ArticleLiterature Review

So Much to Read, So Little Time: How Do We Read, and Can Speed Reading Help?

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Abstract

The prospect of speed reading—reading at an increased speed without any loss of comprehension—has undeniable appeal. Speed reading has been an intriguing concept for decades, at least since Evelyn Wood introduced her Reading Dynamics training program in 1959. It has recently increased in popularity, with speed-reading apps and technologies being introduced for smartphones and digital devices. The current article reviews what the scientific community knows about the reading process—a great deal—and discusses the implications of the research findings for potential students of speed-reading training programs or purchasers of speed-reading apps. The research shows that there is a trade-off between speed and accuracy. It is unlikely that readers will be able to double or triple their reading speeds (e.g., from around 250 to 500–750 words per minute) while still being able to understand the text as well as if they read at normal speed. If a thorough understanding of the text is not the reader’s goal, then speed reading or skimming the text will allow the reader to get through it faster with moderate comprehension. The way to maintain high comprehension and get through text faster is to practice reading and to become a more skilled language user (e.g., through increased vocabulary). This is because language skill is at the heart of reading speed.

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... For text units, and only when computing individual normal reading speed, values lower than 100 ms per word were discarded for computing because they are usually considered as incompatible with meaning access (Sereno et al., 1998). Expert readers show speeds of 250-400 words per minute in reading for understanding, corresponding to 150-240 ms/word (Rayner et al., 2016). Thus, 100 ms/word is a conservative lower limit. ...
... Specific differences between reporters and non-reporters were obtained in (a) the number of reading regressions linking both contradictory propositions in the text and (b) the reading speed in the 2 nd contradictory proposition after the regressions. When regressions to re-read were impeded, readers had additional difficulties and comprehension was greatly compromised (Schotter et al., 2014), even in normal reading (Rayner et al., 2016). ...
... In addition to overconfidence, the low level of achievement in the present study could also be due to the difficulty of the monitoring task, which was harder than expected for the participants. This conjecture is supported by the low mean reading speed obtained in the present study for textual units, 106 words per minute, compared to the values of 200-400 words per minute obtained in other studies for adult normal reading (Rayner et al., 2016). ...
Article
This study aimed at testing an extension of a theoretical model for the metacognitive monitoring mechanism implied in the detection of inconsistencies when the information provided includes abstract symbols in addition to plain text. Ninety-four postgraduates of STEM specialities were asked to read a worked-out algebra-problem example and to report any incoherence, inconsistency, or error detected in the statement or in the solving procedure. A set of model-inspired indexes was defined to describe participants’ behaviour along the task. The Read & Answer software was used to record online individual processing data and participants’ reports. Results supported model predictions. Indexes correctly predicted participants’ outcomes in the task with high accuracy. Specific students’ behaviours could be associated to observed task outcomes with sufficient reliability within the limitations of the study. In addition, algebra processing was compared with plain text processing.
... Before deciding to read a paper in depth, researchers often skim it selectively [58]. Skimming is a reading technique that involves quickly glancing over text to gain a general idea of its content, extracting only the most important information [49]. ...
... Skimming is widely considered to be a form of rapid reading in which the goal is to get a general idea of the text or visual content, typically accomplished by focusing on information relevant to one's goals and skipping over irrelevant information [48,58]. Skimming is a particularly necessary and useful skill for scholars who read scientific papers. ...
... Prior results from the psychology literature have found that skim readers are not generally very accurate at selecting goal-relevant information for processing within text, and that physical limitations in the oculomotor system responsible for controlling eye movements largely preclude rapid, accurate placements of eye gaze for extended periods such as when skimming a long document [47,48]. Beyond limitations in visual acuity, skimming can also be a cognitively demanding task as readers are continually building an ongoing mental model of the text and integrating information across sentences as they read [57,58,65]. ...
Preprint
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Researchers are expected to keep up with an immense literature, yet often find it prohibitively time-consuming to do so. This paper explores how intelligent agents can help scaffold in-situ information seeking across scientific papers. Specifically, we present Scim, an AI-augmented reading interface designed to help researchers skim papers by automatically identifying, classifying, and highlighting salient sentences, organized into rhetorical facets rooted in common information needs. Using Scim as a design probe, we explore the benefits and drawbacks of imperfect AI assistance within an augmented reading interface. We found researchers used Scim in several different ways: from reading primarily in the `highlight browser' (side panel) to making multiple passes through the paper with different facets activated (e.g., focusing solely on objective and novelty in their first pass). From our study, we identify six key design recommendations and avenues for future research in augmented reading interfaces.
... The term "speed reading" comes from psycholinguistics, where it refers to fast-paced human reading, associated with fewer eye fixations, short fixation times, and longer saccades. However, while Figure 1: Our argument, schematically some of the above authors claim to model human speed reading, e.g., Fu and Ma (2018), they do not evaluate their ability to do so, say by evaluating against eye-tracking data from readers. 1 Surveying the psycholinguistics literature, however, it turns out that the notion of "human speed reading" is surrounded by controversy; there is in fact little evidence that humans can read significantly faster without also incurring a significant information loss (McLaughlin, 1969;Rayner et al., 2016). ...
... As mentioned, none of the papers on neural speed reading, some of which are reviewed below, evaluate the extent to which they simulate human speed reading strategies. While the idea of human speed reading has intrigued modern society for decades -at least since Evelyn Wood introduced her Reading Dynamics training program in 1959 -the psycholinguistic literature argues very convincingly that human speed reading is in fact implausible: 2 The reason is physical: In order to read, people need to move their eyes so as to place the fovea 3 over the region that they want to process (Rayner et al., 2016). Fixation times (150-200ms) and saccade times (20-35ms) are relatively fixed, and this puts a lower bound on reading time. ...
... 4 In other words, while speed reading courses claim readers can learn to obtain information from a large area of text in a single fixation, it seems there is lit-2 It "is unlikely that readers will be able to double or triple their reading speeds while still being able to understand the text as well . . . " (Rayner et al., 2016) 3 The fovea is the 1 • region around the center of vision. 4 Even if a reader has no processing difficulties, suffers from no fatigue effects, and only fixates on every second word, she would at most be able to read 600 words per minute. ...
... For text units, and only when computing individual normal reading speed, values lower than 100 ms per word were discarded for computing because they are usually considered as incompatible with meaning access (Sereno et al., 1998). Expert readers show speeds of 250-400 words per minute in reading for understanding, corresponding to 150-240 ms/word (Rayner et al., 2016). Thus, 100 ms/word is a conservative lower limit. ...
... Specific differences between reporters and non-reporters were obtained in (a) the number of reading regressions linking both contradictory propositions in the text and (b) the reading speed in the 2 nd contradictory proposition after the regressions. When regressions to re-read were impeded, readers had additional difficulties and comprehension was greatly compromised (Schotter et al., 2014), even in normal reading (Rayner et al., 2016). ...
... In addition to overconfidence, the low level of achievement in the present study could also be due to the difficulty of the monitoring task, which was harder than expected for the participants. This conjecture is supported by the low mean reading speed obtained in the present study for textual units, 106 words per minute, compared to the values of 200-400 words per minute obtained in other studies for adult normal reading (Rayner et al., 2016). ...
... Outside of that window, letters appear blurry and jumbled. Nonetheless, skilled readers learn to work within the constraints of their visual system to sample text at a nearly optimal rate for comprehension: 200-400 words per minute (Rayner et al. 2016). This section provides an overview of how information arranged on a page gets funneled through the visual system and into the language system. ...
... Many authors, from the eighteenth century to the present day (e.g., Rayner et al. 2016), supposed that reading proceeds in a rapid sequence of fixations because of poor acuity outside of the fovea. Acuity refers to the smallest details that can be resolved in a single shape. ...
... Between saccades, readers fixate for 250 ms on average. Both saccade lengths and fixation durations are highly variable, and many studies explore this variability to understand the cognitive processes at work (for reviews, see Radach & Kennedy 2013, Rayner Perceptual span: the spatial window within which readers process visual information as they read; alterations to the text within the perceptual span affect reading behavior, while alterations outside of the span do not 1998, Rayner et al. 2016). Some words are fixated more than once, but approximately 30% of words are skipped (especially short function words). ...
Article
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The scientific study of reading has a rich history that spans disciplines from vision science to linguistics, psychology, cognitive neuroscience, neurology, and education. The study of reading can elucidate important general mechanisms in spatial vision, attentional control, object recognition, and perceptual learning, as well as the principles of plasticity and cortical topography. However, literacy also prompts the development of specific neural circuits to process a unique and artificial stimulus. In this review, we describe the sequence of operations that transforms visual features into language, how the key neural circuits are sculpted by experience during development, and what goes awry in children for whom learning to read is a struggle. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Vision Science, Volume 7 is September 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Speed-reading apps like Spritz, which make use of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), do away with the need to move our eyes across the text by presenting one word at a time for our eyes to focus on and then change from one word to another at a top speed of about 750 words per minute. RSVP steers readers' eye movements across the text, but as reading science has argued (e.g., Rayner et al. 2016), these "saccades" between "fixations" on individual words are also necessary for readers to infer connections between words. Speed-reading devices might lead to very fast progress through text, but it is also clear that such a reading process is unlikely to produce the "slow and meditative possession of a book" that Birkerts identifies as deep reading. ...
... Reading is not strictly serial; rather, we read multiple words in parallel at different levels of processing. Indeed, Keith Rayner et al. (2016) emphasize that reading is not just concerned with visual processing -readers spend more time on a word than needed to simply recognize it as a word; rather, language comprehension is centrally involved in the reading process. If reading is not only visual perception but also language comprehension, and if reading depends not only on word recognition but also on the syntactic and semantic inferring of linkages between different elements of the text, then speed-reading devices and practices result, almost inevitably, in a loss of accuracy in understanding (see Rayner et al. 2016). ...
... Indeed, Keith Rayner et al. (2016) emphasize that reading is not just concerned with visual processing -readers spend more time on a word than needed to simply recognize it as a word; rather, language comprehension is centrally involved in the reading process. If reading is not only visual perception but also language comprehension, and if reading depends not only on word recognition but also on the syntactic and semantic inferring of linkages between different elements of the text, then speed-reading devices and practices result, almost inevitably, in a loss of accuracy in understanding (see Rayner et al. 2016). ...
Article
Reading literature is often contrasted to the use of digital media in terms of speed. While readers engage slowly with a book, they rush through digital environments at an ever faster pace. This article argues against a simple binary between slow/literary and fast/digital. This binary is in fact not native to the public debate about literature in the digital age but can be traced back from the digital revolution to modernist attitudes on literature, as they emerge in Viktor Shklovsky and Walter Benjamin. Drawing on results about reading speed in reading science and on current narrative theory, this article devises an alternative argument for literary reading as a process that unfolds over multiple time scales linked to different layers of meaning making. Reading literature, from this perspective, is not exclusively slow but, rather, works through a combination of both fast and slow processes. The article develops its argument through the example of Alexander Pushkin's classic novella “The Queen of Spades” and then applies this new theoretical account of multispeed literary reading to two novels engaging explicitly with the digital revolution.
... The study questions the viability of speedreading, which could be seen as a process similar to skimming the text. This is also argued by Rayner, Schotter, Masson, Potter, and Treiman (2016), who suggest that the only way of increasing reading speed while maintaining high comprehension is to increase language skill. The measure number of visits on a word can show skipping from a global perspective. ...
... The term skimming signifies what is referred to as reading for gist (Rayner, 2009) in previous research, that is, trying to read a text as fast as possible while still understanding it (Duggan & Payne, 2009;Rayner et al., 2016;Wilkinson, Reader, & Payne, 2012). When participants are skimming a text, it can be assumed that the comprehension and most importantly retention of the material will be lower than regular reading, and that the total time spent on the text will be lower than regular reading. ...
... Word skipping is an automatic part of reading (Abbott et al., 2015;Brysbaert et al., 2005;Gao & Suzuki, 2005;Vitu, 2011), but is also consciously affected by the type of reading, which was seen in the lower number of visits on words during skimming. Increased reading speed and fewer visits on words leading to lower comprehension agrees with Rayner et al. (2016) in their critique of speedreading, where they argue that reading speed can only be increased while maintaining high comprehension by increasing language skill. ...
Article
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Eye movements during regular reading, thorough reading, skimming, and spell checking of single pages of text were measured, to investigate how high-level reading tasks elicited by instructions affect reading behavior. Word frequency and word length effects were found. All results were compared to regular reading. Thorough reading involved longer total reading times and more rereading, and resulted in higher comprehension scores. Skimming involved longer saccades, shorter average fixation durations, more word skipping, shorter total reading times evenly distributed across the page, and resulted in lower comprehension scores. Spell checking involved shorter saccades, longer average fixation durations, less word skipping, longer total reading times evenly distributed across the entire page, and resulted in lower comprehension scores. Replicating local effects shows that paragraphs maintain sufficient experimental rigor, while also enabling reading analyses from a global perspective. Compared to regular reading, thorough reading was more elaborate and less uniform, skimming was faster and more uniform, and spell checking was slower and more uniform.
... Under effective reading, the faster the reader is, the more effective the reader is (Ashby et al., 2005;Rayner et al., 2010). Therefore, reading speed is considered as a general indicator of reading ability (Ashby et al., 2005;Rayner, Schotter, Masson, Potter, & Treiman, 2016). ...
... To explore whether the individual differences in previews in Chinese reading are modulated by foveal processing, or whether different findings of foveal load effects on parafoveal previews due to individual differences in reading skill, we used reading speed as a measure of reading ability (Ashby et al., 2005;Rayner et al., 2016) and selected fast and slow adult readers according to their reading speed. Two-character words were chosen as the pre-target word (foveal word) to keep most of the occurrences that the eyes stayed at the pre-target word (Zang, Fu, Bai, Yan, & Liversedge, 2018) before crossing the boundary. ...
... The claims of speed reading proponents rarely get through the review process of experimental psychology journals, but they can be found in many books on the topic (reviewed by Brozo & Johns, 1986;Rayner et al., 2016). Even in scientific journals, we occasionally find claims such as "reduction or elimination of subvocalization in favor of direct semantic processing from visual cues, rather than semantically processing subvocalized phonological cues, would represent reduced cognitive load during the reading process, and allow reading to proceed at a faster rate" (Ferguson et al., 2014, p. 483). ...
... We became interested in the findings of the relationship between silent reading rate and most efficient listening rate after a meta-analysis revealed that the average reading rate had been overestimated by Carver (1982) and Rayner et al. (2016). Brysbaert (2019) reported that average reading rate was 238 wpm for non-fiction texts and 260 wpm for fiction texts (a difference that could be captured by the equation that takes word length into account: reading rate = 238* 4.6/WL, where WL is the average word length of the text read). ...
Article
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Is it possible that silent reading rate is the same as the most efficient listening rate? The hypothesis has been formulated in the past, but never got much traction because silent reading is almost twice as fast as typical speech. On the other hand, several studies have shown that listening comprehension retains high quality for spoken materials presented at speeds up to 275 words per minute (wpm), and a recent meta-analysis has also shown that reading rate is lower than often thought: 240-260 wpm on average. To address the question above, we ran a new study specifically comparing spontaneous silent reading rate with comprehension of speech presented at different rates within the same participants and using matched texts. We replicated the finding that listening comprehension was not hindered at the speech rate of 270 wpm but showed a steep decline at the rate of 315 wpm. Thus, the most efficient observed listening rate was on par the spontaneous reading rate for the same texts (269 wpm on average). Therefore, we conclude that listening and reading follow the same time constraints.
... L2 proficiency is strongly correlated with L2 exposure, and activities outside the classroom (extramural input) have been shown to be very important for L2 acquisition (see, for example, Nation, 2015;Peters, 2018;Sylvén & Sundqvist, 2012). Researchers have recommended practicing reading as a way to improve L2 reading speed (Anderson, 1999;Beglar & Hunt, 2014;Rayner, Schotter, Masson, Potter, & Treiman, 2016) and research shows that extensive reading programs are associated with improved reading speed in lower proficiency L2 readers (Beglar, Hunt, & Kite, 2012;Bell, 2001;McLean & Rouault, 2017;Robb & Susser, 1989), presumably as a result of improving L2 proficiency. However, studies have found that among advanced L2 users, there is no correlation between reading speed and L2 proficiency (Cop et al., 2015;Fraser, 2007), and little is known about the relationship between extramural input and reading speed in advanced L2 readers. ...
... Text type can affect reading (Alderson, 2000), and academic texts can present particular challenges to fluency, since academic language tends to use complex grammatical constructions and specific vocabulary (Coxhead, 2000;Gardner & Davies, 2014) that can be an obstacle to reading fluency and comprehension in otherwise fluent readers (Snow, 2010). Word-identification ability has also been shown to predict reading fluency (Kuperman & Van Dyke, 2011), as has the reader's familiarity with the words in the text (Rayner et al., 2016), which means that academic language may also affect reading speed. Problems caused by slow reading compound over time when a lot of reading is required. ...
Article
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Slower reading in a second language (L2) has been attributed to lower proficiency and/or to slower language processing. This study investigates the role of linguistic context in L1 and L2 academic reading speed among 295 undergraduate Psychology students who all read English language texts at university. The aim was to compare academic reading among students in a predominantly English-speaking environment (the UK) with those in a parallel language context where both English and the local language are used in teaching (Norway). Three groups were tested: Norwegian students in Norway, and both L1 and L2 English-users in the UK. Participants completed a timed academic reading task, followed by comprehension questions. Although all three groups achieved similar mean scores on the comprehension questions, the L1 and L2 English-speaking students in the UK read the text significantly faster than the Norwegian students. There was no significant difference between reading times for the L1 and L2 readers in the UK, indicating that the difference was not simply a consequence of L2 reading. Additionally, in contrast to previous research on groups with lower L2 proficiency, this study found no significant association between reported extramural English exposure and reading speed in either L2 group. The results indicate that advanced L2 readers in a parallel language environment may need more time to read academic texts in L2 compared to L1 readers and L2 readers in an immersion context, which has implications for the time and support needed by these students.
... This hypothesis relied on the idea that some aspects of eye movements might not be optimal for sampling information from a text. However, many studies have found a trade-off between increasing the reading speed and the level of text comprehension (e.g., Juola et al., 1982;Just and Carpenter, 1980;Potter, 1984;Potter et al., 1980;Rayner et al., 2016). These original results showing a decrease in comprehension as RSVP rates increase has been confirmed recently, making use of a new RSVP application that has renewed interest in RSVP (Acklin and Papesh, 2017;Benedetto et al., 2015;Boo and Conklin, 2015;Di Nocera et al., 2018;Ricciardi and Di Nocera, 2017). ...
... This layout reduces the number of saccades and eliminates the typical backwards and forward eye movements occurring during reading, which is potentially sometimes inaccurate and resource-consuming. Contrary to this assumption, several studies have demonstrated the importance of eye movements for integrating and elaborating information (Castelhano and Muter, 2001;Primativo et al., 2016;Rayner et al., 2016;Schotter et al., 2014), with particular importance for parafoveal preview and regressions. The state of the art does not show a clear perspective about the possible benefits of using RSVP for reading, especially considering the introduction of the OVP for singleword displays used in the Spritz application. ...
... The term speed reading, which appeared at the end of the 19th century, has been discredited due to the loud statements made by numerous authors of practical courses about the ability of a person to read at an incredible speed -from 4200-30000 words per minute. Large-scale multi-year study of K. Rayner, Elizabeth R. Schotter, Michael E. J. Masson, Marry C. Potter, Rebecca Treiman [1] refutes such statements and refers to the limitations of human capabilities not so much in the technical part of reading -the ability to see a large number of words per a unit of time, but in its cognitive part. For instance, in the ability to instantly identify a word and its meaning in the presented context, to track its meaning. ...
Article
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The demand for innovative learning methods is dictated not only by the speed of changes and updates of the knowledge system, but also by the enormous growth of data. The need to navigate the vast and dynamically changing field of information requires more sophisticated skills of working with it. Reading is still one of the main ways of gaining knowledge. Improving the reading skill allows not only to work with text information faster and more efficiently, but also to qualitatively change the intellectual abilities of a person by means of speed reading. This study presents a theoretical overview of the modern scientific understanding of speed reading, and examines the psychological aspects (cognitive, motivational-meaning-building) that have an impact on the effectiveness of speed reading learning process. Our aim is to develop an appropriate training program, which will take into account not only the capabilities and limitations of the visual and cognitive systems, but also motivational-meaning-building component, which largely determines the student’s involvement in the lesson and the level of results achieved. The implementation of this program in the educational process will allow to optimize the time and effort necessary to acquire a certain amount of educational knowledge, as well as to increase the motivation and personal interest of the individual in the process of education and self-education.
... Hence, it is impossible to get a deeper and clearer understanding of the text with a speed twice or three times the normal. Thus, a satisfactory result can be achieved because the aim of speed reading or skim-reading is to get a general understanding of the text [23]. ...
... p = .01). Although this latter finding was expected (cf., Rayner, Schotter, Masson, Potter, & Treiman, 2016), the finding that video-enhanced comprehension was surprising because it contradicts findings that attending to multiple sources of information can reduce comprehension (Diao & Sweller, 2007;Kalyuga & Sweller, 2005). There was also an interaction between video presence/absence and the 20 versus 28 cps subtitle speeds (z = −1.87, ...
Article
This article reports the first eye-movement experiment to examine how the presence versus absence of concurrent video content and presentation speed affect the reading of subtitles. Results indicated that participants adapted their visual routines to examine video content while simultaneously prioritizing the reading of subtitles, especially when the latter was displayed only briefly. Although decisions about when and where to move the eyes largely remained under local (cognitive) control, this control was also modulated by global task demands, suggesting an integration of local and global eye-movement control. The theoretical and pedagogical implications of these findings are discussed, and we also briefly describe a new theoretical framework for understanding all forms of multimodal reading, including the reading of subtitles in video.
... The 'general' reader can therefore be seen as the reader that reads regularly for pleasure -e-mails, social media feeds, news, interest articles, blogs, etc. -and is frequently engaged in interlude reading of a few sentences or paragraphs at a time. Among the readers without any specifically diagnosed reading or learning difficulties, we still encounter a wide range of reading speeds and abilities, from less-versed readers reading below 180 WPM to speed readers capable of speeds up to 750 WPM (Rayner, 2016). It is often assumed that average adult readers read between 200 and 250 words per minute. ...
Preprint
Readability is on the cusp of a revolution. Fixed text is becoming fluid as a proliferation of digital reading devices rewrite what a document can do. As past constraints make way for more flexible opportunities, there is great need to understand how reading formats can be tuned to the situation and the individual. We aim to provide a firm foundation for readability research, a comprehensive framework for modern, multi-disciplinary readability research. Readability refers to aspects of visual information design which impact information flow from the page to the reader. Readability can be enhanced by changes to the set of typographical characteristics of a text. These aspects can be modified on-demand, instantly improving the ease with which a reader can process and derive meaning from text. We call on a multi-disciplinary research community to take up these challenges to elevate reading outcomes and provide the tools to do so effectively.
... The findings of the study showed that speed reading strategy (skim reading with speed) jeopardizes the accuracy of the content being read as it is impossible to get a deeper and clearer understanding of the text being read with a speed that is twice or thrice times the normal reading speed. Thus, it is satisfactory to get an average understanding of the text with an increase in reading speed since the aim of speed reading or skimming is to gain a general understanding of the text [26]. ...
Article
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Web readers usually skim through the text to keep up with the amount of available content. The effectiveness of skim reading is ensured by keeping the focus on the meaningful part of the text rather than the less meaningful part. To assure if the skim reading shows efficient results for a particular screen resolution, this research presents variations in the memory of significant data when a text is read on a mobile screen or a desktop screen. Moreover, the study aims to understand the knowledge gained from the text at a given time. In total, sixty participants contributed to the study and it is found that, relative to reading the text on a mobile screen, skimming showed improved memory for the ideas defined in the text on a computer screen. A software prototype is developed in this research study to analyze the impact of skim reading on a desktop computer screen versus a mobile device screen. The findings of the study have been interpreted as evidence in support of a skimming process called satisficing.
... After indicating their informed consent online, which initiated the survey, a total of 370 MTurk workers provided their responses and received $1.00 for their participation, which took 11.6 min on average. The submitted surveys were then screened for age, valid IP addresses associated with internet providers in the United States of America, and survey completion time so as to exclude those whose times were less than the time a fast, expert reader would require to read the survey questions [19]. Based on these criteria, data from 9 individuals were excluded from our analyses, 2 based on invalid US IP addresses and 7 based on their completion times, leaving 361 participants, 181 female and 180 male, ranging in age from 20 to 78 years. ...
Article
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The present study examined individual characteristics potentially associated with changes in mitigation behaviors (social distancing and hygiene) recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Analysis of online survey responses from 361 adults, ages 20–78, with US IP addresses, identified significant correlates of adaptive behavioral changes, with implications for preventive strategies and mental health needs. The extent to which individuals changed their mitigation behaviors was unrelated to self-rated health or concern regarding the personal effects of COVID-19 but was related to concern regarding the effects of the pandemic on others. Thus, mitigation behaviors do not appear to be primarily motivated by self-protection. Importantly, adaptive changes in mitigation behaviors increased with age. However, these changes, particularly those related to the frequency of close proximity encounters, appear to be due to age-related decreases in anxiety and depression. Taken together, the present results argue against over-reliance on ‘fear appeals’ in public health messages as they may increase anxiety and depression. Instead, the present findings argue for more appeals to people’s concern for others to motivate mitigation as well as indicating an immediate need to address individual mental health concerns for the sake of society as a whole.
... Both hearing and deaf readers rely on pre-processing of text in the parafovea to speed up the processing of text that is foveally fixated. Hearing readers use parafoveally processed text to speed phonological, orthographic and semantic processing of fixated words (Rayner, 1975;Rayner, Schotter, Masson, Potter & Treiman, 2016). Two studies have taken advantage of this aspect of reading to explore whether deaf readers might activate the signed translation of a word in parafoveal preview, and if so, whether this could influence processing of a target word. ...
Chapter
In the last two decades there has been an upsurge of research on the cognitive and neural basis of bilingualism. The initial discovery that the bilingual’s two languages are active regardless of the intention to use one language alone, now replicated in hundreds of studies, has shaped the research agenda. The subsequent research has investigated the consequences of parallel activation of the two languages and considered the circumstances that might constrain language nonselectivity. At the same time, there has been emerging recognition that not all bilinguals are the same. Bilingualism takes different forms across languages and across unique interactional contexts. Understanding variation in language experience becomes a means to identify those linguistic, cognitive, and neural consequences of bilingualism that are universal and those that are language and situation specific. From this perspective, individuals who sign one language and speak or read the other, become a critical source of information. The distinct features of sign, and the differences between sign and speech, become a tool that can be exploited to examine the mechanisms that enable dual language use and the consequences that bilingualism imposes on domain general cognition. In this chapter, we review the recent evidence on bilingualism for both deaf and hearing signers. Our review suggests that many of the same principles that characterize spoken bilingualism can be seen in bilinguals who sign one language and speak or read the other. That conclusion does not imply that deaf vs. hearing language users are identical or that languages in different modalities are the same. Instead, the evidence suggests that the co-activation of a bilingual’s two languages comes to shape the functional signatures of bilingualism in ways that are universal and profound.
... Our study differs from this literature in several aspects. First, we address the previously unexplored task of reading comprehension, which has established theoretical and empirical connections to eye movements in reading (Just and Carpenter, 1980;Reichle et al., 2010;Rayner et al., 2016;Hahn and Keller, 2018, among others). Also differently from these studies, we cover and directly compare both a task specific reading condition (Hunting) and a task-independent condition (Gathering), as well as both external (Dundee) and corpus specific (OneStopQA) eye-tracking data. ...
Preprint
In this work, we analyze how human gaze during reading comprehension is conditioned on the given reading comprehension question, and whether this signal can be beneficial for machine reading comprehension. To this end, we collect a new eye-tracking dataset with a large number of participants engaging in a multiple choice reading comprehension task. Our analysis of this data reveals increased fixation times over parts of the text that are most relevant for answering the question. Motivated by this finding, we propose making automated reading comprehension more human-like by mimicking human information-seeking reading behavior during reading comprehension. We demonstrate that this approach leads to performance gains on multiple choice question answering in English for a state-of-the-art reading comprehension model.
... Skilled adult readers can read more than 200 words per minute (Brysbaert, 2019;Rayner et al., 2016). Such fast reading comprehension not only consists of correct identification of individual words, but also requires successful encoding of word order within a sentence. ...
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Skilled readers may misinterpret "you that read wrong" for "you read that wrong": a transposed-word effect. This relatively novel finding, which supports parallel word processing during sentence reading, is attributed to a combination of noisy bottom-up word position coding and top-down syntactic constraints. The present study focussed on the contribution of syntactic constraints in driving transposed-word effects. In a speeded grammatical decision experiment, two types of ungrammatical transposed-word sequences were compared, namely a transposition either across a syntactic phrase ("the have girls gone home") or within a syntactic phrase ("the girls gone have home"). We found longer response times and lower accuracy rates for within-phrase transpositions than across-phrase transpositions, demonstrating a direct influence of syntactic structures on the transposed-word effect. We conclude that the assignment of words to positions in a sentence is guided by top-down syntactic constraints. ARTICLE HISTORY
... From this perspective, the importance of reading skills has been increased with an inevitable demand for academic success. The cognitive processes inferring reading by extracting eye movements have been studied for over a century (Rayner, 1998(Rayner, , 2009Rayner, Pollatsek, Ashby, & Clifton, 2012;Rayner, Schotter, Masson, Potter, & Treiman, 2016). The two most important eye movements of the readers examined during reading are saccades and fixations (Wotschack, 2009). ...
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In this study, we investigated the relations between reading performance and eye movements obtained during reading in fourth-grade high-skilled and low-skilled readers. We examined the relations among students’ reading speed and reading comprehension scores along with their eye movement parameters, as indicated by total reading time, gaze duration, first fixation duration, number of fixations, and number of regressions into areas of interest (AOI) obtained from two text types: Narrative and expository. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine the strength of the relationships among eye movement parameters and reading speed and reading comprehension scores of high-skilled and low-skilled readers. The participants in this study were 38 high-skilled readers (24 girls and 14 boys; mean age = 9.4 years) and 26 low-skilled readers (11 girls and 15 boys; mean age = 9.4 years) who were fourth-grade students. The data obtained from two text types were used to examine the correlations between students’ reading speeds and eye movement parameters and findings showed that as the reading speed of real words increased, fixation durations and fixation numbers decreased, yet as the reading speed of real words decreased, fixation durations increased. These results indicated significant correlations among the reading speed of real words, total reading time, and gaze duration in both text types. We also found similar correlations between the reading speed of high-skilled readers in pseudowords and their total reading time, gaze duration, and the number of fixations in both text types. On the other hand, a correlation between the reading speed of pseudowords and the gaze duration only in narrative text was found in low-skilled readers.
... The lower rate of conversational speech reveals speed limitations of the articulatory system. Speech rates may begin to approximate silent reading rates only in trained professionals (e.g., high-speed auctioneers; Rayner et al., 2016). However, for most people and dialogues, speech rates do not approach silent reading rates due to articulatory limitations. ...
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Recent research on return-sweep saccades has improved our understanding of eye movements when reading paragraphs. However, these saccades, which take our gaze from the end of one line to the start of the next line, have been studied only within the context of silent reading. Articulatory demands and the coordination of the eye–voice span (EVS) at line boundaries suggest that the execution of this saccade may be different in oral reading. We compared launch and landing positions of return-sweeps, corrective saccade probability and fixations adjacent to return-sweeps in skilled adult readers while reading paragraphs aloud and silently. Compared to silent reading, return-sweeps were launched from closer to the end of the line and landed closer to the start of the next line when reading aloud. The probability of making a corrective saccade was higher for oral reading than silent reading. These indicate that oral reading may compel readers to rely more on foveal processing at the expense of parafoveal processing. We found an interaction between reading modality and fixation type on fixation durations. The reading modality effect (i.e., increased fixation durations in oral compared to silent reading) was greater for accurate line-initial fixations and marginally greater for line-final fixations compared to intra-line fixations. This suggests that readers may use the fixations adjacent to return-sweeps as natural pause locations to modulate the EVS.
... Speed reading programs deal with the: a. limited perceptual span, b. low perceptual reaction time, c. vocalization, d. faulty eye movements, e. regression, f. faulty habits of attention and concentration, g. lack of practice in reading, h. fear of losing comprehension, i. habitual slow reading, j. poor evaluation of which aspects are important and which are unimportant, k. the effort to remember everything rather than to remember selectively (Rayner et al., 2016;Yunus, 2016). Miyata et al. (2012) examined the effectiveness of the Park-Sasaki method in reading speed, sentence comprehension and eye movements while reading short novels. ...
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Education in the 21st century is called upon to prepare students with disabilities to enter a high-consciousness society where people can learn, think and react fast. The current review paper aims at investigating the role of fast learning in special education. We trace the essential indicators of speed learning with a special focus on those factors that are most relevant to learning disabilities. Afterward, we present evidence-based training techniques and strategies that rapidly rewire the brain and speed up learning. In addition, we examine the role of ICTs as essential training tools in speed learning. Finally, we discuss the role of metacognition in training fast and conscious learners. The results of this review showed that speed learning training techniques improve all those factors that accelerate learning such as spatial attention, visual span, processing speed, speed reaction, executive functions, metacognition, and consciousness. Most important, fast learning strategies meliorate control processes and spatial intelligence which is extremely fast and powerful. Metacognition provides learners with all those meta-abilites needed to enter a state of peak performance. This study also points to the option of including speed training strategies in schools to create inclusive learning environments and help students with or without disabilities to transcend their limitations and become conscious and high-capacity learners.
... There is a great deal of evidence suggesting that during skim reading some comprehension is lost [6,[13][14][15][16][17]. One of the causes for this loss in comprehension could be that readers can often solve comprehension problems by re-reading the text that has caused the issue. ...
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It has been shown that readers spend a great deal of time skim reading on the Web and that this type of reading can affect lexical processing of words. Across two experiments, we utilised eye tracking methodology to explore how hyperlinks and navigating webpages affect reading behaviour. In Experiment 1, participants read static Webpages either for comprehension or whilst skim reading, while in Experiment 2, participants additionally read through a navigable Web environment. Embedded target words were either hyperlinks or not and were either high-frequency or low-frequency words. Results from Experiment 1 show that while readers lexically process both linked and unlinked words when reading for comprehension, readers only fully lexically process linked words when skim reading, as was evidenced by a frequency effect that was absent for the unlinked words. They did fully lexically process both linked and unlinked words when reading for comprehension. In Experiment 2, which allowed for navigating, readers only fully lexically processed linked words compared to unlinked words, regardless of whether they were skim reading or reading for comprehension. We suggest that readers engage in an efficient reading strategy where they attempt to minimise comprehension loss while maintaining a high reading speed. Readers use hyperlinks as markers to suggest important information and use them to navigate through the text in an efficient and effective way. The task of reading on the Web causes readers to lexically process words in a markedly different way from typical reading experiments.
... It is also revealed that the students' average reading speed is only about 116 words per minute only. It is below the normal speed of 200-400 words per minute for college students (Brysbaert, 2019;Rayner, Schotter, Masson, Potter, & Treiman, 2016). Again, it might occur because the students involved were freshmen who are non-native speakers of English. ...
... We used these keywords to discover all articles within the defined scope, based on their abstract or title, across all types of publication venues (journals and conferences). We evaluated these papers using speed reading techniques such as skimming and scanning, as prescribed in [31] on how to critically evaluate a paper to synthesize its main theme. The paper's theme was identified by reading its title and its abstract. ...
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There are two primary ways to save energy within a building: (1) through improving building engineering structures and adopting efficient appliance ownership, and (2) through changing occupants’ energy-consuming behaviors. Unfortunately the second way suffers from many challenges and limitations. Occupant behavior is, indeed, a complex and multi-disciplinary concept depending on several human factors. Although its importance is recognized by the energy management community, it is often oversimplified and naively defined when used to study, analyze or model energy load. This paper aims at promoting the definition of occupant behavior as well as exploring the extent to which the latter is involved in research works, targeting directly or indirectly energy savings. Hence, in this work, we propose an overview of interdisciplinary research approaches that consider occupants’ energy-saving behaviors, while we present the big picture and evaluate how occupant behavior is defined, we also propose a categorization of the major works that consider energy-consuming occupant behavior. Our findings via a literature review methodology, based on a bibliometric study, reveal a growth of the number of research works involving occupant behavior to model load forecasting and household segmentation. We have equally identified a research trend showing an increasing interest in studying how to successfully change occupant behaviors towards energy saving.
... The short-exposure method has been utilized to investigate the characteristics of perceived letterforms on parafoveal and peripheral vision (outside foveal vision), allowing examining diverse degrees of low visual acuity (Beier, 2012). The parafovea provides moderate acuity, while the periphery has very low acuity (Rayner et al. 2016). Consequently, presenting letterforms to the parafovea and periphery allows comprehension of letters' aspect in distinct areas. ...
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Background A previous study by Punsongserm (2019) examined the performance of Thai fonts on visual word recognition, including the Thai Universal Design font (Thai UD font, trial version) and familiar Thai conventional text fonts. The previous study provided empirical evidence in some characters, which suggests that distinctive letter key features enhance better Thai legibility on visual word recognition than having only harmonizing letterforms. In order to extend the results of the proposed approaches in the earlier studies, this current study is a set of extending findings that contribute to the previous study (Punsongserm, 2019). Methods As the previous study, the present investigation included two experiments that applied a blur simulation and a short-exposure methodology to measure the effectiveness of the Thai characters with the real words and pseudo words under low visual acuity conditions. The study invited 30 Thai readers to participate in the experiments with 15 participants in each experiment. Results The results revealed that overall effectiveness on low visual acuity conditions of the Thai UD font has an advantage over the conventional text fonts, corresponding to the suggestions in the earlier studies. However, the findings suggest that providing more counter space in certain characters may enhance better visibility. Furthermore, the characters with a jutting part should be defined with particular sufficient inter-letter space (tracking) when they encounter the characters that possess tight letterform or include a jutting part. Moreover, determining sufficient vertical inter-letter space of consonants with upper vowels and lower vowels may also increase visibility under low visual acuity conditions. Conclusions In order to test the capability of Thai Universal Design font in low visual acuity conditions on visual word recognition, the study employed real words and pseudo words through a blur simulation and a short-exposure test method. Although humans recognize the words by comprehending word shapes in general reading, humans need to spell a word in some conditions (e.g., unfamiliar words or unknown words), especially in blurry vision. The present study reflects the role and importance of the existence of distinctive of each letterform in Thai UD font on visual word recognition under the conditions of low visual acuity rather than having harmonized letterforms in the other fonts.
... English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners can perform speed reading to increase their knowledge and skills. Readers would like to find out information and the intended meaning of words and sentences in the reading activities using their background knowledge (Anderson, 2008;Grabe & Stoller, 2002;Nunan, 2003;Pang et al., 2003;Rayner et al., 2016). ...
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Nowadays, many English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners still have problems comprehending the texts they are reading. This article aims at reviewing the speed-reading technique as one of the techniques to boost EFL learners’ text comprehension. A qualitative descriptive research design was applied for the present study. The data were obtained through a documentation study and used state-of-the-art sources in the related studies. Furthermore, the literature review was used to elucidate the findings from the previous studies and rel ated to the present review. The data were analyzed qualitatively by describing how the speed-reading technique can boost learners’ text comprehension. It initiates with information about a brief of speed reading, the development, and trends of speed reading, then describes the speed-reading purposes and movement. The speed-reading techniques to be acquired by the EFL learners are described thoroughly. Besides, the benefits and several implications of speed reading for the Indonesian EFL learners in the classroom practice are highlighted. Finally, this article provides some conclusions and recommendations on what teachers, students, and government can do to boost EFL learners’ text comprehension.
... However, participants were instructed that their gaze should remain on the screen for the whole time of the trial. For the baseline trials, a fixed presentation duration of 60 seconds was chosen, which roughly corresponds to a reading speed of 200 words per minute (e.g., Rayner et al., 2016;Trauzettel-Klosinski & Dietz, 2012) and thus to the approximate duration of the reading conditions. Each item of the reading conditions was proceeded by a fixation cross (0.5 seconds) that marked the beginning of the first word (grid). ...
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In this article, we present the concept of reading time regularity (RTR) as a measure to capture reading process dynamics. The first study is concerned with examining one of the assumptions of RTR, namely, that process measures of reading, such as eye movement fluctuations and fixation durations, exhibit higher regularity when contingent on sequentially structured information, such as texts. To test this, eye movements of 26 German native speakers were recorded during reading-unrelated and reading-related tasks. To analyze the data, we used recurrence quantification analysis and sample entropy analysis to quantify the degree of temporal structure in time series of gaze steps and fixation durations. The results showed that eye movements become more regular in reading compared to nonreading conditions. These effects were most prominent when calculated on the basis of gaze step data. In a second study, eye movements of 27 native speakers of German were recorded for five conditions with increasing linguistic information. The results replicate the findings of the first study, verifying that these effects are not due to mere differences in task instructions between conditions. Implications for the concept of RTR and for future studies using these metrics in reading research are discussed.
... Distraction minimization (Lewis et al., 2019) would involve, for example, developing habits to effectively handle phone calls, emails, or any internet-based/social network distractions. Time optimization (Fosse et al., 2015;Lewis et al., 2019) is achieved through the programming of short breaks, with efficient note reporting and classification techniques (Lewis et al., 2019), and with using speed-reading techniques (Rayner et al., 2016). ...
... Those data could be used in learning models (Ursu et al., 2021;Yang et al., 2015) to better understand what information people use during identification and specification processes (see Table 1). Further, the rich body of knowledge on eye movements during reading (Rayner, 1998;Rayner, Schotter, Masson, Potter, & Treiman, 2016) may inform future studies that aim to refine models of people's information acquisition from text during decision making. ...
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This article reviews recent advances in the psychometric and econometric modeling of eye-movements during decision making. Eye movements offer a unique window on unobserved perceptual, cognitive, and evaluative processes of people who are engaged in decision making tasks. They provide new insights into these processes, which are not easily available otherwise, allow for explanations of fundamental search and choice phenomena, and enable predictions of future decisions. We propose a theoretical framework of the search and choice tasks that people commonly engage in and of the underlying cognitive processes involved in those tasks. We discuss how these processes drive specific eye-movement patterns. Our framework emphasizes the central role of task and strategy switching for complex goal attainment. We place the extant literature within that framework, highlight recent advances in modeling eye-movement behaviors during search and choice, discuss limitations, challenges, and open problems. An agenda for further psychometric modeling of eye movements during decision making concludes the review.
... Our study differs from this literature in several aspects. First, we address the previously unexplored task of reading comprehension, which has established theoretical and empirical connections to eye movements in reading (Just and Carpenter, 1980;Reichle et al., 2010;Rayner et al., 2016;Hahn and Keller, 2018, among others). Also differently from these studies, we cover and directly compare both a task specific reading condition (Hunting) and a task-independent condition (Gathering), as well as both external (Dundee) and corpus specific (OneStopQA) eye-tracking data. ...
Article
While it is commonly agreed upon that language comprehenders preactivate information at multiple levels, there is less consensus regarding what and when information is predicted, under which circumstances, and via which mechanism(s). Regarding when, Ito, Corley, Pickering, Martin, & Nieuwland (2016) concluded that during sentence processing, word form—unlike semantic—preactivation crucially relies on the time available to generate late‐stage predictions via language production mechanisms, setting this limit between 500 and 700 ms/word. The current event‐related brain potential (ERP) study tests this proposal at a substantially faster serial visual presentation (SVP) rate of four words/s, on par with normal reading. We utilize the experimental design and replicate the general ERP findings of the two words/s SVP study of DeLong, Chan, & Kutas (2019), with results showing similar N400 reductions to unpredictable sentence continuations whether semantically or orthographically related to contextually predictable words, as well as an increased late posterior positivity to orthographic neighbors. These findings indicate that processing of written word information can be rapidly facilitated through context‐based expectancies, establishing that if there is a time constraint for word form preactivation, it must be far less than limits specified by the prediction‐by‐production comprehension model championed by Ito et al.
Chapter
Readers with 20/20 vision can easily read text and quickly perceive information to get an overview of the information within a text. This is more challenging for readers who rely on screen readers. This study investigated factors affecting successful screen reading in order to shed light on what contributes towards the improvement of screen reading access. Text extraction, summarization, and representation techniques were explored. The goal of this work leads to the development of a new summarization technique, referred to as On Demand Summary Generation and Text Tagging (ODSG&TT). This technique makes use of a summarization algorithm and a text tagging algorithm developed by Algorithmia, which enables on the fly and on-demand summarization of text and keyword generation. The focus of the screen reader is transferred to the keywords using a button control. The intention is to provide summaries with minimum user navigation effort to simplify the screen reading process.
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To prove the performance of the first Thai universal design font (Thai UD font) on visual word recognition, the present study employed a blur simulation method and a short-exposure method for measuring the effectiveness of the Thai characters with the real words and pseudo words, compared with the Thai conventional text fonts as familiar text fonts. The results revealed that overall effectiveness on low visual acuity conditions of the Thai UD font has an advantage over the conventional text fonts. However, the findings suggest that providing sufficient inter-letter space with specific particular character pairs may enhance better visibility, especially in those letterforms which have jutted out parts (e.g., a tail, a terminal, and a loop-with-serrated-line). In other words, the characters which have a jutting part (e.g., a second-loop, a loop-with-serrated-line, and a diagonal tail) should be defined with particular sufficient inter-letter space (tracking) when they encounter with the characters which possess tight letterform or include a jutting part.
Chapter
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Scientists are facing enormous pressures posed by growing scientific communities and stagnant/reduced funding. In this scenario, mechanisms of knowledge achievement and management, as well as how recruitment, progression and evaluation are carried out should be reevaluated. We argue here that knowledge has become a profitable commodity and, as a consequence, excessive academic quantification, individual output assessment problems and abusive editorial market strategies have reached unsustainable levels. We propose to reinforce existing guidelines and to establish new ones to overcome these issues. Our proposal, the Initiative for Responsible Scientific Assessment (IRSA), has the main goal to strengthen and expand previous movements in the scientific community to promote higher quality research assessment, focused on better Science.
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CDC-recommended mitigation behaviors and vaccination status were assessed in an online sample (N = 810; ages 18–80). Results were consistent with a differential distress hypothesis positing that whereas psychological distress, which is induced in part by social deprivation, interferes with mitigation behaviors involving social distancing, it motivates vaccination, in part because it, in turn, can increase social interaction. Age modulated these effects. Despite the greater risk of severe consequences, older adults not only showed less distress, but compared to younger participants with equivalent levels of distress, the older adults showed less effect of distress on both social distancing and vaccination status. Together these findings highlight a conundrum faced in public health messaging. Traditional “fear messages” may be less effective for older adults, who are most in danger, whereas in younger adults, the distress induced by fear messages may motivate vaccination but diminish mitigation behaviors needed to prevent subsequent “breakthrough” infections.
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When first learning abdominal CT studies, residents are often given little concrete, practical direction. There is, however, a large literature from the visual and cognitive sciences that can provide guidance towards search strategies that maximize efficiency and comprehensiveness. This literature has not penetrated radiology teaching to any great extent. In this article, we will examine the current pedagogy (and why that falls short), why untutored search fails, where misses occur in abdomen/pelvis CT, why these misses occur where they do, how expert radiologists search 3d image stacks, and how novices might expedite the acquisition of expertise.
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Purpose Digital distraction is a common phenomenon in e-reading contexts, and it is worth exploring in depth from the perspectives of information (digital content), users (readers) and technology (digital reading medium). Since screen reading has close links with multitasking and potential distraction, any investigation of reading in the digital environment must factor in this reality. This paper aims to investigate the extent and effects of digital distraction while reading on screens. Special emphases go to exploring multitasking while reading. Design/methodology/approach Survey and analysis methods are employed. Findings The extent of digital distraction among college students it found is alarming. All the top four sources of distraction are communication-based activities. Female students tend to concentrate more than males when they read on screens. An overwhelming majority of participants choose to read in print to reduce distractions and to concentrate effectively. Screen reading is inherently distracting, primarily due to multitasking. It appears that repeated multitasking during academic endeavors carries substantial costs. Originality/value Implications of digital distraction are discussed, and directions of future research are suggested.
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Emerging from within evangelical popular Christianity, a rapidly spreading movement loosely known as the New Apostolic Reformation promotes unlimited miraculous power available to followers, spiritual warfare against demonic forces of darkness, reliance on prophets and apostles for leadership, and the belief that Christians must assume control of society, thereby ridding the world of evil and poverty. The study examines how these ideas are supported by a theology of personal power and experience that rejects Christian tradition and reorients biblical interpretation. Most significantly, specific strategies of persuasion are used to convince believers that the new theology is God’s direct revelation. Analysis demonstrates that these mechanisms of persuasion are more influential in shaping belief than the theological content of the new ideas.
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Keith Rayner’s extraordinary scientific career revolutionized the field of reading research and had a major impact on almost all areas of cognitive psychology. In this article, we review some of his most significant contributions. We begin with Rayner’s research on eye movement control, including the development of paradigms for answering questions about the perceptual span and its relationship to attention, reading experience, and linguistic variables. From there we proceed to lexical processing, where we summarize Rayner’s work on effects of word frequency, length, predictability, and the resolution of lexical ambiguity. Next, we turn to syntactic and discourse processing, covering the well-known garden-path model of parsing and briefly reviewing studies of pronoun resolution and inferencing. The next section shifts from language to visual cognition and reviews research which makes use of eye movement techniques to investigate object and scene processing. Next, we summarize Rayner and colleagues’ approach to computational modeling, with a description of the E-Z Reader model linking attention and lexical processing to eye movement control. The final section discusses the issues Rayner and his colleagues were focused on most recently and considers how Rayner’s legacy will continue into the future.
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In the era of small screens, traditional reading (i.e. left-to-right, top-to-bottom) is called into question and rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) represents one of the main alternatives. RSVP consists of displaying in sequential order one or more words at a time, thus minimizing saccades and eye blinks. Recently, a RSVP application has received a lot of media attention: it is the case of Spritz. According to Spritz’s developers, the elimination of saccades should reduce visual fatigue and improve comprehension. In this study, we had people read on a computer screen a selected part of a book either with Spritz or in the traditional way. Results seem to contradict these claims. The fact that Spritz suppresses parafoveal processing and regressions (i.e. rereadings of words) negatively affected literal comprehension. Furthermore, the important reduction of eye blinks observed for Spritz might contribute to the increase of visual fatigue.
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The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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A major controversy in reading research is whether semantic information is obtained from the word to the right of the currently fixated word (word n + 1). Although most evidence has been negative in English, semantic preview benefit has been observed for readers of Chinese and German. In the present experiment, we investigated whether the discrepancy between English and German may be attributable to a difference in visual properties of the orthography: the first letter of a noun is always capitalized in German, but is only occasionally capitalized in English. This visually salient property may draw greater attention to the word during parafoveal preview and thus increase preview benefit generally (and lead to a greater opportunity for semantic preview benefit). We used English target nouns that can either be capitalized (e.g., We went to the critically acclaimed Ballet of Paris while on vacation.) or not (e.g., We went to the critically acclaimed ballet that was showing in Paris.) and manipulated the capitalization of the preview accordingly, to determine whether capitalization modulates preview benefit in English. The gaze-contingent boundary paradigm was used with identical, semantically related, and unrelated previews. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found numerically larger preview benefits when the preview/target was capitalized than when it was lowercase. Crucially, semantic preview benefit was not observed when the preview/target word was not capitalized, but was observed when the preview/target word was capitalized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Recent Web apps have spurred excitement around the prospect of achieving speed reading by eliminating eye movements (i.e., with rapid serial visual presentation, or RSVP, in which words are presented briefly one at a time and sequentially). Our experiment using a novel trailing-mask paradigm contradicts these claims. Subjects read normally or while the display of text was manipulated such that each word was masked once the reader's eyes moved past it. This manipulation created a scenario similar to RSVP: The reader could read each word only once; regressions (i.e., rereadings of words), which are a natural part of the reading process, were functionally eliminated. Crucially, the inability to regress affected comprehension negatively. Furthermore, this effect was not confined to ambiguous sentences. These data suggest that regressions contribute to the ability to understand what one has read and call into question the viability of speed-reading apps that eliminate eye movements (e.g., those that use RSVP).
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In an eye tracking experiment during reading we examined whether preview benefit could be observed from 2 words to the right of the currently fixated word if that word was the 2nd constituent of a spaced compound. The boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) was used to orthogonally manipulate whether participants saw an identity or nonword preview of the 1st (e.g., teddy) and 2nd constituent (e.g., bear) of a spaced compound located immediately beyond the boundary, respectively, words n + 1 and n + 2. Linear mixed-effects models revealed that participants gained an n + 2 preview benefit, such that they spent less time fixated on word n + 1 when given an identity preview of word n + 2. However, this effect was only observed if there was also an identity preview of word n + 1. Our findings suggest that the 2 constituent words of spaced compounds are processed as part of a larger lexical unit during natural reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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In contrast to earlier research, evidence for semantic preview benefit in reading has been reported by Hohenstein and Kliegl (Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40, 166-190, 2013) in an alphabetic writing system; they also implied that prior demonstrations of lack of a semantic preview benefit needed to be reexamined. In the present article, we report a rather direct replication of an experiment reported by Rayner, Balota, and Pollatsek (Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40, 473-483, 1986). Using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm, subjects read sentences that contained a target word (razor), but different preview words were initially presented in the sentence. The preview was identical to the target word (i.e., razor), semantically related to the target word (i.e., blade), semantically unrelated to the target word (i.e., sweet), or a visually similar nonword (i.e., razar). When the reader's eyes crossed an invisible boundary location just to the left of the target word location, the preview changed to the target word. Like Rayner et al. (Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40, 473-483, 1986), we found that fixations on the target word were significantly shorter in the identical condition than in the unrelated condition, which did not differ from the semantically related condition; when an orthographically similar preview had been initially present in the sentence, fixations were shorter than when a semantically unrelated preview had been present. Thus, the present experiment replicates the earlier data reported by Rayner et al. (Canadian Journal of Psychology, 40, 473-483, 1986), indicating evidence for an orthographic preview benefit but a lack of semantic preview benefit in reading English.
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It is well-known that word frequency and predictability affect processing time. These effects change magnitude across tasks, but studies testing this use tasks with different response types (e.g., lexical decision, naming, and fixation time during reading; Schilling, Rayner, & Chumbley, 1998), preventing direct comparison. Recently, Kaakinen and Hyönä (2010) overcame this problem, comparing fixation times in reading for comprehension and proofreading, showing that the frequency effect was larger in proofreading than in reading. This result could be explained by readers exhibiting substantial cognitive flexibility, and qualitatively changing how they process words in the proofreading task in a way that magnifies effects of word frequency. Alternatively, readers may not change word processing so dramatically, and instead may perform more careful identification generally, increasing the magnitude of many word processing effects (e.g., both frequency and predictability). We tested these possibilities with two experiments: subjects read for comprehension and then proofread for spelling errors (letter transpositions) that produce nonwords (e.g., trcak for track as in Kaakinen & Hyönä) or that produce real but unintended words (e.g., trial for trail) to compare how the task changes these effects. Replicating Kaakinen and Hyönä, frequency effects increased during proofreading. However, predictability effects only increased when integration with the sentence context was necessary to detect errors (i.e., when spelling errors produced words that were inappropriate in the sentence; trial for trail). The results suggest that readers adopt sophisticated word processing strategies to accommodate task demands.
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Compared to skilled adult readers, children typically make more fixations that are longer in duration, shorter saccades, and more regressions, thus reading more slowly (Blythe & Joseph, 2011). Recent attempts to understand the reasons for these differences have discovered some similarities (e.g., children and adults target their saccades similarly; Joseph, Liversedge, Blythe, White, & Rayner, 2009) and some differences (e.g., children's fixation durations are more affected by lexical variables; Blythe, Liversedge, Joseph, White, & Rayner, 2009) that have yet to be explained. In this article, the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control in reading (Reichle, 2011; Reichle, Pollatsek, Fisher, & Rayner, 1998) is used to simulate various eye-movement phenomena in adults vs. children in order to evaluate hypotheses about the concurrent development of reading skill and eye-movement behavior. These simulations suggest that the primary difference between children and adults is their rate of lexical processing, and that different rates of (post-lexical) language processing may also contribute to some phenomena (e.g., children's slower detection of semantic anomalies; Joseph et al., 2008). The theoretical implications of this hypothesis are discussed, including possible alternative accounts of these developmental changes, how reading skill and eye movements change across the entire lifespan (e.g., college-aged vs. older readers), and individual differences in reading ability.
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The perceptual complexity of sentences was assessed using a rapid visual presentation procedure. One-clause sentences with complement verbs were shown to be significantly harder to process than one-clause sentences with simple verbs. This result indicates the importance of the matrix verb in determining how S perceives sentence structure. It was also shown that, although there were differences within two-clause complement constructions, they were no harder to process than both kinds of one-clause sentence. This suggests that the presence of more than one underlying structure sentence does not always increase perceptual complexity.
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Extracting linguistic information from locations beyond the currently fixated word is a core component of skilled reading. Recent debate on this topic is focused on the question of whether useful linguistic information can be extracted from more than one (parafoveally visible) word to the right of a fixated word (N). The current study examined this issue through the use parafoveal previews with a short and high-frequency next (N + 1) word, as this should increase the opportunity for the extraction of useful information from the subsequent (N + 2) word. Pairs of N + 2 words were selected so that contextual constraint was either high or low. Using saccade contingent display manipulations, preview of a N + 2 target word during word N viewing consisted of either a visually dissimilar nonword or a word. The results revealed a substantial drop in fixation probability for word N + 1 when the N + 2 preview was masked with a nonword. Furthermore, the masking of word N + 2 influenced its viewing duration even when word N + 1 was fixated prior to word N + 2 viewing. These results provide compelling evidence for the view that the linguistic processing can encompass more than one word at a time.
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Speakers should be motivated to produce easy-to-understand sentences, but they must successfully say sentences that are harder to produce. Four experiments assessed how verb bias influences the mention of the optional "that" in sentence-complement structures. Without the "that", such sentences can be incorrectly interpreted as including direct objects (garden paths), and especially so after direct-object-biased verbs (compared to embedded-clause-biased verbs). But direct-object-biased verbs are rarely produced as sentence-complement structures, and so they might be harder to produce as such. Experiments 1 and 2 show that speakers mention the "that" more after direct-object-biased verbs than after embedded-clause-biased verbs. Experiment 3a shows that sentences with verbs biased toward neither direct objects nor embedded subjects were often produced with the "that", and Experiment 3b shows that postverbal noun phrases after neither-biased verbs are interpreted as direct objects less than direct-object-biased verbs and so should cause a milder garden path. Thus, frequent "that" mention is not sensitive to the tendency of a verb to be followed by a direct object, but by how rarely the verb has been produced in the formulated structure.
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Previous research on the effect of sentence context on word recognition has yielded ambiguous results regarding the relative magnitudes of the facilitation and inhibition effects produced by congruous and incongruous contexts. A review of the literature indicates that the pattern of results was task correlated. Experiments in which a lexical-decision (LD) task was used have produced larger inhibition effects than have experiments in which a naming task was employed. In the present article, 2 experiments were conducted in which the different tasks were directly compared using the same Ss (86 undergraduates), stimuli, and experimental methodology. Results indicate that the LD task did produce greater inhibition effects. It is argued that the reason for this is that the responses in the LD task are affected by postlexical message-level processes that detect incongruity. The inhibition was not due to a mismatch between the stimulus word and lexical-level expectations. If the goal of an investigation is to study sentence context effects on the process of word recognition, then the naming task is probably preferable. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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When reading lists of words and nonwords at 100 msec/word, Ss reported words accurately but frequently converted nonwords such as dack into similarly spelled words such as duck or deck. In sentences, both nonwords and anomalous words were misread as appropriate words, but the bias was greater for nonwords. Word associations in lists (e.g., sailor–dack–vessel) produced a similar bias, but when sentence meaning was pitted against such associations the lexical effect was largely overridden. Sentences in which biasing context appeared only after the critical item reduced but did not eliminate the context effect, suggesting that multiple word candidates remained active while at least the next 3 words were processed. These results support a 2-stage modular interactive model: The 1st stage is stimulus driven and emits multiple weighted candidates that are combined interactively with contextual information in a 2nd stage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Tested perceptibility and readability of letter strings, words, and running text presented as sequences of rapid serial visual presentations (RSVPs) via a computer display. Exps I and II showed that 28 college students could rapidly and accurately detect the presence or absence of a target letter in single letter strings and in RSVPs of 5 successive strings presented at rates of 100, 200, or 300 msec/string. Exp III demonstrated that 12 Ss could search for exemplars of semantic category more accurately than they could search for single target letters given RSVPs on 9 successive words. Accuracy was greater in both cases when the sequences formed normal sentences than when they were scrambled versions of those sentences. Exp IV, with 48 Ss compared comprehension for material read in a normal paragraph format with RSVP sentences. Over a range of reading difficulties and presentation rates, comprehension was generally equivalent in the 2 modes of presentation. Results indicate that text can be read at rapid rates and with good comprehension when it is presented as a sequence of brief presentations of single words or small groups of words. (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
In the past few years, there has been an explosion of eye movement research in cognitive science and neuroscience. This has been due to the availability of 'off the shelf' eye trackers, along with software to allow the easy acquisition and analysis of eye movement data. Accompanying this has been a realisation that eye movement data can be informative about many different aspects of perceptual and cognitive processing. Eye movements have been used to examine the visual and cognitive processes underpinning a much broader range of human activities, including, language production, dialogue, human computer interaction, driving behaviour, sporting performance, and emotional states. Finally, in the past thirty years, there have been real advances in our understanding of the neural processes that underpin eye movement behaviour. The Oxford Handbook of Eye Movements provides a comprehensive review of the entire field of eye movement research. In over fifty articles, it reviews the developments that have so far taken place, the areas actively being researched, and looks at how the field is likely to develop in the coming years. The first section considers historical and background material, before moving onto a second section on the neural basis of eye movements. The third and fourth sections look at visual cognition and eye movements and eye movement pathology and development. The final sections consider eye movements and reading and language processing and eye movements.
Article
Saccades are fast ballistic movements of the eye. A saccade is followed by a fixation-a period of time when the eye is relatively stationary and useful visual information is gathered. Because visual acuity decreases rapidly away from the current direction of gaze, saccades are required to point the eye at regions of interest. Saccadic sampling and the rapid fall of visual ability define the temporal and spatial structure of the input to the visual system. During a fixation, peripheral vision is used to determine the location for the next fixation. In a scene that contains multiple possible targets, selecting the target for the next saccade involves an interplay between the visual properties of locations in the environment and the goal of the observer.
Chapter
This chapter explores the effects of reading ability upon eye movement control. In terms of linguistic influences, it presents evidence for initial fixations within words being affected by the informativeness /distinctiveness of sections within those words. It further explores evidence of a relationship between the initial fixation location effect and reading ability in able readers. Such relationships are investigated by comparing eye movement control with reading disabled subjects and matched control subjects. These data suggest that a number of individuals diagnosed as dyslexic show less influence of informativeness/distinctiveness ahead of fixation, and this is related to lower levels of reading ability within these subjects. In conclusion, the study draws a relationship between reading deficits and the initial fixation location effect. Collected data indicates that the initial fixation location effect can be found within a wide range of different situations and, to some extent, is affected by variables commonly found to influence reading performance. Of the two factors which this study investigates, the initial fixation location effect seems to be more affected by the skill of the reader than the semantic context within which informative beginning/ending words appear.
Article
This report summarizes the experimental evaluation of one reading improvement program (Perceptual Development Laboratories, “Advanced Reading Program”) used in an Air Force population. The program consisted of twenty-six 1-hour lessons presented via a specially designed projector. The subjects were primarily Air Force retrainees though some permanent cadre personnel were included. To eliminate a “novelty” effect, the evaluation was performed during the second year the program was used. Using the P, D. L. reading achievement test, pre-test and post-test scores were obtained and compared. Differences were obtained (t = .01 level). Data from twelve separate groups of about sixteen subjects each were reported, i.e., the program was repeated monthly. Each group showed a statistically significant gain in speed of reading without a significant loss of comprehension. While considerable individual variation was present, the groups consistently demonstrated about a 60 percent increase in reading achievement.
Article
Female students read aloud single words under three conditions. The words were in lists of either common words (AA), rare words (1/million), or in a mixed list of common and rare words. Naming was faster for common than for rare words. Time to name both common and rare words was about 70 msec faster in the homogeneous lists than in the mixed list, suggesting that knowledge of word frequency in advance speeds processing by a constant amount. Also, naming took longer for two-syllable than for one-syllable words. The results are discussed in relation to Oldfield’s two-stage model of object naming, which receives only partial support. It is suggested that speed of search through the putative “word store” may hitherto have been greatly underestimated.
Article
An assessment of perceptual and comprehension skills was made on two speed-readers from the American Speedreading Academy who had achieved extraordinary rates of reading. Three experiments were conducted: (1) measurement of perceptual extent for briefly exposed single letters, (2) identification of words within paragraphs under controlled viewing, and (3) text comprehension. The performance of the two speed-readers on the first two tasks was indistinguishable from that of normal readers, although both speed-readers exhibited greater guessing tendencies. On the text comprehension task, the speed-readers were given three opportunities to read a college text and receive an exam given to college students over the same material. Both speed-readers read the text at rates between 15,000 and 30,000 words/min. However, both speed-readers would have failed the exam on each occasion. It was concluded that the only extraordinary talent exhibited by the two speed-readers was their extraordinary rate of page-turning.
Article
The development of the gaze-contingent moving window paradigm (McConkie & Rayner, 1975, 1976) is discussed and the results of the earliest research are reviewed. The original work suggested that the region from which readers can obtain useful information during an eye fixation in reading, or the perceptual span, was asymmetric around the fixation point, and extended from 3-4 letter spaces to the left of fixation to about 14-15 letter spaces to the right of fixation. Subsequent research which substantiated these findings is discussed. Then more recent research using the moving window paradigm to investigate the following topics (1) effects of reading speed, (2) effects of reading skill, (3) effects of the writing system, (4) effects due to age, (5) effects related to deafness, and (5) effects related to schizophrenia is discussed. Finally, some extensions of gaze-contingent paradigms to areas other than reading are discussed.
Article
Rauding theory makes precise predictions about the amount of passage comprehension; the accuracy of these predictions was investigated under different purpose conditons and differing rates of presentation. Passages at Grade 10 difficulty were presented to 102 college students at rates varying from 62.5 to 100,000 words per minute using motion picture film. The two purpose conditions were: (a) get the "gist," and (b) detect the missing verbs. Four different measurement techniques were used and all indicated that the amount comprehended was not substantially affected by purpose. Comprehension was generally high at the low rates, but it was approximately zero at 1,000 words per minute and greater. The amount of comprehension at each rate was accurately predicted from rauding theory. The data do not support the idea that individuals can read unfamiliar but relatively easy material at high rates with high accuracy of comprehension, but they do provide strong support for rauding theory./// [French] La théorie "rauding" fait des prédictions précises sur la quantité de compréhension de passage; on a examiné la précision de ces prédictions dans des conditions de buts différents et des taux de présentation changeants. On a presenté des passages de difficulté du niveau de la seconde à 102 étudiants universitaires à des taux variante de 62.5 a 100.000 mots minute en utilisant un film. On a dit à la moitié des étudiants que leur but premier pour la lecture était de tirer la substance du passage et à l'autre moitié que leur but premier était de détecter les verbes manquant. On a utilisé quatre techniques différentes pour mesurer la quantité comprise - jugement de compréhension, verbes manquant, test des meilleurs titres, et test des moitiés de phrase - et toutes ont reflété approximativement les mêmes résultats. La quantité comprise n'était pas suffisamment affectée par le but premier pour la lecture, mais elle l'était par le taux. La compréhension était généralement élevée, aux taux bas, mais elle était approximativement nulle à 1000 mots minute et plus. La quantité de compréhension à chaque taux était prédite avec précision à partir de la théorie "rauding"; l'erreur de prédiction moyenne était d'environ 4 points pourcentage. Les données ne supportent pas l'idée que les individus peuvent lire un matériel inhabituel mais relativement facile à des taux élevés avec une grande précision de compréhension mais ces données fournissent bien un fort support pour la théorie "rauding"./// [Spanish] La teoría de "rauding" hace predicciones precisas sobre la magnitud de comprensión de un pasaje de lectura; la precisión de estas predicciones se investigó bajo diferentes objetivos y variadas velocidades de presentación. Se dieron pasajes de nivel de dificultad de grado 10, por medio de películas, a 102 estudiantes universitarios, a velocidades que variaban de 62,5 a 100.000 palabras por minuto. Los dos objetivos eran: (a) reconocer lo esencial, y (b) percibir los verbos no existentes. Se utilizaron 4 técnicas de medición y todas indicaron que la magnitud comprendida no fue afectada considerablemente por el objetivo. Generalmente, la comprensión era alta a velocidades lentas, pero era casi cero a mil o más palabras por minuto. La magnitud de comprensión a cada velocidad fue predicha con precisión por medio de la teoría de "rauding". Los datos no soportan la idea que individuos pueden leer material desconocido, pero relativamente fácil, a grandes velocidades y con gran exactitud de comprensión, pero sí soportan fuertemente la teoría de "rauding".
Article
The reading rate and comprehension of superior readers were investigated. A total of 16 individuals represented four superior reading groups: speed readers, professionals, college students, and people who score exceptionally high on tests. Reading tests were administered individually during 8.5 hours spread over three testing sessions. All four groups tended to read relatively easy material at rates around 300-600 words per minute when at least 75% comprehension was required. The speed-reading group had the best score for writing a 100-word summary of a 6,000-word book administered under a 1,500 word per minute condition. However, the speed-reading group did not write the best summaries at any of the other rates, 375, 6,000, or 24,000 words per minute, and they were the worst at recalling the book's important details at all four rates. Speed readers seem to be quite similar in ability to other superior readers except that they typically choose to skim at rates higher than 1,000 words per minute and accept the lowered comprehension that accompanies skimming. /// [French] On a étudié le taux de lecture et la compréhension des lecteurs supérieurs. Un nombre total de 16 individus représentaient quatre groupes de lecture supérieurs: lecteurs de vitesse, professionnels, étudiants universitaires, et des gens qui obtiennent des résultats exceptionnellement élevés aux examens. On a donné des examens de lecture individuelle pendant 8 heures et demie réparties en trois sessions d'examens. Les quatre groupes avaient tendance à lire des textes relativement faciles aux taux d'environ 300 à 600 mots/minute quand en exigeait au moins une compréhension de 75%. Le groupe de lecture--vitesse a obtenu le meilleur résultat pour la rédaction d'un résumé de 100 mots d'un livre de 6000 mots donné dans une condition de 1500 mots/minute. Cependant, le groupe de vitesse n'a réedigé de meilleurs résumés pour aucun des taux 375, 6000 ou 24000 mots/minute, et il s'est avéré être le plus mauvais dans le domaine du souvenir des détails importants du livre pour les quatre taux. Les lecteurs de vitesse semblaient être tout à fait égaux en compétence à d'autres lecteurs supérieurs à l'exception qu'ils ont choisi de maniére typique de survoler le texte pour des taux supérieurs à 1000 mots/minute et d'en accepter la compréhension inférieure qui s'ensuit lorsqu'on fait un tel choix. /// [Spanish] Se investigaron la rapidez y la comprensión de lectores superiores. Un total de 16 individuos representaron a cuatro grupos de lectores superiores: lectores rápidos, profesionales, estudiantes universitarios, y gente que obtiene puntajes excepcionalmente altos en exámenes. Se administraron exámenes de lectura individualmente para un total de 8.5 horas divididas en tres sesiones de examen. Todos los grupos tendieron a leer material fácil a un ritmo de alrededor de 300-600 palabras por minuto cuando se requirió por lo menos 75% de comprensión. El grupo de lectores rápidos obtuvo el puntaje más alto por escribir un resumen de 100 palabras de un libro de 6,000 palabras que se administró bajo la condición de 1,500 palabras por minuto. Sin embargo, el grupo de lectores rápidos no escribió los mejores resúmenes a ninguno de los otros ritmos, 375, 6,000, o 24,000 palabras por minuto, y fueron los que peor recordaron los detalles importantes del libro a los cuatro ritmos de lectura. Los lectores rápidos aparentan tener habilidad similar a otros lectores superiores excepto que ellos deciden ojear el material a ritmos mayores de 1,000 palabras por minuto y aceptan el nivel menor de comprensión que acompaña la practica de ojear.
Article
12 undergraduates were required to classify letter strings as words or nonwords under the following 3 conditions: (a) when the target stimulus alone was presented, (b) when the target was preceded by an incomplete sentence, and (c) when the target was preceded by a string of 4 spelled-out digits. Word targets were either high- or low-frequency items and either semantically congruous or incongruous with respect to the incomplete sentence. Nonword targets were either pronounceable or nonpronounceable. The presentation of sentence contexts facilitated the classification of congruous words and both pronounceable and nonpronounceable nonwords but interfered with classification of incongruous words. The digit contexts interfered with the classification of incongruous words. The digit contexts interfered equally with the processing of all targets. Results are discussed within the framework of J. Morton's (see PA, vol 43:11276) logogen model of word processing. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Readers experience processing difficulties when reading biased homographs preceded by subordinate-biasing contexts. Attempts to overcome this processing deficit have often failed to reduce the subordinate bias effect (SBE). In the present studies, we examined the processing of biased homographs preceded by single-sentence, subordinate-biasing contexts, and varied whether this preceding context contained a prior instance of the homograph or a control word/phrase. Having previously encountered the homograph earlier in the sentence reduced the SBE for the subsequent encounter, while simply instantiating the subordinate meaning produced processing difficulty. We compared these reductions in reading times to differences in processing time between dominant-biased repeated and non-repeated conditions in order to verify that the reductions observed in the subordinate cases did not simply reflect a general repetition benefit. Our results indicate that a strong, subordinate-biasing context can interact during lexical access to overcome the activation from meaning frequency and reduce the SBE during reading.
Article
In English and other alphabetic languages read from left to right, useful information acquired during each fixational pause is generally reported to extend much further to the right of each fixation than to the left. However, the asymmetry of the perceptual span for alphabetic languages read in the opposite direction (i.e., from right to left) has received very little attention in empirical research. Accordingly, we investigated the perceptual span for Arabic, which is one of the world's most widely read languages and is read from right to left, using a gaze-contingent window paradigm in which a region of text was displayed normally around each point of fixation, while text outside this region was obscured. Skilled Arabic readers who were bilingual in Arabic and English read Arabic and English sentences while a window of normal text extended symmetrically 0.5(o) to the left and right of fixation or asymmetrically, by increasing this window to 1.5(o) or 2.5(o) to either the left or the right. When English was read, performance across window conditions was superior when windows extended rightward. However, when Arabic was read, performance was superior when windows extended leftward and was essentially the reverse of that observed for English. These findings show for the first time that a leftward asymmetry in the central perceptual span occurs when Arabic is read and, for the first time in over 30 years, provide a new indication that the perceptual span for alphabetic languages is modified by the overall direction of reading.
Article
Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word during the saccade to the preview (boundary paradigm). In the 1st experiment the preview word was semantically related or unrelated to the target. Fixation durations on the target were shorter for semantically related than unrelated previews, consistent with a semantic preview benefit. In the 2nd experiment, half the sentences were presented following the rules of German spelling (i.e., previews and targets were printed with an initial capital letter), and the other half were presented completely in lowercase. A semantic preview benefit was obtained under both conditions. In the 3rd experiment, we introduced 2 further preview conditions, an identical word and a pronounceable nonword, while also manipulating the text contrast. Whereas the contrast had negligible effects, fixation durations on the target were reliably different for all 4 types of preview. Semantic preview benefits were greater for pretarget fixations closer to the boundary (large preview space) and, although not as consistently, for long pretarget fixation durations (long preview time). The results constrain theoretical proposals about eye movement control in reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Skilled readers read passages that were displayed on a Cathode Ray Tube controlled by a computer. The readers' eye movements were monitored and certain critical words were changed by the computer as the eye was in motion. The experimental technique utilized in the study provided data on how wide the area is from which a reader acquires information during a fixation in silent reading. The results also delineate different types of visual information that are acquired from various areas within the perceptual span. It was found that a reader was able to make a semantic interpretation of a word that began 1–6 character spaces from his fixation point. When he fixated 7–12 character spaces prior to a word, he was able to pick up such gross visual characteristics as word shape and initial and final letters. It was concluded that the skilled reader is able to take advantage of information in the periphery. However, the size of the area from which he does is rather small.