Article

Una Meseta desolada? Estado actual de la investigación sobre el Paleolítico Superior en las regiones interiores de la Península Ibérica

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... This idea was first put forth by Breuil and Obermaier (1913: 15), especially for most of the Upper Palaeolithic, prior to the Magdalenian. Since then, other scholars have insisted that the harsh environmental and climatic conditions of these continental and upland regions were the main factors behind the lack of permanent settlements during the LGM (see Alcaraz-Castaño, 2015 andDelibes andDíez, 2006, and references therein). As discussed in previous works (Alcaraz-Castaño, 2015), the more refined version of this interpretation was proposed by Straus et al. (2000) and can be termed the "crossing-area model". ...
... This idea was first put forth by Breuil and Obermaier (1913: 15), especially for most of the Upper Palaeolithic, prior to the Magdalenian. Since then, other scholars have insisted that the harsh environmental and climatic conditions of these continental and upland regions were the main factors behind the lack of permanent settlements during the LGM (see Alcaraz-Castaño, 2015 andDelibes andDíez, 2006, and references therein). As discussed in previous works (Alcaraz-Castaño, 2015), the more refined version of this interpretation was proposed by Straus et al. (2000) and can be termed the "crossing-area model". ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Classic models on population dynamics in inland Iberia during Marine Isotope Stage 2 have depicted this area, dominated by the Spanish plateau, as nearly unpopulated until Magdalenian times. In recent years, some researchers have questioned these models, mainly based on new field data. Preliminary evidence coming from the Peña Capón rock shelter has been among the most promising and thought-provoking. In the framework of a project aimed at investigating human-environment interactions and population dynamics during the Late Pleistocene in central Iberia, we have conducted new geo-archeological fieldwork at Peña Capón. This is a north-westerly oriented limestone rock shelter, close to the south-eastern foothills of the Central System range, and hosting a multi-layered fluvial deposit containing Upper Palaeolithic assemblages. We present here the first results obtained from the new excavations at the site, focusing on the uppermost layers, where in situ Solutrean assemblages have been recorded. These assemblages have been radiocarbon dated between circa 24.72 and 23.67 ka cal BP and attest to the relevance of the Peña Capón rock shelter for studying population dynamics and human-environment interactions around the Last Glacial Maximum in inland Iberia.
... Esta visión ha sido recurrente en la investigación española desde hace más de un siglo (ver Delibes y Díez 2006). ya desde comienzos del siglo XX, las voces más relevantes del Paleolítico peninsular presumieron -más por falta de evidencias que por resultados de investigaciones definidas-que durante las oscilaciones más frías de la última glaciación la Meseta habría sido una región prácticamente deshabitada (Breuil y obermaier 1913: 15). ...
... No sólo se conocían muy pocos yacimientos del Paleolítico Medio y el Superior en la Meseta, sino que los datos relativos a sus estratigrafías eran habitualmente fragmentarios, y carecían de actualización en relación con las últimas técnicas de investigación geoarqueológicas y paleoecológicas. A este respecto, algunos autores, entre los que nos encontramos los firmantes, han venido señalando en los últimos años que la falta de datos sobre gran parte del Pleistoceno Superior en esta región, y su corolario en forma de modelos que proclamaban grandes fases de despoblamiento, podrían obedecer primordialmente a un déficit investigador en la zona, exacerbado además por la tendencia histórica a focalizar los estudios ibéricos sobre el Paleolítico Superior en las zonas costeras peninsulares, habitualmente dotadas de un registro arqueológico más rico y accesible (Alcolea-González y Balbín-Behrmann 2003;Delibes y Díez 2006;Cacho et al. 2010;Aubry et al. 2012;Alcaraz-Castaño et al. 2013;Alcaraz-Castaño 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
We present partial results obtained in an interdisciplinary research project focused on the human settlement of the Guadalajara province (Spain) during the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. The excavation of the Peña Capón, Peña Cabra and Los Casares sites have shown outstanding evidence for investigating population dynamics and human-environment interactions in the interior territories of the Iberian Peninsula during the Late Pleistocene. Traditionally depicted as marginal and lacking own cultural developments, these territories have provided scarce and weak data for the Middle and –especially– Upper Paleolithic, and thus the proposed interpretations on the mentioned problems have been always flawed. However, our results enable us to confirm the cultural relevance of the region under study during Upper Pleniglacial times previously considered devoid of human occupation. Also, we are now able to contribute with solid data from inland Spain to the problem of the Neandertal demise in the Iberian Peninsula and southwest Europe.
... Esta visión ha sido recurrente en la investigación española desde hace más de un siglo (ver Delibes y Díez 2006). ya desde comienzos del siglo XX, las voces más relevantes del Paleolítico peninsular presumieron -más por falta de evidencias que por resultados de investigaciones definidas-que durante las oscilaciones más frías de la última glaciación la Meseta habría sido una región prácticamente deshabitada (Breuil y obermaier 1913: 15). ...
... No sólo se conocían muy pocos yacimientos del Paleolítico Medio y el Superior en la Meseta, sino que los datos relativos a sus estratigrafías eran habitualmente fragmentarios, y carecían de actualización en relación con las últimas técnicas de investigación geoarqueológicas y paleoecológicas. A este respecto, algunos autores, entre los que nos encontramos los firmantes, han venido señalando en los últimos años que la falta de datos sobre gran parte del Pleistoceno Superior en esta región, y su corolario en forma de modelos que proclamaban grandes fases de despoblamiento, podrían obedecer primordialmente a un déficit investigador en la zona, exacerbado además por la tendencia histórica a focalizar los estudios ibéricos sobre el Paleolítico Superior en las zonas costeras peninsulares, habitualmente dotadas de un registro arqueológico más rico y accesible (Alcolea-González y Balbín-Behrmann 2003;Delibes y Díez 2006;Cacho et al. 2010;Aubry et al. 2012;Alcaraz-Castaño et al. 2013;Alcaraz-Castaño 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
We present partial results obtained in an interdisciplinary research project focused on the human settlement of the Guadalajara province (Spain) during the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. The excavation of the Peña Capón, Peña Cabra and Los Casares sites have shown outstanding evidence for investigating population dynamics and human-environment interactions in the interior territories of the Iberian Peninsula during the Late Pleistocene. Traditionally depicted as marginal and lacking own cultural developments, these territories have provided scarce and weak data for the Middle and –especially– Upper Paleolithic, and thus the proposed interpretations on the mentioned problems have been always flawed. However, our results enable us to confirm the cultural relevance of the region under study during Upper Pleniglacial times previously considered devoid of human occupation. Also, we are now able to contribute with solid data from inland Spain to the problem of the Neandertal demise in the Iberian Peninsula and southwest Europe.
... In contrast, the interior lands of Spain, dominated by an upland plateau (the Meseta) divided in two by the Central System range (Fig. 1), are considered a nearly depopulated area during most of the Upper Paleolithic. This interpretation, which is based on the scarce archaeological record for the Early Upper Palaeolithic and the Solutrean in Central Iberia (see Tiffagom, 2006;Banks et al., 2009;Cacho et al., 2010;Schmidt et al., 2012;Aubry and Almeida, 2013), has been common in the Spanish literature since the beginnings of the 20th century (Breuil and Obermaier, 1913; see Delibes andDíez, 2006 andAlcaraz-Castaño et al., 2013 for references). It has also been highlighted in recent surveys and paleoclimate simulations (Burke et al., 2014). ...
... In contrast, the interior lands of Spain, dominated by an upland plateau (the Meseta) divided in two by the Central System range (Fig. 1), are considered a nearly depopulated area during most of the Upper Paleolithic. This interpretation, which is based on the scarce archaeological record for the Early Upper Palaeolithic and the Solutrean in Central Iberia (see Tiffagom, 2006;Banks et al., 2009;Cacho et al., 2010;Schmidt et al., 2012;Aubry and Almeida, 2013), has been common in the Spanish literature since the beginnings of the 20th century (Breuil and Obermaier, 1913; see Delibes andDíez, 2006 andAlcaraz-Castaño et al., 2013 for references). It has also been highlighted in recent surveys and paleoclimate simulations (Burke et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The recent excavations (2008–2009) conducted at the open-air site of Las Delicias, located in the Manzanares River valley (Madrid), have revealed new important data for the understanding of the human settlement of Central Iberia during Solutrean times. In this paper, we present a geomorphological and taphonomic study of the Pleistocene deposits of Las Delicias, a technological analysis focused on the bifacial lithic reduction processes documented at the site, new Optically Stimulated Luminescence dates, and new palynological data. Together with the existence of numerous Solutrean lithic assemblages from the early 20th century excavations of the Manzanares terraces, these new data highlight the importance of the Manzanares valley as a focus of Solutrean settlement, not only related to flint procurement but also to foraging activities. Moreover, they require reconsideration of Central Iberia as a virtually unpopulated region during the Late Pleniglacial (MIS 2), and of the associated idea of its cultural dependence on the coastal areas of the Iberian Peninsula. We propose new avenues of research aimed at approaching the central region of Iberia in its own cultural and ecological terms.
... Nevertheless, the presence of settlements in inland territories, like El Palomar and Peña Capón, suggest some kind of occupations. In those inner areas, the traditional interpretation of the lack of archaeological sites is that this was a mostly uninhabited area during the coldest stages of the Upper Paleolithic due to harsh environmental and climatic conditions (Straus et al., 2000;Delibes and Díez, 2006). However, recent findings could induce some reinterpretations about the inland occupation during the Gravettian in term of human adaptation (Alcaraz, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on palaeoenvironmental conditions and climate variability during the Upper Late Pleistocene (c. 28,000–11,700 cal BP) in SW Europe (Iberian Peninsula) and their influence on human settlement patterns. All the palaeoenvironmental and archaeological sequences available for this period are analysed, together with a new palaeoenvironmental study related to a key deposit: Verdeospesoa mire (northern Iberian Peninsula). The multiproxy analysis (pollen, spores, non-pollen palynomorphs, magnetic susceptibility, organic content and macrocharcoal) of this sequence, with the support of six Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates, shows the climatic variability of that period, with some dry/cold and humid/temperate episodes. While in vast regions of central and northern Europe very few archaeological sites of this age are known, in the Iberian Peninsula no occupation gaps have been detected in all this period, supporting the idea of SW Europe as a glacial refugium for human groups during the worst periods of the Upper Late Pleistocene.
... Recent research (Alcaraz-Castaño et al., 2017c) contradicts previous models positing a virtually depopulated Meseta during MIS 2 until the retreat of the Last Glacial Period (Delibes and Díez, 2006;Straus et al., 2000). However, no Aurignacian industries have been documented in inland Iberia (Alcaraz-Castaño, 2015;Cacho et al., 2010), and the earliest evidence of AMH is related to Gravettian occupations in a chronology of 28 ka (Wolf et al., 2018). ...
Article
The environmental conditions that existed during the period between 45 and 30 ka are of vital importance for addressing the transition between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic. It seems to be a hiatus of Paleolithic populations, a “no (hu)man’s land” in Central Iberia, coinciding with the mid part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, between 42 and 28 cal kyr BP. This break in the archaeological record makes it difficult to address this period paleoecologically. Here we present a new cave site, Portalón del Tejadilla (Segovia), dated to a period roughly between ∼34.2 and 40.4 cal kyr BP in which cold-adapted faunas, such as woolly rhinoceros and giant deer, have been recovered in a hyena den site context. This site is located in Central Iberia, and more specifically, on the southern edge of the northern Plateau, an unexpected region for the presence of these faunas during the MIS 3. These new findings extend the geographical distribution of several species, including Coelodonta antiquitatis and Megaloceros giganteus. Furthermore, they document a climatic deterioration (colder and dryer) during the mid MIS 3 in Central Iberia in one of the coldest and driest episodes of the Late Pleistocene. Portalón del Tejadilla fills this temporal gap and provides valuable paleoecological information about the transition between the Middle to Upper Paleolithic.
... En esas áreas interiores, la interpretación tradicional para justificar la falta de depósitos arqueológicos sugería que esta fue un área mayormente deshabitada durante las etapas más frías del Paleolítico Superior debido a las duras condiciones ambientales y climáticas (Straus, 2012;Delibes y Díez, 2006). Sin embargo, hallazgos recientes podrían apoyar algunas reinterpretaciones sobre la ocupación ______________Dinámica poblacional y paleoclimática durante el Pleistoceno final: ¿apocalipsis glacial o área refugio? ...
... Thus, the northern plateau, even in current conditions, registers low temperatures during its long winters and an extreme range of temperatures during its short summers, which would have made it a challenging environment during the cold phases of the Pleistocene. In fact, during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 the northern plateau was sparsely populated and locally depopulated (Straus et al., 2000;Delibes and Díez, 2006), but just how is still largely unknown. ...
Article
Full-text available
Here we present a new site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain): Galería de las Estatuas (GE), which provides new information about Mousterian occupations in the Iberian Plateau. The GE was an ancient entrance to the cave system, which is currently closed and sealed by a stalagmitic crust, below which a detritic sedimentary sequence of more than 2 m is found. This has been divided into five litostratigraphic units with a rich assemblage of faunal and lithic remains of clear Mousterian affinity. Radiocarbon dates provide minimum ages and suggest occupations older than 45 ¹⁴ C ka BP. The palynological analysis detected a landscape change to increased tree coverage, which suggests that the sequence recorded a warming episode. The macromammal assemblage is composed of both ungulates (mainly red deer and equids) and carnivores. Taphonomic analysis reveals both anthropic, and to a lesser extent, carnivore activities. The GE was occupied by Neanderthals and also sporadically by carnivores. This new site broadens the information available regarding different human occupations at the Sierra de Atapuerca, which emphasizes the importance of this site-complex for understanding human evolution in Western Europe.
... The results from Peña Cap on (Alcaraz-Castaño et al., 2013) and Las Delicias (Alcaraz-Castaño et al., 2012) have shown that central Spain was occupied during LGM (sensu lato) severe climate. Other areas were also put on the map (for further discussion see Gaspar et al., 2015b), strengthening the idea that such absence of record is not entirely real, as it could result from the lack of field investigations (Delibes and Díez, 2006;Peña, 2009 andAlcaraz-Castaño et al., 2013) as well as site visibility and conservation problems (Cacho et al., 2010;Zilhão, 2013 andGaspar, 2015b). The new data from the Gravettian layers of Foz do Medal as well as the Solutrean layer of Foz do Medal e Left Bank locus (Gaspar et al., 2015b) together with the works from Côa Valley (Aubry, 2009a, b) aids this discussion. ...
Article
Recent works undertaken in Sabor valley, Northeast Portugal, revealed an important Upper Paleolithic sequence to the North of Douro River in a region with little Paleolithic evidence. Previous Upper Paleolithic occupation evidence in the region had only been identified and studied in Côa Valley, to the south of Douro River. Foz do Medal site is located in an interior area of Iberia, on the fringe of the Spanish Meseta in the transition to the Atlantic façade. The work accomplished allowed the identification of Gravettian levels.
... Then we propose new hypotheses and avenues of research to study human-environment interactions in Central Iberia around the LGM. 1 Figure 1. Location of Solutrean sites subject to modern studies in the Madrid basin (Manzanares and Jarama valleys) and the edge of the south-eastern foothills of the Central System range (Central Iberia conditions of this interior and upland region were the main factors behind the lack of permanent settlements during the MIS 2 and the LGM (Corchón 1997;Davidson 1986;Sauvet and Sauvet 1983;Straus 1991; see Delibes and Díez 2006). During the 1960s, some Spanish authors highlighted the bifacial industries found in the Manzanares Basin (Madrid) in the early twentieth century as showing a focus of Solutrean settlement in Central Iberia (Almagro 1960). ...
Article
Full-text available
The currently most widely accepted model of population dynamics in Southwest Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum depicts the Iberian Peninsula as a human refugium. However, this refugium was generally thought to be limited to the coastal areas of Iberia, while the interior lands of the Spanish plateau were explicitly excluded as areas of significant human settlement. According to what we have termed the “crossing-area model,” these inner territories supposedly had no Solutrean settlements, only ephemeral visits corresponding to the passage of hunter-gatherers en route between the more favored coastal areas. In this paper we test the validity of this model in light of new data from several sites in Central Iberia, namely from the Madrid Basin and the southeastern foothills of the Central System mountain range. We conclude that the crossing-area model does not explain the current data and therefore should be reassessed. Consequently, we propose to open up new avenues of research aimed at approaching the central region of Iberia in its own cultural and ecological terms.
... The scarcity of Upper Palaeolithic sites in the Iberian plateau led some researchers to pose the depopulation hypothesis during the Last Glacial Maximum Municio 1999, Corchón 2002). However, this picture has recently changed due to exhaustive works of some researchers that support the revised hypothesis highlighting preservation problems, archaeological survey and absence of karstic systems as major shortcomings, ruling out, therefore the depopulation hypothesis (see: Delibes and Díez 2006). ...
... En lo que se refiere al ajuste de las dataciones obtenidas con la asignación crono-cultural propuesta en Alcolea et al. (1997), lo primero que debe considerarse, más allá de las precauciones señaladas más arriba, es que no contamos con una secuencia cronológica de referencia para el Paleolítico Superior de la Meseta, donde apenas existen fechas publicadas anteriores al Tardiglaciar (Delibes y Díez 2006;Cacho et al. 2010). Nos vemos obligados a comparar las cronologías obtenidas con las secuencias propuestas en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica, si bien creemos que la acomodación de la secuencia meseteña a esas cronologías resultaría un ejercicio excesivamente apriorístico y forzado. ...
... Históricamente, las interpretaciones mayoritarias sobre el poblamiento humano paleolítico en el interior de la Península Ibérica han girado en torno a la idea de una Meseta desolada, o al menos sólo frecuentada esporádicamente, durante las oscilaciones más frías de la última glaciación, especialmente durante el Paleolítico superior (ver Delibes y Díez, 2006; Cacho et al., 2010, Alcaraz-Castaño et al., 2012, 2013). Esta interpretación se ha combinado con otro elemento considerado propio de la región central y meridional de la Península Ibérica: la perduración de los contextos musterienses, y con ellos de los grupos de Neandertales, hasta cronologías sensiblemente posteriores a la aparición del Paleolítico superior en el Norte (por ejemplo Zilhão, 2006). ...
Conference Paper
(Late Pleistocene population dynamics in Central Iberia: a new geoarchaeological project): We present a new research project aimed at investigating population dynamics and human-environment interactions during the second half of the Late Pleistocene in Central Iberia. In this communication we discuss the state-of-the-art on the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic settlement of the Iberian plateau and we propose new avenues of research for testing the validity of the currently accepted interpretations. It is our hypothesis that models on Late Pleistocene population dynamics in the Iberian interior lands are still biased by the poor quantity and quality of data available, especially for the Upper Palaeolithic. Our project is focused on the geoarchaeological study of 3 selected sites located in the Upper Tagus basin (Northern area of Guadalajara province, Spain).Our methods include micromorpholgy, high resolution sedimentology, 14C, OSL and U/Th dating, pollen, phytolith, microfaunal and anthracological analyses, as well as lithic technology, taphonomy and zooarchaeology.
... A la postre, con el desmantelamiento de las masas polares de la última glaciación y el consiguiente óptimo climático (c. 16,5 ka AP) los primeros grupos de Homo sapiens comienzan a visitar esporádica y estacionalmente refugios en altura en los rebordes montañosos de la Meseta (Delibes y Díez Martín 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a study of the lithic record recently retrieved from Cueva Corazón in the context of a new research projects initiated in 2005. We have detected a variety of long, albeit highly fragmented, operational sequences. A remarkable technological standardization has also been observed, a trait clearly related to the use of good quality raw materials. These observations allow the inference of a complex web of territorial and social interactions. Moreover, Cueva Corazón, due to its chronology and strategic location, can become a future reference point for the study of the Early Mousterian on both sides of the Cantabrian Range. Este artículo estudia el registro lítico de Cueva Corazón en el marco de un proyecto de investigación iniciado en 2005. Hemos detectado una variedad y alargamiento de cadenas operativas líticas, frecuentemente fragmentadas, y una elevada estandarización tecnológica asociada a elaboradas estrategias de captación de materias primas de buena calidad. Este hecho permite inferir una complejidad de las redes territoriales y sociales. Por otro lado, su cronología y posición estratégica hacen de este enclave un lugar excepcional para conocer el Musteriense antiguo en ambos lados de la cordillera cantábrica.
... The scarcity of Upper Palaeolithic sites in the Iberian plateau led some researchers to pose the depopulation hypothesis during the Last Glacial Maximum Municio 1999, Corchón 2002). However, this picture has recently changed due to exhaustive works of some researchers that support the revised hypothesis highlighting preservation problems, archaeological survey and absence of karstic systems as major shortcomings, ruling out, therefore the depopulation hypothesis (see: Delibes and Díez 2006). ...
... En lo que se refiere al ajuste de las dataciones obtenidas con la asignación crono-cultural propuesta en Alcolea et al. (1997), lo primero que debe considerarse, más allá de las precauciones señaladas más arriba, es que no contamos con una secuencia cronológica de referencia para el Paleolítico Superior de la Meseta, donde apenas existen fechas publicadas anteriores al Tardiglaciar (Delibes y Díez 2006;Cacho et al. 2010). Nos vemos obligados a comparar las cronologías obtenidas con las secuencias propuestas en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica, si bien creemos que la acomodación de la secuencia meseteña a esas cronologías resultaría un ejercicio excesivamente apriorístico y forzado. ...
... En lo que se refiere al ajuste de las dataciones obtenidas con la asignación crono-cultural propuesta en Alcolea et al. (1997), lo primero que debe considerarse, más allá de las precauciones señaladas más arriba, es que no contamos con una secuencia cronológica de referencia para el Paleolítico Superior de la Meseta, donde apenas existen fechas publicadas anteriores al Tardiglaciar (Delibes y Díez 2006;Cacho et al. 2010). Nos vemos obligados a comparar las cronologías obtenidas con las secuencias propuestas en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica, si bien creemos que la acomodación de la secuencia meseteña a esas cronologías resultaría un ejercicio excesivamente apriorístico y forzado. ...
... En lo que se refiere al ajuste de las dataciones obtenidas con la asignación crono-cultural propuesta en Alcolea et al. (1997), lo primero que debe considerarse, más allá de las precauciones señaladas más arriba, es que no contamos con una secuencia cronológica de referencia para el Paleolítico Superior de la Meseta, donde apenas existen fechas publicadas anteriores al Tardiglaciar (Delibes y Díez 2006;Cacho et al. 2010). Nos vemos obligados a comparar las cronologías obtenidas con las secuencias propuestas en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica, si bien creemos que la acomodación de la secuencia meseteña a esas cronologías resultaría un ejercicio excesivamente apriorístico y forzado. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Peña Capón rockshelter contains an archaeological deposit known since 1970 that was the object of a preliminary study in the late 1990’s. In this paper we present a revision of the archaeological material from level 3 that includes the technological and typological study of the lithics and bone tools, the zooarchaeological and taphonomic analysis of the faunal remains, the record of engravings on bones, and the radiocarbon dating of several bone samples. The data obtained has allowed us to relate the level 3 to the Protosolutrean industries with Vale Comprido points defined in the Portuguese Estremadura, a matter that constitutes an important breakthrough within the Meseta area, where little is known about the Upper Palaeolithic prior to the Middle Solutrean. The results are consistent with the definition of the Protosolutrean as a transitional industry between the Gravettian and the Solutrean. Furthermore, the verification of a human settlement in the foothills of the Central System range during the Upper Pleniglacial (MIS 2) strongly points to the abandonment of the classic hypothesis that posit a depopulation of inner Iberia during the coldest stages of the last glacial cycle.
Article
Full-text available
Se cuestiona la adscripción contemporánea de la figura de estilo paleolítico existente en El Portalón de Cueva Mayor, dentro del complejo kárstico de la Sierra de Atapuerca en Burgos. Se plantea una revisión crítica de los argumentos utilizados en un estudio anterior y se valoran nuevas evidencias y datos disponibles desde entonces. Las conclusiones se ven apoyadas por la realización de estudios gráficos sustentados en una metodología específica y por análisis de muestras del pigmento mediante microespectroscopía Raman que detectó micropartículas de hematites y carbón amorfo. Este hallazgo posibilitó la datación por radiocarbono (AMS 14C) de la muestra. Aunque el resultado parece estar alterado, se abren nuevas expectativas para la revisión y la autentificación de estas manifestaciones. _____________________________________________ The contemporaneous ascription of the paleolithic style painting existing in El Portalón de Cueva Mayor, within the karstic complex of the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos), is questioned. A critical review of the arguments used in a previous study is proposed and new evidence and data collected since then are valued. The partial conclusions are reinforced by the data obtained through graphical studies supported by a specific methodology and by the analysis of the paint by Raman microspectroscopy that reveals that it is formed by microparticles of hematite and amorphous carbon. This finding has allowed the radiocarbon dating (AMS 14C) of the painting, although the result of this dating seems to be altered, new expectations open up for the revision and authentication of these manifestations.
Chapter
Full-text available
The Solutrean settlement of the Manzanares River valley (Madrid basin) has been a controversial topic over the history of the discipline. Despite the large number of bifacial assemblages, often considered Solutrean, known in the valley since the beginnings of the 20th century, their lack of stratigraphic references, chronometric dates and environmental data has prevented researchers from considering these industries as proofs of the human settlement of the Manzanares during Late Pleniglacial (MIS 2) times. The recent geoarcheological excavation conducted at the classic site of Las Delicias has provided geomorphological, stratigraphic, chronometric, technological and environmental data, which enable us to define this site as a Solutrean catchment and lithic workshop. Therefore, Las Delicias is the first Solutrean site in the Manzanares valley excavated with modern methods, in secure stratigraphic position, and yielding chronometric and environmental data. These data are a long-awaited boost for the study of the Manzanares' Solutrean, since they allow to rekindle the importance of the human occupation of the valley, up to now just inferred through uncertain data. The Solutrean record of the Manzanares valley presents relevant implications for the study of population dynamics in the Iberian interior during MIS 2. Therefore, it is important to keep doing research on Las Delicias, where a large amount of Pleistocene deposits still remain intact.
Article
Full-text available
The article presents an updated state-of-the-art on the problem of the pre-Magdalenian Upper Paleolithic settlement of the central area of the Iberian Peninsula. A review of the last published data suggests that classic models depicting an unpopulated Spanish plateau during the Late Pleniglacial must be reassessed. We also offer the first impressions derived from ongoing fieldworks conducted at the Upper Paleolithic site of Peña Capón (Sorbe River valley, Guadalajara, Spain). The archeological sequence recorded in this rock shelter, which confirms previous data and interpretations, will enable us, for the first time in research history of this region, to propose interpretations on human-environment interactions during the Late Pleniglacial based on solid archeological, geological and ecological data. Thus, we will be able to contrast previous proposals based on the Paleolithic graphic expressions of interior Iberia, which first demanded the necessity of considering a richer human settlement of the Spanish plateau than traditionally thought.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present a new interdisciplinary project focused on the investigation of the Late Pleisto-cene deposits still preserved in the Room A of Los Casares cave (Riba de Saelices, Guadalajara, Spain). We first make a historical reconstruction of the research carried out in the cave, then we present our objectives, working hypotheses and methods, and finally we show some preliminary results after a first fieldwork season in Los Ca-sares. We have collected soil monoliths for micromorphology and high-resolution sedimentology, sediment samples for palynological and phytolith analyses, as well as charcoal, bone and flowstone samples for chrono-metric dating. With these data we will investigate the site formation processes, the chronology of the Mouste-rian occupations, and eventually the adaptations of Los Casares Neandertals to their environment. Our research is framed in a wider project aimed at studying the relations between population dynamics and ecological varia-tions in Central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene.
Article
El poblamiento humano paleolítico de la Meseta Norte continúa siendo un apasionante tema de investigación. Si hasta hace unas décadas se asumía que el interior de la Meseta resultó un lugar inhóspito para las poblaciones humanas durante una época climá- ticamente adversa como fue el Pleistoceno Superior, hoy sabemos que estas tierras interiores de las áreas premontanas del norte de Palencia pudieron ser un refugio para los grupos paleolíticos. Las nuevas y recientes investigaciones en los yacimientos de La Loma (Villanueva de Arriba y Villaoliva de la Peña) ofrecen nuevas pistas sobre los humanos que allí vivieron hace miles de años y sobre la evolución de los ecosistemas que compartieron con otras especies animales y vegetales. Repasamos la historia de las intervenciones arqueo-paleontológicas efectuadas en los yacimientos de Villanueva 1 y Cueva de Guantes (municipio de Santibánez de la Peña) y las evidencias que se han constatado de la ocupación humana de estas cavidades.
Article
Previous geochronological and archaeological studies on the rock shelter Jarama VI suggested a late survival of Neanderthals in central Iberia and the presence of lithic assemblages of Early Upper Paleolithic affinity. New data on granulometry, mineralogical composition, geochemical fingerprints and micromorphology of the sequence corroborate the previous notion that the archaeological units JVI.2.1 to JVI.2.3 are slackwater deposits of superfloods, which did not experience significant post-depositional changes, whereas the artifact-rich units JVI3 and JVI.1 mainly received sediment inputs by sheetwash and cave spall. New AMS radiocarbon measurements on three samples of cut-marked bone using the ultrafiltration technique yielded ages close to, or beyond, the limit of radiocarbon dating at ca. 50 C-14 ka BP, and hence suggest much higher antiquity than assumed previously. Furthermore, elevated temperature post-IR IRSL luminescence measurements on K feldspars yielded burial ages for subunits JVI.2.2 and JVI.2.3 between 50 and 60 ka. Finally, our reappraisal of the stone industry strongly suggests that the whole sequence is of Mousterian affinity. In conclusion, Jarama VI most probably does not document a late survival of Neanderthals nor an Early Upper Paleolithic occupation in central Iberia, but rather indicates an occupation breakdown after the Middle Paleolithic. (c) 2013 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
El Portalón de Cueva Mayor es una de las entradas actuales al sistema kárstico de Cueva Mayor-Cueva del Silo, situado en la Siera de Atapuerca (Burgos, España). Es un importante yacimiento arqueológico del Holoceno excavado durante la década de los 70 y del que apenas se ha publicado nada. Las nuevas intervenciones iniciadas por el equipo de Investigación de Atapuerca en el año 2000 han puesto de manifiesto una secuencia estratigráfica más amplia que la anteriormente conocida. Dicha secuencia comienza a finales del Pleistoceno Superior y contiene evidencias de ocupaciones humanas a lo largo del Holoceno. En este artículo presentamos la secuencia arqueológica con dataciones radiométricas que abarcan desde el 30.000 BP hasta el 1.000 BP. Esta secuencia muestra dos grandes unidades sedimentarias. La inferior es del Pleistoceno Superior y contiene un registro paleontológico significativo y con muy escasos vestigios de actividad humana en forma de pequeñas lascas. La unidad superior pertenece al Holoceno y se caracteriza por un sedimento homogéneo con abundante presencia de restos de cultura material. Esta unidad muestra ocupaciones durante el Mesolítico, Neolítico, Calcolítico, Edad del Bronce Antiguo y Medio, Edad del Hierro, época Romana y época Medieval. La nueva secuencia del Portalón adquiere relevancia debido a la escasa información existente para el Paleolítico Superior, Mesolítico y Neolítico en el interior de la Península Ibérica, y en particular, en la Meseta Norte.
Chapter
Full-text available
El presente trabajo ofrece una revisión crítica del Paleolítico superior en la Meseta a la luz de los nuevos hallazgos producidos en los últimos años con una síntesis de las evidencias disponibles y su marco cro-nológico. Se interpreta en detalle el asentamiento segoviano de la Peña de Estebanvela. La riqueza de su registro arqueológico, la amplia secuencia cronoestratigráfica que presenta, así como la aplicación en su estudio de una metodología pluridisciplinar, hacen de este yacimiento un referente para el estudio del Magdaleniense en la Meseta. Por último, se muestra una breve revisión de las estaciones con arte rupes-tre del interior peninsular.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.