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The Grotta Del Cane (Dog Cave), Naples, Italy



The Grotta del Cane (Dog Cave) has been well known since antiquity because of a carbon dioxide layer, which is toxic for animals but not for a man standing erect. In this report we cite some important accounts by visitors during the last two millennia, together with a modern description of its features and current methods of minimizing hazards of such cave environments.
... within Bouguer anomaly of Campi Flegrei fig.5. The speleological literature has lacking a contemporary review of the history and present situation of the Dog cave "Grotta del Cane" Naples -Italy (Halliday and Cigna 2006). The obstacles of speleological investigation in the Dog cave are significant. ...
Research Proposal
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The uncovering of the actual cave of the Seven Sleepers tale through several scientific domains and a new method of Quran interpretation will result in a paradigm shift. We suggest that the Dog Cave near Naples, Italy is the actual cave for this tale. Moreover, the tale occurred in the period of the emperor Vespasian in 71 A.D., and the Seven Sleepers awoke in 380 A.D., the years of the confession of faith of the emperor' Theodosius I. We argue that the new approach will allow us to decode numerous mysteries and contribute to uncovering evidence in many scientific fields, including history, physics, cosmology, and geology. This study examines a heuristic approach to unraveling the tale of the Seven Sleepers. Associating what is stated in the legend with the historical record is critical, and uncovering the evidence that might give the idea of time travel and how this evidence could be formed via a new method of Qur'an interpretation is crucial. Also, attempt to figure out who the Seven Sleepers are. Because the restrictions of specific sources limited previous research of the Seven Sleepers narrative, the outcome was toward a definite place, emperor identity, and date of the tale's occurrence, despite the interest in uncovering the Quran's secret. A few scholars attempt to think outside the box to link Quranic results with scientific fields that consider the preliminary meaning of the word Quran. Furthermore, there are restrictions on the Arabic language rules. Introduction Revealing the actual cave of the Seven Sleepers will be an underground revolution for much of the evidence that is uncovered in the cave in many domains of physics, cosmology, and geology. In addition, it helps explain many concerns that have been lingering about hazy parts of history that have been attributed to myth and legend. For example, the Seven Sleepers have traditionally been seen by researchers in the scientific community as a myth concocted by the ancient people's creative minds. In the period from the 9th to the 13th-century, over 200 manuscripts study the legend of the seven sleepers. Previous work has only focused on the study of the legend's origin. The legend address historical records by identifying the period of two Roman emperors, Decius 251 AD to Theodosius II 448 AD(Archer 2016; Grysa 2015). Our knowledge of the tale of the seven sleepers is mainly based on some information. The research aimed to present a new approach, revealing the cave of the seven sleepers based on literature and linking it with information extracted from the Quran using a new interpretation process. Giving new light on the foggy history of that time and uncovering the evidence that compelled them to travel ahead in time and hypothesize how it formed. In this research, we shall refer to the Seven Sleepers as "tales" rather than "legends." This investigation will be divided into five main sections. The first section summarizes the study's purpose, contribution, and literature review. In the second section, we propose a new method for Quranic interpretation of the cave chapter relating to the tale of the seven sleepers. The third section will outline the advantages of our interpretation procedure and provide the results. The fourth segment emphasizes noteworthy findings. Finally, the last section contains our conclusion.
The available information relevant to reconstruct the conceptual models of both the magmatic–hydrothermal system hosted in the Campi Flegrei caldera and the Solfatara magmatic-hydrothermal system was summarized and reviewed. This information includes (but is not limited to): the main characteristics of the deep geothermal wells drilled in the area, the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy and the geochemistry of the fluids encountered by the AGIP-ENEL geothermal wells, the tomographic modeling of active and passive seismic data, the chemical and isotopic characteristics of onshore thermal springs and shallow wells, onshore fumaroles and gas vents, offshore fumaroles and gas vents, and sub-lacustrine hydrothermal discharges. Taking into account the general conceptual model of volcano-hosted magmatic-hydrothermal systems (Fournier, 1999) and adopting the methodology commonly used by geothermal scientists (Cumming 2009, 2016), the conceptual model of the magmatic-hydrothermal system hosted in the Campi Flegrei caldera was reconstructed. The local stratigraphy comprises: (a) water-saturated volcanic products above 0.6 km depth; (b) volcanic and marine deposits extensively affected by propylitic, phyllitic, and argillic hydrothermal alteration, between 0.6 and 2.7 km depths; (c) a layer of thermometamorphic rocks at depths between 2.7 and 4 km approximately; (d) Mesozoic carbonate rocks (such as those cropping out around the Campanian Plain) and the crystalline bedrock from ca. 4 to ca. 7.5 km depths (e) a magma reservoir whose top is situated at ca. 7.5 km depth. Levels (c) and (d) host over-pressurized gases and hypersaline brines that are expelled from the crystallizing magma and CO2-rich gases produced in-situ by different reactions. Actually, CO2-rich fluids were discharged by well San Vito 1. Thus, levels (c) and (d) are the “engine” governing the bradyseism as proposed by several authors. Levels (b) and (c) are separated by a relatively impermeable zone produced by self-sealing, mainly quartz deposition, at temperature close to 400°C (Fournier 1999). Actually, this quartz-bearing zone was encountered in well San Vito 1, at depths between ca. 2.5 and 2.8 km and temperatures of ca. 360 to 385°C. This quartz-rich zone represents the boundary between the underlying deep-magmatic portion of the magmatic-hydrothermal system, where fluid pressure is controlled by the lithostatic regime, and the overlying shallow-hydrothermal portion of the magmatic-hydrothermal system, where fluid pressure is governed by the hydrostatic regime (Fournier 1999). In the shallow-hydrothermal portion, the circulation of hydrothermal fluids of marine origin (at least for the most) is restricted to the brittle rocks of the propylitic zone, where permeability is fracture-controlled, whereas the overlying impermeable, plastic rocks of the phyllitic and argillic zones act as the clay cap of the geothermal system. Similar to the basinal-type geothermal systems, the extension of the Campi Flegrei shallow geothermal reservoir is marked, to a first approximation, by the neutral chloride thermal waters emerging at the surface, or intercepted by shallow wells, close to the coastline. However, the onshore thermal manifestations (both thermal waters and gas emissions) cluster in the two distinct areas of Mofete and Solfatara-Agnano. Hydrothermal circulation might be restricted, almost completely, to these two areas, which would host two different, comparatively small hydrothermal systems. Alternatively (and this is our preferred interpretation), the two areas of Mofete and Solfatara-Agnano mark two separate upflows of a unique, relatively large hydrothermal system, extending between them, southwards (as indicated the offshore gas vents) and northwards (as proven by the deep boreholes of San Vito). Finally, the two conceptual models of the Solfatara magmatic-hydrothermal system proposed by Cioni et al. (1984) and Caliro et al. (2007) are recalled. Both conceptual models are realistic, in that they describe the system of interest during the 1982-1984 bradyseismic crisis and after its cessation, respectively.
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Dom Pedro II era considerado um erudito e entusiasta das artes e da cultura, além de um importante patrocinador da ciência, faceta pouco conhecida pela maioria dos brasileiros. Foi educado com base nos ideais do Iluminismo e fez relatos detalhados sobre a fauna e a flora dos lugares, além de registrar nos seus diários, suas impressões geográficas dos lugares. Menos conhecidos são seus registros sobre geografia física, cavernas e áreas cársticas pelas quais passou. Dessa forma, o principal objetivo dessa pesquisa é o destaque dos registros da paisagem cárstica e suas feições no Brasil e em outros países. Para cumprir o objetivo, os autores realizaram uma pesquisa documental nos diários de viagem do Imperador (1840-1889). O material foi transcrito para cerca de 1.064 páginas, dividido em dois eixos temáticos. Embora não seja possível afirmar que os registros foram estritamente carstológicos ou espeleológicos, os registros são, até certo ponto, bem científicos. Portanto, é impossível negar a importância e o valor cultural desses documentos. Palavras-chave: Carste; Cavernas, Imperador brasileiro; D. Pedro II.
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In May and June 1985, the deeper passages of Bayliss Cave, North Queensland, Australia, contained up to 200 times the ambient atmospheric level of carbon dioxide and a water-saturated atmosphere, yet supported the most diverse community of highly modified, obligate, terrestrial cave species yet known. The obligate and facultative cave species were mostly segregated by the environment, with the 24 obligate cave-adapted species being largely restricted to the "bad-air" zone. The discovery of this previously unknown "bad-air," obligate cave community corroborates other behavioral and distributional studies that suggest that cave-adapted animals are specialized to exploit resources within the smaller underground 'voids, where fluctuating carbon dioxide concentrations are theoretically intolerable to most surface and facultative cave species.