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Sleep and Emotion Regulation: An Organizing, Integrative Review

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... 9 Recent studies have investigated the emotion-related processes linking sleep loss and mood disorders to explain the underlying mechanisms. [8][9][10][11] Theoretical models and empirical evidence have increasingly suggested that emotion regulation is an important mechanism explaining the relationship between sleep and emotional functioning. 3,12 Nevertheless, only a few studies directly examined the impact of sleep loss on emotion regulation. ...
... The cognitive change also refers to the use of higher-order cognitive processes to change the appraisal or meaning of an emotion-eliciting situation. 11 Reappraisal is part of antecedent-focused emotion regulation, 15 which can effectively downregulate subjective and physiological components of a negative emotional experience. 11,17,18 Some studies have provided clues to the relationship between sleep and individuals' cognitive reappraisal ability. ...
... 11 Reappraisal is part of antecedent-focused emotion regulation, 15 which can effectively downregulate subjective and physiological components of a negative emotional experience. 11,17,18 Some studies have provided clues to the relationship between sleep and individuals' cognitive reappraisal ability. In a study utilizing two nights of partial sleep restriction (6.5 hours followed by 2 hours), adults and adolescents who were asked to engage in catastrophizing as a maladaptive form of cognitive appraisal, reported a greater likelihood of catastrophes coming true. ...
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Purpose This study aims to examine the impact of sleep deprivation on individual cognitive reappraisal ability using a standardized behavioral paradigm. Methods A randomized pretest-posttest control group design was conducted. Thirty-nine participants were eventually enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either the sleep control (SC: n = 17) or the sleep deprivation (SD: n = 22). Both of them were required to perform a standardized behavioral paradigm of measuring cognitive reappraisal ability one time under sleep-rested condition and another time under the condition of different sleep manipulation a week later. Results Mean valence ratings of SD group were more negative than SC group’s (p < 0.05) and mean arousal ratings of SD group were higher than SC group’s (p < 0.01). Conclusion Sleep deprivation may impair individual cognitive reappraisal ability and could potentially undermine the efficacy of cognitive therapy in terms of emotion regulation.
... Disrupted sleep is linked to mental health problems characterized by negative affect, such as depression and anxiety [5][6][7][8][9]. Furthermore, experimental findings suggest a relationship between inadequate sleep and negative emotionality [10][11][12]. Insufficient sleep may be both an antecedent and consequence of negative affect [13][14][15]. However, sleep and negative affect fluctuate from day to day [16,17], and the daily relationships between the two are not entirely clear. ...
... According to these models, inadequate sleep can influence emotion regulation by impairing emotional appraisal, reactivity, and management [12,[18][19][20]. For instance, inadequate sleep can skew negative perceptions of stimuli and lead to a negative emotional bias [1,2,13]. ...
... In this study, shorter duration predicted higher negative affect the next day, although this relationship was attenuated beyond sleeping 7.5 hours and reversed at extreme levels of sleep (more than 10.5 hours). The generally negative association between sleep duration and next-day negative affect may be explained by emotion regulation theories, which posit that sleep plays a key role in the perception, reactivity, and modulation of negative emotional experiences [12,[18][19][20]. Less sleep may negatively skew the perception and evaluation of emotional information, leading to a negative emotional bias [14]. ...
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Objective: There is a strong association between sleep disturbance and negative affect. However, the day-to-day directional connections between sleep and negative affect remain unclear. We examined day-to-day relationships between sleep duration and negative affect in community adults. Methods: Participants were two subsamples of the Midlife in the United States Study (Sample 1: n = 2,022; Sample 2: n = 782). Daily negative affect and previous night sleep duration were assessed via end-of-day telephone interviews for eight days. Random intercept cross-lagged panel models tested sleep duration as a predictor of next-day negative affect and vice versa, controlling for age, gender, and race. Results: In both samples, shorter sleep duration predicted higher next-day negative affect, but daily negative affect was not a significant predictor of upcoming-night sleep duration. Follow-up analyses indicated that the relationship between sleep duration and negative affect was nonlinear. Sleeping fewer than 7.5 hours or more than 10.5 hours was associated with greater next-day negative affect than sleeping between 7.5 and 10.5 hours. Conclusions: In two large samples of community adults, sleep duration unidirectionally predicted higher next-day negative affect, and this relationship was nonlinear. Sleeping at least 7.5 hours and no more than 10.5 hours appeared to be an optimal range associated with lowest next-day negative affect.
... Moreover, other recent studies have stated the direct association of the levels of anxiety with alterations in emotional regulation and cognitive flexibility [33][34][35][36]. Further, based on the results of previous scientific studies, sleep habit disturbances seem to be linked to a higher level of difficulty in controlling EFs, especially emotional regulation and cognitive flexibility [20][21][22]69]. ...
... Moreover, emotional regulation also showed an influence on sleep habits. As a matter of fact, recent literature has suggested further consideration of the management of emotions to fully understand sleep habits [22,47]. Furthermore, the results have demonstrated the importance of the mediating role of anxiety in the relationship between EFs (emotional regulation and cognitive flexibility) and sleep habits. ...
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Background: Previous research studies have suggested the importance of studying the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Some investigations have especially focused on how emotional regulation could impact sleep habits in children and adolescents. Therefore, these researchers have stated there exists a two-way direction in this relationship. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the influence of emotional regulation on sleep habits in Spanish children and adolescents and the mediating role of anxiety in this relationship. Method: Participants were 953 Spanish parents who completed the assessment protocol according to their children and adolescents’ information. Results: The results revealed moderate–strong correlations between emotional regulation problems and sleep habit disturbances (r = 0.375, p < 0.001), trait (r = 0.488, p < 0.001) anxiety, and state (r = 0.589, p < 0.001) anxiety. Additionally, emotional regulation showed a direct impact on sleep habits (β = 0.011, p = 0.005). Trait and state anxiety demonstrated a significant mediating role in the relationship between emotional regulation and sleep habits. Conclusions: Emotional regulation may have an impact on sleep habits during childhood and adolescence, suggesting the importance of early intervention focused on the emotions management and the prevention of sleep habits disturbances.
... dynamic of affect, ecological momentary assessment, emotion regulation, insomnia disorder, sleep restriction 1 | INTRODUCTION Sleep and emotional processes are strongly interrelated, and are key factors for mental health and brain functioning (Harvey et al., 2011;Palmer & Alfano, 2017). The most commonly presented sleep disorder is insomnia, which is diagnosed when persistent subjective difficulty in initiating and/or maintaining sleep and/or early awakening is accompanied by daytime impairments is presented (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013; ICSD-3, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2014). ...
... To our knowledge, this is the largest study that was conducted so far including longitudinal associations between sleep and emotional processes and using both physiological and subjective data. Consistent with previous literature Palmer & Alfano, 2017), patients with insomnia reported more intense negative emotions, less intense positive emotions, and a more frequent use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies compared with both control groups. Interestingly, compared with controls sleeping as usual, both patients and controls in the sleep deprivation condition reported a less frequent use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, which is also consistent with the results from questionnaire data. ...
Article
Previous studies indicated that further investigation is needed to understand how insomnia disorder interacts with emotional processes. The present study is an ecological momentary assessment evaluating the link between emotional and sleep alterations in patients with insomnia. Physiological (heart rate and heart rate variability) and subjective (sleep and emotions) indices were observed for 5 days in patients with insomnia disorder (n = 97), good sleepers under self-imposed sleep restriction (n = 41), and good sleepers with usual amount of sleep (n = 45). We evaluated differences in emotion regulation strategies and in valence and variability of emotional experiences. Over 5 days, patients with insomnia showed increased sleep and emotional difficulties compared with both control groups. Independent from group allocation, days with more negative emotions were associated with higher sleep alterations. Longer wake episodes at night and higher diurnal heart rate were associated with increased variations in emotion experienced during the day. Only in patients with insomnia, use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies was associated with higher sleep efficiency. Our data showed that alterations in sleep and emotional processes are closely linked. A combination of strategies targeting both sleep and emotional processes appears promising in the prevention and treatment of insomnia disorder.
... Adequate quality sleep, therefore, eliminates concentration difficulties (5) and allows the brain to better process new experi-ences and knowledge which increases understanding and retention (6). In its absence, judgments, mood, and the ability to learn and retain information are weakened (7,8). University students are particularly susceptible to the effects of inadequate quality of sleep since they sleep less compared to the general population because of academic stress (9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). ...
... Sleep quality affects many aspects of the student's mental, social, and physical well-being which may, in turn, impact their academic performance; thus, sleep is an important aspect of the student's life. It regulates the student's psychological and physical well-being, affects their handling of stress and social interactions, memory, concentration, and understanding and retention of information (5)(6)(7)(8)19). We set out in this study to measure the sleep quality of a cohort of undergraduate students and its relationship with their academic performance. ...
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Background and Objective: A gap exists in evidence of the association between sleep quality and the academic performance of university students in sub-Saharan Africa. A limited number of studies have been conducted in this regard, which have mainly focused on medical students, thus neglecting the larger population of undergraduate non-medical students. Materials and Methods: This pilot study evaluated the correlates of sleep quality and the academic performance of 500 randomly sampled undergraduate non-medical students at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana. Data was collected using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a demographic questionnaire. The par-ticipants' demographic characteristics, academic performance, and sleep quality were first analyzed, descriptively, using SPSS software. Relationships between participants’ sleep quality and demographic factors, and sleep quality and aca-demic performance were determined using Spearman’s rank correlation. The causation between these variables was then determined using simple linear regression. Results: Poor quality of sleep was prevalent among undergraduate students with a mean (SD) PSQI score of 6.43 (2.78). The respondent’s sleep quality had a weak correlation with their academic performance (rs = -0.146; P = 0.001), although poor quality of sleep was a predictor of academic performance [R2 = 0.022; 95% CI (-0.640, -0.168)]. Conclusion: Health education and sleep promotion interventions should be used to encourage good sleep quality and practices among students. Furthermore, the findings point to the need for further studies using a larger population.
... Previous research suggests that sleep may be an early indicator of mental health difficulties, as well as serve as an accessible treatment target for individual therapies and public health initiatives (Blake et al., 2018;Petito et al., 2020). Sleep may help prevent some symptoms of mental distress due to its proposed impact on emotional regulation and the HPA axis (Palmer and Alfano, 2017;Blake et al., 2018;Nicolaides et al., 2020). Despite strong evidence suggesting that adequate sleep is also protective factor against depressive, anxious, and suicidal symptoms (Pasch et al., 2010;Lovato and Gradisar, 2014;Zhai et al., 2015;Ojio et al., 2016;Robillard et al., 2018), it is estimated that <30% of adolescents are receiving the 8-10 h of sleep of sleep recommended for their age group (Paruthi et al., 2016;Wheaton, 2018), with most adolescents only sleeping an average of 7.4 h per night (Galland et al., 2018) and more than 40% of US adolescents sleeping <7 h per night (Twenge et al., 2017). ...
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Introduction Aspects of circadian sleep health including circadian alignment, circadian phase, or chronotype may be related to mental health outcomes in adolescents. Using novel and robust data collection methods, this study explored the relationship between adolescents' circadian sleep health and traits related to depression, anxiety, stress, and emotional regulation. Methods Fifty-two healthy 14–18-year-olds (58% female; 94% European American) participated in this study. Across a 10-day period, participants completed wrist-worn actigraphy. Next, participants completed a dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) protocol where 12 saliva samples were collected over a 6-h period to measure circadian phase. Circadian phase was calculated as the duration of time between DMLO to average sleep onset time across the monitoring period. Social jetlag was measured as the discrepancy between sleep times from weekday to weekend. Participants completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire for Adolescents (MEQ). Following dichotomizing sleep outcomes into clinically relevant groups (late vs. early circadian phase, aligned vs. misaligned circadian rhythms, minimal social jetlag vs. presence of social jetlag, intermediate to morningness vs. eveningness chronotype), we conducted general linear models to determine circadian group differences in mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, expressive suppression, and cognitive reappraisal) while controlling for gender and pubertal development. Results Circadian phase had a large effect on depression symptoms in adolescents, with adolescents with later DLMO having significantly higher depression scores than those with earlier DLMO ( p = 0.031). Chronotype had a medium but non-significant effect on anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents, with adolescents with eveningness-tendencies having higher anxiety and stress symptoms than those with intermediate to morningness-tendencies ( p 's = 0.140 and 0.111, respectively). Conclusions In the first ever study using gold-standard methodologies to examine the relationship between mental health and circadian sleep health in healthy adolescents, we observed that adolescents with later circadian phase had increased depressive symptoms compared to earlier circadian phase. Furthermore, adolescents who endorsed behaviors that suggest eveningness tendencies may have heightened stress/anxiety. These conclusions encourage future experimental research regarding this topic and may help inform interventions aimed to decrease depression, anxiety, and stress in adolescents.
... The adherence to single (ST or SL) or the combination of specific 24-HMB recommendations (SL + ST and PA + SL + ST) are linked to reduced frequency of argument, suggesting that especially an adequate SL and limited ST are important to reduce the frequency of argument. Accumulating evidence suggests that adequate sleep quality and duration can improve emotion regulation (Palmer & Alfano, 2017), which, in turn, may contribute to fewer school problems and arguments. Additionally, a meta-analysis revealed that longer ST was linked to more pronounced externali ¶ sing behaviour problems such as aggression and inattention, due to potential exposure to inappropriate content including aggression and violence behaviour (Eirich et al., 2022). ...
Article
This cross-sectional study examined the associations between adherence to 24-hour movement behaviour (24-HMB) guidelines and indicators of school achievement, social-behavioural problems, and emotional functioning among a national sample of US children and adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). Data were retrieved from the 2020–2021 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH), including 4999 children and adolescents (aged between 6 and17 years) with LD. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI), adherence to 24-HMB guidelines was considered as independent variables (Model 1: continuous variable; Model 2: categorical variable), and indicators of school achievement, social-behavioural problems, and emotional functioning as dependent variables. Covariates included age, sex, race, overweight status, the severity of learning disability, educational intervention, parental education, and household poverty level. Overall, 2156 participants (41.47%) met one of the three recommendations, 1289 (26.04%) met two recommendations, and 336 participants (6.62%) met all three 24- HMB recommendations. Positive associations between adherence to 24-HMB guidelines and most of the assessed outcomes were observed. Those who adhered to at least two of the three 24- HMB guidelines (PA + SL, PA + ST, SL + ST, and PA + SL + ST) had better school achievement and fewer social-behavioural problems. Additionally, adherence to PA + SL or SL + ST guidelines was linked with improved emotional functioning. This study provides evidence that adherence to 24-HMB guidelines is associated with superior school achievement, social-behavioural problems, and emotional function, and thus suggests future public health efforts should promote adequate levels of PA, limited ST, and sufficient SL among LD children and adolescents.
... One possibility is that selfconcept clarity levels, like many other aspects of personality functioning, are supported by behaviors that promote physical and psychological health. A prime example is sleep: in addition to its benefits for physical health, sleep duration and sleep quality have wellknown effects on self-control and emotion regulation (Anderson & Platten, 2011;Baum et al., 2014;Fanning et al., 2017;Hale et al., 2020;Mauss et al., 2013;McGowan & Coogan, 2018;O'Leary et al., 2017;Palmer & Alfano, 2017). Proper sleep habits are also important for the operation of several self-related processes, such as autobiographical memory, selfreflection, and self-appraisal (McNamara et al., 2010;Zare Khormizi et al., 2019). ...
Article
Although health-related behaviors such as sleep, physical activity, and mindful relaxation relate to self-concept, the links between these behaviors and self-concept clarity (SCC) have not been explored. Here, we use experience sampling with an undergraduate sample (N = 155) to investigate how these behaviors predict SCC within persons and between persons and whether their daily links with SCC are moderated by general habits and personality traits. Sleep duration predicted next-day SCC levels, and subjective sleepiness/alertness was linked with SCC at momentary, daily, and between-person levels. Physical activity and mindful relaxation behaviors did not relate to SCC on average, although trait conscientiousness moderated these relationships. No relationships were moderated by self-reported habits. Results suggest that sleep may be especially important for ongoing subjective self-evaluation.
... Thus, rituals characteristic of BDD may unintentionally delay, restrict, or interrupt sleep quality. Poor sleep may further exacerbate such behaviors via weakened inhibitory control (Cox et al., 2018;Nota et al., 2016) or processing distressing visual stimuli or stressors (Chee, 2015;Kong et al., 2011;Palmer and Alfano, 2017). More work is needed to disentangle these possibilities. ...
... Disturbed sleep is independently associated with a number of core symptoms of borderline PD such as emotional dysregulation, 13 impulsivity, 14 self-injurious behaviors, 15 and drug use, 16 as well as having an impact on quality of life. 17 These factors have been associated with overall poor outcomes and reduced recovery from PD over time. ...
Article
Purpose/Background Quetiapine is a first-line augmenting agent for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and is used off-label in insomnia. Quetiapine and its active metabolite norquetiapine act mostly on 5-HT 2A , 5-HT 2C , H 1 , and D 2 as antagonists and on 5-HT 1A as partial agonists. Patients with TRD often have comorbid personality disorder (PD), and evidence suggests an association between sleep disturbance and recovery among patients with PD. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of quetiapine on sleep in TRD patients with and without PD (PD+/PD−). Methods/Procedures We reviewed health records of 38 patients with TRD (20 TRD/PD+) who had been treated with a pharmacotherapy regimen including quetiapine. Clinical outcomes were determined by comparing changes in sleep items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at the beginning (T0) and after 3 months of an unchanged treatment (T3). Findings/Results Patients with TRD/PD+ and TRD/PD− taking quetiapine showed significant improvement in sleep items from T0 to T3 ( P < 0.001, η p ² ≥ 0.19). There was a significant personality × time interaction for sleep-maintenance insomnia ( P = 0.006, η p ² = 0.23), with TRD/PD+ showing a greater improvement at T3 compared with TRD/PD− ( P = 0.01). While exploring other sleep items, no personality × time interaction was found. In the TRD/PD− group, improvement in sleep items was associated with an overall improvement in depressive symptoms ( r = 0.55, P = 0.02). Implications/Conclusions Quetiapine induced greater improvements in sleep-maintenance insomnia among TRD/PD+ patients than TRD/PD−. These findings suggest quetiapine could have a therapeutic role for insomnia in PD underscoring a distinct underlying neurobiological mechanism of sleep disturbance in people living with PD.
... On the contrary, as the current study only examined cognitive ER, it is likely that youth also used other types of adaptive or non-adaptive strategies to (directly or indirectly) regulate their emotions, which were not captured. These might include, among others, interpersonal ER (Dixon-Gordon et al., 2015) or various behavioral strategies, such as stimming (Kapp et al., 2019), engaging in physical activity (Tse, 2020) or special interests (Patten Koenig & Hough Williams, 2017), sleeping (Palmer & Alfano, 2017), or self-injuring (Andover & Morris, 2014). ...
Article
Previous research has shown that autistic individuals report high levels of perceived stress and have an increased likelihood of developing mental health difficulties. Increase in individuals' negative emotions in relation to perceived stress (i.e. affective reactivity to stress) is a known risk factor for mental health difficulties. In this study, we investigated perceived daily stress and affective reactivity to stress in autistic (n = 39, age = 18.4) and non-autistic (n = 55, age = 18.1) adolescents and young adults. We used the ecological momentary assessment, a technique that allows to assess individuals repeatedly in their daily life using their smartphone. Moreover, participants filled a questionnaire to evaluate the strategies they use to regulate emotions when faced with difficulties. Finally, a clinical interview and a parent-report questionnaire were used to assess mental health symptoms. Autistic youth reported higher levels of perceived daily stress compared with non-autistic peers. Moreover, they showed increased affective reactivity to stress related to their daily activities. Autistic participants reported more emotion regulation difficulties (e.g. more repetitive thinking of difficulties) compared with non-autistic participants. Difficulties in emotion regulation increased negative emotions in relation to stress and might contribute to the severity of mental health symptoms. We conclude that adolescents and young adults with autism report high perceived stress in their daily lives. To minimize the negative impact of stress and the development of mental health symptoms, people supporting autistic young people could focus on stress management skills and the strategies that the youth use to manage emotions.
... Sleep disorders are related to impaired emotional regulation and coping strategies, and lack of sleep plays an important role in emotional regulation [42]. The adaptive regulation of emotion, which enables individuals to better control and manage emotional experiences or current conditions, is the key to daily adaptation to environmental factors [43]. ...
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Background: While the exact mechanisms are not fully understood, there are significant links between sleep quality, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and cognitive emotion regulation. This research examines how sleep quality affects anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as the potential of cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERS) to moderate the impact of sleep quality on these symptoms. Methods: The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI), the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7) were all completed online by students from two colleges in China's Xizang region. Results: The study included 4325 subjects. The prevalence of poor sleep quality, anxiety symptoms, and depression symptoms was 45.69%, 36.81%, and 51.86%, respectively. We observed significant direct effects on poor sleep and severity of anxiety/depression: c'1 = 0.586 (0. 544-0.628), and c'2 = 0.728 (0.683-0.773). Adaptive CERS only had a mediating effect on the relationship between sleep quality and depression symptoms, with a1b3 = -0.005 (-0.011--0.001). The link between poor sleep quality and the intensity of anxiety and depression was significantly affected by the indirect effects of maladaptive CERS: effect a2b2 = 0.126 (0.106-0.147), and effect a2b4 = 0.145 (0.123-0.167). Conclusions: Individuals who experience poor sleep quality are more likely to have increased levels of anxiety and depression. However, enhancing sleep quality led to a decrease in anxiety and depression levels. Adaptive CERS did not predict anxiety, but they did predict depression. Multiple maladaptive CERS could increase levels of anxiety and depression. To prevent mental stress, it is crucial to examine sleep problems among college students, understand their cognitive strategies, promote the adoption of adaptive CERS, and reduce the reliance on maladaptive CERS.
... Sleep in humans is a neurophysiological state with indispensable biological functions [1]. Sleep plays a role in human development [2,3], somatic maintenance [4][5][6], as well as emotional regulation, cognitive problem-solving, and memory [7][8][9]. Interest in the importance of sleep and the challenges posed by deficient sleep and sleep disorders has grown significantly in recognition over the last two decades [10]. The rise in general interest toward sleep can be seen in academic research settings [11] clinical settings [12], as well as in non-expert contexts. ...
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Sleep is both a neurophysiological state and a biologically necessary behavior that performs a variety of indispensable roles for human health, development, and cognitive functioning. Despite this, comparatively little is known about the relationships between daily experiences and sleep features. Importantly, these relationships are bidirectional in nature, may be differently associated with subjectively and objectively assessed sleep, and may also be modulated by individual differences To address this challenge, we created the Budapest Sleep, Experiences, and Traits Study (BSETS), a multidisciplinary observational sleep study utilizing novel remote EEG devices. BSETS was designed to establish a dataset for future use in investigating the relationships between sleep features and daily experiences. In this paper we describe the protocol of the currently ongoing BSETS, which examines a community-dwelling sample of over 250 healthy participants who are studied in a naturalistic setting using a large questionnaire assessing psychological, demographic, and anthropometric information, as well as evening/morning diaries of sleep and daily experiences, and mobile EEG recordings over a period of 7 days. This dataset will become an accessible resource to the wider scientific community and can be utilized to investigate the complex multidirectional relationships between objectively and subjectively measured sleep, daily experiences, and individual differences, bestowing it with significant value for sleep researchers as well as practitioners working in clinical settings with patients suffering from disordered sleep.
... Multiple studies show that active wake behavior is associated with positive affect, and that sleep deprivation and corresponding groggy wake is a robust elicitor of negative emotions [8][9][10]. The transition from energized wake (positive affect) to tiredness (negative affect) appears to coordinate the wake-to-sleep cycle, implying a circadian rhythm of emotion. ...
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Positive and negative emotional states in rats can be studied by investigating ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Positive affect in rats is indexed by 50 kHz hedonic USVs, and negative affect is indexed by 22 kHz aversive calls. We examined the relationship of emotional states in rats using medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) quantitative electroencephalograms (qEEG) and found that hedonic USVs were associated with active wake qEEG (high alpha/low delta power), and aversive USVs occurred with groggy wake qEEG (low alpha/high delta). Further, alpha frequency electrical stimulation of the MPFC induces hedonic calls and reward-seeking behavior, whereas delta frequency stimulation produces aversive calls and avoidance behavior. The brain region responsible for generating motor output for USVs, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), shows a motor-evoked potential that is temporally locked to the alpha (hedonic) and delta (aversive) motor-evoked potential. Closed-loop alpha frequency electrical stimulation could prevent delta qEEG and aversive USVs. At the neuronal circuit level, the alpha rhythm was associated with synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) in the cortex, whereas the delta rhythm was associated with synaptic depotentiation (LTD) in the cortex. At the pharmacological level, NMDAR and growth factor modulation regulated these forms of neuroplasticity. At the single neuron level, excitatory neurons show increased activity in response to alpha frequencies and decreased activity during delta frequencies. In humans, the feeling of joy increased alpha and decreased delta power in frontal scalp qEEG, and the opposite response was seen for sadness. Thus, the synchronization of alpha/delta oscillations through the neuronal circuit responsible for emotional expression coordinates emotional behavior, and the switch between active wake/positive affect and groggy wake/negative affect is under the control of an LTP- LTD synaptic plasticity mechanism.
... [24] Studies have shown a well-established link between inadequate sleep and mood impairment which elevates the risk for mental health illnesses such as depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts. [25] Students of classes 10 and 12 of both schools showed more negative mood and had the least sleep duration and poorer sleep quality (especially for class 12) when compared grade-wise [ Figures 1, 2, and 4-6]. Gupta et al., in their study on urban school-going adolescents, have revealed that students in higher grades had poorer sleep quality. ...
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Objective The physiological delay in bedtime among adolescents, compounded with the early start of school, results in insufficient sleep, especially on school days. The present study compared the sleep pattern and moods of students attending two schools with different start timing. Materials and Methods The study involved adolescents from two schools with different start times: School A (7 am) and School B (8 am). Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21, and Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale questionnaires were used to assess students’ mood, sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness. The clinical trial registry number is CTRI/2022/06/043556. Result A total of 640 students (mean age 13.7 ± 2.0 years; 47.5% male) participated in this study. Students from School B had longer sleep duration, with 72.9% reporting sleep deprivation compared to 87.1% of School A ( P = 0.00001). School A students reported having ( P ≤ 0.001) higher daytime sleepiness, higher daytime dysfunction ( P = 0.023), and poorer sleep quality. Students at School A scored higher for all mood derangements, with significantly higher scores for depression ( P = 0.041). Conclusion The study illustrates that though not much differences are observed in the bedtime of adolescents of the two schools, however, due to the early school start time of School A, students have to compulsorily wake up early, leading to higher sleep deprivation and greater mood derangements among them.
... However, a review of isotemporal substitution studies pointed out that most studies have not accounted for the reallocation between sleep time and other behaviors (20). Sleep deprivation can directly result in daytime sleepiness and unsuccessful mood regulation strategies, leading to more negative emotions and an increased risk of mental illness (40). Given the codependence of sleep with SB and PA, future studies should include sleep in isochronous substitution models. ...
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Background 24-h movement behaviors, including light physical activity (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), screen-based sedentary behavior (SSB), non-screen-based sedentary behavior (NSB) and sleep are crucial components affecting mental health. This study aimed to examine the associations of movement behaviors with mental health outcomes among overweight/obese college students using a compositional data analysis approach. Methods Using a prospective design, 437 Chinese college students (20.1 ± 1.7 years, 51.7% female) completed a two-wave online data collection, where demographics and movement behaviors (LPA, MVPA, SSB, NSB, sleep) were collected at baseline, while depression, anxiety and stress were measured at the 2-month follow-up (Apr-Jul 2022). Compositional data analyses were implemented using R. Results Depression, anxiety, and stress were negatively associated with time spent in MVPA and sleep ( p < 0.001) and positively associated with time spent in SSB and NSB ( p < 0.001). Reallocating 15 min to MVPA from LPA, SSB and NSB predicted improvements in depression (LPA: −0.234 unit; SSB: −0.375 unit; NSB: −0.249 unit), anxiety (LPA: −0.092 unit; SSB: −0.284 unit; NSB: −0.165 unit), and stress (LPA: −0.083 unit; SSB: −0.312 unit; NSB: −0.191 unit). For dose–response relationships of 5–55 min isotemporal substitution, when time was reallocated to MVPA from LPA, NSB, and SSB, the estimated detriments to mental health were larger in magnitude than the estimated benefits of time reallocation from MVPA to LPA, NSB, and SSB. Conclusion The findings emphasize the importance of participating in MVPA to improve mental health in overweight/obese college students during the post-COVID-19 era. The compositional analysis produced clear targets for the time allocation of these behaviors for future interventions and policymaking.
... Psychophysiological studies have also demonstrated that patients with insomnia show an emotional bias to sleep-related stimuli with negative valence [61,62]. These data are consistent with the perspective that sleep is a fundamental psychophysiological process owning a key role in the regulation of stress and emotion [63,64]. ...
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Chronic insomnia (insomnia disorder-ID) afflicts up to 10% of the adult population, increases with age and affects more women than men. ID is associated with significant daytime impairments and an increased risk for developing major somatic and mental disorders, especially depression and anxiety disorders. Almost all insomnia models assume persistent hyperarousal on cognitive, emotional, cortical and physiological levels as a central pathophysiological component. The marked discrepancy between only minor objective alterations in polysomnographic parameters of sleep continuity and the profound subjective impairment in patients with insomnia is still puzzling. We and others have proposed that alterations in the microstructure of sleep, especially in REM sleep (REM sleep instability), may explain this discrepancy and be at the core of the experience of fragmented and poor sleep in ID. The REM sleep instability concept is based on evidence showing REM time to be related to subjective wake time in insomnia as well as increased micro-and macro-arousals during REM sleep in insomnia patients compared to good-sleeper controls. Our own work showed that ID patients awoken from REM sleep more frequently reported the perception of having been awake than good sleepers as well as having had more negative ideations. The continuous measurement of event-related potentials throughout the whole night demonstrated reduced P2 amplitudes specifically during phasic REM sleep in insomnia, which points to a mismatch negativity in ID reflecting automatic change detection in the auditory system and a concomitant orienting response. REM sleep represents the most highly aroused brain state during sleep and thus might be particularly prone to fragmentation in individuals with persistent hyperarousal, resulting in a more conscious-like wake experience reflecting pre-sleep concerns of patients with ID, i.e., worries about poor sleep and its consequences, thus leading to the subjective over-estimation of nocturnal waking time and the experience of disrupted and non-restorative sleep. Chronic REM sleep instability might also lead to a dysfunction in a ventral emotional neural network, including limbic and paralimbic areas activated during REM sleep. Along with a postulated weakened functioning in a dorsal executive neural network, including frontal and prefrontal areas, this might contribute to emotional and cognitive alterations and an elevated risk of developing depression and anxiety.
... Thus, short sleep duration, or inadequate sleep, is another public health issue that has been associated with increased risk of poor physical and mental health outcomes, including but not limited to, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and depression (Li et al., 2022;Itani et al., 2017). Concerning emotional health, inadequate sleep can influence emotional dysregulation (Palmer and Alfano, 2017;Beattie et al., 2015), and young adults are at increased risk of experiencing mood instability as a result of inadequate sleep compared to older adults (Schwarz et al., 2019). ...
... However, there have been many problems in the conceptual and empirical study of the relationship between sleep and emotion regulation. However, studies suggest that insufficient or poor sleep may lead to negative and maladaptive changes in various aspects of emotional experience [29]. Most studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation in the laboratory, but this study measured the relationship between sleep quality and moral decision making in a realistic situation with a reasonably large sample size to help clarify these contradictory findings. ...
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Our article delves into the relationship between sleep quality, emotion regulation, and moral decision-making. We enlisted the participation of 306 employees from the Iranian National Tax Administration, who completed three surveys for our research. Upon analyzing the data using Kendall's Tau correlation coefficient, we found that, in general, there isn't a significant link between sleep quality and the ability to regulate emotions or make moral decisions. However, there's a slight twist in the story. We did identify a weak connection between certain indicators of poor sleep quality (like trouble sleeping, restlessness, or using sleep aids) and making utilitarian, low-conflict moral decisions. In summary, our study suggests that, for individuals with strong cognitive abilities, effective emotional management skills, and a firm grasp of societal moral values, poor sleep quality may not significantly impact their ability to regulate emotions or make moral choices.
... In summary, correlational studies associate insufficient sleep with immediate negative affect (Goldstein & Walker, 2014;Palmer & Alfano, 2017;Tempesta et al., 2018) and the future development of emotion/mood disorders (Palagini et al., 2019). Further, neuroimaging studies demonstrate the effects of sleep loss on neural activity (Gujar et al., 2011;Hehr et al., 2019;Hernández-Peón et al., 1963;Motomura et al., 2017;Seeley et al., 2007;Shao et al., 2014;Zeng et al., 2021). ...
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Sleep's role in emotion regulation
... Two literatures seemed particularly relevant for this purpose: sleep and memory specificity. Sleep disturbances and sleep loss are broadly associated with complex alterations across multiple facets of emotion regulation (Palmer and Alfano, 2017). Some observed consequences include decreased positive affect (Bower et al., 2010) but increased neural reactivity to positive experiences (Gujar et al., 2011) as well as increased negative mood and rumination (Lo et al., 2016;Thomsen et al., 2003). ...
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Repetitive thinking about negative emotions or events is strongly associated with worse mental health, whereas repetitive positive thought is generally believed to be beneficial. This observation is at odds with the idea that all forms of repetitive thinking share underlying neural mechanisms. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, the present study examined relationships between subjective affect and neural mechanisms during periods of sustained processing of positive (savoring) and negative (rumination) emotion. We also examined potential common moderators of savoring and rumination including memory specificity and sleep quality. Results indicated that individuals who experience high positive affect during savoring also are likely to experience more intense negative affect during rumination. fMRI-derived brain activity revealed common mechanisms of rumination and savoring. Memory specificity had common effects on neural correlates of rumination and savoring; sleep quality was not associated with mechanisms of savoring or rumination. These results suggest that repetitive engagement with positive and negative affect is similar both subjectively and mechanistically. Clinical interventions for rumination may benefit from capitalizing on preserved capacity for savoring.
... Poor sleep quality can lead to more negative emotions experienced, which can negatively affect individuals' abilities to regulate emotions [19]. One potential explanation for the initially identified relationship between threat and effective emotion regulation might be due to the nature of the sample obtained for this study. ...
Article
Early Life Adversity (ELA) with negative effects on individuals emotional and physical health is related to individuals emotion regulation abilities. Exposure to ELA can lead to changes in peoples stress response system, affecting peoples behavioral and cognitive ability to respond to negative life events later in their lives. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between early life adversity and emotion regulation under the consideration of sleep quality to identify the extent of influences that different factors exert on emotion regulation strategies. An effective sample size of 424 participants was recruited for this study with an average low score on ELA. Results showed that early life adversity was related to an increase in the utilization of ineffective emotion regulation strategies in response to negative life events. More specifically, evidence pointed out that threats under the subcategories of ELA exerted a bigger influence than deprivation on individuals emotion regulation strategies. However, the mediation caused by sleep quality between the relationship of threat, deprivation, and emotion regulation needs to be noted. In this study, sleep quality mediated the relationship between deprivation and ineffective emotion regulation as well as the relationship between threat and effective emotion regulation. The differences in the influence level of different subcategories of ELA (threat and deprivation) on emotion regulation were represented as well. This study can encourage future studies to focus on the relationship between ELA and sleep quality, and the mediation of different factors in the relationship between ELA and emotion regulation.
... Consequently, college students may experience significant rises in both psychological and physiological arousal levels (Brown et al., 2006;Dill and Dill, 1998), eventually leading to the development of insomnia among this population. Higher arousal can impair sleep quality, causing depression, emotional dysregulation, and impulsivity in college students (Palmer and Alfano, 2017). This increases college students' distress in negative situations and events, which may lead to suicidal ideation. ...
Article
Background: The issue of college student suicide has emerged as a significant global public health concern. To date, there has been a lack of extensive research on the effects of distinct forms of bullying victimization (traditional bullying victimization and cyberbullying victimization) on suicidal ideation, as well as the differences between them. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between two forms of bullying victimization and suicidal ideation among female college students, while also considering the potential mediating effects of rumination and insomnia. Methods: A total of 2106 female college students from Southern China participated in this study. The participants had a mean age of 19.83 years (SD = 1.04 years). Participants completed the MINI-C questionnaire, School Bullying Behavior Questionnaire, Cyberbullying Inventory (CBI), Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). The mediation models were conducted using Model 4 and Model 6 of the Process macro program in SPSS. Results: The results showed that (1) the mediating effect of rumination in the relationship between different forms of bullying victimization and suicidal ideation was significant; (2) The mediating effect of insomnia in the relationship between traditional bullying victimization and suicidal ideation was not significant; the mediating effect between cyberbullying victimization and suicidal ideation was significant. (3) The chain mediating effect of rumination and insomnia in the relationship between different forms of bullying victimization and suicidal ideation were both significant. Conclusion: This study endeavor represents the first attempt to investigate the relationship between two forms of bullying victimization and suicidal ideation.
... Compared with adults, adolescents need adequate sleep for healthy physical and intellectual development, while Chinese adolescents commonly suffer from sleep deprivation, nightmares, insomnia and other related problems (Li et al., 2018). Related studies have found that insomnia not only causes shortterm consequences such as poor concentration and lower academic performance (Ahrberg et al., 2012) but also may impair brain function in children in the long term, leading to emotional-behavioral problems such as depression and anxiety (Palmer and Alfano, 2017;Tempesta et al., 2018). ...
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Background: Research suggests that genetic variants linked to serotonin functioning moderate the association between environmental stressors and depressive symptoms, but examining gene-environment interactions with single polymorphisms limits power. Methods: A multilocus genetic profile score (MGPS) approach to measuring serotonergic multilocus genetic variation and examined interactions with interpersonal relationship, insomnia with depressive symptoms as outcomes in an adolescent sample (average age = 14.15 ± 0.63 years since first measurement; range: 13 to 15). Results: (1) interpersonal relationship predicted adolescent depressive symptoms; (2) insomnia mediated the effect of interpersonal relationships on adolescent depressive symptoms; (3) the THP2 gene rs4570625 polymorphism G allele was a key risk factor for depressive symptom, and the MGPS moderated the effects of teacher-student relationship and insomnia on adolescent depressive symptom. Specifically, as the MGPS increased, the effects of insomnia on adolescent depressive symptom were enhanced; however, when the MGPS score increased, the effect of teacher-student relationship on depression showed a similar phenomenon with an increased slope and enhanced prediction; and (4) the results of sensitivity analysis showed that multilocus genetic interaction with the environment had a better explanatory power and stability for depression than single polymorphism studies. Conclusion: MGPS provides substantial power to examine gene-environmental interactions linked to affective outcomes among adolescents.
... A similar study showed that poor sleep quality was associated with abdominal pain, anxiety, and fatigue the next day in females with IBS (Buchanan et al., 2014). It seemed that sleep disturbances could lead to a decreased ability to regulate emotional responses and visceral hypersensitivity, making patients more susceptible to depression, anxiety and pain stimuli (Schuh-Hofer et al., 2013;Palmer and Alfano, 2017). Furthermore, patients who experienced sleep improvement demonstrated better alleviation of depression and gastrointestinal symptoms. ...
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Objective: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been reported with the treatment potential for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the knowledge of its effect on extraintestinal symptoms of IBS is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the improved methodology of FMT, washed microbiota transplantation (WMT), on sleep disturbances, and psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms among patients with IBS. Methods: This was a prospective observational study involving patients with IBS who underwent WMT. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) were used to evaluate gastrointestinal symptoms and IBS severity, respectively. The Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were used to evaluate depression and anxiety, respectively. All the symptoms were evaluated at baseline and one month after WMT. A multiple logistic regression model was used to determine the predictive factors of sleep improvement one month after WMT. Results: Seventy-three patients with IBS were included in the study. Sleep quality (Z = -4.221, P < 0.001), anxiety (Z = -4.775, P < 0.001), depression (Z = -4.610, P < 0.001), gastrointestinal symptoms (Z = -5.364, P < 0.001), and IBS severity (Z = -6.468, P < 0.001) significantly improved one month after WMT in all patients. The scores of the five components of PSQI including subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, and sleep disturbances decreased in 52 patients with poor sleep quality (all P < 0.05). Baseline sleep duration scores were identified as an independent predictive factor of sleep improvement one month after WMT in patients with poor sleep quality (OR 2.180 [95% CI = 1.017-4.673]; P = 0.045). Patients that experienced sleep improvement demonstrated greater alleviation in depression (Z = -1.990, P = 0.047) and IBS severity (Z = -2.486, P = 0.013) compared with patients without sleep improvement. Conclusion: This study suggested that WMT might be a promising therapy for patients with IBS, especially those with comorbid sleep and psychological disorders.
... Normal sleep is divided into two phases: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Several processes have been linked to sleep, including cognitive processes such as memory consolidation and emotional control, as well as physiological processes such as hematological system modulation, tissue regeneration, cellular metabolism, endocrine regulation, and even atherosclerosis prevention (Spiegel et al., 1999;Tononi and Cirelli, 2014;Palmer and Alfano, 2017;Elkhenany et al., 2018;Raven et al., 2018;McAlpine et al., 2019). However, sleep disorders are associate with pain and various central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including mood disorders, psychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD) (Tang et al., 2021;Winer et al., 2021;Nassan and Videnovic, 2022;Kunz et al., 2023;Stankeviciute et al., 2023). ...
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Sleep plays an essential role in all studied animals with a nervous system. However, sleep deprivation leads to various pathological changes and neurobehavioral problems. Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain and are involved in various important functions, including neurotransmitter and ion homeostasis, synaptic and neuronal modulation, and blood-brain barrier maintenance; furthermore, they are associated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases, pain, and mood disorders. Moreover, astrocytes are increasingly being recognized as vital contributors to the regulation of sleep-wake cycles, both locally and in specific neural circuits. In this review, we begin by describing the role of astrocytes in regulating sleep and circadian rhythms, focusing on: (i) neuronal activity; (ii) metabolism; (iii) the glymphatic system; (iv) neuroinflammation; and (v) astrocyte-microglia cross-talk. Moreover, we review the role of astrocytes in sleep deprivation comorbidities and sleep deprivation-related brain disorders. Finally, we discuss potential interventions targeting astrocytes to prevent or treat sleep deprivation-related brain disorders. Pursuing these questions would pave the way for a deeper understanding of the cellular and neural mechanisms underlying sleep deprivation-comorbid brain disorders.
... It differs from wakefulness in that it is less responsive to stimuli, yet it is more reactive than comas or disturbing states of consciousness. As a result of sleep, the brain exhibits a different pattern of active activity [2]. A good night's sleep enhances the human body's energy and resistance, supports proper human growth and development, and ensures that the human body receives sufficient rest. ...
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Objective: Using PSG-guided acute selective REM/SWS sleep deprivation in volunteers, this study examined the effects of sleep deprivation on the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems, as well as the relationship between cardiac neuromodulation homeostasis and cardiovascular disease. Methods: An experiment was conducted using 30 healthy volunteers (male : female = 1 : 1, aged 26.33 ± 4.5 years) divided into groups for sleep deprivation of SWS and REM sleep, and then, each group was crossed over for normal sleep (2 days) and repeated sleep deprivation (1 day, 3 times). During the study period, PSG and ELECTRO ECG monitoring were conducted, and five-minute frequency domain parameters and blood pressure values were measured before and after sleep deprivation. Results: Changes in VLF, LFnu, LF/HF, HF, and HFnu after SWS sleep deprivation were statistically significant (P < 0.05), but not LF (P = 0.063). Changes in VLF, LF, HF, LF/HF, LFnu, and HFnu after REM sleep deprivation were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions: An increase in sympathetic nerve activity results from sleep deprivation and sudden awakening from SWS sleep is associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease.
... One possible mediator is emotion regulation, i.e., the "processes by which individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions" (Gross, 1998, p. 275). Robust evidence links poor sleep (in terms of duration, continuity, or quality) with impaired emotion regulation, measured at neurobiological, cognitive, and behavioral levels, in both children and adults (Palmer & Alfano, 2017;Tomaso et al., 2021). Given that irritability is conceptualized as a heightened propensity for experiencing anger in response to frustration (Brotman et al., 2017), emotion regulation likely plays a key role in the experience and persistence of anger, as well as manifestations of verbal and physical aggression, in highly irritable individuals. ...
Article
Objectives: Irritability and sleep problems are common symptoms that span a range of internalizing and exter-nalizing mental health disorders. While poor sleep has been associated with symptoms related to irritability (e.g., anxiety and depression), few studies have directly tested the association between sleep quality and irritability and whether the association is direct or mediated by a separate mechanism. Method: The present study used self-report measures to test whether sleep is associated with irritability in 458 adults aged 19-74 years (58 % female; 79 % White), and whether this association is mediated by emotion regulation. Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out to support the use of scores from these measures. Results: Controlling for anxiety and depression symptoms, results showed a direct association between poorer sleep quality and increased irritability (β = 0.25, p < .001) that was not mediated by emotion regulation. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the important link between sleep and irritability, both of which are common features of mental health difficulties, prompting further inquiry into the directionality of the findings and potential mediators. This work has notable clinical implications for sleep as a possible intervention target for individuals with high irritability.
Article
Introduction : The postpartum period goes along with an increased risk of unhealthy weight gain and numerous physical and psychological challenges, which are associated with mental well-being and resilience. Given the individual circumstances and the accompanying time constraints, evidence-based mHealth interventions may be useful for flexible, spot-on complementary care. Thus, the mHealth app I-PREGNO aims to enhance mental well-being and resilience by offering cognitive-behavioural and behaviour change skills training to prevent unhealthy weight development in this vulnerable life episode. In a randomised controlled trial, we will examine its effectiveness and acceptance. Protocol: Parents of infants between 0 and 12 months will be randomised to the intervention or control group. Both groups will take part in a baseline survey (t0) and further assessments after 12 weeks (intervention duration, t1), and 6 months (t2). The intervention group will use the self-guided mHealth app after t0 and both groups will get unlimited access after t2. The primary outcomes will be i) weight (difference of weight in kg after the intervention and pre-pregnancy); ii) mental well-being assessed through the Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression-Scale and Parenting Stress Index; iii) resilience assessed through the General Self-Efficacy Scale and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Secondary outcomes will be sociodemographic variables, eating behaviour, physical activity, relationship experiences, childhood trauma, postpartum bonding, regulatory disorders, and app usability. Gender differences between mothers and fathers will be considered. Conclusion: Positive effects on weight development in the postpartum period, mental well-being, and resilience due to the I-PREGNO intervention will support parental health in the critical postpartum phase. The study results will contribute to the growing field of evidence-based, highly scalable, low-cost, geographically independent, just-in-time mobile support for a target group that is restricted in time and resources. Trial registration: The trial has been registered at the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00031067 ) in January 2023 prospectively.
Article
Pressing the snooze button is a common way to start the day, but little is known about this behaviour. Through two studies we determined predictors and effects of snoozing. In Study 1 (n = 1732) respondents described their waking habits, confirming that snoozing is widespread, especially in younger individuals and later chronotypes. Morning drowsiness and shorter sleep were also more common for those who snooze. Study 2 was a within-subjects laboratory study (with polysomnography) on habitual snoozers (n = 31), showing that 30 min of snoozing improved or did not affect performance on cognitive tests directly upon rising compared to an abrupt awakening. Bayes factors indicate varying strengths of this evidence. Snoozing resulted in about 6 min of lost sleep, while preventing awakenings from slow-wave sleep (N3). There were no clear effects of snoozing on the cortisol awakening response, morning sleepiness, mood, or overnight sleep architecture. A brief snooze period may thus help alleviate sleep inertia, without substantially disturbing sleep, for late chronotypes and those with morning drowsiness.
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First responders represent a unique and understudied population at heightened risk for chronic occupational stress and exposure to potentially traumatic events (PTEs; e.g., attending to fires, medical emergencies, and violent crimes; Bowers et al. Mental health intervention and treatment of first responders and emergency workers. IGI Global, 2019; Vujanovic & Tran J Health Service Psychol 47:137–148, 2021). While the majority of first responders are remarkably resilient, weathering extreme stress and potentially traumatic experiences and ‘bouncing back’ more readily than individuals in the general population (Kilpatrick et al. J Traumatic Stress 26:537–547, 2013), chronic exposure to intense occupational demands has the potential to translate to deleterious mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), a PTE is defined as “exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence,” through either direct experience, witnessing the event, learning the event has happened to a close family member or friend (if the event is violent or accidental), or having repeated or extreme exposure to distressing details of a traumatic event (p. 271, (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 2013)).
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From the friendship between Erasmus and Thomas More were born two major works: In Praise of Folly (1511) and Utopia (1516). Five centuries later, this lesson aims to explore the links that still unite mental health and utopia. Three possibilities are considered: the first two explore the common meaning of the word utopia (an inaccessible ideal), with on the one hand a phenomenological approach, centered on individual subjectivity, and on the other hand a ‘positivist’ approach (i.e., neurophysiological; both anatomical and functional), which is intended to be objective. The third one is more daring and questions the meaning that More gives to the word utopia: a critique of ambient society through a literary work. The clinical and philosophical implications of the utopian nature of mental health are discussed.
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Sleep is a highly stereotyped phenomenon, requiring robust spatiotemporal coordination of neural activity. Understanding how the brain coordinates neural activity with sleep onset can provide insights into the physiological functions subserved by sleep and the pathologic phenomena associated with sleep onset. We quantified whole-brain network changes in synchrony and information flow during the transition from wakefulness to light non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, using magnetoencephalography imaging in a convenient sample of 14 healthy human participants (11 female; mean 63.4 y [SD 11.8]). We furthermore performed computational modeling to infer excitatory and inhibitory properties of local neural activity. The transition from wakefulness to light NREM was identified to be encoded in spatially and temporally specific patterns of long-range synchrony. Within the delta band, there was a global increase in connectivity from wakefulness to light NREM, which was highest in fronto-parietal regions. Within the theta band, there was an increase in connectivity in fronto-parieto-occipital regions and a decrease in temporal regions from wakefulness to N1. Patterns of information flow revealed that mesial frontal regions receive hierarchically organized inputs from broad cortical regions upon sleep onset, including direct inflow from occipital regions and indirect inflow via parieto-temporal regions within the delta frequency band. Finally, biophysical neural mass modeling demonstrated changes in the anterior-to-posterior distribution of cortical excitation-to-inhibition with increased excitation-to-inhibition model parameters in anterior regions in light NREM as compared to wakefulness. Together, these findings uncover whole-brain corticocortical structure and the orchestration of local and long-range, frequency-specific cortical interactions in the sleep-wake transition. Significance Statement Our work uncovers spatiotemporal cortical structure of neural synchrony and information flow upon the transition from wakefulness to light non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Mesial frontal regions were identified to receive hierarchically organized inputs from broad cortical regions, including both direct inputs from occipital regions and indirect inputs via the parieto-temporal regions within the delta frequency range. Biophysical neural mass modeling revealed a spatially heterogenous, anterior-posterior distribution of cortical excitation-to-inhibition. Our findings shed light on the orchestration of local and long-range cortical neural structure that is fundamental to sleep onset and support an emerging view of cortically driven regulation of sleep homeostasis.
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Strong evidence supports a bidirectional association between sleep disturbances and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Affect - temporary internal states experienced as feeling good or bad, energized or enervated - may play a central role in explaining this link. The current systematic review summarizes the literature on associations between sleep, PTSD, and affect among trauma-exposed adults. We systematically searched five electronic databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, PTSDpubs, Web of Science, CINAHL) using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines. Of 2656 screened articles, 6 studies met inclusion criteria. Four findings emerged: (1) greater insomnia symptom severity predicted greater PTSD symptom severity above the influence of negative affect, (2) negative affect mediated the effect of sleep quality on next-day PTSD symptom severity, (3) positive affect mediated the effect of PTSD symptom severity on insomnia symptom severity and sleep disturbances, and (4) greater negative affect (specifically, greater anger) was associated with greater severity of PTSD and sleep disturbances. Findings highlight areas for future research, such as the need to investigate more dimensions, timescales, and methods of studies simultaneously assessing affect, sleep, and PTSD, as well as the need for more longitudinal and experimental work to determine causality across these constructs.
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Introduction This study aimed to determine the influence of red light on objective sleep and the relationship between mood and sleep among individuals with insomnia disorder (ID). Method 57 individuals with insomnia symptoms and 57 healthy participants were randomly divided into three groups (red- and white-light groups, and the black control group), which received different light treatments for 1 h before bedtime. The emotions and subjective alertness of participants were evaluated using Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scales (PANAS) and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), their sleeping data were recorded using polysomnography (PSG). Result The negative emotion scores were higher in the healthy subject-red light (HS-RL) group than in the HS-white light (WL) and HS-black control (BC) groups ( p < 0.001). The anxiety and negative emotion scores were higher in the ID-RL group than in the ID-WL and ID-BC groups ( p = 0.007 and p < 0.001, respectively). The KSS scores were lower in the RL group than in the WL and BC groups for both HS and ID group (both p < 0.001). The SOL was shorter in the HS-RL group than in HS-WL group ( p = 0.019). Compared with the HS-BC group, the HS-RL group had an increase in microarousal index (MAI) and N1% ( p = 0.034 and p = 0.021, respectively), while the total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE) decreased ( p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Compared with the ID-WL group, the SOL was shorter in the ID-RL group ( p = 0.043), while TST, SE, number of microarousals (NMA), and numbers of cycles of REM period were increased ( p = 0.016, p = 0.046, p = 0.001, and p = 0.041, respectively). Compared with the ID-BC group, the ID-RL group had increases in the SOL, WASO, and the numbers of cycles and NMA in REM period ( p = 0.038, p = 0.005, p = 0.045, and p = 0.033, respectively), and a decrease in SE ( p = 0.014). The effects of ID-WL (vs. ID-RL group) and ID-BC (vs. ID-RL group) on SOL were mediated by negative emotions (mediating effects were − 37.626 and − 33.768, respectively). Conclusion Red light can increase subjective alertness, anxiety, and negative emotions in both healthy subjects and people with ID, which can affect sleep directly or indirectly via the mediating effect of negative emotions.
Article
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), a prevalent sleep disorder in children, is characterized by recurring upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSAS in children can cause intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation, ultimately affect brain development and further lead to cognitive impairment if lack of timely effective intervention. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) have been employed to investigate brain structure and function abnormalities in children with OSAS. Previous studies have indicated that children with OSAS showed extensive gray and white matter damage, abnormal brain function in regions such as the frontal lobe and hippocampus, as well as a significant decline in general cognitive function and executive function. However, the existing studies mainly focused on the regional activity, and the mechanism of pediatric OSAS affecting brain networks remains unknown. Moreover, it's unclear whether the alterations in brain structure and function are associated with their cognitive impairment. In this review article, we proposed two future research directions: 1) future studies should utilize the multimodal neuroimaging techniques to reveal the alterations of brain networks organization underlying pediatric OSAS; 2) further investigation is necessary to explore the relationship between brain network alteration and cognitive dysfunction in children with OSAS. With these efforts, it will be promising to identify the neuroimaging biomarkers for monitoring the brain development of children with OSAS as well as aiding its clinical diagnosis, and ultimately develop more effective strategies for intervention, diagnosis, and treatment.
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Introduction: Since psychological texts in recent decades have witnessed the expansion of meta-diagnostic approaches in examining psychopathology, so the aim of the present study was The effectiveness of transdiagnostic intervention package based on emotion regulation according to Iranian culture on reducing insomnia Intensity. Methods: The present study single-subject (single-case) design was used. Participants in this stage included people with insomnia disorder in Kermanshah in 2021, three of them were selected by purposive sampling method. For this purpose, in the baseline stage and before any intervention, the questionnaire insomnia Intensity was performed Two times per week on three participants separately, then presented the transdiagnostic intervention based on emotion regulation in one session per week and each session 60 Minutes. At the end of the third, sixth and eighth sessions, the mentioned questionnaire was presented to each of the 3 participants and finally, completed by the participants in a 1-month and 2-month follow-up. The findings of this section were analyzed using visual analysis, recovery percentage and other related indicators. Results:The results showed that the symptoms of insomnia Intensity. in each of the three participants, following the sessions of transdiagnostic protocol based on emotion regulation in the intervention phase and even follow-up period (Relative to the position of the baseline) a decreasing trend, which is evidence of the effectiveness of the intervention. Conclusions: The implementation of the transdiagnostic intervention package based on emotion regulation appropriate to Iranian culture led to the reduction of insomnia Intensity, therefore, due to the transdiagnostic nature of the intervention, it is suggested to mental health professionals that the results of the present package in It can be used to help with other psychological disorders.
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Los estudiantes de medicina enfrentan múltiples factores estre- sores a lo largo de su formación. Los cuales, pueden estar asocia- dos con consecuencias graves como la falta de empatía con los pa- cientes y colegas, estrés crónico, síndrome de burnout, depresión y, en situaciones extremas, ideación e intento suicida. Además, los síntomas afectivos de importancia clínica pueden afectar su capacidad de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico, lo que tam- bién puede tener importantes implicaciones a largo plazo. ◆ La literatura sugiere que las mujeres médicas enfrentan obstá- culos profesionales significativamente mayores en comparación con sus contrapartes masculinas: puestos no privilegiados para médicas en investigación, especialidades quirúrgicas, roles de liderazgo. Además, factores estresantes como el acoso, los avan- ces sexuales coercitivos, el abuso moral, el cinismo y los comen- tarios sexistas, son posibles impulsores de la vulnerabilidad a la depresión para las mujeres en las escuelas de medicina. ◆ El currículo oculto es un influyente conocido de los resultados educativos, incluidas las normas, los valores y las creencias del entorno social educativo que no se enseñan abiertamente en el currículo formal, el cual, promueve la empatía, la colegiali- dad y la igualdad; mientras que en el currículo oculto se puede rechazar esos valores y dar como resultado la aceptación o normalización del maltrato. ◆ Los estudiantes que ingresan a la carrera de medicina puntúan más alto en asertividad, autoestima, rasgos narcisistas, altas ex- pectativas y algunas medidas de estrés, ansiedad y mala salud mental, y también puntúan más bajo en autosuficiencia. ◆ La calidad de las relaciones familiares, incluido el apoyo social- comunitario influye en el bienestar y salud mental de los estu- diantes de medicina. ◆ La naturaleza estresante de la educación médica puede afectar su bienestar físico y mental, su capacidad para empatizar con su entorno, asociarse a la presencia de fatiga por compasión, problemas en medidas de autocuidado como es la higiene de sueño, el ejercicio y la alimentación. ◆ La educación médica implica emociones y los estudiantes de- ben aprender a manejar las propias, así como contender con las de los demás (por ejemplo, sus pacientes, familiares, colegas). ◆ Entre los recursos personales, el optimismo y la autoeficacia se han investigado como características individuales que constitu- yen amortiguadores del estrés percibido. ◆ La forma en que los estudiantes enfrentan el estrés académico (resiliencia) es la clave para determinar si se convierte o no en un problema de salud mental o podría tener un impacto en su desarrollo profesional posterior. ◆ Las escuelas y facultades de medicina deben implementar estudios para la conceptualización e implementación de in- tervenciones para mejorar la conciencia metacognitiva y las motivaciones de sus estudiantes durante su formación médica. ◆ La educación médica debe basarse en la investigación de los avances en la ciencia del aprendizaje.
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La pandemia por COVID-19 ha evidenciado el reto de diseñar y gestionar ambientes virtuales de aprendizaje. ◆ En el ámbito médico la supervisión educativa y mentoría es un fuerte pilar del proceso enseñanza y aprendizaje que se ha visto afectado en los últimos meses por la pandemia teniendo que recurrir a diversas estrategias de mentoría en línea para cum- plir con los objetivos. ◆ Los ambientes de aprendizaje exigen un cambio de paradigma educativo de los involucrados que fomente la reflexión y el pen- samiento crítico. ◆ El liderazgo es una habilidad necesaria en la formación médica, ya que involucra la toma de decisiones y el trabajo colaborativo.
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The impact of sleep deprivation on various stages of information processing was investigated during a valance categorization picture task using temporally sensitive event-related potentials (ERPs). Young, healthy, good sleepers were randomly assigned to a total sleep deprivation (n = 22) or sleep control group (n = 23). Picture stimuli were presented at random for 1000 ms and rated as very-positive, slightly positive, slightly negative, or very-negative. ERP measures included a parietal-occipital positive peak (P1) reflecting early sensory processing and “reactivity,” and a central-parietal Late Positive Potential (LPP) peak indexing sustained attention toward stimuli. There was a significant Group-by-Valance interaction for LPP amplitude; sleep-deprived participants had a larger LPP than controls to positive and negative, but not neutral pictures. Both groups had larger LPPs to positive and negative pictures relative to neutral pictures, but only the sleep-deprived group had a larger LPP to negative compared with positive stimuli. Sleep-deprived individuals with a lower reappraisal strategy in emotion regulation style produced a relatively larger LPP response to negative pictures. In conclusion, sleep deprivation did not influence early sensory processing or attention capture but led to greater sustained allocation of attention toward emotional pictures, particularly negative stimuli. Enhanced attention toward emotional stimuli may result in failure to attend to other relevant information and poor decision making, and may be especially problematic for individuals with lower emotion reappraisal strategies.
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Many psychiatric disorders are widely thought to involve problematic patterns of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. Unfortunately, it has proven far easier to assert the centrality of “emotion dysregulation” than to rigorously document the ways in which individuals with various forms of psychopathology differ from healthy individuals in their patterns of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. In the first section of this article, we define emotion and emotion regulation. In the second and third sections, we present a simple framework for examining emotion and emotion regulation in psychopathology. In the fourth section, we conclude by highlighting important challenges and opportunities in assessing and treating disorders that involve problematic patterns of emotion and emotion regulation.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
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Daily emotional labor can impair psychological well-being, especially when emotions have to be displayed that are not truly felt. To explain these deleterious effects of emotional labor, scholars have theorized that emotional labor can put high demands on self-control and diminishes limited regulatory resources. On the basis of this notion, we examined 2 moderators of the daily emotional labor process, namely day-specific sleep quality and individual self-control capacity. In particular, in 2 diary studies (NTOTAL = 171), we tested whether sleep quality moderates the influence of emotional dissonance (the perceived discrepancy between felt and required emotions) on daily psychological well-being (ego depletion, need for recovery, and work engagement). In addition, we examined 3-way interactions of self-control capacity, sleep quality, and emotional dissonance on indicators of day-specific psychological well-being (Study 2). Our results indicate that the negative relations of day-specific emotional dissonance to all day-specific indicators of well-being are attenuated as a function of increasing day-specific sleep quality and that self-control capacity moderates this interaction. Specifically, compared with low self-control capacity, the day-specific interaction of emotional dissonance and sleep quality was more pronounced when trait self-control was high. For those with low trait self-control, day-specific sleep quality did not attenuate the negative relations of emotional dissonance to day-specific well-being. Implications for research on emotional labor and for intervention programs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Previous studies have shown that sleep loss has a detrimental effect on the ability of the individuals to process emotional information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that this negative effect extends to the ability of experiencing emotions while observing other individuals, i.e. emotional empathy. To test this hypothesis, we assessed emotional empathy in 37 healthy volunteers who were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups: one group was tested before and after a night of total sleep deprivation (sleep deprivation group), a second group was tested before and after a usual night of sleep spent at home (sleep group) and the third group was tested twice during the same day (day group). Emotional empathy was assessed by using two parallel versions of a computerized test measuring direct (i.e. explicit evaluation of empathic concern) and indirect (i.e. the observer's reported physiological arousal) emotional empathy. The results revealed that the post measurements of both direct and indirect emotional empathy of participants in the sleep deprivation group were significantly lower than those of the sleep and day groups; post measurement scores of participants in the day and sleep groups did not differ significantly for either direct or indirect emotional empathy. These data are consistent with previous studies showing the negative effect of sleep deprivation on the processing of emotional information, and extend these effects to emotional empathy. The findings reported in our study are relevant to healthy individuals with poor sleep habits, as well as clinical populations suffering from sleep disturbances.
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Despite the growing body of research linking sleep problems and social ties, research investigating the direction of effects between these two constructs is lacking. Furthermore, there remains a dearth of research examining the mechanisms that may explain the association between sleep problems and social ties within a longitudinal design. The present 3-year longitudinal study addressed two research questions: (1) Is there a bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties at university? and (2) Does emotion regulation mediate the association between sleep problems and social ties at university? Participants (N = 942, 71.5 % female; M = 19.01 years at Time 1, SD = 0.90) were university students who completed annual assessments of sleep problems, social ties, and emotion regulation, for three consecutive years. Results of path analysis indicated that the bidirectional association between sleep problems and social ties was statistically significant (controlling for demographics, sleep-wake inconsistency, sleep duration, and alcohol). Analyses of indirect effects indicated that emotion regulation mediated this link, such that better sleep quality (i.e., less sleep problems) led to more effective emotion regulation, which, subsequently, led to more positive social ties. In addition, more positive social ties led to more effective emotion regulation, which, in turn, led to less sleep problems. The findings highlight the critical role that emotional regulation plays in the link between sleep problems and social ties, and emphasize the need for students as well as university administration to pay close attention to both the sleep and social environment of university students.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social engagement and daytime sleepiness among aged residents of a veterans' housing facility in Taiwan. A total of 597 men were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Each subject was assessed with the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set, Geriatric Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Social engagement was measured with the Index of Social Engagement (ISE), and daytime sleepiness was defined according to the relevant Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subcomponent. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their ISE levels. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the association between ISE and other variables. The sample's mean age was 80.8 ± 5.0 years (range: 65-99 years). Mean ISE score was 1.5 ± 1.3 (range 0-5), with 52% of participants reporting poor social engagement (ISE = 0-1). Mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score was 5.6 ± 3.6 (range: 0-18), and 31% of participants reported daytime sleepiness. The analysis was adjusted for level of depression, cognitive impairment, dependence in activities of daily life, unsettled relationships, and illiteracy. After adjustment, daytime sleepiness was found to be independently associated with subjects' level of social engagement (odds ratio: 2.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.7-3.8; P < 0.001). Daytime sleepiness and poor social engagement are common among aged residents of a veterans' housing facility. Subjects experiencing daytime sleepiness but not poor general sleep quality were at increased risk of poor social engagement. The clinical care of older residents must focus on improving daytime sleepiness to enhance their social engagement.
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During adolescence, changes in sleep patterns due to biological and environmental factors are well documented. Later bedtimes and inadequate sleep, i.e., short and disrupted sleep patterns, insomnia and daytime sleepiness, have become increasingly common. Accumulating evidence suggests that sleep plays a crucial role in healthy adolescent development. This review systematically explores descriptive evidence, based on prospective and cross sectional investigations, indicating that inadequate sleep is associated with negative outcomes in several areas of health and functioning, including somatic and psychosocial health, school performance and risk taking behavior. Findings highlight the need for longitudinal investigations aimed at establishing the underpinnings of these associations and for developing and implementing interventions designed to achieve healthier and more balanced sleep patterns in the adolescent population.
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To determine whether sleep deprivation would affect the discounting of delayed rewards, of rewards entailing the expense of effort, or both. We measured rates of two types of reward discounting under conditions of rested wakefulness (RW) and sleep deprivation (SD). Delay discounting was defined as the willingness to accept smaller monetary rewards sooner rather than larger monetary rewards later. Effort discounting was defined as the willingness to accept smaller rewards that require less effort to obtain (e.g., typing a small number of letter strings backward) over larger but more effortful rewards (e.g., typing more letter strings to receive the reward). The first two experiments used a crossover design in which one session was conducted after a normal night of sleep (RW), and the other after a night without sleep (SD). The first experiment evaluated only temporal discounting whereas the second evaluated temporal and effort discounting. In the second experiment, the discounting tasks were repeatedly administered prior to the state comparisons to minimize the effects of order and/or repeated testing. In a third experiment, participants were studied only once in a between-subject evaluation of discounting across states. The study took place in a research laboratory. Seventy-seven healthy young adult participants: 20 in Experiment 1, 27 in Experiment 2, and 30 in Experiment 3. N/A. Sleep deprivation elicited increased effort discounting but did not affect delay discounting. The dissociable effects of sleep deprivation on two forms of discounting behavior suggest that they may have differing underlying neural mechanisms. CITATION: Libedinsky C; Massar SAA; Ling A; Chee W; Huettel SA; Chee MWL. Sleep deprivation alters effort discounting but not delay discounting of monetary rewards. SLEEP 2013;36(6):899-904.
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Sleep debt reportedly increases emotional instability, such as anxiety and confusion, in addition to sleepiness and psychomotor impairment. However, the neural basis of emotional instability due to sleep debt has yet to be elucidated. This study investigated changes in emotional responses that are elicited by the simulation of short-term sleep loss and the brain regions responsible for these changes. Fourteen healthy adult men aged 24.1±3.3 years (range, 20-32 years) participated in a within-subject crossover study consisting of 5-day sessions of both sleep debt (4 h for time in bed) and sleep control (8 h for time in bed). On the last day of each session, participants underwent polysomnography and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Profile of Mood States questionnaires. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while performing an emotional face viewing task. Restricted sleep over the 5-day period increased the activity of the left amygdala in response to the facial expression of fear, whereas a happy facial expression did not change the activity. Restricted sleep also resulted in a significant decrease in the functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) in proportion to the degree of sleep debt (as indicated by the percentage of slow wave sleep and δ wave power). This decrease was significantly correlated with activation of the left amygdala and deterioration of subjective mood state. The results of this study suggest that continuous and accumulating sleep debt that can be experienced in everyday life can downregulate the functional suppression of the amygdala by the vACC and consequently enhance the response of the amygdala to negative emotional stimuli. Such functional alteration in emotional control may, in part, be attributed to the neural basis of emotional instability during sleep debt.
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There is growing evidence that social rhythms (e.g., daily activities such as getting into or out of bed, eating, and adhering to a work schedule) have important implications for sleep. The present study used a prospective measure of daily activities to assess the relation between sleep and social rhythms. College students (n = 243) 18 to 39 yrs of age, completed the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM) each day for 14 d and then completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The sample was divided into groups of good or poor sleepers, according to a PSQI cut-off score of 5 points and was compared on the regularity, frequency, timing, and extent of social engagement during activities. There was a lower frequency and less regularity of social rhythms in poor sleepers relative to good sleepers. Good sleepers engaged more regularly in activities with active social engagement. Earlier rise time, first consumption of a beverage, going outdoors for the first time, and bedtime were associated with better sleep. Greater variability in rise time, consuming a morning beverage, returning home for the last time, and bedtime were associated with more disturbed sleep. The results are consistent with previous findings of reduced regularity in bedtime and rise time schedules in undergraduates, other age groups, and in clinical populations. Results augment the current thought that regulating behavioral zeitgebers may be important in influencing bed and rise times, and suggest that engaging in activities with other people may increase regularity.
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The causes of workplace deviance are of increasing interest to organizations. We integrate psychological and neurocognitive perspectives to examine the effects of sleep deprivation on workplace deviance. Utilizing self-regulatory resource theories, we argue that sleep deprivation decreases individuals' self-control while increasing hostility, resulting in increased workplace deviance. We test our hypotheses using two samples: one comprised of nurses from a large medical center and another comprised of undergraduate students participating in a lab study. Results from both samples largely converge in supporting our hypotheses.
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