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Coreless Winding and Assembled Core – Novel fabrication approaches for FRP based components in building construction

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... Metal liners used to manufacture pressure vessels are especially important when more volatile media such as hydrogen are contained. [23] Removable cores are applied using different methods: cores can be F I G U R E 1 Manufacturing processes for products made of continuous rovings adapted from May et al. [18] F I G U R E 2 Schematic of standard filament winding machine tool adapted from Groover et al. [20] water-soluble, [24] inflatable elastomer, [25] and foam cores, [26,27] as well as cores that can be disassembled. [28] A water-soluble winding core is made of a sand/binder combination, eutectic metals, or salts, that can be dissolved after curing. ...
... In terms of mechanical advantages, concrete absorbs compressive forces, and the FRPC framework absorbs tensile forces. [26] ...
... Filament winding is a manufacturing technique that is highly automated with considerably high repeatability and low material costs. [78] The process also has low programming costs, as the principle in which rovings are applied to the winding core is simple compared to processes, such as coreless wet filament winding and F I G U R E 8 Isogrid pattern, anisogrid structure, [67] manufacturing of Isogrid structure via robotic filament winding, [70] and Isogrid product by Circomp [71] F I G U R E 9 Structural component manufacturing process and a concrete bench, produced with such components [26] additive manufacturing processes. [79,80] However, filament winding has a relatively low process speed when compared to other processes such as pultrusion. ...
Article
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The demand for products made of fiber‐reinforced polymer composites (FRPC) is constantly growing. These lightweight products are characterized by high stiffness, high tensile strength, and high service life. FRPC processes that employ thermoset‐impregnated continuous rovings are easily automated and provide the products with the highest unidirectional tensile strength. A critical disadvantage of continuous fiber‐reinforced polymers is caused by relatively high production costs. Among others, three main factors contribute to these production costs: (1) material costs, especially when carbon fibers are used, (2) costs for manufacturing semi‐finished products, such as textiles or preimpregnated fabrics, and (3) costs for waste occurring along the entire chain of process steps. In this context, one group of processes shows outstanding characteristics: processes in which rovings are in situ impregnated with a thermoset resin and then directly processed. Wet filament winding and pultrusion are the most popular but not the only representatives of this group. For all these processes, in situ impregnation is the key element, and various technologies have been developed for this purpose, each with its own unique fluid‐mechanical effects on rovings. A fundamental understanding of these effects is crucial to achieve products of the utmost quality. The paper at hand provides an overview of manufacturing processes that employ in situ impregnation of continuous rovings, specifically focusing on impregnation technologies. On this basis, phenomenological models describing the effects on the rovings during processing (impregnation, tension, and spreading) are reviewed. Review on the state of the art of processing continuous filament bundles impregnated with thermoset resins
... Coreless filament winding (CFW) is an emerging composite manufacturing process that has not yet reached its full potential for high-performing and efficient structures due to limiting software design tools. In CFW [9][10][11][12], a roving is spanned freely between point-like anchors to additively manufacture a component, such as lattices [13,14] or shells [15,16]. The constantly tensioned [17] fiber strand is usually impregnated online [18] with a thermoset resin in a bath or by an end-effector [19]. ...
... self set_roving_area sets the cross-sectional area in mm 2 of a dry roving by filament number or linear density self set_sleeve_points sets the in and out points of a node with given sleeve parameters self set_syntax sets the syntax of the winding object self set_test_parameters sets the parameters of the mechanical test or overrides them self set_tool sets the winding tool based on the tool catalog of the class self set_unit sets the unit of length for the node coordinates self simple_angle returns the included angle at the left node of a list of three nodes self simple_distance returns the Euclidean distance between two nodes cls tabulate_objects returns a table of selected parameters of all winding objects of the class cls tabulate_pyrolysis returns a table of selected parameters of all pyrolysis measurements of the class cls timer_return prints a timer cls timer_start starts a timer cls timer_stop stops a timer self walk sets a path based on the graph and the selected method of traveling static water_density returns the density of water depending on the water temperature self xyz_pos returns the x, y, and z coordinates of a node or position * Method types are indicated as follows: depended on the object (self), depending on the class (cls), and static methods (static). 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20 ...
... 3D visualization of the fiber-composite structure of the case study. (a) Grouped nodes (color-coded by winding pin type: single-arm (green), 2-arm (blue), 3-arm (red), 4-arm (orange), single-arm pin with secondary mounting point (purple)), control points without winding pins (grey), and graph; (b) Fiber distribution after the first stage; (c) Fiber distribution after the second stage; (d) Fiber distribution after the third stage; (e) Exemplary framework analysis: nodes 62-65 are loaded, whereas nodes 1,[9][10][11]19, and 20 are fixed. ...
Article
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Additive manufacturing processes, such as coreless filament winding with fiber composites or laser powder bed fusion with metals, can produce lightweight structures while exhibiting process-specific characteristics. Those features must be accounted for to successfully combine multiple processes and materials. This hybrid approach can merge the different benefits to realize mass savings in load-bearing structures with high mass-specific stiffnesses, strict geometrical tolerances, and machinability. In this study, a digital tool for coreless filament winding was developed to support all project phases by natively capturing the process-specific characteristics. As a demonstration, an aluminum base plate was stiffened by a coreless wound fiber-composite structure, which was attached by additively manufactured metallic winding pins. The geometrical deviations and surface roughness of the pins were investigated to describe the interface. The concept of multi-stage winding was introduced to reduce fiber–fiber interaction. The demonstration example exhibited an increase in mass-specific component stiffness by a factor of 2.5 with only 1/5 of the mass of a state-of-the-art reference. The hybrid design approach holds great potential to increase performance if process-specific features, interfaces, material interaction, and processes interdependencies are aligned during the digitized design phase.
... Synclastic surfaces are generated to connect the segments. The geometry of the assembled core is derived from windable fibre angles [12]. The laminate completely covers the core after winding. ...
... Components need to be divided and the temporary geometry is Fig. 1. Assembled core generation process and postprocessing as shown in [12]. generated accordingly (stage I). ...
Article
The multi-stage filament winding (MSFW) method enables the sustainable production of lightweight fibre composites with complex geometries. Double curved components, even with undercuts, are analysed and concave areas which are not suitable for filament winding are replaced by convex temporary geometries. Permanent and temporary mandrel parts are combined for the stage-based fabrication method. The sand composites developed for MSFW mandrels can be washed out using water. The sand can be reused. This paper introduces the fabrication method, presents the status of the research, and focuses on the geometry generation algorithm of the integrative design process.
... The winding pattern plays an important role in determining the mechanical behavior of the component [46,47]. To obtain a required layup thickness suitable winding patterns must be selected. ...
... Moreover, producing low-cost, reusable or multifunctional mandrels can drastically reduce the manufacturing cost of parts in filament winding, e.g. collapsible, core-less, water-soluble sand or segmented mandrels [6,47,82]. ...
Article
Filament winding is a well-established process to manufacture composite parts. With the advancement of automation and process control technologies, the winding of dry fibers to manufacture a preform for liquid composite molding (LCM) processes is feasible. This study presents an overview of dry fiber winding and explains the most important process aspects. It addresses the application of differential geometry to the winding technique. The formulation of geodesic and non-geodesic equations and their solution is discussed. Besides, non-analytical methods to generate winding trajectories are introduced. The influence of the friction coefficient on process-related parameters is covered. Considering technology trends the study gives an overview of developments in winding systems and equipment. Novel research areas can be identified in the development of new path generation methods, considering detailed friction influences. Fiber depositing and guidance systems must also be adapted. Alternations of the process parameters and their influence on subsequent impregnation processes must be investigated.
... Currently polymer composite materials have found the application in construction branch by production of a timbering and fittings for buildings, profiles of various form and crosssections, sandwich panels, elements of bridges, isogrid stiffened structures and difficult architectural objects. [1][2][3]. At the same time winding of thread remains to one of effective ways of manufacturing designs including large-scale objects [3] today. ...
... [1][2][3]. At the same time winding of thread remains to one of effective ways of manufacturing designs including large-scale objects [3] today. The bearing capacity of designs, as we know, is connected with the residual tension which is saved up in a product at manufacturing. ...
Article
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Stress changes generated during the composite winding on the mandrel surface is investigated. A model of liquid binder filtration through the fibrous filler in the form of disc-shaped gap in the structure of the coil-processing material is proposed. An equation, considering the stress decrease occurring in consequence of the coils winding due to binder filtration is suggested. Experimental results of unidirectional rings winding on mandrels studied using strain gages are demonstrated.
... Filament winding technique is an automated composite fabrication process that is generally used to fabricate symmetric composite products, such as tubes, storage tanks, vessels and domes [3][4][5][6][7]. Composite materials are increasingly used in several commercial fields, which involves infrastructure [8], military and defense [9], building and construction [10], automotive transportation [7], wind energy [11], and others [12,13]. Filament winding process is an automated manufacturing method and a low-cost approach, which has a great potential of the composite market for filament-wound composite products. ...
Article
Full-text available
Filament winding process is one of the composite fabrication methods, which has relative lower manufacturing costs, higher efficiency and automation. It is commonly used to manufacture axisymmetric composite products, such as tubes, vessels, and domes, which is mainly used in aerospace, military and defense technology. However, it is a challenging task to fabricate a composite cone structure with the high winding angle through a laboratory-scale 3-axis winding machine. This paper aims to design and fabricate the carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cone tube by using a low-cost filament winding machine. The cone mandrel was designed and prepared using additive printing technique. Dry and wet winding processes were conducted with yarn and 3K carbon fiber tow, respectively. The CFRP cone tube was successfully designed and fabricated with a winding angle of 75.11°±0.12°. It can be concluded that the wet winding process provides better winding quality and higher surface smoothness compared to the dry winding process. Moreover, the compressive modulus was 1.62 GPa, and the maximum compressive stress was 16.29 MPa under quasi-static compression loading.
... Beside composite preforms, braiding has been investigated for soft-body manipulators [10], [11] and locomotion [12], [13]. In onsite construction robotics, there has been a recent surge in research of fibre placement methods, including wound fibre composites [14] and knit concrete formwork [15]. Machinery for braid manufacturing has a long history of development, recently privileging rapid reconfigurability, with newer solutions proposing mobile carrier devices [16] that resemble multi-robot systems. ...
Conference Paper
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Using multi-robot systems for autonomous construction allows for parallelization and scalability. In swarm construction we tend to go one step further as we exploit intensive robot interactions and collaboration such that the robot swarm collectively constructs artifacts beyond what a single robot could achieve. Here we present an alternative concept of swarm construction that is different because we use continuous building material. Our approach is unique in using braiding techniques for construction. We deploy fibres that potentially allow for much more diverse structures than what is possible using building blocks. To achieve maximal scalability we restrict ourselves to a decentralized approach. The main challenges are the local coordination of the robot teams, self-organized task allocation, and the dynamic reconfiguration of the braiding scheme at runtime. We successfully validate our approach in multi-robot experiments that show both braiding and branching of the braid. In addition, we show options for implementing an open system---that is robots can join and leave the braiding process on the fly.
... The high workability of timber and high flexibility of FRP fibres make both materials particularly well-suited for the CNC manufacturing processes. As such, they are popular materials in digital fabrication literature, with many innovative manufacturing approaches proposed for both [15][16][17][18][19]. For timber manufacturing, the primary digital fabrication strategy is to employ highly accurate integral connections, capable of embedding connection features directly within fabricated parts to eliminate the need for additional fixings [17]. ...
Article
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Concrete-timber composite floor systems have become increasingly popular due to their high sustainability and ease of construction. This paper presents a novel lightweight concrete-timber floor panel system with a fibre reinforced polymer-timber waffle-shaped core between the concrete and timber layers. Digital fabrication techniques and computer-numerical control machines were used in the core component fabrication, resulting in ease of fabrication, high accuracy, and streamlined manufacture process. Four 2.25 m span floor panels were manufactured and tested under four-point bending to investigate their flexural behaviour. Results show that the proposed system has an excellent flexural capacity, and demonstrated a high ductility before ultimate failure. Comparison shows the proposed system outperformed the equivalent reinforced concrete and hybrid timber-concrete panels regarding weight specific moment capacity. The consistent flexural behaviour of the tested specimens also proved the effective quality control from CNC manufacturing.
... Though, many studies have been reported on FWM [22][23][24], yet, there is still need to address some of the recent developments. In this route, an innovative fabrication processes called coreless and assembled windings have been successfully experimented for a few case studies in the field of construction building and materials [25]. From the FWM advancement point of view, the use of modern technology, such as computational tools and adaptive winding frame can effectively overcome the constrained of precise changing of winding angle in FWM. ...
Article
The main aim of this review article was to address the performance of filament wound fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite pipes and their critical properties, such as burst, buckling, durability and corrosion. The importance of process parameters concerning merits and demerits of the manufacturing methods was discussed for the better-quality performance. Burst analysis revealed that the winding angle of ±55° was observed to be optimum with minimum failure mechanisms, such as matrix cracking, whitening, leakage and fracture. The reduction of buckling effect was reported in case of lower hoop stress value in the hoop to axial stress ratio against axial, compression and torsion. A significant improvement in energy absorption was observed in the hybrid composite pipes with the effect of thermal treatment. However, the varying winding angle in FRP pipe fabrication was reported as an influencing factor affecting all the aforementioned properties. Almost 90% of the reviewed studies was done using E-glass/epoxy materials for the composite pipe production. By overcoming associated limitations, such as replacing synthetic materials, designing new material combinations and cost-benefit analysis, the production cost of the lightweight FRP composite pipes can be decreased for the real-time applications.
... Filament winding technique is an automated composite fabrication process that is generally used to fabricate symmetric composite products, such as tubes, storage tanks, vessels and domes [3][4][5][6][7]. Composite materials are increasingly used in several commercial fields, which involves infrastructure [8], military and defense [9], building and construction [10], automotive transportation [7], wind energy [11], and others [12,13]. Filament winding process is an automated manufacturing method and a low-cost approach, which has a great potential of the composite market for filament-wound composite products. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Filament winding process is one of the composite fabrication methods, which has relative lower manufacturing costs, higher efficiency and automation. It is commonly used to manufacture axisymmetric composite products, such as tubes, vessels, and domes, which is mainly used in aerospace, military and defense technology. However, it is a challenging task to fabricate a composite cone structure with the high winding angle through a laboratory-scale 3-axis winding machine. This paper aims to design and fabricate the carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) cone tube by using a low-cost filament winding machine. The cone mandrel was designed and prepared using additive printing technique. Dry and wet winding processes were conducted with yarn and 3K carbon fiber tow, respectively. The CFRP cone tube was successfully designed and fabricated with a winding angle of 75.11°±0.12°. It can be concluded that the wet winding process provides better winding quality and higher surface smoothness compared to the dry winding process. Moreover, the compressive modulus was 1.62 GPa, and the maximum compressive stress was 16.29 MPa under quasi-static compression loading.
... The BUGA (Bundesgartenschau) Fibre pavilion is the latest in a series of collaborative research projects between the two institutes at the University of Stuttgart; the Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE). The research aim is to generate lightweight lattice composite structures through the process of robotic coreless filament winding as described by La Magna et al. 3 and Reichert et al. 4 This technique allows the placement of fibre filaments between scaffold frames without the geometric limitation of a core. The shape of the structure gradually emerges from the interaction of these freely spanning fibres as they are progressively hooked by a robotic arm around winding anchor pins at the scaffold frames. ...
Article
The BUGA fibre pavilion built in April 2019 at the Bundesgartenschau in Heilbronn, Germany, is the most recent coreless fibre winding research pavilion developed from the collaboration between ICD/ITKE at the University of Stuttgart. The research goal is to create lightweight and high-performance lattice composite structures through robotic fabrication. The pavilion is composed of 60 carbon and glass fibre components, and is covered by a prestressed ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) membrane. Each of the components is hollow in section and bone-like in shape. They are joined through steel connectors at the intersecting nodes where the membrane is also supported through steel poles. The components are fabricated by coreless filament winding (CFW), a technique where fibre filaments impregnated with resin are wound freely between two rotating scaffolds by a robotic arm. This novel structural system constitutes a challenge for the designer when proving and documenting the load-carrying capacity of the design. This paper outlines and elaborates on the core methods and workflows followed for the structural design, optimization and detailing of the BUGA fibre pavilion.
... The fibers are impregnated with a thermosetting resin before or during the winding session and the winding session includes the execution of the winding plan. The component shape is not defined by a mold surface [11] but by the interaction of the fibers and the sequence in which the roving Materials 2022, 15 connects the anchors, called the winding syntax. Once the component is wound, it needs to be cured in an oven to achieve its final mechanical properties. ...
Article
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Coreless filament winding is an emerging fabrication technology in the field of building construction with the potential to significantly decrease construction material consumption, while being fully automatable. Therefore, this technology could offer a solution to the increasing worldwide demand for building floor space in the next decades by optimizing and reducing the material usage. Current research focuses mainly on the design and engineering aspects while using carbon and glass fibers with epoxy resin; however, in order to move towards more sustainable structures, other fiber and resin material systems should also be assessed. This study integrates a selection of potential alternative fibers into the coreless filament winding process by adapting the fabrication equipment and process. A bio-based epoxy resin was introduced and compared to a conventional petroleum-based one. Generic coreless wound components were created for evaluating the fabrication suitability of selected alternative fibers. Four-point bending tests were performed for assessing the structural performance in relation to the sustainability of twelve alternative fibers and two resins. In this study, embodied energy and global warming potential from the literature were used as life-cycle assessment indexes to compare the material systems. Among the investigated fibers, flax showed the highest potential while bio-based resins are advisable at low fiber volume ratios.
... In recent research [25][26][27] on RCFW, the effectiveness of the frame was successively improved to decrease tooling costs and increase the adaptivity of the building system. As a by-product, composite structures are increasingly form-defined by fiber-fiber interactions; thus, any geometrical simulation of the composite requires knowledge about the induced fiber tension. ...
Article
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The manufacturing process of robotic coreless filament winding has great potential for efficient material usage and automation for long-span lightweight construction applications. Design methods and quality control rely on an adequate digital representation of the fabrication parameters. The most influencing parameters are related to the resin impregnation of the fibers and the applied fiber tension during winding. The end-effector developed in this study allows efficient resin impregnation, which is controlled online by monitoring the induced fiber tension. The textile equipment was fully integrated into an upscaled nine-axis robotic winding setup. The cyber-physical fabrication method was verified with an application-oriented large-scale proof-of-concept demonstrator. From the subsequent analysis of the obtained datasets, a characteristic pattern in the winding process parameters was identified.
... The simulation described in detail by La Magna et al. 11 served as a proper means to define the winding pattern and to identify critical areas of loosening and over-tensioning of the fibers, but it did not allow for a reliable evaluation of the integrity of the final composite structure. In the context of practice, this is often the end of the idea; risk is avoided at the peril of innovation. ...
Article
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Computational design and fabrication are at the focus of advanced practice and research in architecture. They allow for local differentiation of building components that enable buildings that were unthinkable a few years earlier. However, to fully exploit the potential of computational fabrication, a new paradigm in engineering is necessary. Today, the quantitative prediction of integrity by calculation of stresses and deformations is conceived as an indispensable prerequisite for any building construction. However, each simulation is only valid within certain boundary conditions, often not able to cope with advanced material systems. This paper discusses the need for alternative engineering strategies including integrated monitoring and physical testing in the design process to overcome the limitations of simulation.
... Ce type de procédé a récemment été mis au point pour le renforcement de pièces imprimés en thermoplastique par la technologie FDM [YTL + 17]. Il existe aussi des technologies de fabrication additive par applications successives de bandes de composite pré-imprégnées [LMWK16]. Concernant l'extrusion robotisée de béton, nous avons vu que les premières tentatives de renforcement continu ont étudié la possibilité d'ajouter continument un toron ou une chaine métallique lors de l'extrusion du boudin de béton [BAJS17]. ...
Thesis
This work focuses on the reinforcement strategies for large scale additive manufacturing of cementitious materials. This new process allows an important geometrical complexity for constructive elements, generally consuming a lot of material and human resources. In addition, it makes it theoretically possible to industrialize the manufacture of singular constructive elements, for example optimized to meet a given mechanical load. However, there is currently no standardized reinforcement method for obtaining the tensile strength and ductility required for their use in building structures. This severely limits their use in practice.While many reinforcement methods are considered in the literature for the 3D-printed cementitious materials, they are a direct transcription of the traditional reinforcement methods such as fibre-reinforced concrete, passive reinforcement and post-tension method. This thesis work proposes an alternative reinforcement process, patented during this thesis work, which takes advantage of the specificity of the extrusion process. Many continuous reinforcements can be inserted before the extrusion die and driven by the flow of the cementitious material, the latter providing the force necessary for the unwinding of each individual continuous reinforcements. The extruded material is then a unidirectional cementitious matrix composite reinforced by many continuous fibers aligned in the direction of the printing path.This work then defines the specifications of the process in terms of rheological properties of the cementitious matrix at the time of deposition and the type of reinforcement to be preferred, allowing good cohesion between the reinforcements and the cementitious matrix necessary for the development of a significant tensile reinforcement. The mechanical behaviour of the interface is also precisely studied thanks to the development of dedicated micromechanical tests and the observation of the damage by X-ray microtomography. The perspectives of this work are the characterization and multi-scale modeling of the behavior of the cementitious matrix composite and the proposal of innovative constructive systems
... Intending to introduce a new fabrication method tailored for architectural applications, the Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) at the University of Stuttgart, Germany, developed a novel technique called Coreless Filament Winding (CFW) in 2012. This fabrication method modifies conventional filament winding to replace the core with the minimum scaffold necessary to wind freely spanning and create the desired geometry [3]. Studies have proved that filament winding is a fast and economical fabrication method compared to other conventional methods [4]. ...
Article
The BUGA Fibre Pavilion was built in 2019 in the Bundesgartenschau (National Gardening exhibition) at Heilbronn, Germany. The pavilion consists of modular fibre-polymer composite components made out of glass and carbon fibres with an epoxy resin matrix. The fabrication technique employed, called coreless filament winding (CFW), is a variant from conventional filament winding where the core is reduced to minimum frame support. The fibres are wound between these frames, freely spanning and creating the resulting geometry through fibre interaction. For the structural design of these components, conventional modelling and engineering methods were not sufficient as the system cannot be adequately characterized in the early stage. Therefore, a more experimental design approach is proposed for the BUGA Fibre Pavilion, where different levels of detailing and abstraction in the FE simulations are combined with prototyping and structural testing. This paper shows the procedure followed for the design and validation of the structural fibre components. In this process, the simulations are used as a design tool rather than a way to predict failure, while mechanical testing served for the verification and validation of the structural capacity.
... Different approaches have been investigated and used for the structural design of CFW structures. For instance, various modelling techniques, including beam and shell elements, can be suitable to describe the composite structural behaviour [11,17,18]. The structural methods and simulation techniques need to be adapted to the requirements of the structural typology and be flexible enough to give structural feedback at different design stages. ...
Article
Coreless filament winding is a robotic fabrication technique in which conventional filament winding is modified to reduce the core material to its minimum. This method was showcased and developed through a series of pavilions demonstrating its potential to create lightweight structures. The latest project, Maison Fibre, goes one step further and adapts the fabrication into a hybrid structure combining fibre-polymer composites (FPC) with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) to allow for walkability. The result is the first multi-storey building system fabricated with this novel technique. During the integrative design process of the slab system, the optimum fibre layup was negotiated between the timber support span, load induction, boundary conditions, and material amount required. A total of four iterations of the hybrid component were load tested and compared with the maximum enveloped forces resulting from the global structural simulation. The full-scale load tests were used to calibrate the refined structural simulation of the slab components. The experimental process allowed for material reduction and validated the structural system's capability to withstand the design forces. In addition, the fibre layup was tailored and load adapted for the non-tested wall and slab components of the installation using the test results and achieving further material optimisation. This publication describes the integrative design process of the hybrid slab system from initial concepts to the iterative optimisation of the structural system, demonstrating its potential for future applications.
... This robotic fabrication technique modifies stateof-the-art filament winding by reducing the core material to its minimum, creating architectural components. CFW aims for an alternative fabrication method in architecture that produces less waste material during manufacturing [9] and, at the same time, creates geometries inspired by natural fibrous systems' biomimetic principles [10]. The design process of CFW structures requires an integrated approach of computational design, simulation and fabrication methods [11]. ...
... CFRP's ability to effortlessly vary density, patterning and overall shape allows for the creation of forms, efficiencies and visual/tactile qualities that were previously impossible to achieve through traditional materials and processes. Additionally, the introduction of robotic coreless FRP winding has removed previous constraints requiring time-and money-intensive formwork that limit design freedom while creating vast amounts of waste (La Magna, et al 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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The introduction of lightweight Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) based systems into the discipline of architecture and design has created new opportunities for form, fabrication method-ologies and material efficiencies that were previously difficult if not impossible to achieve through the utilization of traditional standardized building materials. No longer constrained by predefined material shapes, nominal dimensions, and conventional construction techniques, individual building components or entire structures can now be fabricated from a single continuous material through a means that best accomplishes the desired formal and structural objectives while creating minimal amounts of construction waste and disposable formwork. This paper investigates the design, fabrication and structural potentials of wound, pre-impregnated CFRP composites in architectural-scale applications through the lens of numeric and craft based composite winding implemented in two unique research projects (rolyPOLY + Cloud Magnet). Fitting into the larger research agenda for the CFRP-based robotic housing prototype currently underway in the " One Day House " initiative, these two projects also function as a proof of concept for CFRP monocoque and gridshell based structural systems. Through a rigorous investigation of these case studies, this paper strives to answer several questions about the integration of pre-impregnated CFRP in future full-scale interventions: What form-finding methodologies lend themselves to working with CFRP? What are the advantages and disadvantages of working with pre-impregnated CFRP tow in large-scale applications? What are efficient methods for the placement of CFRP fiber on-site? As well as how scalable is CFRP? 327 PROGRAMMABLE MATTER
... This robotic fabrication technique modifies stateof-the-art filament winding by reducing the core material to its minimum, creating architectural components. CFW aims for an alternative fabrication method in architecture that produces less waste material during manufacturing [9] and, at the same time, creates geometries inspired by natural fibrous systems' biomimetic principles [10]. The design process of CFW structures requires an integrated approach of computational design, simulation and fabrication methods [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coreless filament winding (CFW) is a novel fabrication technique that utilises fibre-polymer composite materials to efficiently produce filament wound structures in architecture while reducing manufacturing waste. Previous projects have been successfully built with glass and carbon fibre, proving their potential for lightweight construction systems. However, in order to move towards more sustainable architecture, it is crucial to consider replacing carbon fibre’s high environmental impact with other material systems, such as natural fibre. This paper evaluates several fibres, resin systems, and their required CFW fabrication adjustments towards designing and fabricating a bio-composite structure: the LivMatS Pavilion. The methods integrate structural design loops with material evaluation and characterisation, including small-scale and large-scale structural testing at progressive stages. The results demonstrate the interactive decision-making process that combines material characterisation with structural simulation feedback, leveraged to evaluate and optimise the structural design. The built pavilion is proof of the first successful coreless filament wound sustainable natural fibres design, and the developed methods and findings open up further research directions for future applications.
... In lightweight applications, designers strive to minimize mass and optimize component geometry to fully utilize the deployed material [1]. The manufacturing process of coreless filament winding (CFW) is ideal for the automated [2] and digitalized [3] fabrication of components such as shells [4] or lattices [5] on different scales [6,7] and for various industries [8,9]. A manipulator [10] spans fiber bundles impregnated [11] online with a thermosetting resin around spatially arranged anchors [12]. ...
Article
Fiber-reinforced composite structures manufactured by coreless filament winding (CFW) are adaptable to the individual load case and offer high, mass-specific mechanical performance. However, relatively high safety factors must be applied due to the large deviations in the structural parameters. An improved understanding of the structural behavior is needed to reduce those factors, which can be obtained by utilizing an integrated fiber-optical sensor. The described methods take advantage of the high spatial resolution of a sensor system operating by the Rayleigh backscatter principle. The entire strain fields of several generic CFW samples were measured in various load scenarios, visualized in their spatial contexts, and analyzed by FEM-assisted methods. The structural response was statistically described and compared with the ideal load distribution to iteratively derive the actual load introduction and prove the importance of the sensor integration. The paper describes methods for the sensor implementation, interpretation and the calibration of structural data.
... Conventionally double curved composites are manufactured through manual lamination onto CNC-milled expanded polystyrene molds. This entails a vast amount of waste, technology and labor [1]. Consequently, this mold process is more suitable for mass production, rather than for individualized designs as are common in the field of avant-garde architecture. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents a design to fabrication framework for the mold-less construction of double curved composite lattice surfaces based on inherent material behavior. Fiber reinforced composite strands are sewn onto a flat prestressed high-strain membrane with the tailored fiber placement technique. Through the prestress release the contracting membrane actuates active bending of the composite elements, thus the system self-forms into an anticipated double curved geometry. Its geometric outcome is tailored by the stiffness gradient of the composites. The material system is introduced by the authors with the term membrane-actuated stiffness gradient composites (MASGC). The primary focus of this research is to establish the rules of self-formation on the basis of the system's governing parameters. Therefore, the fundamentals of the generation of synclastic and anticlastic curvatures, as well as combinations of both, from flat fibrous grids are revealed. Simulations with nonlinear finite element methods are deployed for the MASGC's form finding. The resulting understanding leads to the definition of rules for a form approximation process, where the system's input parameters are determined so that the self-formation satisfies an initial design intention. This control enables the exploration of the MASGC's design space. Furthermore, the MASGC's scalability and structural performance is evaluated. The proposed system offers the advantage to build lightweight surfaces of tailored variable double curvatures through rapid digital fabrication and mold-less formation.
Article
Coreless filament winding is a manufacturing process used for fiber-reinforced composites, resulting in high-performance lightweight lattice structures. Load transmission elements, which are assembled from commercially available standardized parts, often restrict the component design. A novel adaptive winding pin was developed, which is made by additive manufacturing and can therefore be adjusted to specific load conditions resulting from its position within the component. This allows to decouple the fiber arrangement from the winding pin orientation, which allows a fully volumetric framework design of components. A predictive model for the pin capacity was derived and experimentality validated. The hooking conditions, pin capacity, and occupancy were considered in the creation of a digital design tool.
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This research demonstrates the development of a hybrid FRP-timber wall and slab system for multi-story structures. Bespoke computational tools and robotic fabrication processes allow for adaptive placement of material according to specific local requirements of the structure thus representing a resource-efficient alternative to established modes of construction. This constitutes a departure from pre-digital, material-intensive building methods, based on isotropic materials towards genuinely digital building systems using lightweight, hybrid composite elements. Design and fabrication methods build upon previous research on lightweight fiber structures conducted at the University of Stuttgart and expand it towards inhabitable, multi-story building systems. Interdisciplinary design collaboration based on reciprocal computational feedback allows for the concurrent consideration of architectural, structural, fabrication and material constraints. The robotic coreless filament winding process only uses minimal, modular formwork and allows for the efficient production of morphologically differentiated building components. The research results were demonstrated through Maison Fibre, developed for the 17th Architecture Biennale in Venice. Situated at the Venice Arsenale, the installation is composed of 30 plate like elements and depicts a modular, further extensible scheme. While this first implementation of a hybrid multi-story building system relies on established glass and carbon fiber composites, the methods can be extended towards a wider range of materials ranging from ultra-high-performance mineral fiber systems to renewable natural fibers.
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The manipulation of weaving as a traditional industrial process as a craft, and as a numerically controlled robotic winding procedure, was examined and evaluated through the construction of an architectural scale monocoque shelter. This wound carbon fiber prototypical structure represents a production method for quick deployment, flexibility in form, and lightness of material. The implications of this case study and its future goals are to be explored in relation to the rapid evolution of robotic fabrication and architectural design while being tested through the traditional craft of hand winding as a direct translation of computational information. The methodology and means in which the results are assessed are presented in this study. What is a related and beneficial by-product is the investigation of uniform and continuous winding that fulfills the technical requirements of monocoque and span, while allowing for additive layers of artistry or optical effects (Fig. 1). The oft-converging fields of craft and technology produce novel methods and tools for design, as technology adapts to unforeseen artistic impulse. Simultaneously, these new methods also require a reevaluation of both how art and architectural projects are evaluated.
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Conference Paper
Full-text available
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The basics of construction with synthetic materials From transparent to translucent – new construction options with a versatile material Whether as translucent tiling, wide-spanning membranes, air-filled foil cushions or in organically curved form: Plastics are used in architecture in the widest variety of forms and application areas. Innovative technical developments constantly improve their material properties. Plastics today are an alternative to be taken seriously in the building trade, whether they are used in the supporting structure, roof, facade or interior furnishings. The 'Construction Manual for Polymers + Membranes' returns to the basics of the series by addressing an individual building material. From the material properties to the requirements for drafting and construction, it encapsulates well-founded and comprehensive expertise in familiar DETAIL quality. Select project examples complete the reference work and make it indispensable for day-to-day planning. Historical development of plastics and membranes in architecture Comprehensive information regarding the basics of manufacturing, processing and application Precise descriptions of materials and semi-finished products Physical-structural properties and environmental effects Form finding and calculation of plastic supporting structures and membranes For the first time a complete overview of the most important details compiled according to the most recent state of the research
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A study has been conducted to estimate the costs of manufacture of a simple component in a number of different composite materials and by different manufacturing routes. The materials and routes selected span the range of composites from those appropriate for general engineering applications to aerospace. A simple methodology is introduced for a comparison on the basis of cost-performance efficiency. It is demonstrated that more economic solutions may often be realised by choice of ‘expensive’ carbon rather than ‘cheaper’ E-glass as the reinforcing fibre.
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Zürich, Eidgenössische Techn. Hochsch., Diss., 1997. Mikrofiche-Ausg.
ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013/14: temporary assembly of FRP components (Photo: ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart)
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Fig. 16. ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013/14: temporary assembly of FRP components (Photo: ICD/ITKE University of Stuttgart).
  • F Waimer
  • R Magna
  • S Reichert
  • T Schwinn
  • A Menges
  • J Knippers
  • Bionisch-Inspirierte Faserverbundstrukturen
F. Waimer, R. La Magna, S. Reichert, T. Schwinn, A. Menges, J. Knippers, Bionisch-inspirierte Faserverbundstrukturen, Bautechnik 90 (12) (2013) 766-771.
Neue Strategien in der Faserwickeltechnik, Dissertation at Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zürich
  • J H Romagna
J.H. Romagna, Neue Strategien in der Faserwickeltechnik, Dissertation at Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zürich, 1997.