In the present article epidemiological data on the most frequently occuring illnesses in children are presented. On the basis of pharmacy prescription data of the Pharmo database, pharmacoepidemiological data of the use of drugs by children are also given. In 1998 40,708 (63%) of 64,881 children were prescribed at least one drug. The prevalence of the use of drugs from the ATC classes antibiotics for systemic use, drugs for the respiratory system and dermatological preparations was highest with 24.1%,24.1% and 20.9%, respectively.The use was lowest for drugs from the classes oncolytics, cardiovascular drugs and gynaecological drugs with 0.08%, 0.7% and 0.9%, respectively. The use of amoxicillin, paracetamol and salbutamol amounted to 16.9%, 12.8% and 4.8%, respectively.