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Multisensory interaction in product choice: Grasping a product affects choice of other seen products

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Abstract

Consumers often touch products before reaching purchase decisions, and indeed touch improves evaluations of the given product. The present research investigates how touching a given product influences perception and choice of other seen products. We show that grasping a source product increases the visual fluency of a haptically similar product, thereby increasing the likelihood of choosing that product, but not the willingness to pay for it (Study 1). We also show that visually crowded rather than sparse product displays increase the effect of touch on choosing other haptically similar products, and that individuals' instrumental need for touch further modulates this effect (Study 2). Our results suggest that by manipulating or mimicking the haptic features (e.g., shape and size) of objects that consumers grasp while shopping, marketers can develop packaging that facilitates consumers' visual processing of their products, thereby increasing choice of those products.

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... The former facilitates multi-sensory perceptions (i.e., can view and touch the apparels) for consumers, while the latter just provides a single sensory perception (online visual images). Sensory imagery (bodily experience) is a source of information on consumer evaluations (Barsalou, 2008;Krishna & Schwarz, 2014); extant studies confirm that a multi-sensory approach generates multiple perceptions for consumers and significantly affects consumers' product evaluation compared to single-sensory stimuli (Cho et al., 2015;Streicher & Estes, 2016). Moreover, haptic perception facilitates the visual processing of products and increases consumers' likelihood of purchasing the product (Streicher & Estes, 2016). ...
... Sensory imagery (bodily experience) is a source of information on consumer evaluations (Barsalou, 2008;Krishna & Schwarz, 2014); extant studies confirm that a multi-sensory approach generates multiple perceptions for consumers and significantly affects consumers' product evaluation compared to single-sensory stimuli (Cho et al., 2015;Streicher & Estes, 2016). Moreover, haptic perception facilitates the visual processing of products and increases consumers' likelihood of purchasing the product (Streicher & Estes, 2016). Following this line of thinking, the authors propose that sensory perception is an important determinant that leads fast fashion consumers to prefer foreign brands. ...
... Extant studies confirm that a multi-sensory approach generates multiple perceptions for consumers and influences brand equity (Cho et al., 2015;Streicher & Estes, 2016). Behavioral evidence strongly supports the importance of other sensory stimuli over than of visual imagery. ...
Article
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The fast fashion phenomenon has revolutionized the apparel industry over the past decade. However, research focused on the implications of brand country-of-origin (brand-COO) and sensory perception for consumer behavior remains scarce. This study draws on construal-level theory and active traits theory to develop and test a framework to identify the boundary conditions of the relationships among brand-COO, sensory perception, and consumer personality characteristics on purchase intentions regarding fast fashion apparel. A 2 (sensory perception: single versus multi-sensory) × 2 (brand-COO: local brand versus foreign brand) between-subjects design was employed using 176 participants. The results demonstrate there are different and separate effects of perceived quality on purchase intentions when exposed to single-sensory versus multi-sensory stimuli, and the haptic perception is an important quality signal for fast fashion apparel, which increases consumers’ purchase intentions for local brands compared to foreign brands. Moreover, the results profile consumer segments based on personality traits for fast fashion retailers. Important managerial implications for fast fashion retailers are also discussed.
... The studies examined focused on the factors that shape consumers' perceptions of the product. Together with the manipulation of taste elements, which are expressed to affect the characteristics of consumers such as quality, taste, and benefit (Litt & Shiv, 2012), the effect of touching a product on the visual functioning of another product (Streicher & Estes, 2016), the harms to be caused by placebo effects in product use, focusing on the importance of psychological effects (Cornil et al., 2017) and community experiences shaping thoughts about product and service quality (Nambisan, & Watt, 2011) had an impact on the perception of the product. ...
... In general, the studies conducted on perception are gathered within the framework of the effects on the product, brand, and experience. In these studies, consumers' perceptions of products (Harris & Bray, 2007;Aydınoğlu & Krishna, 2012;Litt & Shiv, 2012;Estes et al., 2012;Puccinelli et al., 2013;Zwebner et al., 2014;Brasel & Gips, 2014;Semin & Palma, 2014;Moore & Konrath, 2014;Gilbert et al., 2016;Si & Jiang, 2017;Streicher & Estes, 2016;Haws et al., 2017;and Schneider et al, 2020) draw attention. Among these studies, there are studies on cognitive stimuli (Haws et al., 2017;Puccinelli et al., 2013) that examine the effect of prices on product labels as well as sensory stimuli such as visual Aydınoğlu & Krishna, 2012;Puccinelli et al., 2013;Moore & Konrath, 2014;Semin & Palma, 2014;Gilbert et al., 2016) and tactile (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Streicher & Estes, 2016) products. ...
... In these studies, consumers' perceptions of products (Harris & Bray, 2007;Aydınoğlu & Krishna, 2012;Litt & Shiv, 2012;Estes et al., 2012;Puccinelli et al., 2013;Zwebner et al., 2014;Brasel & Gips, 2014;Semin & Palma, 2014;Moore & Konrath, 2014;Gilbert et al., 2016;Si & Jiang, 2017;Streicher & Estes, 2016;Haws et al., 2017;and Schneider et al, 2020) draw attention. Among these studies, there are studies on cognitive stimuli (Haws et al., 2017;Puccinelli et al., 2013) that examine the effect of prices on product labels as well as sensory stimuli such as visual Aydınoğlu & Krishna, 2012;Puccinelli et al., 2013;Moore & Konrath, 2014;Semin & Palma, 2014;Gilbert et al., 2016) and tactile (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Streicher & Estes, 2016) products. ...
... Marketing research has for a long time considered and used various visual and tactile cues in different contexts (Littel and Orth, 2013;Spence et al., 2004;Streicher and Estes, 2016), such as modifying light, hue, shape, temperature or texture of brands, products and servicescapes to influence emotional and behavioral responses (Chebat and Morrin, 2007;Custers et al., 2010;Klatzky and Peck, 2012;Reimann et al., 2010;Williams and Bargh, 2008). In the marketing domain, these responses vary from enhanced brand experience to faster reaction times (Klatzky et al., 1993;Littel and Orth, 2013). ...
... However, consumers undoubtedly perceive the world as multisensory (Spence et al., 2014) and the interplay between senses and cues has evidently shown to be more complex and contextual than initially believed (Howes and Classen, 2013). Although the multisensory interplay between various senses has been explored in different contexts , the importance of visual-haptic interplay remains the most personal and crucial for experiential based consumption and marketing (Streicher and Estes, 2016). Moreover, research shows that adding several senses into an offering leads to more sensory information for perception (Marks, 2014), evokes stronger experiences and better evaluations, thus becoming of importance for managers to consider the interplay of sensory cues in branding, product design and design of servicescapes (Helmefalk and Hultén, 2017;Krishna, 2013;Spangenberg et al., 2006). ...
... Although prior literature, most often in psychology (Spence and Gallace, 2011), highlights evident effects of the interplay between visual and tactile cues and illuminates the importance of the cross-modal interaction (Streicher and Estes, 2016), research so far has been disjointed. It covers many different aspects of consumer behavior in different contexts. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework of visual-tactile interplay and consumer responses in brand, product and servicescape contexts. Design/methodology/approach This paper performs a literature review of visual-tactile interplay by reviewing prior research in marketing and psychology. Findings The review reveals that visual-tactile interplay provokes various consumer responses depending on whether brands, products or servicescapes are used. The paper develops a comprehensive conceptual framework mapping out visual-tactile interplay and the relationship with consumers’ cognition, emotions and behaviors. Research limitations/implications A conceptual model was developed with a novel view on how visual and tactile cues can together influence consumer responses. Practical implications This paper shows how visual-tactile interplay is successful in brand, product and servicescape contexts and provides practical insight for firms into how to provoke consumers’ cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses. Originality/value This paper contributes to existing literature by developing a conceptual framework and model of visual-tactile interplay and consumer responses by drawing on research in marketing and psychology.
... Prior research has shown that sensorimotor experiences (including hand movements) can affect attitudes by activating heuristics (e.g., Labroo & Nielsen, 2010), visual fluency (Streicher & Estes, 2016), positive affect, and engagement (Chung et al., 2018), emotional attachment (Hadi & Valenzuela, 2014), and feeling-based dispositions (Kwon & Adaval, 2017). This study stream, although rich in empirical evidence, has studied the effect of self-experienced hand movements and different touch interfaces. ...
... Prior research suggests that bodily states, movements, and sensations spontaneously activate past experiences and influence attitudes (Barsalou, 1999(Barsalou, , 2008. Prior work has delved with personal and vividly simulated experiences and manipulated the direction of the motoric action (e.g., Cacioppo et al., 1993;Hadi & Valenzuela, 2014;Kwon & Adaval, 2017;Streicher & Estes, 2016). For example, Kwon and Adaval (2017) showed that the motoric act of moving one's hand against the flow (e.g., stroking a fur from right-to-left) increased the preference for normatively less preferred products. ...
Article
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Merely observing the hand movement speed with an advertised product can affect consumer perception. Five studies show that hand movement speed when observed (e.g., watching or even reading the description of slow vs. fast hand interaction with a product) elicits distinct associations in the consumer's mind and affects their responses. We suggest that people implicitly associate speedy movements with a more masculine (than feminine) behavior and use hand movement speed as an input to form evaluations of a touched product. Additionally, we demonstrate that consumers elicit higher product preference when their associations from observed hand movement speed match their own social identity. Thus, female (than male) consumers would prefer an advertised product that is depicted with a gentle (instead of speedy) hand movement-as such observed movement makes, both, the product, and the action-performer be perceived as more feminine. We find support for these effects across different product and advertising contexts. Our findings provide novel evidence on the effect of observed and described hand movements as a signal of gender identity and have significant implications for advertising.
... The general research trend has shifted from exploring single senses to addressing cross-modal integration and determining how to create sensory-congruent store environments. Perception is largely holistic, through all senses, and therefore it is not surprising that multisensory marketing communications affect product choices (Streicher and Estes 2016), emotions (Mattila and Wirtz 2001), and sales (Baker, Levy, and Grewal 1992), beyond the effect of each individual sense . Store environments need to ensure a congruent and harmonious interplay of their sensory elements to create a pleasant environment and a rich shopping experience for customers. ...
... Congruency between the proximity of the imagined sense and other dimensions of psychological distance then can determine product attitudes and the perceived usefulness of reviews (Elder et al. 2017). According to Streicher and Estes (2016), when the shape of a product in an advertisement matches haptic information obtained from grasping a similarly shaped object, visual fluency, and product choice increase. Thus, retailers need to ensure that sensory inputs are congruent on a multitude of levels, including temperature, distance, and shape. ...
Chapter
To remain competitive, brick-and-mortar retailers need to create unique, engaging in-store experiences, such that they evolve from simply competing at a merchandise level and ensure holistic retail experiences that encourage customers to keep coming back. In this chapter, we examine how the five sensory components – vision, audition, olfaction, touch, and taste – can enhance customer engagement in the pre-purchase and purchase stages. This chapter reviews research that demonstrates how pre-purchase- and purchase-stage sensory touchpoints impact customer engagement.
... Sensory dimension of customer service experiences When studying a concept as complex and interwoven as senses, it is essential to increase the understanding of the sensory phenomena and what "sensory" constitutes, exactly. Consumer behavior, psychology and neuroscience research have studied senses extensively (Driver and Spence, 2000;Streicher and Estes, 2016;Sunderland et al., 2012). To derive a common understanding of what senses and sensory perception entail, this article therefore first draws on well-established research beyond services literature. ...
... person with impairment or CSE context with sense restriction) be compensated by other senses? Anderson and Ostrom (2015), Beudaert et al. (2017); Cheung and McColl-Kennedy(2015);Streicher and Estes (2016) ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the concepts and theories underlying customer service experience (CSE) and its underlying five dimensions (physical, social, cognitive, affective and sensorial). In this research, the contribution of the sensorial dimension to CSE research is emphasized. Senses are especially important in forming perceptions within servicescapes that are typically rich in sensory stimuli. Design/methodology/approach This study systematically identifies 258 articles published between 1994 and 2018 in services and marketing journals. The analysis uses a text mining approach with the Leximancer software to extract research concepts and their relationships. Findings The results demonstrate a shift from CSE research focused on brands and products toward value and interaction, around three focal areas: service system architecture, with its value creation processes; servicescape, with an increasingly digital interaction interface and outcome measures, with a stronger focus on emotional and relational metrics. In CSE research, the physical, social and cognitive dimensions are mostly researched in the focal areas of servicescape and outcome measures. Although important in practice, the sensorial dimension is the least investigated CSE dimension in service marketing research. Text mining insights demonstrate rich opportunities for sensorial research, particularly in studies on servicescape. Practical implications The synthesis will inform managers and service providers which elements of CSE are most relevant to customers when forming perceptions. These insights help service providers to control, manage and design (multi)-sensory stimuli that influence how customers will make sense of the servicescape. Originality/value This research is one of the first studies to examine the conceptual structure of CSE with a text mining approach that systematically analyzes a large set of articles, therein reducing the potential for researchers’ interpretative bias. The paper provides an assessment of the role of the largely neglected but crucial sensorial dimension, and offers future research suggestions into this emerging topic.
... Brand experience can be enhanced by sensory experiences (Schmitt 1999;Hultén, 2011). A multisensory approach (Streicher and Estes, 2016) evokes multiple perceptions and in turn the brand personality and equity gets influenced (Rajput and Dhillon, 2013). The information collected through five senses is processed intuitively in the human brain. ...
Conference Paper
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The traditional concept of marketing is based on the concept of consumers" rationality and the assumption of it is buying behavior can be defined by several reasoned steps. Companies were designing their marketing mix by presuming consumer needs in the context of delivery of physical product/services and value offered by the brand. Whether this traditional marketing concept is relevant in it"s existing form especially in this era of global competition in the market is a question being faced by the marketers. The researcher has observed that today"s consumer is confused and he is unable to make the "best" choice of brand purchase due to plethora of brands and overload of marketing information. The marketers are also challenged to ensure brand differentiation in the marketplace. To address this issue a new marketing paradigm has emerged which enables the marketer to ensure brand differentiation through experiential and sensory marketing. The research on this new concept of sensory marketing is in the nascent stage and much work is not done especially in the context of developing countries like India. Whether sensory marketing is equally effective for all product categories and age groups or is it effective only for particular one is yet to be tested. This research work is an attempt to understand whether sensory marketing has an impact on the consumers buying intentions for the personal grooming & healthcare services. The outcome of this study will be useful to the companies operating in personal grooming & healthcare services category in India.
... First, it examines the underlying mechanism by which purchase environment influences product evaluation. This specifically addresses the recent call for research on the underlying mechanism by which haptic perceptions may influence consumer product evaluation (Streicher and Estes, 2016;Zhu and Meyer, 2017). Second, we assess the role of NFT in the effect of purchase environment on consumer perception and evaluation, by focusing on understanding the differential roles of autotelic and instrumental dimensions of NFT. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to examine the effects of purchase environment, product type and need for touch (NFT) on cognitive response, affective response and overall product evaluation in the USA and India. Design/methodology/approach Two experiments were conducted in two different consumer markets. In Study 1, participants evaluated haptic and non-haptic products and gave responses on cognitive response, affective response and overall product evaluation measures in the US market. In Study 2, the authors replicate Study 1 in a culturally different market of India and extend Study 1 by examining the moderating role of instrumental and autotelic dimensions of NFT on the effect of purchase environment on cognitive and affective responses. Findings Research findings suggest that cognitive and affective responses are the underlying mechanism between the purchase environment and overall response only for haptic product among Indian consumers. In contrast, affective response is the underlying mechanism explaining this relationship among US consumers. Furthermore, the instrumental dimension of NFT moderates the impact of purchase environment on cognitive but the autotelic NFT moderates the effect of purchase environment on affective response only for the haptic product but not for the non-haptic product. Research limitations/implications The study uses a relatively homogenous sample in the Indian market in contrast to the US market. Practical implications Results advance the understanding of the importance of haptic information processing in consumer decision-making across different purchase environments, product types and NFT using psychological distance (proximity) as a theoretical underpinning. With non-haptic shopping environments (i.e. online and mobile) growing rapidly, the results have critical implications for development of marketing strategies in Asian and US markets. Originality/value Empirical research examining the underlying mechanism by which purchase environment influences overall evaluation for haptic product is scarce. Additionally, understanding of the differential roles of instrumental and autotelic dimensions of NFT on cognitive and affective responses is very limited. This research fills this void and provides an understanding of the specific environment in evaluating haptic and non-haptic products in two distinct markets.
... According to Krishna sensory marketing engages consumers' senses and influences their perception, evaluation, and behavior, usually aiming to increase their purchase intention [14]. Marketing methods in this context describe approaches that are connected to experience with a product or brand [83]. Pine, Pine, and Gilmore stress the importance of the customer in comprehending what an experience means to him or her [84]. ...
Article
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In some countries, such as Norway, there is significant growth in the proportion of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) among new registrations. This is not the case in Germany, where less than 1% of all newly registered vehicles are electric cars. This disparity raises the questions of whether the performance factors of current BEVs (e.g., driving range) are able to compete with petrol-powered cars and how they are perceived by potential customers. Using marketing methods, car manufacturers can influence attitudes towards products and increase purchase intentions. Most prior studies used experiments in different settings to find out the perceived value of BEVs among potential customers, taking into account a longer perspective. There are no prior studies on the influence of short test drives on the value perception of BEVs. The main objective of this article was to explore and assess the effects of a first-time experience on the evaluation of BEVs by potential consumers in the German market (around the city of Münster, in the North Rhine-Westphalia region). We utilized the concept of a sensory marketing approach in the form of a short (10–15 min) test drive experiment. The results showed that perceptions, in terms of acquisition costs and acceleration/driving pleasure in particular, are developing positively. Other increasing values are maintenance and energy costs, engine/battery reliability, range in km, and driving comfort. In addition, the perception of all other performance factors has developed positively. Also, willingness to buy a BEV increased after the short test drive. The experiment shows that short test drives with BEVs are a suitable means to support the widespread promotion of electric cars.
... The findings provide important extensions to haptic touch research. We previously highlighted that the majority of prior research in haptic touch suggests that enabling consumers to use the sensation of touch would increase persuasion and likelihood of purchasing (Brasel & Gips, 2014;Streicher & Estes, 2016;Peck and Childers, 2003). However, we also recognized that a body of literature also existed stressing caution as to whether haptic touch improved the likelihood of purchasing in all settings (Martin, 2011;Yazdanparast and Spears, 2013). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into whether “more sense makes sense” when attempting to encourage consumers to purchase retail products using technology; that is, does engaging senses in addition to visual and aural senses, such as haptic touch, through interactive retail technology lead to an easier and more enjoyable consumption experience of retail products for consumers, while also enhancing service provider outcomes? To test this assumption (“more sense makes sense”), this study empirically examines whether differences are present in the consumer experience (usefulness, ease of use and customer-perceived value) and service provider outcomes (satisfaction and purchase intentions) across retail technologies with and without haptic touch enabled. Design/methodology/approach The study randomly allocated participants to either the haptic touch (haptic touch, visual and aural senses, n = 135) or no haptic touch (visual and aural senses only, n = 182) interactive retail technology condition. The data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance. Findings The data provide support for the use of high-interactive technology achieved through the inclusion of haptic touch by showing it to provide a more visually appealing, easy to use, enjoyable and entertaining experience. However, the results also provide insight into boundaries of where the use of haptic touch does not significantly increase outcomes. Overall, the results suggest high-interactive retail technology using haptic touch provides a more entertaining experience for consumers, which leads to increased satisfaction with service providers, but this does not translate into a significant increase in purchase intentions. Originality/value This study examines the consumer and service provider benefits and limitations of using haptic touch in interactive retail technology. The effects of haptic touch for both the consumer and service provider have not previously been empirically examined thoroughly in a technological setting.
... Customers' perceived uncertainty negatively influences their purchase intention of online products (Faraji-Rad & Pham, 2016). Because LVS provides an opportunity for customers to interact with e-retailers in real time and obtain more authentic and concrete information on online products, it may offset the perceived uncertainty and psychological distance caused by the virtual shopping environment and thereby influence customers' decision-making process (Punj & Stewart, 1983;Streicher & Estes, 2016). Further, a useful way of evaluating the potential of Internet marketing is through the search/experience classification paradigm (Alba et al., 1997;Klein, 1998;Rosa & Malter, 2003). ...
Article
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E-retailers are embracing new digital marketing strategies to provide more authentic information to their customers. This research examines the impact of live video streaming (LVS), defined as broadcasts in real time to an audience over the Internet for business-to-consumer and business-to-business communication. Although LVS has been adopted as a marketing strategy by e-retailers, its effect on customers’ online purchase intention remains unknown. Drawing on construal level theory, this study empirically examines the impact of LVS on customers’ online purchase intention considering psychological distance and perceived uncertainty. We test the research framework with the aid of a quasi-experiment using secondary data collected from Taobao.com, the largest online trading platform in China, and two experimental designs. The presented results indicate that the LVS strategy can improve customers’ online purchase intention by reducing psychological distance and perceived uncertainty. In addition, product type moderates the impact of LVS on perceived uncertainty. This paper finally provides some of the practical and managerial implications of our findings.
... The tables had at their center a composition made with different types of dried pasta placed on a cloth. Some pasta was also spread on the table so that the FG components could touch it and come into contact with it during the discussion [51]. Sparkling water was offered to the participants in transparent glass jugs and served in transparent glass glasses to reset the taste during the testing. ...
Article
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Dried pasta is the Italian food “par excellence”. Traditional foods have characteristics that can stimulate or evoke in the consumer sensorial stimuli and experiences, especially when these foods are consumed in a typical-traditional restaurant. Traditional restaurants can use sensory marketing as a promotional advantage, creating a unique and original atmosphere that can represent their main way of differentiation. The aims of this paper are to know consumer liking with regard to two high quality types of Sicilian pasta, common dried pasta, and whole-wheat pasta, consumed in three different venues of a typical-traditional Italian franchised restaurant, and to measure the influence of environmental factors of the venues on consumers’ acceptance. Results showed that consumers are able recognize when the atmosphere of a restaurant is integrated and consistent with the food on offer and they appreciate more the contexts wherein they find this coherence. Moreover, the high degree of quality of the two types of pasta tasted was recognized by consumers that appreciated its gustative equilibrium, confirming that the gustatory sensations are not affected by the context in which a food is consumed. Finally, the study highlighted the importance of Olfactory marketing to influence the evaluation of the customer on restaurant’s atmospherics. Keywords: sensory marketing; traditional restaurant; sensory test; product congruence; atmosphere; quality food; consumer preferences; Focus Group Citation: Altamore Luca, Ingrassia Marzia, Chironi Stefania, Columba Pietro, Sortino Giuseppe, Vukadin Ana, Bacarella Simona. Pasta experience: Eating with the five senses—a pilot study. AIMS Agriculture and Food, 2018, 3(4): 493-520. doi: 10.3934/agrfood.2018.4.493
... This justified that the purpose of POP is seen as more sincerely alluring, through the presentation of visual and olfactory tactile signs. Another recent study JAMR by Streicher and Estes (2016) suggested that the visual processing of one product can be influenced by holding another product. The study demonstrated the compensatory relationship between touch and vision for product evaluation. ...
Article
Purpose Online shopping has become a commonplace thing nowadays as people can buy products from the comfort of their home. But such environments do not offer a complete sensory interaction as consumers are unable to touch products which is quite important for certain categories of products such as apparels. Therefore, in order to find whether every individual seeks touch equally, the purpose of this paper is to deal with the differences in an individual’s preferences for touch. The study also evaluates customer responses towards the introduction of touch-enabling technology which can, to some extent, compensate for the lack of touch. Lastly, the study includes customers’ views regarding showrooming and webrooming. Design/methodology/approach A total of 203 responses were received through online and offline questionnaires. The data were analysed using ANOVA, correlation and regression analysis through SPSS version 23. Findings The results revealed that gender influenced the Need for Touch (NFT) with women having higher NFT. The people who were high in NFT preferred to buy in-store, whereas their low NFT counterparts were comfortable with both online and in-store options. Lastly, it was found that there was a significant impact of NFT on online buying behaviour. The new technology when used by online retailers would break the barriers that exist between real touch and virtual touch. Originality/value Although previous authors have given several options like mental representations, verbal details and brand image as alternatives to touch but the use of touch-enabling technology can revolutionise the way online products are perceived. The study adds value by relating NFT with online preferences, showrooming and webrooming.
... When two or more cues are combined, they form a multisensory experience to evoke holistic perceptions, increase emotions and influence purchase behaviours (Imschloss and Kuehnl, 2017;Mattila and Wirtz, 2001;Spangenberg et al., 2005). For example, vision and touch together can impact how consumers perceive packaging or influence product choice Single and multisensory cues positively (Streicher and Estes, 2016). Consumers evaluate, judge and behave differently to a multisensory cue than to only single cues (Krishna, 2013;Macpherson, 2010). ...
Purpose Retail stores are required to provide a stimulating in-store experience for customers and do this by developing various strategies. One strategy implemented by retailers is the use of sensory cues to encourage consumers to engage with the environment and the products on display and available for purchase. Conducted in a lighting department, the purpose of this paper is to consider how retailers can employ a multisensory cue, which is formed by combining three single cues to positively impact consumer behaviours – specifically time spent, touching and purchase. Design/methodology/approach The study comprised an experimental design, which implemented single congruent visual, auditory and olfactory cues that formed a multisensory cue. Consumer behaviour outcomes of these cues were measured using objective measures. Findings The results show that a multisensory cue impacts time spent and purchasing, but no evidence of it affecting touching was noted. In the case of the single cues, auditory and scent cues impacted time spent, but their effect was not to the extent of the multisensory cue, which was superior. Research limitations/implications The study focussed on one product category within a general furnishing store, thus limiting the extent to which the findings can be generalised. Practical implications The effect of a multisensory cue exceeded that of single cues, emphasising the need for retailers to consider and develop a multisensory retail environment. Originality/value While research into the effect of single cues on consumer behaviours has shown positive effects, research into a multisensory cue, especially in a real-retail setting, is relatively scarce.
... For example, when products have handles (e.g., a cup), consumers automatically simulate grasping that product (Eelen, Dewitte, and Warlop 2013;Elder and Krishna 2012). Moreover, viewing an interesting product can trigger a spontaneous motor impulse to grab the product (Rook 1987), and as people grasp products, the likelihood of purchasing them increases (Peck and Childers 2006;Streicher and Estes 2016). Thus, as shoppers with broad attention view more and different products, they are naturally inclined to act upon them, thereby choosing to purchase more of them unplanned. ...
Article
A fundamental function of retailing is to bring products into the view of shoppers, because viewing products can activate forgotten or new needs. Retailers thus employ various strategies to entice shoppers to explore the product assortment and store environment, in the hopes of stimulating unplanned purchasing. This article investigates consumers’ breadth of attention as a mechanism of such in-store exploration and hence of unplanned purchasing. Specifically, attentional breadth is the focus that is directed to a wider or more limited area in processing visual scenes. Across several lab and field experiments, the authors show that shoppers’ attentional breadth activates an exploratory mindset that stimulates visual and physical exploration of shopping environments, ultimately affecting their product choices and unplanned purchasing. The results also show that more impulsive buyers are more susceptible to these effects. The present article thus complements and constrains prior theorizing on mindset theory, attention, store exploration, and unplanned purchasing, all of which are of practical importance to both retailers and consumers.
... For example, when products have handles (e.g., a cup), consumers automatically simulate grasping that product (Eelen et al. 2013;Elder and Krishna 2012). Moreover, viewing an interesting product can trigger a spontaneous motor impulse to grab the product (Rook 1987), and as people grasp products, the likelihood of purchasing them increases (Peck and Childers 2006;Streicher and Estes 2016). Thus, as shoppers with broad attention view more and different products, they are naturally inclined to act upon them, thereby choosing to purchase more of them unplanned. ...
Article
A fundamental function of retailing is to bring products into the view of shoppers, because viewing products can activate forgotten or new needs. Retailers thus employ various strategies to entice shoppers to explore the product assortment and store environment, in the hopes of stimulating unplanned purchasing. This article investigates consumers’ breadth of attention as a mechanism of such in-store exploration and hence of unplanned purchasing. Specifically, attentional breadth is the focus that is directed to a wider or more limited area in processing visual scenes. Across several lab and field experiments, the authors show that shoppers’ attentional breadth activates an exploratory mindset that stimulates visual and physical exploration of shopping environments, ultimately affecting their product choices and unplanned purchasing. The results also show that more impulsive buyers are more susceptible to these effects. The present article thus complements and constrains prior theorizing on mindset theory, attention, store exploration, and unplanned purchasing, all of which are of practical importance to both retailers and consumers.
... The popularity of sensory marketing reflects the effectiveness of using consumers' senses to enhance consumption experiences and sales (Hinestroza & James, 2014;Krishna, 2012, Hultén, 2011Streicher & Estes, 2016). Consumers are sensitive to marketing messages involving physical sensations, and such sensations have a tremendous influence in their attitudes and behaviors (Krishna, 2012;Lowe & Haws, 2017). ...
Article
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We conducted a randomized controlled field study to explore the effectiveness of sensory marketing on beverage consumption patterns in a real bar setting. Specifically, we examined (a) the effect of visual elements (i.e., consumption-inducing text messages on coasters), (b) the effect of social density, and (c) the joint effect of visual elements and social density. We manipulated coaster type (visual consumption-inducing messages either present or absent), measured social density, and collected sales data. The results show that visual elements have a significant effect on beverage consumption, but social density does not. The joint effect between the two factors is significant such that the effect of visual elements is higher when social density is low. This study contributes to the sensory marketing literature by revealing the interaction between visual and spatial cues in a field setting.
... Therefore, the implementation of, for example, haptic elements, scented stripes, and music-related QR codes to print ads seems to correlate with the aforementioned findings and underlines the broad innovation potential of print advertisement in terms of a multisensory marketing approach. Although recent studies have helped to provide a better understanding of how specific sensory cues affect consumer perception, there is still much to learn about the causal relationships between sensory perception and brand-related outcomes (e.g., Spence, 2012;Streicher & Estes, 2016). Hence, as sensory cues may be perceived on an explicit or implicit level, it is important to focus on both types of consciousness to assess specific relationships with the product-and brand-related key factors . ...
Article
The multisensory marketing approach is often associated with the creation of memorable consumer experiences. In contrast, the broad field of advertisement is increasingly struggling to appeal effectively to the consumer. Thus, the implementation of multisensory aspects in traditional advertisement activities might be promising. In the given context of the print advertisement, the empirical results of this research provide evidence that the application of multisensory stimuli is an important success factor in creating experiences and influencing the perception of product design. As there is great potential in the haptic and olfactory senses, marketing managers can appeal to consumers by using, for example, singular scents or special materials. However, to address consumers effectively, marketing managers must be aware of both the explicit and implicit effects when implementing different sensory stimuli to ensure that there is no conflict between the perception levels.
... The first hypothesis is based on Experiential Marketing's emotional experiences (feel) (Schmitt, 1999). Generally, sensory experiences can positively affect the brand experiences Streicher and Estes, 2016). Experiential Marketing actions are "empirically tested and confirmed as having a positive impact" (Wu et al. 2018, pp. ...
Conference Paper
This research investigates the multidimensional concept of Experiential Marketing and its effects on consumer behaviour. To measure these effects, the authors used both secondary and primary data to investigate the emotions, perceived value, purchase intention, customer loyalty and the intention to recommend (WOM). The research was conducted in Limassol, Cyprus with Cypriot consumers that participated in an experiential marketing event. By testing five hypotheses, findings reveal that consumers have a positive attitude toward events of experiential marketing with the customer loyalty and perceived value being not as significant as the rest of tested variables. On a future study, researchers can investigate these effects on different cultures to find multicultural differences.
... Contextualizing the consumption of Sicilian sparkling wine in the territory of origin, made of climate (sunny and warm), landscape (sea and countryside), and in a context of conviviality, not necessarily connected to traditional celebrations, can contribute to the position these wines differently in the market (Boncinelli et al., 2020;Streicher & Estes, 2016). The particularity of Sicilian territory must be the element of strength on which to focus in order not to compete with other sparkling wines as similar (sparkling) but different (taste) products. ...
Article
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Spumante wines produced in Sicily region (southern Italy) have sensorial characteristics significantly different from those produced in other Italian regions, because of the great differences of terroir. Offering a product included in a coherent and consistent context allows consumers to differentiate in the marketplace. The aim of this study is to propose solutions for Sicilian wineries for positioning Sicilian Spumante in the market , based on empirical data. Moreover, it was investigated whether a positive experience in a context consistent with the Sicilian sparkling wines could influence consumers' consumption intentions. A blind sensory test was performed by 146 expert wine tasters. Opinions regarding sensorial quality, value, and suitable selling place for all wines tasted were investigated. Out-of-context and in-context preferences were analyzed. Development of the unipolar model to describe the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) process was attempted. Findings contribute to experiential marketing actions for other iconic wines and wine regions.
... Sensory experiences can intensify brand experiences (Schmitt 1999;Hultén 2011). A multisensory approach (Streicher, Estes 2016) generates multiple perceptions that can influence brand personality and equity (Rajput, Dhillon 2013). As brand awareness influences how brands are chosen, it is important to analyse what are the consequences for brand experiences and brand equity when these are influenced by sensory stimuli. ...
Article
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Sensory stimulation is used by various brands to induce desired behaviours among their customers. Although its effectiveness is recognised in business contexts, little research has been conducted on sensory marketing. In order to contribute to filling this gap, this study sought to build a model that explains how sensory stimulation influences intentions to purchase a brand. Brand experience and brand equity were expected to mediate this relationship. The empirical validation of the model was conducted by carrying out an online survey with a convenience sample of 302 customers of a brand of the catering industry. The data collected were processed using PLS-SEM methodology. The results reveal that sensory stimulation positively influences brand experience and brand equity, which, in turn, have a positive impact on intentions to purchase the brand in question. The relevant contributions that emerged from this study include not only bridging the aforementioned gap in the literature but also offering significant managerial implications.
... A third psychological hypothesis is that the effect of handle orientation on purchasing may be especially large among shoppers high in the need for touch (Peck and Childers 2003), or high in haptic sensitivity. Indeed, such haptically sensitive shoppers are especially susceptible to other haptic effects, such as tactile priming of product choice (Streicher and Estes 2016a). ...
Article
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This research demonstrates that the physical properties of shopping carts influence purchasing and spending. Prior research on ergonomics indicates that standard shopping carts, which are pushed via a horizontal handlebar, are likely to activate arm extensor muscles. Prior research on arm muscle activation, in turn, suggests that arm extensor activation may elicit less purchasing than arm flexor activation. The authors thus deduce that standard shopping carts may be suboptimal for stimulating purchases. The authors predicted that shopping carts with parallel handles (i.e., like a wheelbarrow or “walker”) would instead activate the flexor muscles and thus increase purchasing. An electromyography (EMG) study revealed that both horizontal and vertical handles more strongly activate the extensor muscles of the upper arm (triceps), whereas parallel handles more strongly activate the flexor muscles (biceps). In a field experiment, parallel-handle shopping carts significantly and substantially increased sales across a broad range of categories, including both vice and virtue products. Finally, in a simulated shopping experiment, parallel handles increased purchasing and spending beyond both horizontal and vertical handles. These results were not attributable to the novelty of the shopping cart itself, participants’ mood, or purely ergonomic factors.
... A Swedish furnishing retailer allowed us to use a certain product of LED lamps with only visual stimuli in the lighting department, in order to test and measure the effects on shopper's emotions and purchase behavior by introducing multi-sensory cues in congruence with the store atmosphere. While haptic cues have been recognized as important for consumer emotions and behavior (Krishna, 2012;Streicher and Estes, 2016), they are excluded in this paper, due to the difficulty of modifying the present experimental retail setting. ...
This paper explores the effects of multi-sensory congruent cues om shoppers’ emotions and purchase behavior in designing retail store atmosphere. Prior research suggests atmospheric stimuli to contribute to establish an appealing atmosphere and studies have confirmed that shoppers react to different stimuli. However, extant studies have not examined how multi-sensory congruent cues added to a visually dominant store atmosphere might impact shopper emotions and purchase behavior. The findings demonstrate a positive effect of multi-sensory congruent cues on shoppers’ emotions, through valence, and purchase behavior, through time spent and purchase. It is evident that shoppers perceive multi-sensory cues, such as auditory and olfactory ones, to be more effective in a dominant visual store atmosphere compared to only adding new visual stimuli. For retailers, a visually dominant store atmosphere should be designed more in the direction of a multi-sensory atmosphere in offering shoppers more appealing experiences of the retail setting.
... Nevertheless, there is still a great need to investigate the impact of sensory perception on brand-related outcomes Streicher & Estes, 2016). Despite this gap in research, some interesting studies in the field of sensory marketing have explored the impact of sensory cues on advertising formats. ...
Book
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Brand touchpoints are used to reinforce the basic premise of branding, which is to distinguish brands from their competitors and remain memorable, ultimately keeping customers resolute in their allegiance. Information related through brand touchpoints increases brand familiarity, contributes to a brand’s value, improves attitudes towards a brand, and in general is essential to maintain an ongoing relationship with consumers. Given the role of brand touchpoints, a look at contemporary issues is warranted. Brand Touchpoints is a collection of chapters by academics, practitioners and designers on the current evolution of brand communication. The book looks at existing issues in the marketplace and ways to influence the branding process. First, the changing role of brand touchpoints is reviewed in terms of the move from physical assets such as stores, trucks, and outdoor billboards to digital applications. A foundational sense of how consumers develop inferences surrounding brand touchpoints is then explored. Following this, prescriptive models for building brands to enhance the effectiveness of brand touchpoints are proposed. Then the ability of tangible touchpoints such as product design, packaging, and other tangible aspects of the brand to inform macro branding is reviewed. A case is made for more research on multisensory aspects of a brand. Chapters in the final section of the book explore brand touchpoints as it influences microtrends of prosocial consumers, children and ardent sports fans. To conclude, novel linkages in brand literature that sets up an agenda for future research as it relates to consumer culture is discussed.
... A product display is a composite of some or all of the products, background (e.g., floors and walls), mannequins, fixtures, props, signage, lighting, and music that create an enriched experience for the customer through a gestalt of retail environment elements concentrated in areas of the store [36]. Product display is associated with style, colour and texture, thumbnail [83], crowded versus sparse [120], packaging [29,44], internal store environment [26]; and is the essence of visual merchandise [128]. It helps push the retailer's series of products towards the front end and acts as a visual indicator [119]. ...
Article
The objective of this study is to investigate the factors that influence consumer's assortment satisfaction during online purchase of footwear. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 458 samples using stratified sampling, from online footwear shoppers. Residual analysis confirmed data normality. Structural equation modeling showed a significant impact of product display and price comparison upon assortment satisfaction. Further, a multi group analysis affirmed that the model remains invariant across the categorical variables gender, cohabitance and work status. Arguably this is the first paper which establishes a link between product display and price comparison upon assortment satisfaction during online footwear purchase.
... Other studies found a positive relationship between touch and both impulse purchasing (Kacen and Lee, 2002;Peck and Childers, 2006) and perceived ownership of the touched object (Peck and Shu, 2009;Maille et al., 2020). Moreover, Streicher and Estes (2015) demonstrated that haptic brand identities can facilitate recognition, consideration and brand choice, whereas Streicher and Estes (2016) showed that touching a given product can influence perception and choice of other seen products. Haptic cues also play a pivotal role in food perception, as taste (Krishna and Morrin, 2008) and perceived naturalness (Labbe et al., 2013). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to analyze the effects of web communities vs company websites in providing tactile information considering different types of product in terms of touch diagnosticity (low- vs. high-touch products). Design/methodology/approach Three experimental studies were conducted to examine the effect of online information sources (i.e. web communities vs. company websites) in providing tactile information on consumer responses, considering the moderation role of product type in terms of touch diagnosticity (low- vs. high-touch products, Study 1), the moderating role of type of information (tactile vs. generic, Study 2a); and the moderating role of need for touch (NFT) (Study 2a and 2b). Findings While previous research converges on the idea that the provision of a written description of tactile properties deriving from the product usage is particularly effective for products for which tactile information is diagnostic and for individuals high in NFT, the results demonstrated that the presence (vs. the absence) of the description of the tactile properties provided by web communities (vs. company websites) matters for those products for which touch is not diagnostic and for individuals low in NFT. Practical implications The findings have particular relevance for emerging brands intending to commercialize their products in the digital environment. These companies should be present in web communities to describe a product’s tactile characteristics, especially if not diagnostic. Originality/value This paper significantly contributes to a better understanding of a little studied area, namely, consumer responses toward haptic compensational strategies providing haptic cues (e.g. written description of tactile information along with pictures of products) aiming at compensating for the absence of touch, underlining the differential influence of online sources of tactile information on consumer responses across different types of products.
... Bercik et al. (2016) deal with customer behaviour at sales points that is affected by the surroundings and feelings of well-being. Other renowned authors in the field of sensory marketing are Streicher and Estes (2016), dealing with the touch, highlight the importance of touching products before the actual purchase decision. Huang (2015) deals with the perception of food and beverages. ...
Article
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A brand is one way to distinguish products from each other, while simplifying consumers’ decisions in choosing an appropriate product. Brand building is not just about design but also strategy, which is even more important in the process. The result of brand building is the potential to represent a certain value for the company. However, sustaining and improving a brand’s position in the market is not a simple process in the current competitive environment. Therefore, there is scope for application of new marketing strategies such as sensory marketing. Sensory marketing represents a way for companies to influence consumers’ senses (sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste) and evoke the emotions affecting their buying behaviour and perceptions of the product or brand. The aim of the article is to provide a literature review on the issue from several foreign and domestic authors. It discusses the essence of a brand, brand value, sensory marketing and also analyses its use as a support tool for building brand value in practice through secondary research data. Based on this, in conclusion, the authors highlight the benefits of using sensory marketing for building brand value, including ensuring loyalty of standing customers as well as gaining new ones, building a successful brand and positive perception of the brand and product by users.
... To summarize, despite their functional independence, sensory systems interact and cooperate with each other to optimize viewers' perception of the objects and events by providing a robust representation of the external world (Ferrari et al., 2014;Ludden et al., 2009;Spence, 2015). There is now a mounting body of evidence supporting the crossmodal interplay of the sensory modalities; however, this evidence mostly comes from multisensory research in basic perception (e.g., Dematte, Sanabria, Sugarman, & Spence, 2006;Heller, 1982;Hauthal et al.,, 2014;Jousmäki & Hari, 1998;Kandula, Hofman, & Dijkerman, 2015;Lugo, Doti, Wittich, & Faubert, 2008;Sambo & Forster, 2009;Spence, 2015), and very rarely from multisensory research in arts and RUNNING HEAD: NEUROPLASTICITY AND CROSSMODALITY 26 aesthetic perception (e.g., Streicher & Zachary, 2016). Thus, the extent to which the sensory modalities interact to shape aesthetic sensitivity (or preferences for certain stimuli or objects over the others) remains poorly understood and presents an exciting area of future research. ...
... Thus, these studies establish that it is touch that is primary to humans can be used to influence product presentations (B. M. Ferreira, 2019) and product evaluations (Streicher & Estes, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The increased interest and extensive research in Sensory Marketing over the last few decades has created a need to synthesize extant literature. This study offers potential for enriching the area of sensory marketing by performing a scientific literature review. The paper presents a systematic and critical analysis of three decades of sensory marketing research using bibliometric analysis. This study reviews 172 relevant articles published between 1979-2020 to detail the domain. We use VOS viewer to present highly influential articles, authors, institutions, journals, and countries. Further, we present the co-citation analysis of journals, keyword cooccurrence analysis, and network analysis of countries. Network analysis divides the studies into five bibliographic clusters - cross-modality and consumer behavior, multi-sensory marketing and consumer behavior, touch and visual cues, olfactory sense and consumer behavior, and sensory marketing and emotions. Also, the integration of clusters proposes a conceptual framework. A comprehensive discussion on the cluster-wise future research direction is presented.
... For example, when products have handles (e.g., a cup), consumers automatically simulate grasping that product (Eelen et al. 2013;Elder and Krishna 2012). Moreover, viewing an interesting product can trigger a spontaneous motor impulse to grab the product (Rook 1987), and as people grasp products, the likelihood of purchasing them increases (Peck and Childers 2006;Streicher and Estes 2016). Thus, as shoppers with broad attention view more and different products, they are naturally inclined to act upon them, thereby choosing to purchase more of them unplanned. ...
Preprint
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A fundamental function of retailing is to bring products into the view of shoppers, because viewing products can activate forgotten or new needs. Retailers thus employ various strategies to entice shoppers to explore the product assortment and store environment, in the hopes of stimulating unplanned purchasing. This article investigates consumers' breadth of attention as a mechanism of such in-store exploration and hence of unplanned purchasing. Specifically, attentional breadth is the focus that is directed to a wider or more limited area in processing visual scenes. Across several lab and field experiments, the authors show that shoppers' attentional breadth activates an exploratory mindset that stimulates visual and physical exploration of shopping environments, ultimately affecting their product choices and unplanned purchasing. The results also show that more impulsive buyers are more susceptible to these effects. The present article thus complements and constrains prior theorizing on mindset theory, attention, store exploration, and unplanned purchasing , all of which are of practical importance to both retailers and consumers.
... Josko Brakus et al., 2009), we will utilize the same to define the brand experience of the lingerie buying consumer. The sensory dimension can be defined as a product experience and from the consumers point of view entails aspects of fit, quality, colour, fabric and feel of their lingerie (Streicher & Estes, 2016). Affective dimension can be described as shopping experiences which put the consumer in a good mood and enable them to emotionally connect with their lingerie brand especially through touchpoints such as relaxed unobtrusive store atmosphere, specially trained store staff understanding complex lingerie requirements of women, bra fittings and trial rooms, store music and store staff behaviour (Joel, Pham, & Andrade, 2008; Morrison & Crane, 2007).The third and fourth dimensions intellectual and behavioural can be described as consumption experiences where intellectual experiences happen when the brand engages the consumer at an intellectual level by new innovations and problem solving functions like fabric and accessory innovations, heat sensors or bras which provide better support and function for lactating mothers or sportswomen. ...
Article
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Lingerie for women is a complex apparel depicting a high involvement profile, motivating women consumers towards its purchase by not only its functional utility but also by the multi-sensory experience it provides to them. Thus, lingerie can be treated as an experiential product, where the experience dimensions motivating the consumers to purchase their lingerie brand and stay loyal to it need to be analyzed in detail by both manufacturers and retailers, in order to engage and retain the consumer loyalty. This research aims to identify the dimensions leading to maximum brand experience for the lingerie buying consumers of India who, after a recent retail revolution are awakening to an array of lingerie brands creating a multitude of experience, but in turn leaving them extremely confused about their lingerie choices instead. The multi-dimensional lingerie brand experience of the Indian consumer has been analyzed using the only measurable brand experience scale created by authors Brakus, Schmitt & Zarantonello in 2009 categorizing it as sensory, affective, intellectual and behavioral and the same has been used to interpret the lingerie buying motivation of Indian women segmented on the basis of their education (graduate/non-graduate), work status (working/not working) and city of residence (metro/non-metro). The outcome of this research has proved that there is no difference in the brand experience of women based on their education status, work status and city of residence. An analysis of Independent sample means between three status also categorically proved that Indian women value their sensory experience most and then affective, intellectual and last behavioral when purchasing their lingerie.
Article
Guava is known for its rough (astringent) appearance and texture; feature attached to its nutritional benefits but rejected from consumers’ point of view. This study deals with the rough property of guava juice through packaging expecting to influence its perceived density. Two studies were designed by manipulating (a) the location of the image on the bottle and (b) the surface texture of the bottle, controlling for transparency. Results confirm that it is possible to shift the perception of density in guava juice (a) locating the image of the fruit on the top (not the bottom) of the bottle and (b) using a smooth surface texture (not a rough) on an opaque bottle. Concerning practical implications, agribusinesses should enforce the use of sensory marketing strategies to sell the best of fruits and vegetables.
Article
Los clientes son cada vez más exigentes, buscan un producto y/o servicio exclusivo a sus necesidades. Es por ello que, este trabajo realiza un acercamiento teórico al marketing sensorial con que beneficiará tanto a la empresa como al consumidor, debido a que se analiza cuáles son los sentidos que pueden emplearse para comunicar la identidad del producto y/o servicio, lo cual genera una ventaja competitiva. En este sentido, se describe cómo los sentidos humanos son importantes para la experiencia individual de los diferentes procesos de compra y consumo. Con este fin, se revisaron documentos en español e inglés indizados en bases de datos como: Scopus, Springer Journals, Journal of Marketing, Google Académico, Microsoft Academic Search y Science Direct. Seguidamente, el análisis de la literatura permitió sustentar el objeto de estudio y consolidar las experiencias de marca de varios referentes del mercado. Finalmente, los modelos de Parasumann y Zeithaml, Broweus y Dijk, Schmitt y EPC (estimulo, proceso y consecuencia) inmersos en el marketing sensorial describen algunos parámetros para la medición de percepciones y expectativas del cliente. En conclusión, la investigación refleja la relevancia de herramientas tecnológicas como estímulo sensorial para el consumidor donde el marketing sensorial se convierte en una estrategia de diferenciación
Article
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This paper examined the influence of visual, gustatory, tactile, and olfactory attributes of malt brands on consumer purchase in Nigeria. The study adopted a quantitative research design. Structural Equation Modeling technique was employed to test the hypothesized relationships at 5% level of significance. The findings revealed that visual, gustatory, tactile, and olfactory attributes of malt brands had significant influences on consumer purchase intentions. The findings also show a significant association between consumers’ purchase intentions and actual purchase decisions. The results obtained are for exploratory purposes which have many implications for food and beverage companies.
Article
Gesture-based interaction has greatly changed the way in which we interact with online products by allowing users to control digital systems with hand movements. This study investigates how gesture-based interaction modes, namely, mid-air gesture and touchscreen gesture, compared with mouse-based interaction, affect consumers’ virtual product experiences (VPE) by eliciting mental imagery (i.e., haptic imagery and spatial imagery). Furthermore, we explore how visual product presentation can be designed to facilitate different types of interaction modes. Through a lab experiment, we find that touchscreen gesture outper- forms mid-air gesture and mouse-based interaction in terms of eliciting haptic imagery, and this effect is mitigated when 3D presentation is used. We also find that mid-air gesture outperforms touchscreen gesture and mouse-based interaction in terms of eliciting spatial imagery when 3D presentation is used. Both haptic imagery and spatial imagery can further reduce consumers’ product uncertainty. Our results extend prior work on interactivity design of VPE and further contribute to the emerging literature on gesture-based interaction.
Article
The objective of this study is to examine factors that influence Indian consumer's assortment satisfaction towards the online purchase of footwear. A questionnaire was used to collect data using stratified sampling from different online shoppers. Structural equation modeling showed a significant impact of product display and price comparison on assortment satisfaction. Arguably, this is the first article which shows a linkage between product display and price comparison on assortment satisfaction for online footwear purchases. Further, a moderation of income and gender upon the two independent variables was studied using hierarchical regression method. Gender along with gender and income interaction with price comparison moderates assortment satisfaction.
Chapter
This chapter aims to position the sense of touch within the consumption context. The authors first define the sense of touch from cultural, sociological, psychological, and marketing perspectives. The authors provide an overview of the academic research of “what is touching” and explain its characteristics—i.e. “how do we touch”. Then the authors show the explicit and implicit influence the sense of touch has on our perceptual system and mind—i.e. information processing. At the end of the chapter, the authors expose how it influences consumers’ direct experience of product in store environments.
Chapter
Previous research universally recognized the pivotal role of touch in consumer behavior and considered it as one of the critical factors limiting the adoption of online shopping. In fact, in digital environments, consumers can rely only on the product visual representation and/or written descriptions of its characteristics. Starting from this evidence, several authors have underlined how the provision of a description of a product's tactile characteristics may positively affect consumer behavior. However, previous contributions have devoted little attention to the differential influence of online sources of information on consumers' willingness to buy when a description of a product's tactile characteristics is provided. The research presented in this chapter aims to cover this gap, by demonstrating through two experimental studies that, when a description of the tactile characteristics of the product is provided, the information given by the users of a web-community increases consumer's willingness to buy the product.
Article
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Background music adds a multisensory element to marketing and e‐commerce. Applying interactive sensory‐enabling technologies (SETs) to online shopping websites is an area of interest in sensory marketing. This research examines interactive background music in e‐commerce and investigates how online consumer involvement moderates the effects of interactive music. Single‐factor experiments with three conditions (interactive music, static background music, and control) were conducted to investigate its impact on experiential value, cognitive value, and purchase intention of high‐ and low‐involvement consumers among both students (Study 1, N = 251) and nonstudent samples (Study 2, N = 218). Different music genres were applied to stimuli of the two studies to demonstrate the generalizability of the findings. Results find that interactive music enhances the experiential value of e‐commerce for low‐involvement consumers. By contrast, high‐involvement consumers show greater purchase intention under the interactive music condition due to a heightened level of perceived cognitive value. Involvement is an effective predictor of elaboration and purchase intention under the interactive music condition, but not under the other two conditions. The contribution is twofold: (a) it shows the impact of music as an interactive SET and, (b) demonstrates the moderating role of consumer involvement in the context of multisensory integration in e‐commerce. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed along with limitations and directions for future research.
Chapter
Designing and orchestrating sensory cues is critical to service co-creation, since sensory stimulation has been acknowledged to be central to the customers’ evaluation of service quality and their service experience. Moreover, sensory perception is an essential element of customers’ contribution to service co-creation. The predominant angle from which sensory perception in the literature has been addressed is stimulus centric. That is, research has been focusing on the effects of individual and combined cues on customers’ purchase decisions as well as mental and emotional reactions to specific cues. As a result, existing studies focus only on one sense or on a selection of senses. Thus, a true multisensory perspective is not reflected in research. Shedding light on service co-creation from an actor-centric perspective, the purpose of this article is to understand how multisensory design, i.e., simultaneously considering all five senses, impacts service co-creation.
Book
Cognitive neuroscientists have started to uncover the neural substrates, systems, and mechanisms enabling us to prioritize the processing of certain sensory information over other, currently less-relevant, inputs. However, there is still a large gap between the knowledge generated in the laboratory and its application to real-life problems of attention as when, for example, interface operators are multi-tasking. In this Element, laboratory studies on crossmodal attention (both behavioural/psychophysical and cognitive neuroscience) are situated within the applied context of driving. We contrast the often idiosyncratic conditions favoured by much of the laboratory research, typically using a few popular paradigms involving simplified experimental conditions, with the noisy, multisensory, real-world environments filled with complex, intrinsically-meaningful stimuli. By drawing attention to the differences between basic and applied studies in the context of driving, we highlight a number of important issues and neglected areas of research as far as the study of crossmodal attention is concerned.
Chapter
With the growing importance of User Experience (UX), Kansei design become the key elements of competitive advantages between products, and consumer demand gradually changes from functional to psychological. As the first medium contacted between consumers’ senses in the process of consumption, previous researches on Kansei engineering have paid more attention to the image of products and materials. Blister packaging is common in the marketspace, and its physical factors and texture changes are rarely discussed. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between perceived meanings and the hardness of blister package in order to explore the image of blister package through Kansei engineering and establish the relation between geometric form, hardness and the image. The results showed the importance of package hardness on consumer psychology, indicating that the high hardness package provided the sense of luxury and delicate. It is also found that the hardness of tactile is similar with the Fechner law. Meanwhile, geometric perceptions affect sense of touch. Our results contribute to the HCI community by delivering knowledge about the packaging design of interaction.
Article
Technology forecasting is a preliminary step in understanding social change. The response to COVID-19 will affect retailers and customers for years to come, forcing changes to interactions between individuals and technology. Innovative technologies that interrelate social and technological factors merit a re-examination, to explain the impact on consumer behavior where ‘physical’ and ‘digital’ are brought together. This paper explores the use of haptic rendering stimulation for pre-purchase decision-making. The objective is to identify how touching an interface can influence product evaluation and purchase intention. Drawing from an exploratory experimental design, the findings show the importance of interface touch for inferring product information or pleasure to interact with the product, confirming the relationship between knowledge and mental representation, body sensory-motor actions and online shopping contexts.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise and provide a future research agenda for (in)congruence regarding cues between products, brands and atmospheres. Design/methodology/approach A semi-systematic literature review was conducted. The aim was to assess, critique and synthesise (in)congruence, which was found in the literature to be dispersed and interdisciplinary, and to propose a theoretical framework in the marketing domain. Findings Firstly, the review reveals that sensory and semantic cues are interrelated in products, brands and atmospheres. It illustrates that these cues are the foundation for (in)congruence. Secondly, the findings show various theoretical foundations for (in)congruence. These explain where and how congruence occurs. Lastly, a theoretical framework for (in)congruence and a future research agenda were developed to stimulate further research. Research limitations/implications A theoretical framework was developed to enrich the theoretical knowledge and understanding of (in)congruence in the marketing domain. Practical implications The review reveals that products, brands and atmospheres have spillover effects. Managers are advised to understand the semantic meaning carried by cues to foster various outcomes, to estimate the trade-offs when modifying (in)congruent cues for products, brands and atmospheres. Originality/value The developed theoretical framework advances and deepens the knowledge of (in)congruence in the marketing domain by moving beyond the match and fit between two entities and by revealing the underlying mechanism and its outcomes.
Article
The online environment has long been a sensory interaction between a brand or product and its consumers through visual imagery and sonic elements. While newer technologies have developed that cater to a customer's more psychological need for haptics (touch), gestation, and olfaction, brands have not explored its true potential. Immersions and other forms of Human-Computer interaction have vastly developed and present scope for more than just a single sense for online consumers. While brands are employing these multisensory interfaces (vs. single-sensory) in certain product categories, it remains to be seen whether customers who unknowingly experience sensations online want to adapt to it. Several product categories could find multisensory elements beneficial. This study aims to delve deeper and understand the motivations of such behavior and identify the need for a customer to engage all its senses beyond the traditional visuals and sound while interacting with brands virtually for a more holistic experience. While external environmental factors such as pandemics have resulted in the inevitable loss of physical touchpoints, the aim is to determine whether sensory elements beyond images and sounds will benefit customer engagement.
Article
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Sensory marketing is one of the modern methods of marketing that attracts target market customers by creating a distinct experience and affecting the perception and behavior of the buyer's decision. So, the purpose of the present research is to examine the role of sensory marketing in the improvement of customer experience and the intention of purchase from Ofogh Kourosh chain store in Sari. For this purpose, the questionnaire of the research was distributed among 384 populations that include all customers of Ofogh Kourosh chain stores in Sari. The method of the research was descriptive and correlational. To answer the hypotheses of the research, LISREL Software and structural equations modeling were used. The results showed that sensory marketing has a positive significant effect on the improvement of customer experience and the intention of purchase from the store. Also, all dimensions of sensory marketing have a positive significant effect on the improvement of customer experience and the intention of purchase from the store. Also, all dimensions of sensory marketing have a positive significant effect on the improvement of customer experience and the intention of purchase from the store.
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Consumers often touch products, and such haptic exploration can improve consumers' evaluations of the product. We tested whether cross-modal priming might contribute to this effect. Under the guise of a weight judgment task, which served as a haptic prime, we had blindfolded participants grasp familiar products (e.g., a Coca Cola bottle). We then had participants visually identify the brand name as quickly as possible (Experiments 1 and 2), list the first beverage brands that come to mind (Experiment 3), or choose between beverage brands as reward for participation (Experiment 4). Haptic exposure facilitated visual recognition of the given brand and increased participants' consideration and choice of that brand. Moreover, this haptic priming was brand specific and occurred even among participants who did not consciously identify the prime brand. These results demonstrate that haptic brand identities can facilitate recognition, consideration, and brand choice, regardless of consumers' conscious awareness of this haptic priming. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.