization of the criterion of transfer are also discussed. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Personnel Psychology is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)
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Occupations have been ranked on the basis of their rewards to individuals and value for society. However, the traditional fixed ranking based on social and power hierarchies in societies is blurred in the light of recent shift in conceptions of status, culture, self-fulfillment, and identity. Youngsters' images of occupations are associated with their aspirations for studies and jobs, with qualities of work and people involved in a field, and with family background and parents' opinions. This article focuses on the concept of parity of esteem in youth education and training. Upper secondary education, either general (academic) or vocational, should prepare for higher education or/and workforce. The systemic education and training approaches are based on the strategies of enhancement, enrichment, linkages, and unification.
Article
Ikujiro Nonaka e Hirotaka Takeuchi establecen una vinculación del desempeño de las empresas japonesas con su capacidad para crear conocimiento y emplearlo en la producción de productos y tecnologías exitosas en el mercado. Los autores explican que hay dos tipos de conocimiento: el explícito, contenido en manuales y procedimientos, y el tácito, aprendido mediante la experiencia y comunicado, de manera indirecta, en forma de metáforas y analogías. Mientras los administradores estadounidenses se concentran en el conocimiento explícito, los japoneses lo hacen en el tácito y la clave de su éxito estriba en que han aprendido a convertir el conocimiento tácito en explícito. Finalmente, muestran que el mejor estilo administrativo para crear conocimiento es el que ellos denominan centro-arriba-abajo, en el que los gerentes de niveles intermedios son un puente entre los ideales de la alta dirección y la realidad caótica de los niveles inferiores.
Article
Effective problem solving, sound decision making, insightful invention—do such aspects of good thinking depend more on deep expertise in a specialty than on reflective awareness and general strategies? Over the past thirty years, considerable research and controversy have surrounded this issue. An historical sketch of the arguments for the strong specialist position and the strong generalist position suggests that each camp, in its own way, has oversimplified the interaction between general strategic knowledge and specialized domain knowledge. We suggest a synthesis: General and specialized knowledge function in close partnership. We explore the nature of this partnership and consider its implications for educational practice.
Article
Generic skills were identified in five categories: mathematical skills, communication skills, reasoning skills, interpersonal skills, and manipulative skills. Workers and supervisors having 82 different occupational titles were then asked to indicate whether they used each of the 191 skills in their work. Results are tabulated to indicate how many of the 10 respondents in each occupational category stated that they needed a particular skill. From this basic data occupational profiles were generated in matrix form. These profiles are presented in this handbook, together with matrices indicating the needs of workers in various skill clusters. Potential uses of the handbook in developing basic training sequences and in career counselling are described. (SD)
Article
This report focuses on transferable skills--those knowledge, attitudinal, and manual skills an employee brings to a job (or an employer expects an employee to bring) that provide that employee with occupational competence and mobility. The concept of "skill" and categories of skill are explored and defined. Chapter I discusses the concept of transferable skills. It looks at labor market issues and how they relate to the need for transferable skills. Developments in training practices are considered to see how they relate to the provision of transferable skills. Training issues are trade teachers, mobility and productivity, competence, and labor market. Chapter II looks at the two groups of skills that have been identified as enhancing job mobility: skills a student will require to complete a course of training and/or retraining and skills needed during a working life. The relationship between skills in the two groups and their usefulness in vocational curriculum design is discussed. Chapter III first considers three curriculum delivery methods relevant to delivery of transferable skills: competency-based delivery, individualized instruction, and modular instruction. Next, DACUM (Develop a Curriculum) is recommended as the most appropriate method for curriculum development for transferable skills. Finally, teacher participation is addressed. Chapter IV outlines the proposed strategy for instilling transferable skills into vocational curricula. A four-page list of references is provided. (YLB)
Article
This report, which is intended for technical institutions planning to use benchmark processes to facilitate change, contains five benchmarking studies describing future-oriented practices at two-year technical and community colleges that meet the design specifications stated in the report "New Designs for the Two-Year Institution of Higher Education." In each study, one of five program design elements--learning process, learning partnerships, learning staff and staff development, the learning environment (technology), and learning finance--is examined through a case study of a program or institution. Those programs and institutions are as follows: Consortium for Workforce Education and Lifelong Learning at San Diego Community College in San Diego, California; Fox Valley Technical College in Appleton, Wisconsin; Miami-Dade Community College in Miami, Florida; the Higher Education and Advanced Technology Center, which is a Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System innovation on the site of the former Lowry Air Force Base in Aurora, Colorado; and Sauk Valley Community College in Dixon, Illinois. Each benchmark study includes the following: contact persons, site selection, site background, process objectives, key features, impact, future directions, and design implications. A final chapter summarizes the studies and discusses their implications. The bibliography contains 78 references. (MN)
Article
Over the past decade, research by cognitive scientists has been building a clearer understanding of how people learn in school and out. A review of the various streams of cognitive research has implications for vocational education. Research has determined characteristics of effective workers and how people become effective workers. Some highlights of this research are that (1) the usual teaching of skill hierarchies is seldom effective in educating and training for work; (2) people build workplace expertise through the opportunity to participate, under the training of experts, in physical and intellectual tasks specific to a particular work setting; (3) the abstract thinking skills required in many technical jobs today are learned effectively through a combination of practice and explicit teaching in a meaningful context; and (4) impediments to providing the opportunity to participate in meaningful work experiences include the increasing emphasis on school-based, formal education, the insistence on sequential learning of skill hierarchies and general reasoning skills without application to practice, and the increasing complexity of jobs, which makes craft-style apprenticeship ineffective. To improve education for work, vocational education needs to integrate learning of basic skills with learning of specific work setting skills, to provide education for work in replications of work situations, and to recognize the relationship between healthy families, schools that educate, and productive workplaces. Over 100 references are cited and a list of 20 researchers consulted is appended. (KC)
Article
In the 21st century, education will be the foundation of material as well as intellectual progress. The challenge is to develop an education system adequate to the economic and social demands of the next century… (and) that innovative capabilities be spread throughout the whole population. (Finegold et al., 1990).
Article
This chapter discusses the interrelationships between task structure, encoding and retrieval processes, and the prior knowledge of the learner, as these factors relate to transfer. It presents a distinction between perceived similarity of the training and transfer situations, based on salient common features of their representations, and objective structural similarity, based on the actual nature of the task components determining appropriate responses. Transfer is affected by both types of similarity. Perceived similarity determines whether transfer is attempted, whereas objective structural similarity determines whether transfer is positive or negative. The encoding of the training task fosters subsequent transfer to the extent that the learner acquires rules that are applicable to a range of superficially different tasks with structural commonalities. If the transfer task evokes similar goals and processing mechanisms, or has salient surface resemblances to the training task, these common components then serve as the basis for retrieval of the acquired knowledge in the transfer context. Several factors that influence learning and retention merit more extensive investigation in relation to transfer. One such factor is the role of context and contrast in determining the learner's representation of the training task.
Article
A report on the process and procedures of determining generic occupational skills and clusters of occupations for optimal occupational training needs is presented. Four hundred and ninety workers and their supervisors representing 37 different occupations were interviewed using a structured questionnaire consisting of items on mathematics, communication, reasoning, and interpersonal and manipulative skills. Respondents were asked to indicate whether a specific skill was a prerequisite to enter a job and also whether that specific skill was required on the job. Six, three, and two hierarchical skill factors and nine occupational clusters were identified. Training and curricular implications were explored.
Article
Incl. bibliographical references, index
Article
Über Jahrzehnte hat sich das duale Berufsbildungssystem mit seiner berufsbegleitenden Berufsschule bewährt. In den letzten Jahren haben sich aber die Verhältnisse im Umfeld der Berufsbildung dermaßen verändert, daß die Ausgestaltung des Systems und vor allem der Unterricht an der Berufsschule grundsätzlich zu überdenken sind. Im Vordergrund stehen insbesondere drei Veränderungen: (1) Die Anforderungen an die Auszubildenden steigen fortwährend an, und dies nicht nur im eigenen Berufsfeld, sondern es ist damit zu rechnen, daß in Zukunft jedermann während seiner Lebensarbeitszeit seinen Beruf einbis zweimal wechseln muß, was an Fähigkeiten wie selbständiges Lernen, Flexibilität usw. völlig neue Anforderungen stellt. (2) Im Betrieb sehen die Auszubildenden immer ausgeprägter nur noch Teilbereiche aus den Aktivitäten. Im Gegensatz zu früher fehlt es an Möglichkeiten einer funktionalen Bildung, die den Einblick in das Ganzheitliche des unternehmerischen Geschehens gewissermaßen beiläufig gibt; deshalb wird das Ganzheitliche in der Berufsbildung zur wesentlichen Aufgabe der Berufsschule. (3) Die Wünsche des modernen Menschen nach mehr Autonomie lassen sich mit einer traditionellen, engen und spezialisierten beruflichen Bildung nicht verwirklichen. Zusammen mit den aus Gründen der Arbeitszufriedenheit zukunftsträchtigeren Mischarbeitsplätzen setzen diese Autonomiebedürfnisse ganzheitlich denkende und handelnde Persönlichkeiten voraus, die über ein Wissen und Können verfügen müssen, das sie zur Bewältigung laufend neuer und unerwarteter Situationen befähigt.
Article
"Eine übliche Tendenz im Bildungswesen angesichts der Unsicherheit über die Entwicklung der speziellen Arbeitsanforderungen besteht in der Verbreiterung des Faktenwissens (Breitenbildung). Diese Tendenz bringt wegen der zunehmenden Unüberschaubarkeit von Fakten keinen Gewinn für eine Existenz in der Zukunft. Die Lösung liegt vielmehr eher bei der Suche nach "gemeinsamen Dritten" von Arbeits- und sonstigen Umweltanforderungen. Solche "gemeinsamen Dritten", also übergeordnete Bildungsziele und Bildungselemente, nennen wir Schlüsselqualifikationen, weil sie den Schlüssel zur raschen und reibungslosen Erschließung von wechselndem Spezialwissen bilden. Es werden vier Arten von Schlüsselqualifikationen unterschieden: - Basisqualifikationen = Qualifikationen höherer Ordnung mit einem breiten Spektrum vertikalen Transfers, - Horizontqualifikationen = Informationen über Informationen (horizonterweiternde Qualifikationen), - Breitenelemente = ubiquitäre Ausbildungselemente, - Vintage-Faktoren = generationsbedingte Lehrstoffe und Begriffssysteme. Alle bezeichenbaren Schlüsselqualifikationen bedürfen für die Bildungsplanungspraxis der Übersetzung in spezifische Lernziele. Die Praxisnähe kann durch eine entsprechende Didaktik (Projektschulung), und/oder durch Training on the Job hergestellt werden."
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