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Recent Advances in Nanoparticle Research in Homeopathy

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Abstract

All system of medicines are prepared and administered in doses whose concentration can be quantified to be below Avogadro’s limit (where original substance is materially present) except for homeopathic medicine which is available both below (hormetic) as well as above (Beyond the Reciprocal of Avogadro Number, also known as avogram) Avogadro’s limit (where original substance is less likely to be present)]. Homeopathic medicines are prepared by pharmacological process of Potentisation in any of the three scales of potencies: Decimal (X), Centesimal (C) and Millesimal (LM). Each dilution step divides the original quantity by 10, 100 and 50,0000 respectively.
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RecentAdvancesinNanoparticleResearchinHomeopathy
PostedByDr.NancyMalikOnJune18,2015@10:42amInScientificResearch|NoComments
Introduction
Allsystemsofmedicinearepreparedandadministeredin
doseswhoseconcentrationcanbequantifiedtobebelow
Avogadro’slimitexceptforhomeopathicmedicinewhichis
availablebothbelow(hormetic)aswellasabove(beyond
thereciprocalofAvogadro’sNumber,alsoknownas
avogram)Avogadro’slimit.Homeopathicmedicinesare
preparedbyapharmacologicalprocessofPotentisation
/triturationinanyofthethreescalesofpotencies:Decimal
(X),Centesimal(C)andMillesimal(LM).Eachdilution
stepdividestheoriginalquantityby10,100and50,0000respectively.
SuperAvogadroDilutions
1moleofasubstancecontainsasmanygramsofsubstanceasitsatomicmassandcontains6.02254
x1023molecules.Conventionalmedicineisgenerallyavailableatconcentrationsbetweenmicromolar
(106M,theequivalentinhomeopathyis6X/3C)andnanomolar(109M,theequivalentinhomeopathy
is9X/4.5C).Inthedecimalandcentesimalscaleofdilution,concentrationofactivemedicinal
substanceinthewaterethanolsolutionreducesto1/10and1/100oftheoriginalconcentration
respectively.At23X,thenumberofmoleculesreducestheoreticallyto6.022and0.6022at24X.At
11C,thenumberofmoleculesreducestheoreticallyto60.22and0.6022at12C.Intermsofmolesper
litre,12Ccontains1024mol/Li.e.0.6022molecules/Li.e.1molecule/L.Evenasinglemoleculecan
triggerorregulateaseriesofchainreactionsthatleadstoactivationofspecificcellfunctions[1].The
probabilityoffinding1moleculeofthenmoleculesoftheoriginalsubstancein24X/12Cpotencyand
aboveisextremelysmall,butnotzero[2].
TheAvogadro’slimit(1023M)forhomeopathicsolutionis23X/11C/LM4.Potenciesupto
23X/11C/LM4containconcentrations(molecules)oftheremedysourcematerialandnanoparticles
also.Measurablequantitiesofpharmacologicallyactivecompoundshaveaclearcut,objectiveeffect
onthehumanbody.
EmergenceofNanomedicine
Inapaper[3]publishedin1801,HahnemannmentionedtheprophylacticpropertiesofBelladonnafor
thetreatmentofscarletfeveraswellasthemethodofpreparationforpotentisedBelladonnato
1/24,000,000dilution.Hewrote,“wedissolveagrain(1grain=0.06479891grams)ofthispowder…
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inonehundreddrops(1drop=0.05ml)ofcommondistilledwater,byrubbingitupinasmallmortar;
wepourthethicksolutionintoaoneouncebottle,andrinsethemortarandthepestlewiththree
hundreddropsofdilutedalcohol(fivepartsofwatertooneofspirit),andwethenaddthistothe
solution,andrendertheunionperfect,bydiligentlyshakingtheliquid.Welabelthebottlestrong
solutionofbelladonna.Onedropofthisisintimatelymixedwiththreehundreddropsofdilutedalcohol
byshakingitforaminute,andthisismarkedmediumsolutionofbelladonna.Ofthissecondmixture
onedropismixedwithtwohundreddropsofthedilutedalcohol,byshakingforaminute,andmarked
weaksolutionofbelladonna;andthisisourprophylacticremedyforscarletfever,eachdropofwhich
containsthetwentyfourmillionthpartofagrainofthedrybelladonnajuice.”[4]
Hahnemannrecommendedtheadministrationofonedropwhichisequivalentto0.0416nanogramsof
Belladonnaandtorepeatthedoseevery72hours.Thisisthefirstrecordednanodoseofmedicine
usedinthetreatmentofanydiseaseinmedicalhistory.SamuelHahnemanniscreditedwiththe
methodofpreparationandprescriptionofnanodosesofmedicine.
In1805,HahnemanncrossedAvogadro’slimit(Avogadro’slimitwashoweverunknownatthattime,it
wasdiscoveredonlyin1860),andthe18cpotencyappearsforthefirsttime.Homeopathicmedicines
aboveAvogadro’slimitareknownassuperAvogadrodilutions[5]orpotentisedhighdilutions.
Nanoparticles
Reducingparticlesizeincreasessurfacearea.Nanoparticlesarenanosizeparticles(1100
nanometersdiameter)havingalargesurfaceareatovolumeratiowhichgivesthemdifferent
propertiesfromthosebulkformsofthesamematerial[6].Nanodosesofmedicinalagentshave
severalbenefitsovercrudedosesofthesamesubstance,includingenhancedbioavailability,chemical
andbiologicalreactivity,adsorptivecapacity,intracellularaccessibility,increasedabilitytocrosscell
membranesandeventhebloodbrainbarrier,andofcourse,asubstantialbettersafetyprofile
(becauseofreducedtoxicity)[7].Nanoparticlescandistinguishbetweenhealthyandunhealthycells
whilebulkconcentrationsofmedicinecannot.
Thebodyrunsonmicroandnanodoses.Thelevelsofhormonesandcellsignalingagentsinourbody
isinthepicograms/mililitrerangesuchas10–900pg/mlforestradiol,300–10,000pg/mlfor
testosterone,and8–27pg/mlforT4.Thesesmallamountsareknowntohaveaprofoundeffectonthe
humanbody
SearchforNanoparticlesinHomeopathicSolutions
ThepresenceofmoleculesoftheoriginalsubstancebeyondAvogadro’slimitwasfirstmentionedin
theFrenchbookRecherchéexpérimentalemoderneenhoméopathie(ModernExperimentalResearch
inHomeopathy)authoredbyMauricePlazyandRobertMergerinin1967[8].
ResearchcarriedoutbyateamfromtheDepartmentofChemicalEngineering,IndianInstituteof
TechnologyBombay(IITB)andpublishedinHomeopathy(Elsevier)in2010indicatesthepresence
of14000picograms/mililitreoffinenanoparticles(515nanometersize)oftheoriginalstarting
material(onemolarconcentration)in200c(dilutionof1partin10raisedto400parts)potencyof
metalderivedhomeopathicmedicines.Thisstudy[9]concludedthatbyusingtransmissionelectron
microscopy,electrondiffractionandatomicspectroscopyitispossibletomeasurethequantityof
nanoparticlesfoundinhomeopathicmedicineswhichretaintheirpotencyevenwhendilutedtoa
nanometreoronebillionthofametre.
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InanarticlepublishedinTheTimesofIndia,thethirdlargestcirculatingnewspaperintheworld,dated
16Dec2010titled:“IITBTeamShowsHowHomeopathyWorks”,thecoauthorofthepaperand
HeadofChemicalEngineeringDepartmentatIITB,Dr.JayeshBellare,said,“Homeopathyhasbeen
aconundrumformodernmedicine.Itspractitionersmaintainedthathomeopathicpillsgotmorepotent
ondilution,buttheycouldneverexplainthemechanismscientificallyenoughformodernscientists”
[10].
Inhislecture,“HomeopathyasNanomedicine”,attheWorldHomeopathicCongress2011[11],heldin
NewDelhi,Indiafrom14Dec2011,Dr.Jayeshsaid,“Eventhehighestdilutionsofremedieshaveleft
signaturesofrespectiveoriginalmoleculesintheirnanoparticleform,whensubjectedtoelectron
microscopystudies,validatedlaterbywavelengthanalysis.”Herelatedhowthesuccussionprocess
could‘breakthequantumdomain’ofamedicalsubstanceandacceleratedecelerateproteinactivity,
likeelectromagneticwavesdo.
Butwhataboutpotenciesgreaterthan200c.Dothepotenciesabove200cfallundertheambitof
nanomedicine?Asofnowithasnotbeenpossibletoquantifytheamountofactiveingredientin
potenciesabove200c.Logicallypotenciesabove200cshouldcontainevenlessamountofactive
ingredient.
ResearchcarriedoutjointlybytheIndianInstituteofTechnologyDelhi(IITD)andtheCentralCouncil
forResearchinHomeopathy(GovernmentofIndia)andpublishedintheInternationalJournalofHigh
DilutionResearchin2011,indicatesthepresenceofcrystallinenanoparticles(100nanometre)in15c
potenciesofplantderivedhomeopathicmedicines.TheyusedenergydispersiveXrayanalysis,
selectedareananodiffractionandtraceelementanalysistodeterminethepresenceofnanoparticles
[12].
ResearchintheIndianInstituteofTechnologyKharagpur(IITKharagpur),publishedinJournalof
AnalyticalMethodsinChemistry(2012)foundthepresenceofbiologicallyactivedigoxinlike
substanceinDigitalisPurpurea30cand200c.TheyusedFluorescenceSpectroscopyandCyclic
Voltammetrytodeterminethepresenceofactiveingredients[13].
Astudy[5]publishedin2012inLangmuirfoundthatnanoparticlesofsixoriginalmedicinalagents
persistedin6c,30cand200csolutionsandexplainedtheprocessbywhichthesenanoparticlesare
transferredandretainedbeyondAvogadro’slimitwhichhasbeendocumentedwithhighspeed
videography.Theyalsofound325nanoclustersoflactose.
ResearchintheDepartmentofChemistry,RamnarianRuiaCollege,Mumbaiin2013usingdynamic
lightscatteringtechniqueconfirms13.8nanometersizeparticleinTerminaliaArjunaMotherTincture
[14].Thisstudyshowsthatthedoseofmedicinerequiredisreducedbyordersofmagnitudewhenitis
innanoparticlesizewhichisinconformitywiththeprinciplesofhomeopathy.
Nanopharmacology
Homeopathyis,infact,aformofnanopharmacology[15],medicinepreparedthroughaspecific
pharmacologicalprocessofpotentisation/trituration.Trituration(repeatedgrindingwithlactose
powder)iscarriedoutbypulverisationinagrindingmachine.Thisresultsinbreakingdownof
medicinalsubstanceintonanoparticles.Nanoparticleshavebiologicalactivity.Nanoparticlesin
homeopathicmedicinesexertbiologicaleffectsonthebody.Nanoparticlescancausehormesis[16].
Hormesisisanadaptiveresponsethatisinducedbystimulationatlowdosesandinhibitionathigh
doses.HormesisisakintoArndtSchultzLawwhichisaboutnonlinearitybetweendoseand
response.Hence,itappearsthathomeopathicallypreparedremediesmayalsostimulateasimilar
response,causingaspecifichormesiswhich,inturn,ensuresthathomeostasisismaintained,and
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thus,counteractsillnessinacurativemanner.
Conclusion
Hahnemannnotonlyrecommendednanogramsofmedicineforadministrationbutalsogivetheir
methodofpreparation.Thecurrentresearchhasreachedastatewhereitcanbesaidthat
homeopathicallypreparedplantandmetalremediescontains14000picograms/mililitreof
nanoparticles(5100nanometersize)inmothertinctureupto200cpotencies.Lessismoreasfaras
homeopathicmedicineisconcerned.
References
[1]BellaviteP,MarzottoM,OliosoD,MorattiEandConfortiA.Highdilutioneffectsrevisited.2.
Pharmacodynamicmechanisms.Homeopathy.2014Jan;103(1),p.2243.PubMedID:24439453,
ReferenceLink
[2]NancyMalik,HowdosuperAvogadroDilutionsinHomeopathyWork?,
https://drnancymalik.wordpress.com/article/howhomeopathyworks/
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High­dilution effects revisited
  • P Bellavite
  • M Marzotto
  • D Olioso
  • E Moratti
  • A Conforti
Bellavite P, Marzotto M, Olioso D, Moratti E and Conforti A. High­dilution effects revisited. 2.