Odontotermes formosanus, one of the subterranean and fungus-growing termites, is distributed in the southern areas of north latitude 35° in China and Burma, Thailand, Okinawa of Japan, and other Southeast Asian countries. It is by far the most destructive pest to forests, weeds, crops, dams, and dykes. In the last few decades, the biology and ecology of O. formosanus has been studied widely in China. The advances in the study of the biology and ecology of O. formosanus are reviewed in this paper. The contents include mainly the dispersal flight behavior, the establishment and development of nests, the caste differentiation and life history, the temperature and water content of nests and surrounding soil, and the influences of environmental conditions on O. formosanus.