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The investment model of commitment processes

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Abstract

The investment model of commitment processes The investment model of commitment processes is rooted in interdependence theory and emerged from the broader scientific zeitgeist of the 1960s and 1970s that sought to understand seemingly irrational persistence in social behavior. The investment model was developed originally to move social psychology beyond focusing only on positive affect in predicting persistence in a close interpersonal relationship. As originally tested, the investment model holds that commitment to a target is influenced by three independent factors: satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Commitment, in turn, is posited to mediate the effects of these three bases of dependence on behavior, including persistence. Commitment is presumed to bring about persistence by influencing a host of relationship maintenance phenomena. The investment model has proven to be remarkably generalizable across a range of commitment targets, including commitment toward both interpersonal (e.g., abusive relationships, friendships) and noninterpersonal (e.g., ...

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... Yet, researchers have used relationshopping as a metaphor to describe the online dating experience (Heino et al., 2010), thereby suggesting that online daters may struggle with commitment issues and knowing when to leave this virtual marketplace. One theoretical model that aids in a better understanding of commitment in the context of online dating relationships, and with it the decision to terminate an online dating account, is the Investment Model (Rusbult, 1980;Rusbult et al., 2012). According to the Investment Model, quality of alternatives, investments, and satisfaction with the relationship may serve as explanatory mechanisms for online dating's effect on commitment. ...
... According to Rusbult's Investment Model, there are three factors that influence the degree to which a person is committed to a romantic partner: the availability of alternative partners, the couple's relational satisfaction (or the positive qualities that attract partners to one another), and the amount of resources invested by each partner (e.g. a shared apartment or mutual friends; Rusbult, 1980;Rusbult et al., 2012). Fletcher (2002) suggests that individuals, regardless of whether they are single or in a committed relationship, are constantly assessing the availability and suitability of potential romantic partners. ...
... D'Angelo and Toma, 2017). However, through the lens of the Investment Model, one could also posit that online dating intensity leads to less commitment, given that this model assumes that commitment is diminished if a person perceives there to be many alternative partners available should their current relationship end (Rusbult et al., 2012). ...
Article
The current mixed-methods study reports the results of a cross-sectional survey of 205 online daters and uses the Investment Model to examine the antecedents of commitment in online dating and users’ decisions to delete their online dating account(s). We hypothesized that the quality of alternatives, investments, and satisfaction with the online dating relationship would mediate the association between online dating intensity and commitment, which, in turn, would predict the intention to terminate an account. The analyses revealed that online dating intensity was associated with greater commitment and a lower likelihood of account termination. There were also specific indirect effects on commitment through the quality of alternatives, investments, and satisfaction, and on termination through investments. Responses to an open-ended question provided more information about users’ decisions to quit online dating. These results point to ways online dating may facilitate the desire for commitment while potentially undermining the long-term stability of relationships.
... This paper concerns similarities in the pro-environmental behavior of couples and examines the extent to which partners become more similar empirically. The investment model of partnership attachment (Leonhardt et al. 2021;Rusbult et al. 2012) suggests that relationship quality is an economic good that partner co-produce by aligning their behaviors in a life-cycle process of preference socialization through daily interaction (Grønhøj, 2006;Moschis 1987). It predicts that partnership commitment is expressed as a reduction in intrahousehold preference heterogeneity, because highly committed partners renounce personal preferences in order to accommodate each other's interests (Rusbult et al., 2012). ...
... The investment model of partnership attachment (Leonhardt et al. 2021;Rusbult et al. 2012) suggests that relationship quality is an economic good that partner co-produce by aligning their behaviors in a life-cycle process of preference socialization through daily interaction (Grønhøj, 2006;Moschis 1987). It predicts that partnership commitment is expressed as a reduction in intrahousehold preference heterogeneity, because highly committed partners renounce personal preferences in order to accommodate each other's interests (Rusbult et al., 2012). This psychological model fits with and informs economic models of intrahousehold resource allocation, which assume that the preferences of household members are heterogeneous and emphasize the dependence of household consumption on the weighted utility functions of all household members (Browning et al. 1994;Browning and Chiappori 1998). ...
... Moreover, the empirical literature on investment model of partnership attachment shows that the strength of commitment depends on the relationship stage of a couple (Leonhardt et al., 2021;Rusbult et al., 2012). This entails that the level of alignment regarding pro-environmental behaviors should change throughout the life-course. ...
Article
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The exploration of the drivers of interpersonal alignment processes in romantic partners is particularly relevant to policies that promote green behavior because social anchoring in families and relationships can undermine effective behavioral change. The present paper aims to investigate the role important life events, such as childbirth, marriage, and the acquisition of real estate, in explaining the alignment of pro-environmental behavior within couples over time. The adoption of a life-course perspective is a novelty. We draw on a representative longitudinal panel data set to investigate the significance of important life events and the distribution of economic power within a relationship for green alignment. The empirical results are double edged. They show that partners who are expecting the birth of their first child are more similar than partners who are not expecting children. After childbirth, partners become significantly more dissimilar. Furthermore, we find evidence of a reconciliation effect. Over time, partners who divorce and continue cohabiting align more than partners who do not divorce.
... Over the years, many theories have been offered to provide an empirical, quantitative perspective on the dynamics of couples who evolve from the initial stages of dating to lasting, committed relationships. Perhaps the most popular and well-documented theory to explain relationship commitment is the investment model of commitment processes ( Rusbult, 1980 ;Rusbult et al., 2012 ;Rusbult, Arriaga, & Agnew, 2001 ). Building on interdependence theory ( Kelley et al., 2003 ), the investment model suggests that within a relationship, commitment level is the most direct predictor of relationship stability and longevity. ...
... One's perception of a "typical" relationship stems from one's own experiences, experiences that give rise to expectations for what a relationship should be like. If the advantages of being in a relationship seem to outweigh the disadvantages, and if that ratio of good to bad seems gratifying and beyond what one expects, then couple members will experience high satisfaction, which is positively associated with feelings of commitment ( Rusbult et al., 2012 ). ...
... If either individual has better alternatives, then he or she is not particularly dependent on this relationship and thus may leave for greener pastures. Otherwise, if people perceive that their current partner is the best possible person they could be with, then they are highly dependent on the relationship and are also highly likely to be committed to it ( Rusbult et al., 2012 ). ...
... Satisfaction obviously cannot be the only determinant that affects the individuals' willingness to continue their relationship, since there are several examples that satisfied people may want to end their relationship; or conversely, dissatisfied ones persist to stay in their relationship. Thus, Rusbult indicated that in order to understand why some relationships end and others keep continuing, we need to understand individuals' commitment to their relationships (Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2011). ...
... Satisfaction was directly taken whereas the term "comparison level" was named as "quality of alternatives" and "dependence" was changed into "commitment" (Dedekorkut, 2015). As an extension of Interdependence Theory, the Investment Model proposed that commitment is influenced by not only higher satisfaction and lower alternative quality but also investment size, as a new factor (Rusbult et al., 2011). ...
... Investment basically refers to, as its name indicates, the size of the resources invested in the relationship (Kurdek, 2008). In other words, it indicates the importance and the amount of the resources that individuals put into their relationship that they would lose them if the relationship was terminated (Rusbult et al., 2011). This resources can be categorized as intrinsic and extrinsic resources. ...
Thesis
This study examines to what extent commitment level of Turkish university students predicts their intentions and attitudes towards infidelity with the unique contributions of satisfaction, investment size, and quality of alternatives as the components of the Investment Model after some demographic (age and gender) and relational variables (duration of relationship) are controlled. The sample of the present study consisted of 403 Turkish university students (83.4 % female; 15.9 % male) who were in a current romantic relationship. The Personal Information Form, the Relationship Stability Scale, the Intentions towards Infidelity Scale, and the Attitudes towards Infidelity Scale were used for data collection. Convenience sampling method and quantitative correlational design was utilized for the present study. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), two seperate independent samples t-tests, a simultaneous multiple regression, and two seperate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted for examining research questions. According to the results, men showed significantly higher intentions and more positive attitudes towards infidelity. On the other hand, no significant difference observed between men and women on the Investment Model variables. Additionally, satisfaction, investment, and quality of alternatives significantly predicted the commitment level of participants. Furthermore, commitment level of participants significantly predicted the variance in their intentions and attitudes towards infidelity (29.5 % and 14 %, respectively) with the unique contributions of Investment Model variables after the effects of demographic and relational variables were controlled. Results were discussed in relation to the relevant literature, implications and recommendations for practice and research were presented.
... Interdependence Theory and the Investment Model. Researchers working in the tradition of Interdependence Theory (Kelley et al., 2003;Kelley & Thibaut, 1978) and its descendants, including the Investment Model (Rusbult, 1980;Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2012;Rusbult, Martz, & Agnew, 1998), explicitly study the experience of interdependent situations in close relationships (Reis & Arriaga, 2014;. Their work highlights that situational, but also personal and relationship characteristics shape situation perceptions (Arriaga, 2013;L. ...
... For example, a situation may appear less conflictful in light of future interactions involving opportunities for mutual gain. The Investment Model further distinguishes dependence-"the descriptive, structural state of a relationship"-from commitment-"the psychological experience of that state" (Le & Agnew, 2003, p. 38) which involves feelings of attachment and the intent to sustain the relationship (Rusbult et al., 1998;Rusbult et al., 2012). Conflict of interests is linked to negative affect and behaviours (Columbus et al., in press;Durante, Eastwick, Finkel, Gangestad, & Simpson, 2016;Righetti, Gere, Hofmann, Visserman, & Van Lange, 2016;Simpson, Rholes, & Phillips, 1996). ...
... Theory. However, the model focuses on how three bases of dependence in a relationship (investment size, relationship satisfaction, and quality of alternatives) relate to the subjective experience of commitment (Rusbult, 1980;Rusbult et al., 2012Rusbult et al., , 1998. This analysis does not account for how interdependence may vary from situation to situation within a relationship. ...
Chapter
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Interdependence, Interaction, and Close Relationships - edited by Laura V. Machia June 2020
... Considerable attention is given to theories of commitment as there are few sources for managers, practitioners and HR staff to explore with regard to an examination of several theories in combination. Emphasis is given to investment theory (Rusbult et al., 2011;and Tran et al., 2019) which provides the primary basis for practice by manager-as-coach as she/ he goes about the task of stimulating employee commitment to job and tasks. Finally, ELPs normally housed in action plans for practical application (see Ashford and DeRue, 2012;Jordan and Audia, 2012), are presented to guide manager-as-coach. ...
... Commitment may result as one weighs the potential risk of losing investments made (time, learning, effort and other) coupled with lack of desirable alternatives. As Rusbult et al. (2011) have made clear over several years a substantial amount of empirical research in several domains have documented the strong link of commitment to investments. ...
... The investment model (Rusbult et al., 2011) advances the idea that commitment to a job, person and sports participation and so on is influenced by three independently determined factors: ...
Article
Purpose The essay is practitioner-focused with manager-as-coach applying experiential learning to aid an employee's learning and improve performance as well as helping to build employee commitment to job and organization. Reciprocity is intended as the learning and commitment of both the employee and manager are enhanced. Design/methodology/approach As a conceptual, not empirical, paper, the present study aimed at guiding manager behavior the methodology aims to examine the areas of manager-as-coach, efficacy of coaching, theoretical grounding of employee commitment and experiential learning processes. Study and coordination of information in these areas provided support for a detailed action plan for practical application. Findings It is possible to create for manager use a research results driven practical guide/action plan. The guide incorporates manager skills and commitment theory (investment) along with an experiential learning approach aimed at improving employee growth and building commitment. Practical implications There is clear evidence in empirical research that finds employee commitment positively related to work performance, job engagement and job retention. This essay aims at application of investment theory to build commitment as it is based on actual inputs and efforts of the employee. Originality/value There is very little research currently available that directly addresses manager-as-coach deliberately working to increase or build employee commitment to job, organization or the manager her/himself. This essay aims directly at how commitment may be enhanced.
... Interdependence Theory and the Investment Model. Researchers working in the tradition of Interdependence Theory (Kelley et al., 2003;Kelley & Thibaut, 1978) and its descendants, including the Investment Model (Rusbult, 1980;Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2012;Rusbult, Martz, & Agnew, 1998), explicitly study the experience of interdependent situations in close relationships (Reis & Arriaga, 2014;. Their work highlights that situational, but also personal and relationship characteristics shape situation perceptions (Arriaga, 2013;L. ...
... For example, a situation may appear less conflictful in light of future interactions involving opportunities for mutual gain. The Investment Model further distinguishes dependence-"the descriptive, structural state of a relationship"-from commitment-"the psychological experience of that state" (Le & Agnew, 2003, p. 38) which involves feelings of attachment and the intent to sustain the relationship (Rusbult et al., 1998;Rusbult et al., 2012). Conflict of interests is linked to negative affect and behaviours (Columbus et al., in press;Durante, Eastwick, Finkel, Gangestad, & Simpson, 2016;Righetti, Gere, Hofmann, Visserman, & Van Lange, 2016;Simpson, Rholes, & Phillips, 1996). ...
... Theory. However, the model focuses on how three bases of dependence in a relationship (investment size, relationship satisfaction, and quality of alternatives) relate to the subjective experience of commitment (Rusbult, 1980;Rusbult et al., 2012Rusbult et al., , 1998. This analysis does not account for how interdependence may vary from situation to situation within a relationship. ...
Preprint
A science of close relationships stands to benefit from an understanding of the situations in which interactions between partners take place. In this chapter, we briefly review recent advances in situation research. Within the current decade, several new taxonomies have been put forward that describe how people perceive situations. Functional Interdependence Theory, in particular, posits that people are well-prepared to understand situations in terms of interdependence. New instruments based on Functional Interdependence Theory and other taxonomies for the first time allow researchers to measure in a comprehensive way how people subjectively perceive situations. Coupled with experience sampling methods, which allow the collection of psychological measures in everyday life, these instruments enable researchers to paint a full picture of the interdependent situations people experience in their relationships. We discuss how studying the situations partners experience together in daily life allows researchers to find new answers to questions arising from a) Interdependence Theory, b) Attachment Theory, and c) theorising on relationship maintenance behaviours. Finally, we offer a framework for research on situational interdependence in close relationships.
... This contention may be further clarified by considering commitment in conjunction with satisfaction, in a study with more time points and a larger sample size than previous group-based modeling research. With theoretical insight from the investment model (Rusbult, 1980;Rusbult et al., 2012) and biopsychosocial model (Engel, 1980), combined with methodological rigor of dyadic, longitudinal, group-based modeling (Foran & Kliem, 2015;Jung & Wickrama, 2008), we aimed to provide a more comprehensive examination of variability in relationship satisfaction and commitment during this transitional period. ...
... The investment model (e.g., Rusbult, 1980;Rusbult et al., 2012) indirectly suggests that relationship satisfaction and commitment may follow distinct trajectories across the transition to parenthood, as they are sometimes in tension with one another. As related but distinct constructs (Fletcher et al., 2000), relationship satisfaction is generally considered to be a more emotionally valanced appraisal of happiness or contentment in the relationship (Fletcher et al., 2000;Fowers et al., 2016;Rusbult, 1980), whereas commitment is generally considered to be a cognitive appraisal reflecting people's psychological attachment and dedication to maintaining a relationship (Fletcher et al., 2000;Rusbult, 1980). ...
... Using Dyadic Latent Class Growth Analysis (DLCGA) with 203 couples assessed over six time points, we had two primary aims. First, based on theoretical justification from the investment model (e.g., Rusbult, 1980;Rusbult et al., 2012), we sought to provide a more comprehensive understanding of relationship satisfaction and commitment over the transition to parenthood (prenatal to 12 months postpartum) by assessing both relationship satisfaction and commitment in tandem among couples, as well as whether classes for the outcomes were associated. Second, we appealed to the biopsychosocial model (Engel, 1980) to organize a number of variables that may distinguish multiple couple-based trajectories of relationship satisfaction and commitment. ...
Article
Objective To provide a more comprehensive understanding of couple relationship satisfaction, commitment, and the dynamic between the two over the transition to parenthood. Background The transition to parenthood is an ideal time to concurrently study relationship satisfaction and commitment, as this period is filled with familial transitions such as less couple time, more domestic labor, and the formation of parent–child relationships. These familial transitions require significant investments that may constrain people from leaving relationships, potentially leading to diverging relationship satisfaction and commitment trajectories. Method We conducted dyadic latent class growth analyses (DLCGA), assessing variability in relationship satisfaction and commitment trajectories across six time-points (two prenatal) for 203 couples expecting their first child, through 12 months postpartum. Results We identified four couple classes for relationship satisfaction and three couple classes for relationship commitment. There were 46% of couples who retained high satisfaction and commitment and another 35% of couples who retained moderately high satisfaction and high commitment. Couples reporting lower attachment avoidance, higher relational self-expansion, and higher perceived partner commitment during pregnancy were more likely to be in classes that maintained high relationship satisfaction and commitment during the transition. Conclusion Our results contrast the prevailing narrative about relational declines during the transition to parenthood. Many couples retain high satisfaction and commitment into the first year of parenthood, with declines driven primarily by a minority of couples. Couples' commitment was particularly likely to be high and stable throughout the transition.
... Even though these many theories were primarily developed using data on established couples, the theories themselves typically do not posit a switch that turns components of the theory "off" prior to the official formation of the relationship and "on" afterward. For example, the gradual process of building intimacy via self-disclosure (Reis & Shaver, 1988) likely begins prior to the formation of a dating relationship, the vulnerabilities associated with low self-esteem or high attachment anxiety (Murray et al., 2006) should presumably cause someone to be wary of both initiating a new relationship and deepening an existing relationship, and the "investment" construct in the investment model of commitment (Rusbult et al., 2012) is a continuous variable that can range from very low (e.g., a plan to meet up for coffee) to very high (e.g., raising children and owning a home together). It is even common for scholars to derive new insights about people's first impressions of strangers by drawing from close relationships theories on attachment (McClure & Lydon, 2014), social exchange (Sprecher et al., 2013), capitalization, (Reis et al., 2010), and self-expansion (Vacharkulksemsuk & Fredrickson, 2012), just to name a few. ...
... Target-specific constructs refer to participants' judgments about a relationship (e.g., perceptions of specific relationship processes, like levels of self-disclosure or trust) or judgments about a partner (e.g., perceptions of the partner's attributes, like "attractive" or "supportive"); for these variables, a target partner must be specified, usually as a part of each item. Common theoretically central targetspecific constructs include proximity seeking, safe haven, secure base, and separation distress within attachment theory (Tancredy & Fraley, 2006), investments and alternatives within the investment model of commitment (Rusbult et al., 1998(Rusbult et al., , 2012, self-disclosure within the intimacy process model (Reis & Shaver, 1988), perceived regard within the risk regulation model (Murray et al., 2006), or perceptions of the partner's desirable traits in evolutionary models (Brandner et al., 2020). These particular variables all tend to exhibit main effects on romantic evaluations in both initial attraction and established relationships contexts; it seems plausible that they would exert comparable effects during early relationship development, although their effect sizes and relative importance remain unknown. ...
Article
Full-text available
There are massive literatures on initial attraction and established relationships. But few studies capture early relationship development: the interstitial period in which people experience rising and falling romantic interest for partners who could—but often do not—become sexual or dating partners. In this study, 208 single participants reported on 1,065 potential romantic partners across 7,179 data points over 7 months. In stage 1, we used random forests (a type of machine learning) to estimate how well different classes of variables (e.g., individual differences vs. target-specific constructs) predicted participants’ romantic interest in these potential partners. We also tested (and found only modest support for) the perceiver × target moderation account of compatibility: the meta-theoretical perspective that some types of perceivers experience greater romantic interest for some types of targets. In stage 2, we used multilevel modeling to depict predictors retained by the random-forests models; robust (positive) main effects emerged for many variables, including sociosexuality, sex drive, perceptions of the partner’s positive attributes (e.g., attractive and exciting), attachment features (e.g., proximity seeking), and perceived interest. Finally, we found no support for ideal partner preference-matching effects on romantic interest. The discussion highlights the need for new models to explain the origin of romantic compatibility.
... Evidence from both the IPV and bullying literatures suggest that targeted individuals may paradoxically demonstrate commitment to the abusive relationship while simultaneously deriving low satisfaction. Furthermore, targeted individuals may remain in victimizing relationships because they lack alternatives, and the risks of dissolution are too high (e.g., Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2012;Viala, 2015). Despite this overlap, psychological theories used to help understand individuals' commitment to violent partner relationships are rarely extended to investigations of other forms of abuse, such as bullying. ...
... The reported cognitive, relational, and contextual factors produced a sense of resignation among participants about the bullying occurring within their friendship and ultimately underlie adolescents' decisions to persist in victimizing friendships. We incorporated theoretical constructs from IPV research, namely Traumatic Bonding Theory (Dutton & Painter, 1981) and the Investment Model (Rusbult et al., 2012), as well as a social-ecological systems perspective (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) to highlight the cognitive, relational, and contextual factors that helped to explain adolescents' commitment to their victimizing friendship. Our participants highlighted two cognitive factors that figured heavily in their reluctance to leave a victimizing friendship, namely a sense of hopefulness and self-blame. ...
Article
Previous research indicates that victimized youth are reluctant to address their friends’ victimizing behaviors and are likely to remain in a victimizing friendship despite experiencing significant distress. Research investigating the complex factors underlying this commitment to victimizing friendships is required. To this end, a qualitative research design was used as previously victimized youth asynchronously contributed to an anonymous online discussion forum for 2 months. Guided by two theories used to understand staying/leaving processes in intimate partner violence and a social-ecological systems perspective, the data were captured into descriptive categories. The results demonstrate that adolescents ( N = 25) were reluctant to address their friends’ victimizing behaviors and many persisted in their victimizing friendships. The factors underlying this reluctance were categorized as cognitive, relational, and contextual. The results indicate that persisting in a friendship despite feeling victimized can seem paradoxical to outsiders but there are clear reasons underlying adolescents’ choices.
... Satisfaction of the need to form social relationships characterized by lasting commitment is critical for human functioning and flourishing, and therefore represents a goal that deserves special consideration (Bowlby, 1969;Feeney & Collins, 2015;. Just as a person becomes committed to any other means of goal attainment, people become committed to specific relationship partners who have proven themselves to be instrumental (Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2012). When commitment to a relationship partner is strong, relationship maintenance becomes a goal. ...
... For example, Stein (2021) illustrated that network-based measures produce both direct and indirect effects within the tenets of relational turbulence theory (Solomon et al., 2016). Moreover, Stein and Bennett (2021) demonstrated that network-based measures partially mediate the associations outlined by the investment model (Rusbult et al., 2011). As such, it stands to reason that theories such as communication accommodation theory (Giles, 2016), communication privacy management theory (Petronio, 2010), and the theory of motivated information management (Afifi & Robinson, 2014), among others, can benefit from the inclusion of network-based measures and perspectives. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social networks remain a relatively understudied topic in the field of interpersonal communication. As such, the hierarchical mapping technique (HMT) can help shed light on the levels of closeness that people share with their network members. For interpersonal, organizational, and family communication researchers, this gap is tremendously important, as uncovering trends in relationship closeness is pivotal to understanding the individuals/roles/relationships that bear the most weight in a person’s life. The present study utilized HMT to explore which type(s) of relationships people believe are closest to them, as well as which people are mildly close and also rather distant. Results demonstrated that most people consider their parents, siblings, children, best friends, and roommates as first-tier network members. Common second-tier relationships included cousins, aunts/uncles, friends, and non-biological siblings. Common third-tier relationships included patrons, acquaintances, neighbors, and idols. Moreover, there were statistical similarities across a variety of network relationships, indicating that there is substantial variance in the sorts of relationships that people typically consider close, interpersonal, and distant. Results are discussed in terms of both theoretical and methodological significance.
... Relationship quality is a key indicator for understanding a couple's commitment to the partnership, relationship functioning and maintenance, and stability (Le & Agnew, 2003;Le, Dove, Agnew, Korn, & Mutso, 2010;Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2012). Yet, few have studied how relationship quality is associated with the progression of the relationship, specifically to marriage or childbearing (for an exception see Brown, 2000 who studied transition to marriage in the US). ...
Article
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The meaning of marriage and cohabitation has changed, potentially altering how people with higher relationship quality progress family formation, by getting married and/or having a first birth. We employ a cross-national perspective to study how relationship quality is associated with the likelihood of marriage and first birth within cohabitation and how this differs by country context. We raise questions about whether cohabitors with higher relationship quality are as likely to have a first birth as married couples in contexts where cohabitation is widespread. Using the Generation and Gender Survey and UK Household Longitudinal Study, we study seven European countries (Austria, France, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and UK). We employ competing risk hazard models to follow respondents as they 1) transition from cohabitation into marriage or childbearing outside marriage 2) transition from marriage or cohabitation into parenthood. Results indicate that cohabitors with higher relationship quality have higher marriage risks in Austria, France, Hungary, and the UK, but not in the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. Instead, higher relationship quality is associated with higher first birth risks in cohabitation in Sweden and Norway. Furthermore, married couples have a higher risk of first birth irrespective of relationship quality in most countries. These findings suggest that in contexts where the meaning of marriage and cohabitation are more similar, couples with higher quality relationships progress their relationships by having a first birth rather than marriage, although sizeable variation remains.
... Another possible explanation is that CNM partners are dehumanized mostly because they violate fundamental aspects of romantic relationships-commitment as the experience of interdependence and psychological attachment to the partner-and not because they are more likely to have sex with other people. Indeed, commitment is consistently identified as one of the most important aspects for relationships to thrive (for a review, see Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2012), and as long as people are committed to their relationship, they are also more likely to activate pro-relationship mechanisms such as forgiveness (Finkel, Rusbult, Kumashiro, & Hannon, 2002), derogation of attractive alternatives (Rodrigues, Lopes, & Kumashiro, 2017a), or accommodation (Rodrigues, Huic, Lopes, & Kumashiro, 2019a). ...
Article
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We built upon a recent study by Rodrigues, Fasoli, Huic, and Lopes (2018) by investigating potential mechanisms driving the dehumanization of consensual non-monogamous (CNM) partners. Using a between-subjects experimental design, we asked 202 Portuguese individuals (158 women; Mage = 29.17, SD = 9.97) to read the description of two partners in a monogamous, open, or polyamorous relationship, and to make a series of judgments about both partners. Results showed the expected dehumanization effect, such that both groups of CNM partners (open and polyamorous) were attributed more primary (vs. secondary) emotions, whereas the reverse was true for monogamous partners. Moreover, results showed that the dehumanization effect was driven by the perception of CNM partners as less moral and less committed to their relationship. However, these findings were observed only for individuals with unfavorable (vs. favorable) attitudes toward CNM relationship. Overall, this study replicated the original findings and extended our understanding of why people in CNM relationships are stigmatized.
... Relationship maintenance is equally crucial in comparison to the development of the relationship. Brand love ensures that the relationship is developed, and individuals who are deeply committed tend to forgive and accommodate the brand (Rusbult et al., 2012) to continue the relationship with the brand. Therefore, brand sacredness i.e. the highest form of brand love must influence brand fidelity, as a devoted consumer is faithful towards the brand. ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the role of contemporary consumer-brand relationships in predicting brand sacredness, brand fidelity and propensity to spread word of mouth (WOM) in the context of“halal” cosmetic brands. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed research framework has been empirically tested by collecting responses from 403 Muslim respondents of diverse demographics. Structural equation modelling has been used for exploring the underlying relationships between emotions associated with halal brands. Findings – All the proposed hypotheses were positively significant, thus confirming that brand love is significantly affected by brand trust, brand image, self-congruence and brand experience. Further, brand love acts as a significant determinant in shaping brand sacredness, brand fidelity and WOM. Research limitations/implications – The study has made a significant contribution by exploring the intensity of brand love and its effect on relationship-maintenance triad in halal cosmetic brands in India. Practical implications – Marketers must understand the emotional side of brands to create synergy in their marketing efforts. Moreover, in the case of religious or faith-based brands, attainment of the highest order of brand love can play a revolutionary role for long-term growth. Originality/value – In the context of halal cosmetic brands in India, this study has offered a new perspective by extending the literature on consumer-brand relationships. The use of brand fidelity and brand sacredness has enhanced the effectiveness of emotions with which consumers have been looking at brands for ages. Keywords - Brand image, Word of mouth, Brand trust, Brand fidelity, Brand sacredness, Self-congruence Paper type: - Research paper
... Specifically, posting photos with their partner, making their relationship "Facebook official" by displaying their relationship status on their profile, and posting more comments or images on their partner's profile increased feelings of commitment to the relationship. Drawing from Rusbult's (1980Rusbult's ( , 2012 model of commitment, it follows that these social media behaviors are potential proxies of investment behaviors. ...
Article
According to Rusbult's (1980) investment model, relationships are built and maintained through continual investment in one partner over potential alternative partners. Social media have continued to become more integrated into people's personal lives, with romantic relationship processes often unfolding in this new landscape. A large body of extant literature has explored how social media influence ongoing romantic relationships, but less is known about how social media facilitate relationship transitions (i.e., initiation, dissolution) and associated investment behaviors. In a large and diverse sample (N = 1521), we examine young adults' (18–29 years) social media investment behaviors around the beginnings and ends of their relationships, with a particular focus on how gender, age, and sexual orientation influence behaviors such as posting and removing of images with partners, following and un-following partners and members of partners' social networks, direct messaging, and commenting on partners' posts. Our results suggest that men and sexual minorities more often engage in investment behaviors earlier in the relationship and after relationship dissolution. However, women and sexual minorities more often engage in disinvestment behaviors after dissolution, including removing traces of an ex-partner from one's page and blocking them on social media entirely. Our results provide further understanding of how young American adults are enacting each relationship stage on social media and how the intersection of social media and romantic relationships differs by demographic factors.
... Relationship maintenance is equally crucial in comparison to the development of the relationship. Brand love ensures that the relationship is developed, and individuals who are deeply committed tend to forgive and accommodate the brand (Rusbult et al., 2012) to continue the relationship with the brand. Therefore, brand sacredness i.e. the highest form of brand love must influence brand fidelity, as a devoted consumer is faithful towards the brand. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the role of contemporary consumer-brand relationships in predicting brand sacredness, brand fidelity and propensity to spread word of mouth (WOM) in the context of “halal” cosmetic brands. Design/methodology/approach The proposed research framework has been empirically tested by collecting responses from 403 Muslim respondents of diverse demographics. Structural equation modelling has been used for exploring the underlying relationships between emotions associated with halal brands. Findings All the proposed hypotheses were positively significant, thus confirming that brand love is significantly affected by brand trust, brand image, self-congruence and brand experience. Further, brand love acts as a significant determinant in shaping brand sacredness, brand fidelity and WOM. Research limitations/implications The study has made a significant contribution by exploring the intensity of brand love and its effect on relationship-maintenance triad in halal cosmetic brands in India. Practical implications Marketers must understand the emotional side of brands to create synergy in their marketing efforts. Moreover, in the case of religious or faith-based brands, attainment of the highest order of brand love can play a revolutionary role for long-term growth. Originality/value In the context of halal cosmetic brands in India, this study has offered a new perspective by extending the literature on consumer-brand relationships. The use of brand fidelity and brand sacredness has enhanced the effectiveness of emotions with which consumers have been looking at brands for ages.
... Gritty people can also be considered high in commitment to their goals. While commitment reflects the strength of a person's psychological/emotional connection towards organizations (Eisenberger et al., 2010) or people (Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2011), gritty individuals hold a more precise and passionate commitment to their specific long-term goals (Duckworth & Gross, 2014). Mental toughness is also distinct from grit; mental toughness varies within individuals over time and is best conceptualized as a state-like property (Anthony, Gucciardi, & Gordon, 2016;Gucciardi, Hanton, Gordon, Mallett, & Temby, 2015) whereas grit is considered to be a comparatively unwavering stable trait (Duckworth et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
Grit—defined by Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, and Kelly (2007) as “perseverance and passion for long-term goals” (p. 1087)—has been studied extensively in a variety of achievement settings. Despite the interest that grit has received from researchers over the last decade, a critical conceptual question remains largely unexplored: namely, is grit better conceptualized and measured as a global (i.e., domain-general) construct or as a domain-specific construct? To address this question, this research sought to determine if (a) self-reported grit levels would differ as a function of the situational context that people use when considering their grit responses, and (b) domain-specific measures of grit would explain variance in domain-matched achievement-related criterion variables beyond the variance explained by a global measure of grit. A sample of 251 (149 male, 102 female) intercollegiate (varsity) student-athletes (M age = 20.34 years, SD = 2.0) completed three versions of the Grit Scale (Duckworth et al., 2007): one version was based upon Duckworth et al.’s original domain-general conceptualization of grit (i.e., no specific situational context was provided to respondents), the second version was situated in the context of sport, and the third version was situated in the context of school (i.e., academic settings). Results of a repeated-measures MANOVA with follow-up mean-contrasts (i.e., dependent t-tests with Bonferroni corrections) revealed that student-athletes had significantly higher mean levels of grit in sport than in school and life in general (ps < .001). Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the school measure of grit explained significant amounts of unique variance in Grade Point Average beyond the variance explained by the global measure of grit, and the sport measure of grit explained a significant amount of unique variance in perfectionistic strivings in sport beyond the variance explained by the global measure of grit (ps < .05). Collectively, the results lend support for the domain-specific conceptualization and measurement of grit in sport and school settings.
... Dyadic adjustment consists of consensus building, relationship satisfaction, cohesion, and affect expression (Hunsley, Best, Lefebvre, & Vito, 2001;Spanier, 1976), and uniquely accounts for how individuals adapt to their romantic relationships. Relationship commitment is an emotional bond an individual has with their partner, and their desire to persist in that relationship over a course of time (Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2011). Comparatively, dyadic trust encompasses an individual's confidence and reliance toward one's partner (Rempel, Holmes, & Zanna, 1985), including the belief that one's partner is dependable and faithful (Simpson, 2007). ...
Article
Purpose/objective: Little is known about romantic relationship adjustment or perceptions of relationship quality (e.g., commitment and trust) among sexual minority persons with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore if collective self-esteem, disability adjustment, attachment styles, and cultural humility served as unique correlates and predictors of relationship adjustment and relationship quality among sexual minority persons (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer) with disabilities. Method: Ninety-two participants identifying as sexual minority persons living with a variety of disabilities (e.g., physical, psychiatric, medical, neurological), and who were partnered with sexual minority persons not living with a disability, were recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk to complete an electronic questionnaire. Results: Responses of 92 participants were analyzed using bivariate correlations and 3 separate blockwise hierarchical regression models. To varying degrees, collective self-esteem, attachment styles, and cultural humility served as significant correlates and predictors of dyadic adjustment, commitment, and trust. Implications: Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. Rehabilitation psychologists and other health care providers are encouraged to consider collective self-esteem, attachment styles, and cultural humility when working with sexual minority persons with disabilities in romantic relationships. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Our results coincide with those of Zembrodt (2019) in obtaining evidence that committed students regard the benefits of a degree as greater than the costs, and regard persistence as an investment in the future. Along with Rusbult (2011), we assume that the student's level of commitment may be a predictor of whether or not he/she drops out. Moreover, our results coincide with some of the assumptions from the research of Figuera and Álvarez González (2014), Íñiguez, Elboj andValero (2016), Torrado andFiguera (2019) andFreixa, Dorio andCorti (2019), in regarding family support as a variable that influences perseverance. ...
... Also, our findings rely on cross-sectional, individual-level data, which therefore prevents us from establishing causality and determining how these processes unfold over time (Maxwell & Cole, 2007;O'Laughlin et al., 2018), or examining dyadic processes. Past research has shown that individuals highly committed to their relationships are more likely to activate different relationship protection mechanisms, including constructive accommodation to deal with a conflict (Rusbult et al., 2012). Hence, it is possible that individuals who were highly (vs. ...
Article
Lifestyle changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic had mostly negative consequences for individual, relationship, and sexual functioning. However, some individuals have reported increases in sexual desire and made new additions to their sex lives. Given that stress-provoking situations can sometimes make mortality more salient and heighten sexual desire, it is possible that lifestyle changes and fear of COVID-19 infection may have benefited some relationships. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 303 romantically involved adults (58.1% men) and found that lifestyle changes were associated with negative changes in one’s sex life, unrelated to wanting to spend time with one’s partner, and positively associated with relationship quality. Lifestyle changes were also positively associated with sexual desire, but only for participants with high (vs. low) fear of COVID-19 infection. For these participants, sexual desire was associated with positive changes in one’s sex life and wanting to spend time with one’s partner, but not with overall relationship quality. Results were consistent after controlling for pandemic-related anxiety and demographic variables. This study advances literature focused on the importance of romantic relationships in stress-provoking situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic by shedding light on the association between sexual desire and personal and relational well-being.
... Moreover, this cross-cultural research done across three Asian countries could overcome the scarcity of global comparative studies on the growing trend of singlehood studies (Muradyan and Yashkina, 2020) whenever cultural variations exist . Evidently, the IMC model of Rusbult et al. (2011) has been used in studies involving non-Western samples, for instance the Chinese population in the study of Lin and Rusbult (1995), the Taiwanese samples in the study of Le and Agnew (2001) as well as the Chinese and Japanese population in the study of Apostolou et al. (2021). The model is thus deemed appropriate to be utilized in this study. ...
Article
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With both theories and empirical studies supporting the benefits of having a romantic relationship, there remains an increasing tendency of staying single being documented globally. It is thus important to understand the antecedent factors of such voluntary single movement. Guided by the Investment Model of Commitment (IMC) process, the roles of subjective socioeconomic status (SSES), relational mobility, and desirability of control in attitudes toward singlehood were investigated. A total of 1,108 undergraduate students from Malaysia ( n =444), Japan ( n =316), and India ( n =348) answered an online survey consisting of the Attitudes toward Singlehood Scale, MacArthur Scale of SSES, Relational Mobility Scale, Desirability of Control Scale, Mini-Social Phobia Inventory, and Single Item Narcissism Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a persistent positive relationship between desirability of control, but not socioeconomic status and relational mobility, with attitudes toward singlehood, even after statistically excluding the effects of social anxiety and narcissism. A similar pattern was also observed among those who were currently single. Moreover, an interaction effect of socioeconomic status and relational mobility was found in further exploratory analysis. The results highlight that retaining the autonomy and flexibility of managing one’s own life and financial concern are the key reasons young adults prefer staying single to engaging in a romantic relationship. Implications and recommendations for future research are also presented in this study.
... tends to be influenced by three independent factors: the individual's satisfaction level with that target, quality of alternatives (other available people, organizations, etc.), and the size of the individual's personal investment in the target (seeFigure 13). Commitment, in turn, is believed to link (i.e., mediate) the effects of those factors to the individual's actual behavior (i.e., staying in a relationship/organization, or otherwise persisting in the target behavior(Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2012). ...
Technical Report
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Also available here: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/249936.pdf
... For some people, these losses may be very important, for others, less so. Much depends on how much the person has invested in the church (Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2011;Rusbult & Farrell, 1983). It also depends on the quality of alternative churches that exist (Rusbult, Martz, & Agnew, 1998). ...
Preprint
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Although wavering personal commitment to a local body of believers has been a concern of Christian leaders since New Testament times, increasing individualism and other cultural changes are affecting individual Christians’ commitment to their churches in new ways. This study examines church commitment using the multidimensional construct of organizational commitment to examine characteristics of churches, church leaders, and church members that may influence such commitment. Specifically, church size, perceptions of pastoral humility, church tenure (the time one has attended a church), age, and gender are considered as possible predictors of church commitment. This commitment is measured as affective commitment (one’s emotional attachment to the church), continuation commitment (the felt-need to stay at the church), and normative commitment (one’s belief that staying at the church is the right thing to do). In a study of evangelical Christians in the U.S. (N = 244), a regression analysis indicates that higher affective commitment is associated with perceptions of greater pastoral humility and member tenure. Continuation commitment decreases as church size goes up. Higher normative commitment is associated with perceptions of greater pastoral humility, smaller churches, and longer member tenure. Overall, higher church commitment is best predicted by perceptions of pastoral humility, then by tenure and church size, with larger churches having less committed attenders. No significant differences in church commitment were associated with age or gender.
... However, that is not to say there is complete transparency in dyads; ambiguity related to motives, expectations, and circumstances may be present [49]. us, in order to maintain cooperative dyadic relationships long term, partners remain attuned to both their own and the other's behavior, while also seeking an understanding of what motivates a particular behavior and how it influences the pair's future behavior [26,[49][50][51][52][53][54]. ...
Article
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There is a long-standing debate in philosophy and the social sciences about how selfishness and cooperation function in dyadic social exchanges. Dyads are the foundation of our social lives, and reciprocity has long been considered the dominant strategy for dyadic interactions. We will argue the repertoire of human behavior during social exchanges ranges from punishment to generosity, and that the nuances of the relationship and interaction will dictate which behavior is likely to occur. We will examine emotional consequences of punishment, reciprocity, and forgiveness in long-term dyadic social exchanges. Finally, we argue that dyads move beyond reciprocity to a more forgiving, generous strategy to reestablish cooperation, and continue the relationship when noncooperation arises, once the motivations shift has occurred.
... Rusbult's investment model may explain the link between perceived partner availability and infidelity-related cognitions. The model suggests that, in addition to relational satisfaction and investment of resources, one important factor influencing a person's commitment to their romantic relationship is the availability of alternative partners (Rusbult et al., 2012). Previous studies have found that a decrease in the number and quality of alternative partners resulted in an increase in commitment to the current relationship (Aron & Aron, 2010;Rusbult, 1980). ...
Article
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Narratives depicting an imbalanced sex ratio in a romantically-themed context (e.g., the “love triangle”) are featured in various types of entertainment media. Exposure to media messages depicting skewed sex ratios have been shown to influence romantic and sexual preferences and selectivity among audiences. The current study examined the extent to which individuals' intention to commit infidelity is influenced by these types of narratives. In an experiment, participants were exposed to descriptions of film narratives depicting a skewed (male-biased vs. female-biased) sex ratio. Participants’ intention to engage in infidelity was significantly and directly influenced by exposure to an abundance of partners; however, perceptions of actual sex ratio did not mediate these effects. Findings are discussed in light of biological market theory and priming.
... Researches about the relationship between marital quality and commitment have reached inconsistent conclusions. Rusbult (1980) investment model of commitment depicts the relationship between marital quality and commitment, and they may influence each other (Rusbult et al., 2011). Sabatelli and Shehan (2009) found that satisfaction is connected to commitment, whereas commitment extends beyond satisfaction. ...
Article
Based on the actor-partner interdependence model, this paper studied the relationship between marital commitment, sacrifice behavior and marital quality of military couples. A convenience sample of 171 Chinese military couples from Guangdong, Jiangsu and Sichuan province was used. All participants completed the self-report questionnaires independently including the Dimension of Commitment Inventory (DCI), the Couples Sacrifice Behavior Scale (CSBS) and the Evaluation and Nurturing Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH). Results showed that the scores of marital commitment and marital quality of male soldiers were significantly higher than that of their spouses. Compared to their spouses, male soldiers reported higher frequency of sacrifice behaviors and perceiving sacrifice behaviors of spouses. Furthermore, the marital commitment of military couples had significant influence on their own marital quality and frequency of perceiving each other's sacrifice behavior Military couples' perception of the frequency of each other's sacrifice behavior partially mediated the effect of marital commitment on their marital quality. Male soldiers' perception of spouse's sacrifice behavior frequency significantly predicted the marital quality of their spouses.
... Researches about the relationship between marital quality and commitment have reached inconsistent conclusions. Rusbult (1980) investment model of commitment depicts the relationship between marital quality and commitment, and they may influence each other (Rusbult et al., 2011). Sabatelli and Shehan (2009) found that satisfaction is connected to commitment, whereas commitment extends beyond satisfaction. ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the actor-partner interdependence model, this paper studied the relationship between marital commitment, sacrifice behavior and marital quality of military couples. A convenience sample of 171 Chinese military couples from Guangdong, Jiangsu and Sichuan province was used. All participants completed the self-report questionnaires independently including the Dimension of Commitment Inventory (DCI), the Couples Sacrifice Behavior Scale (CSBS) and the Evaluation and Nurturing Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH). Results showed that the scores of marital commitment and marital quality of male soldiers were significantly higher than that of their spouses. Compared to their spouses, male soldiers reported higher frequency of sacrifice behaviors and perceiving sacrifice behaviors of spouses. Furthermore, the marital commitment of military couples had significant influence on their own marital quality and frequency of perceiving each other’s sacrifice behavior Military couples’ perception of the frequency of each other’s sacrifice behavior partially mediated the effect of marital commitment on their marital quality. Male soldiers’ perception of spouse’s sacrifice behavior frequency significantly predicted the marital quality of their spouses.
... mencari pasangan relasi lain), dan risiko parsial yang ditandai dengan melemahnya derajat kedekatan dan kenyamanan (Nurjaman, 2016). Kepercayaan tidak hanya dipengaruhi oleh atribut personal-relasional seperti integritas (Rahmanawati dkk., 2020), seperti integritas (Firmansyah dkk., 2019) dan tanggungjawab (Zeng & Xia, 2019), melainkan juga dipengaruhi oleh kepuasan relasional (Liang, Choi, & Joppe, 2018;Ling, 2015), yang tidak lain merupakan salah satu basis dependensi pada relasi dekat, di samping ukuran investasi dan kualitas relasi alternatif (Rusbult, Agnew, & Arriaga, 2012). ...
Article
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji dan memprediksi kepercayaan dan komitmen pada relasi dekat dalam dua tahap studi. Studi 1 dilakukan untuk menguji jalur antara penyesuaian, dependensi, kepercayaan, dan komitmen pada relasi dekat dengan menggunakan Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Studi 2 dilakukan untuk memprediksi tingkat kepercayaan dan tingkat komitmen dengan menambah jenis kelamin dan jenis relasi sebagai prediktor dengan implementasi Jaringan Saraf Tiruan (JST) model Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), yang dilakukan dalam 27 percobaan (3 hidden layer x 3 learning rate x 3 epoch) untuk masing-masing tingkat kepercayaan dan tingkat komitmen. Studi 1 dan Studi 2 dilakukan terhadap 417 responden (103 pria, 314 wanita; 97 pacaran, 320 persahabatan). Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner adaptasi Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (11 aitem; α = 0,78), Investment Model Scale (15 aitem; αdependensi = 0,886; αkomitmen = 0,933), dan Trust in Close Relationship Scale (13 aitem; α = 0,917). Hasil Studi 1 menunjukkan pengaruh penyesuaian dan dependensi terhadap kepercayaan; serta pengaruh dependensi dan kepercayaan terhadap komitmen pada relasi dekat. Hasil studi 2 menunjukkan model JST terbaik untuk memprediksi tingkat kepercayaan ialah dengan konfigurasi 4 hidden layer units, 0,75 learning rate, dan 1000 epochs dengan tingkat akurasi sebesar 75,85%; sementara, model JST terbaik untuk memprediksi tingkat komitmen ialah dengan konfigurasi 4 hidden layer units, 0,75 learning rate, dan 2500 epochs dengan tingkat akurasi sebesar 79,95%. Kata kunci: kepercayaan, komitmen, relasi dekat. Abstract This research aimed to examine and predict trust and commitment in close relationships under two studies. Study 1 examined the path of adjustment, dependence, trust, and commitment in close relationships using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Study 2 was conducted to predict trust and commitment levels by adding gender and type of relationships as predictors by implementing Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) model, which was conducted in 27 experiments (3 hidden layers x 3 learning levels x 3 epochs) for each both trust and commitment level. Study 1 and Study 2 were conducted on 417 respondents (103 male, 314 female, 97 dating, 320 friendships). Data collection was carried out using the adaptation questionnaire of the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (11 items; α = 0.78), Investment Model Scale (15 items; αdependence = 0,886; αcommitment = 0,933), and Trust in Close Relationship Scale (13 items; α = 0.917). The result of Study 1 showed the effect of adjustment and dependence on trust; and the effect of dependence and trust on commitment in close relationships. The result of Study 2 showed that the best ANN model to predict trust level is by using the configuration of 4 hidden layer units, 0.75 learning rates, and 1000 epochs with an accuracy rate of 75.85%; while the best ANN model to predict commitment level is by the configuration of 4 hidden layer units, 0.75 learning rates, and 2500 epochs with an accuracy rate of 79.95%.
... But in literature focused on individual decisions to leave armed groups or stay within them, considerations of gender or women members remain largely absent-even though leftist groups recruit far more women than other types of ideologies, and disillusionment with group ideology has been identified as a key factor in desertion (Humphreys and Weinstein 2007;Jacques and Taylor 2013;Azm 2015;2016a, Henshaw 2016b. Types of commitment to the group-such as economic, personal, or ideological commitment-are considered significant variables in these choices, as are ethnic and religious identities (Ebaugh 1988;Rapoport 1994;Speckhard 2008;Bjørgo 2009;Vertigans 2011;Rusbult, Agnew, and Arriaga 2012;van Stekelenburg and Klandermans 2013;Altier, Thoroughgood, and Horgan 2014;Bubolz and Simi 2015;Oppenheim et al. 2015). In addition, networks both inside and outside the group appear to influence decisions to leave or stay, as well as trauma or high costs of membership (Demant et al. 2008;Bjørgo 2009;Bovenkerk 2011;Altier, Thoroughgood, and Horgan 2014;Ferguson, Burgess, and Hollywood 2015;McLauchlin 2015;Koehler, Ohl, and Albrecht 2016;Ohl 2016;Chernov Hwang 2018). ...
Article
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The growing literature on desertion from insurgent groups focuses almost exclusively on male deserters, with few comparisons to combatants who choose to stay and little consideration of women combatants or the gendered norms and narratives that restrict combatants’ options. As governments increasingly emphasize “counter-narratives” to prevent radicalization and encourage disengagement from non-state armed groups, there is insufficient empirical evidence on how such framing contests between governments and insurgents might affect how recruits calculate their options. With “deradicalization” programs proliferating globally, and disarmament, disengagement, and reintegration (DDR) programs continuing to perpetuate gender stereotypes, it is critical to examine why some men and women disengage from violence while others stay, how they evaluate these decisions, and how gendered norms affect these decisions. Based on over 100 interviews with men and women ex-combatants across seven departments of Colombia, this article examines the effects of framing contests between the FARC guerrillas and the Colombian government, in which gender norms and gendered power dynamics play key roles. This paper argues that these gendered framing contests are critical to individual combatants’ disengagement decisions and, in particular, influence how women combatants perceive their alternatives and manage their exit pathways out of non-state armed groups. Las crecientes publicaciones sobre la deserción de combatientes de los grupos rebeldes se centran casi exclusivamente en los desertores hombres, con pocas comparaciones con los combatientes que deciden quedarse y poca consideración de las combatientes mujeres o la influencia del género en las normas y la narrativa que restringen las opciones de los combatientes. A medida que los gobiernos hacen cada vez más hincapié en las “contranarrativas” para evitar la radicalización y fomentar la desmovilización de los grupos armados no estatales, no hay pruebas empíricas suficientes sobre cómo dichas disputas de estructuración entre los gobiernos y los rebeldes podrían afectar la manera en que los reclutas determinan sus opciones. Con la proliferación de programas de “desradicalización” en todo el mundo, y dado que las iniciativas de desarme, desmovilización y reintegración (Disarmament, Disengagement, and Reintegration, DDR) siguen perpetuando los estereotipos de género, es fundamental analizar por qué algunos hombres y mujeres se desvinculan de la violencia mientras que otros no, cómo evalúan estas decisiones y de qué manera las normas en función del género influyen en estas determinaciones. A partir de más de 100 entrevistas a hombres y mujeres excombatientes en siete departamentos de Colombia, este artículo analiza los efectos de las disputas de estructuración entre la guerrilla de las FARC y el gobierno colombiano, donde las normas y las dinámicas del poder en función del género juegan un papel clave. En este documento, se sostiene que dichas disputas de estructuración influenciadas por el género son fundamentales para las decisiones de desmovilización de los combatientes y, en especial, influyen en la manera en que las combatientes mujeres perciben sus alternativas y gestionan sus vías de escape de los grupos armados no estatales. La littérature croissante portant sur la désertion des groupes d'insurgés se concentre presque exclusivement sur les hommes déserteurs, avec peu de comparaisons avec les combattants qui choisissent de rester et peu de considération pour les femmes combattantes ou les normes et récits sexospécifiques qui limitent le panel de combattants abordés. Alors que les gouvernements mettent de plus en plus l'accent sur les « contre-récits » pour prévenir la radicalisation et encourager le désengagement des groupes armés non étatiques, les preuves empiriques de la mesure dans laquelle un tel cadrage des conflits entre gouvernements et insurgés pourrait affecter la façon dont les recrues calculent leurs options sont insuffisantes. Tandis que les programmes de « déradicalisation » prolifèrent dans le monde entier et que les programmes de désarmement, de désengagement et de réintégration continuent à perpétuer les stéréotypes de genre, il est essentiel d’étudier les raisons pour lesquelles certains hommes et certaines femmes se désengagent de la violence contrairement à d'autres, les facteurs que ces personnes prennent en compte dans leur décision, et la manière dont les normes sexospécifiques affectent ces décisions. Cet article s'appuie sur plus de 100 entretiens avec des hommes et femmes ayant précédemment combattu dans sept départements de Colombie pour analyser les effets du cadrage des conflits entre les insurgés des FARC et le gouvernement colombien, dans lesquels les normes de genre et les dynamiques de pouvoir liées au genre jouent des rôles clés. Il soutient que ce cadrage sexospécifique des conflits est essentiel aux décisions de désengagement des combattants individuels, en particulier pour influencer la manière dont les combattantes perçoivent leurs alternatives et gèrent leurs voies de sortie des groupes armés non-étatiques.
Article
Republican or Democrat participants imagined how they would respond upon learning about the political group membership of a potential or established friend. Four vignettes (friend political in-group; friend political out-group; potential friend political in-group; potential friend political out-group) were presented in a random order. After each, participants provided expected reactions. Overall, reactions (e.g., hope of the relationship lasting, intentions to engage in friendship maintenance behaviors, trust) were most positive toward the established in-group friend, followed by potential in-group friend, then the established out-group friend, and lastly the potential out-group friend. That is, participants expected to be more positive toward a person they just met than an established close friend, simply due to knowing these individuals’ political group memberships. Some of these differences were moderated by intergroup attitudes or political identification. Discoveries of political group membership may influence the development or maintenance of friendships.
Chapter
How do we choose a partner to initiate a relationship with, and what makes us stay in a given relationship over time? These questions are most often pursued by scholars with an emphasis on the internal thoughts, feelings, and motivations of individual decision-makers. Conversely, this volume highlights the importance of considering external influences on individual decision-making in close relationships. Featuring contributions from internationally renowned scholars, the volume is divided into two interrelated sections. The first section considers global and societal influences on romantic relationships and the second focuses on social network and communicative influences on romantic relationships. Taken together, this collection helps us to better understand how external factors influence the internal machinations of those involved in intimate relationships.
Chapter
Interdependence, Interaction, and Close Relationships - edited by Laura V. Machia June 2020
Article
Romantic relationships are one of the most important sources of well-being. Unfortunately, many people who begin relationships with high hopes later find that they are unhappy but unwilling or unable to leave. Why do people remain in unsatisfactory relationships? The present research examined whether elevated fear of change in anxiously attached individuals is associated with greater commitment to unsatisfying relationships. We found that fear of change mediated the association between attachment anxiety and commitment to relationships, and that fear of being alone was a serial mediator for the anxiety to commitment association along with fear of change.
Chapter
When individuals enter into close relationships, they can experience a variety of changes to the self-concept; these changes are directly linked to and affected by their relational partners. This chapter first explores the theoretical underpinnings of relationship-induced self-concept change by describing three key complementary perspectives: cognitive interdependence, self-expansion, and the two-dimensional model of relational self-change. These perspectives identify how close relationships can alter the size, structure, and diversity of individuals’ self-concepts (e.g., through self-other integration). Second, we review the consequences of relationship-induced self-concept change (e.g., relationship quality, maintenance behaviors). Finally, the chapter explores the empirical measurement of relationship-induced self-concept change by overviewing various operational definitions and methodologies, ranging from self-report to open-ended responses to response latencies to symbolic representations of the self-concept.
Chapter
Through this chapter, the importance of diabetes as a global public health problem and the cause of both deaths and health complications related to its treatment regimen will be defined. This impacts the patient but also their partner who plays a critical role in supporting and maintaining the patient’s health; however, their work and experience are poorly investigated. In addition to the above, the life of the couple with diabetes is full of emotional discomforts due to the disease but also due to the normal processes that a couple goes through their lives, which can facilitate the experience of events that hurt them like jealousy, criticism, and indifference. In this investigation, two samples of couples of patients with diabetes (healthy and sick) were explored in order to know their differences respecting their emotional life and we examined how their life is affected by the aforementioned hurtful events.
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This study investigated the role of perception of the partner's investment (PPI) as a mediator of the relation between attachment and relationship satisfaction. The participants in the study were 1088 Brazilians who were involved in a committed monogamous romantic relationship. Relations between study variables were tested using structural equations. The results showed that PPI fully mediated the relation between attachment-related anxiety and avoidance and relationship satisfaction. Attachment factors that were mediated by PPI explained 80.7% of the variance of relationship satisfaction. The results revealed that higher levels of attachment-related avoidance and anxiety were associated with a lower PPI and consequently lower relationship satisfaction. Therapeutic interventions for couples may reduce perceptual bias, mainly when attachment levels of the dyad are known.
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Certain disapproving friends and family may interfere in others’ romantic relationships by undermining commitment processes. In the current study, we assessed whether friends and family members’ scores on the Dark Tetrad, a constellation of socially aversive personality traits including narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism, predict relationship interference. In Study 1, 206 people selected a friend who was currently in a romantic relationship they disliked or disapproved of. They then indicated how often they interfered in the disliked couple’s relationship, completed measures of the Dark Tetrad, and additional measures of interest (e.g., gender, closeness to the target of interference). In Study 2, 180 people selected a family member who was currently or formerly in a disliked relationship, before completing the same measures. In both studies, overall dark personality and closeness to the friend or family member positively correlated with relationship interference. Additionally, when controlling for overall dark personality and the other dark tetrad traits, sadism specifically predicted interference with friends’ relationships; high narcissism and, surprisingly, low Machiavellianism predicted interference with family members’ relationships. Implications for dark personality traits and relationships are discussed.
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This study aims to examine the relationships between experiential effort, experiential stress, experiential investment model (experiential satisfaction, experiential quality of alternatives, experiential investment size and experiential commitment) and experiential persistence intentions. The data used in this study were acquired from a convenience sample of 602 lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) tourists in the Taiwan LGBT Pride Parade 2019, indicating that the proposed model fitted the data. The results will assist tourism management in developing and implementing market-orientated service strategies to increase experiential effort, experiential satisfaction, experiential investment size and experiential commitment, and to decrease experiential stress and experiential quality of alternatives in order to enable gay tourists to have experiential intentions to persist in revisiting or returning to LGBT-friendly destinations.
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Examined the relation between relationship satisfaction and variables representing the contextual, investment, and problem-solving models of intimate relationships. Ss were 75 gay and 51 lesbian cohabiting couples. There were very few instances in which mean levels of model variables differed significantly for gay and lesbian couples. The strength of the correlates of relationship satisfaction rarely differed between gay and lesbian couples. Relationship satisfaction was related to variables from each of the 3 models. Support was obtained for a mediational model that proposed ordered linkages among variables from the 3 models.
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Recently, an investment model integrating several interdependence-type variables has been proposed to explain commitment in social and organizational settings. The model includes the components of costs, rewards, investments, and alternatives, and has served well in predicting specific outcomes such as job turnover and romantic commitment. The purpose of the present study was to determine the degree to which the investment model can be extended to a new area—commitment to musical activities—and to assess the extent to which commitment profiles generated by the model vary across musical preference groups. Results from a sample of 87 musical devotees demonstrated that the investment model is a valid means of accounting for commitment to participation in musical activities. In addition, distinctive profiles for each group—classical and nonclassical—were identified.
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This study examined the relation between relationship satisfaction and variables representing the contextual, investment, and problem-solving models of intimate relationships. Ss were 75 gay and 51 lesbian cohabiting couples. There were very few instances in which mean levels of model variables differed significantly for gay and lesbian couples. The strength of the correlates of relationship satisfaction rarely differed between gay and lesbian couples. Relationship satisfaction was related to variables from each of the 3 models. Support was obtained for a mediational model that proposed ordered linkages among variables from the 3 models.
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Rusbult's (1980, 1983) investment model was utilized to explore the determinants of satisfaction with and commitment to maintain romantic relationships among male and female homosexuals and male and female heterosexuals. The study employed a questionnaire designed to obtain both specific and global measures of rewards, costs, alternatives, and investments, and to obtain global measures of satisfaction and commitment. Women, both lesbians and heterosexuals, reported that they had invested more in their relationships and were more committed to maintaining their relationships than did men. Heterosexuals, male and female, reported greater costs and marginally greater investments in their relationships. In general, the investment model effectively predicted satisfaction and commitment for the sample as a whole and for all four groups of respondents. Greater satisfaction with relationships was associated with higher levels of rewards and lower levels of costs. Greater commitment was associated with greater satisfaction, greater investments, and poorer quality alternatives. Relationship costs were more strongly related to satisfaction and commitment for females than for males. Differences in the average level and the importance of a wide variety of specific predictors were also examined. In general, gender appeared to be a more important predictor of the behaviors explored in this study than was sexual preference.