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Gender Differences in Technology Usage—A Literature Review



The usage of Information Technology has expanded dramatically in today’s homes, business organizations and Government departments Technology has become an inevitable part of human life. Researchers have come up with various models and theories to investigate factors that influence the extent to which humans use computers and its applications. Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT) is the latest model which has been conceived to understand the nature of technology usage and has been applied in various domains like education, banking, health care etc. Gender has been attributed as a significant variable in explaining the technology acceptance behaviour of humans. The objective of this study is to review the existing literature on the technology usage and intention to use technology from the gender perspective. It has been observed from the review that in few contexts, gender plays a significant role in determining the intention of accepting new technology and there are cases where gender differences cannot be discerned.
Open Journal of Business and Management, 2016, 4, 51-59
Published Online January 2016 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Goswami, A. and Dutta, S. (2016) Gender Differences in Technology UsageA Literature Review.
Open Journal of Business and Management, 4, 51-59.
Gender Differences in Technology
Usage—A Literature Review
Ananya Goswami, Sraboni Dutta
Department of Management, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Kolkata Extension Center, Kolkata, India
Received 16 November 2015; accepted 11 January 2016; published 14 January 2016
Copyright © 2016 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
The usage of Information Technology has expanded dramatically in today’s homes, business or-
ganizations and Government departments Technology has become an inevitable part of human life.
Researchers have come up with various models and theories to investigate factors that influence
the extent to which humans use computers and its applications. Unified Theory of Adoption and
Use of Technology (UTAUT) is the latest model which has been conceived to understand the nature
of technology usage and has been applied in various domains like education, banking, health care
etc. Gender has been attributed as a significant variable in explaining the technology acceptance
behaviour of humans. The objective of this study is to review the existing literature on the tech-
nology usage and intention to use technology from the gender perspective. It has been observed
from the review that in few contexts, gender plays a significant role in determining the intention
of accepting new technology and there are cases where gender differences cannot be discerned.
Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM),
Gender, Technology, Usage, Intention
1. Introduction
The usage of Information Technology has expanded dramatically in today’s homes, business organizations and
Government departments. Card, S. K. et al. (1983) stated that the interaction between humans and computer had
remarkably increased for the purpose of completing any task [1]. Westland and Clark has observed that since
1980s, organizations have invested about 50 percent of new capital in Information Technology [2]. Researchers
have propounded various models and theories that investigate factors influencing humans to use computers and
its applications.
In spite of institutional efforts to reduce gender inequalities, women in many countries in comparison to their
A. Goswami, S. Dutta
male counterparts, encounter a significant disadvantage in areas such as education, politics and workplace dis-
crimination. Mayoux pointed out that women faced more challenges in terms of socio-cultural, educational and
technological issues than men when managing their business ventures [3]. Orji found that the differences be-
tween the men and women have been studied in various areas such as electronic mail, information retrieval,
e-learning, communication technologies and online purchasing behaviour and majorly, the studies revealed more
favorably towards men as compared to women [4]. The author has suggested that understanding the reasons be-
hind gender inequalities on the acceptance of new technologies would help in overall development of technolo-
Various theoretical models have been established to study the behavioral intentions to adopt technologies.
Such models are the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) [5], the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) [6], the
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) [7], the Combined-TAM-TPB model (C-TAM-TPB) [8], the Motiva-
tional Model (MM) [9], the Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) [10], Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) [11], So-
cial Cognitive Theory (SCT) [12]. Venkatesh et al. (2003) combined these 8 models to form Unified Theory of
Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to study the behavioural intention to use technology [13]. It has
been observed that Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Tech-
nology (UTAUT) are being widely used by the researchers to study the behavioral aspect in using technology.
The objective of this study is to review the existing literature on the technology usage and intention to use
technology from the gender perspective.
In this study, we discussed the framework of the two prominent technology adoption models, namely, Tech-
nology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) in Sec-
tion 2. Thereafter in Section 3, we have surveyed literature spanning from 2000 till 2015 to discuss how the
adoption and usage of various ICT applications such as Information Technology, e learning, e banking, e com-
merce, stock trading and social media differ on the basis of gender. In the last section, we present the conclu-
2. Models of Technology Adoption
2.1. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
In the initial TAM Model, Davis states that the success of a system is determined by the user acceptance of the
system which is measured by three factors: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and attitudes towards
usage of the system. Davis (1989) defined Perceived Usefulness as “the degree to which a person believes that
using a particular system would enhance his or her performance” and Perceived Ease of Use as “the degree to
which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort” [7]. Perceived Usefulness and
Perceived Ease of Use are influenced by external variables such as design, features of the IT system and organi-
zational training. Davis also defined Attitude towards usage as “the degree to which an individual evaluates and
associates the target system with his or her job” [7]. A behavioral intention to use the system of the user is in-
fluenced by his/her attitude and perceived usefulness of the system.
Later, Davis and Venkatesh (1996) modified the model and eliminated attitude variable as they found through
a study that attitude played a minor role in system usage behavior [14]. It was also analyzed that the external va-
riables possibly could be system characteristics, user training, user participation in design and nature of the im-
plementation process (Figure 1).
2.2. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)
UTAUT model consists of four core determinants of intention and usage: Performance Expectancy, Effort Ex-
pectancy, Social Influence and Facilitating Conditions and also of four moderators of key relationships: Gender,
Age, Experience and Voluntariness. The core determinants are the key factors which influence directly the us-
er’s behavioral intention to use new technologies. Moderators are factors, which control the influence of the key
factors (Figure 2). The definitions of the constructs are given in Table 1.
3. Gender Differences with Respect to Usage of ICT Applications
3.1. Information Technology
Using the Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model, Nysveen et al. (2005) studied
A. Goswami, S. Dutta
Figure 1. Technology acceptance model (TAM).
Figure 2. The UTAUT model.
Table 1. Definition of the constructs.
Variable Type Definition
Expectancy (PE) Independent The degree to which an individual believes that using the system would help
him/her to attain gains in job performance
Effort Expectancy (EE) Independent The degree of ease associated with the usage of the system
Social Influence (SI) Independent The degree to which an individual perceives that other important persons
believe that he/she should use the system
Condition (FC) Independent The degree to which an individual believes that an organizational and
technical infrastructure exists to support use of the system.
Behavioral Intention (BI) Dependent An indication of an individual’s readiness to perform a given behavior
684 mobile chat service users in Norway were being studied and found that perceived usefulness in using mobile
chat services is stronger for men than women [15]. Venkatesh and Morris (2000) used Technology Acceptance
Model (TAM) amongst 342 employees in a workplace and found that females tend to use the technology that
requires less effort and thus, effort expectancy is stronger for women than men. They have also said that women
were having lower perceived ease of use because they were having higher levels of computer anxiety as com-
pared to their male counterparts [16]. Constantiou and Manhke (2010) studied 232 people in Austria comprising
of mainly young adults working in the private sector and students, on the consumption pattern of Mobile TV
services, it has been concluded that men are more interested in sports and women in daily soaps, lifestyle news
and weather status [17]. Venkatesh et al. (2003) found that females are more sensitive to the suggestions of the
A. Goswami, S. Dutta
peers and hence the effect of social influence will be stronger when forming the intention to use Information
Technology [13]. Venkatesh et al. (2003) also revealed that females are more anxious than men when it comes
to IT utilization and this nature of the females reduced their self effectiveness which in turn led to increased
perceptions of the effort required to use IT [13].
Amongst 630 Anglo American undergraduates, Jackson et al. (2001) found that emails are used more by
women than men whereas men use Web more than women [18]. By surveying 220 Chinese and 245 British stu-
dents’, Li & Kirkup (2007) concluded that men in both the countries tend to use emails and chatrooms more
than women do; men play more games on computer; men are more confident on their computer skills than
women. However, the gender inequality is stronger in the British group than in the Chinese one [19]. Jackson et
al. (2001) found that females are more prone to computer nervousness, are less effective in terms of handling
computers and have unfavourable attitudes towards using computers [18]. Utilizing the UTAUT Model, Nys-
veen et al. (2005) indicated that social influence has a greater impact on females in using mobile chat services
[15]. Similarly, in Portugal, Afonso et al. (2012) studied 2175 users of Electronic Document Management Sys-
tem (EDMS) and found that gender only moderates Performance Expectancy (PE) towards Behavioural Inten-
tion (BI) as males are more result oriented than females [20].
Calvert et al. (2005) had interviewed 1065 parents to know about the media habits of children aged 6 months
to 6 years, in the U.S and found that at younger ages there was no difference between boys and girls in using
computer but however the interest level of the girls diminished at later stages [21]. In a cross country compara-
tive study in USA and Japan on gender differences, Ono and Zavodny (2005) revealed that during 1990s there
were radical gender gap in both the countries in Information Technology usage but situation had reversed by
2001 in the US, while in Japan the situation remained unchanged [22]. In the context of adopting technological
innovation, Mazman et al. (2009) indicated that females are more induced to adopt technological innovation
through social influence rather than by a personal decision whereas in case of males the personal decision to
adopt innovation is much stronger than social influence [23].
3.2. e-Learning
Gender differences have been studied in diverse range of disciplines. By implementing extended Technology
Acceptance Model (TAM), Okazaki and Santos (2012) studied 446 faculty members in Brazil with respect to
adoption of e learning tools. They used Structural Modelling Analysis and found that statistically significant
differences exists between male and female with respect to three relations i.e. between ease of use and perceived
usefulness, between perceived usefulness and attitude and between intention of use and actual behavior [24].
The authors have also revealed that gender influence the causal relationship i.e., the path from perceived useful-
ness to attitude is much much stronger for males as compared to females and the result is same for the path from
ease of use to perceived usefulness [24]. Ong and Lai (2006) surveyed 67 female and 89 male employees from
six different international companies in Taiwan and found that females being more challenged by computer illi-
teracy attach more importance to the ease of use of e-learning tools as compared to men while males give more
emphasis on perceived usefulness in determining behavioural intention towards e learning adoption [25]. Islam
et al. (2011) have noticed gender differences in Malaysia by studying 80 students from higher learning institu-
tions and revealed that females face technical barriers in understanding e learning system [26]. Liaw and Huang
(2011) studied 424 university students in Singapore and concluded that male students are more positively in-
clined towards e-learning than female students [27]. Milis et al. (2008) surveyed 200 undergraduate students to
understand the acceptability of Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) and observed that females found the new
system to be complicated and learning of the new technology widely relied on perceived usability [28].
Raman et al. (2014) investigated 65 postgraduate students in Malaysia with respect to the use of Moodle and
found that the gender does not influence Performance Expectancy (PE), Effort Expectancy (EE) and Social In-
fluence (SI) towards Behavioural Intention (BI) [29]. Similar kind of conclusion was drawn by Egbo et al. (2011)
by analyzing 415 undergraduate students in Nigeria, who posited that female students intend to use ICT more
than their male counterparts [30]. In India, Suri and Sharm (2013) surveyed 477 students and concluded that no
gender difference exists in attitudes towards e learning [31].
3.3. e-Banking Services
With the growth of Internet and intensive penetration of mobile phones, banks have been extensively promoting
A. Goswami, S. Dutta
the mobile and Internet banking systems. Studies have shown that gender is a significant factor in influencing
adoption of mobile banking. Laukkanen and Pasanen (2008) studied 2675 customers of Scandinavian Bank in
Finland and by applying backward stepwise method of logistic regression analysis, it has been revealed that men
are more likely to use mobile banking services than women [32]. Cruz et al. (2010) found that men are more
goal oriented but men are also more concerned on the cost of Internet access and other related fees when using
mobile banking services [33]. Similarly, in Brazil, Puschel et al. (2010) surveyed 666 respondents, it has been
concluded that men are using mobile banking services much higher than the women do [34]. In India, Joshua
and Koshy (2011) examined 553 consumers who are accessing computers and Internet and concluded similar
result [35].
On the contrary, Foon and Fah (2011) surveyed 200 respondents in Malaysia, it has been found that gender
difference is not significant in Internet banking adoption [36]. This finding is also similar to Ainin et al. (2005)
which claimed that gender does not influence the adoption of Internet banking [37].
Yu (2012) utilized the UTAUT Model to study the factors in adopting mobile banking. Through empirical
evidence, he revealed that effort expectancy and social influence were not significantly moderated by gender
while performance expectancy is the only construct that was controlled by gender [38]. Shergill and Li (2005)
studied the Internet banking consumers and found that women are more concerned on privacy issues than men
3.4. e-Commerce
With respect to electronic commerce, Bae and Lee (2011) noticed that women attached more risk to online
shopping and are more concerned with privacy issues [40]. In domain of Mobile Commerce, Jaradat and Raba-
baa (2013) used the Modified UTAUT Model amongst the 447 undergraduate university students in Jordan to
study acceptance and use of m-commerce services. They found that performance expectancy and effort expec-
tancy is not controlled by gender [41]. Likewise, in Saudi Arabia, Alkhunaizan and Love (2013) conducted as-
tudy amongst 574 participants which had yield similar result [42]. By studying 2104 Spanish Internet users,
Bigne, Ruiz and Sanz (2005) highlighted that gender does not exhibit significant difference when it comes to
mobile shopping but rather age, societal status and knowledge of Internet shopping are the main determinants of
using M-Commerce [43].
Jones et al. (2009) claimed that males are more frequent Internet users and consequently, their usage of e
commerce sites is also very high [44]. Bae and Lee (2011) stated that females while making online purchase de-
cisions are more affected by online consumer reviews than males [40]. They have also found that in comparison
to males, females are more affected by the negative consumer reviews given online. Garbarino and Strahilevitz
(2004) discovered that positive feedback on a product from friends play a stronger effect on females than males
and this reduces their observed risk of using e commerce sites for purchasing [45].
3.5. Stock Trading
Based on a modified UTAUT Model, Tai and Ku (2013) surveyed 329 stock investors in Taiwan and concluded
that the effect of social influence on behavioural intention was significant for males, but non-significant for fe-
males. This may be due to the relatively advanced and complex technologies involved in stock trading, thus, re-
ducing the chance of being influenced by the peer groups. They also concluded that people who are having high
performance expectancy reveal a strong intention to use mobile stock trading [46]. Teo et al. (2004) examined
the attitude of both adopter and non adopters of online stock trading and surveyed 208 adopter and 222 non
adopters in Singapore and concluded that males are dominantly found to be early adopters in Internet Stock
Trading [47]. Similarly, Hou (2015) studied 200 online stock traders and 1479 non traders in U.S. and found that
males tend to use online stock trading more than females [48].
In the contrary, Li et al. (2002) used sample size of 3759 households in US to study the intention to take up e
trading and found that gender inequalities do not exist but young investors are willing to take risk in e-trading
[49]. Tai and Ku (2013) also revealed that the influence of effort expectancy on behavioural intention to adopt
mobile stock trading technologies is not controlled by gender [46].
3.6. Social Media
Nowadays, social media is a very popular ICT application and also plays an active role among youngsters. After
A. Goswami, S. Dutta
studying 450 Indian young adults in an urban area, it has been revealed that 6.67% of the females spent more
than three hours in social network sites as compared to 6.04% males. Also, with respect to time spent on social
network sites for more than two hours, percentage for females was 7.44 as compared to 3.85 for males [50]. Us-
ing UTAUT2 Model, a survey was conducted amongst 419 college students in the Bandung city of Indonesia to
understand the usage of social media application called LINE and has been found that the behavioural intention
towards usage is stronger amongst women as compared to men [51]. Mazman & Usluel (2011) conducted an on-
line survey amongst 870 Facebook users and concluded that females use Facebook more for maintaining exist-
ing relationship, academic usageand following particular agendathan their male counterpart while males
use it more for making new relationship [52]. This finding was supported by Tufekci (2008) where he ex-
amined 301 college social network site users and concluded that women use social network sites mainly to
maintain personal relationships and men use it to find new friends [53].
After studying 22,670 profiles of social media application called MySpace in the U.S, it has been found that
this social network site was mainly used by teenagers; with females being keen on making friendship and males
being interested in dating [54]. In the US, 935 teens were being surveyed and found that females are more con-
cerned on disclosing their personal information in the social network sites than males are [55]. Likewise, Nara-
simhamurthy (2014) studied 450 young Indian adults and disclosed that women use social media as a productive
tool but male use it as a means of entertainment [50]. By examining 41 students of XI th standard in a high
school in the United States, it has been revealed that female students have more accounts in social network sites
and they spend more time in those sites than males [56].
4. Conclusions
From the literature review, it can be observed that there are mixed results with respect to the influence of gender
on technology adoption. While in few contexts, gender plays a significant role in determining the intention of
accepting new technology, there are cases where gender differences cannot be discerned. In the context of usage
of Information Technology which includes computers, email services, electronic data management systems etc.,
gender acts as an influencing factor in technology adoption as men are found to be more technologically adept
compared to women. In terms of mobile or Internet banking, there has been a mixed observation from the au-
thors regarding the impact of gender. Similarly, gender difference is not being observed with respect to interac-
tion via social media but the males and females do have different agenda in using social network sites. Females
mainly use the social network for “maintaining existing relationships whereas males use it for making new
friends. In the fields of mobile/electronic commerce, males and females are found to be equally using online
shopping but women are more influenced towards consumer reviews than men. Majority of the literature on ac-
ceptance of e-learning applications highlighted that gender was a significant factor, which was also the case in
online stock trading, where many of the researchers had concluded that females faced technical challenges and
risk in using technology.
This review can help the future researchers to identify techniques by which the gender gap in technology ac-
ceptance in the above discussed domains can be addressed. Institutions both private and public, can design pro-
grammes aimed at enhancing the skills of the females who are more apprehensive about using emerging ICT
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... In terms of the type of university, significant differences were found (p = 0.039, r = 0.135) concerning students from the public university as they were the ones who had best acquired this competence. In this study, this competence was fully acquired by 66.50% of students, as suggested by other studies [34,[45][46][47]. In contrast, a study conducted on students in Panama indicated that 36.8% of students who were analysed had fully mastered this competence [44]. ...
... Another variable with a more relevant rating was 'I use the chat to interact with other people', where both genders obtained an average rating of 3.44; this result is in line with results from prior studies [46,48,49]. Regarding this variable, the study by García-Martín and García-Sánchez [50] should be highlighted, where they stated that students with a higher education, with a higher socioeconomic level, used these resources the most. ...
... As for the ability and competence to generate content in the design and creation of wikis and blogs, in addition to these being two variables that show the same mean rating (2.05) in the perception of this DC, university students did not show significant differences with respect to gender or the type of university. Regarding the proficiency in this competence, a result of only 8.50% is shown, which coincides with results presented by Vergara [44] and Vázquez et al. [46], indicating that the competence in generating content had not been acquired. On the other hand, in the study by Veytia-Bucheli [49], the authors considered that one of the strengths of the study was the use of educational platforms, while in the present study, this was not a strength, as students rated it at 2.90, and 11.90% indicated that they were completely ineffective in this use. ...
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In order to improve the teaching-learning process at the university level, it is essential to consolidate students' digital competences (DCs) during their initial training. This development is analysed in the area of sports management as part of the physical activity and sports science (CAFyD) bachelor's degree. Students (n = 236) from private (n = 120) and public (n = 116) universities participated by completing the COBADI questionnaire (registered trademark: 2970648 ®), structured into three dimensions: (I) Competences in knowledge and use of ICTs in social communication and collaborative learning; (II) competences in the use of ICT for information search and processing; and (III) virtual and social communication tools of the university. Likert scale responses ranged from 1 to 4 points. The results show significant differences in terms of the type of university. In terms of gender, females have a better digital perception, with a significant difference (.. . I know how to use programs.. .). This pioneering research is of relevance for higher education professors in the field of sports, as it helps to detect areas where students lack DCs and engages them in the enhancement of their learning.
... While only significant at a 90% level of confidence, the model indicates that preference for automated delivery technologies is lower among women (p = 0.058). This finding is in line with the literature, with men-all other things being equal-typically showing a higher preference for novel technologies 29,46 . Although the data includes 14 respondents (2.0% of 692) who identified their gender as non-binary, alternative model specifications using male or female as the base gender have yielded insignificant coefficients for non-binary genders in both cases. ...
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The logistics and delivery industry is undergoing a technology-driven transformation, with robotics, drones, and autonomous vehicles expected to play a key role in meeting the growing challenges of last-mile delivery. To understand the public acceptability of automated parcel delivery options, this U.S. study explores customer preferences for four innovations: autonomous vehicles, aerial drones, sidewalk robots, and bipedal robots. We use an Integrated Nested Choice and Correlated Latent Variable (INCLV) model to reveal substitution effects among automated delivery modes in a sample of U.S. respondents. The study finds that acceptance of automated delivery modes is strongly tied to shipment price and time, underscoring the importance of careful planning and incentives to maximize the trialability of innovative logistics options. Older individuals and those with concerns about package handling exhibit a lower preference for automated modes, while individuals with higher education and technology affinity exhibit greater acceptance. These findings provide valuable insights for logistics companies and retailers looking to introduce automation technologies in their last-mile delivery operations, emphasizing the need to tailor marketing and communication strategies to meet customer preferences. Additionally, providing information about appropriate package handling by automated technologies may alleviate concerns and increase the acceptance of these modes among all customer groups.
... Previous research indicated that gender plays a role in technology adoption, with males being more technologically adept than females. 49,50 The SUS and NASA-TLX results showed the opposite pattern, although these differences were not statistically significant. Therefore, average results of the SUS (74.1 ± 14.9) and NASA-TLX (30 ± 13.8) can be used to indicate that the COAD-MoAcCare system has good usability and low user mental workload when using the system. ...
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Background: Excessive mucus secretion is a serious issue for patients with chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), which can be effectively managed through postural drainage and percussion (PD + P) during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Home-based (H)-PR can be as effective as center-based PR but lacks professional supervision and timely feedback, leading to low motivation and adherence. Telehealth home-based pulmonary (TH-PR) has emerged to assist H-PR, but video conferencing and telephone calls remain the main approaches for COAD patients. Therefore, research on effectively assisting patients in performing PD + P during TH-PR is limited. Objective: This study developed a mobile-based airway clearance care for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD-MoAcCare) system to support personalized TH-PR for COAD patients and evaluated its usability through expert validation. Methods: The COAD-MoAcCare system uses a mobile device through deep learning-based vision technology to monitor, guide, and evaluate COAD patients’ PD + P operations in real time during TH-PR programs. Medical personnel can manage and monitor their personalized PD + P and operational statuses through the system to improve TH-PR performance. Respiratory therapists from different hospitals evaluated the system usability using system questionnaires based on the technology acceptance model, system usability scale (SUS), and task load index (NASA-TLX). Results: Eleven participant therapists were highly satisfied with the COAD-MoAcCare system, rating it between 4.1 and 4.6 out of 5.0 on all scales. The system demonstrated good usability (SUS score of 74.1 out of 100) and a lower task load (NASA-TLX score of 30.0 out of 100). The overall accuracy of PD + P operations reached a high level of 97.5% by comparing evaluation results of the system by experts. Conclusions: The COAD-MoAcCare system is the first mobile-based method to assist COAD patients in conducting PD + P in TH-PR. It was proven to be usable by respiratory therapists, so it is expected to benefit medical personnel and COAD patients. It will be further evaluated through clinical trials.
... Ozturk and Hancer (2014) found that male hotel customers were more likely to use Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology than women. Similarly, Goswami and Dutta (2015) reported that women were more anxious than men regarding use of IT, reducing their self-effectiveness and perceptions of IT. However, EIGE research on digitalisation and youth established that young women (16-24) had a higher likelihood of using technologies creatively for sharing online than their male counterparts of the same age (EIGE, 2019). ...
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Management and hotel characteristics can strongly influence the decision to support technology orientation strategy in luxury hotels. In the rapidly changing hotel business environment, a strong technology orientation holds the key to the strategic direction that will lead to sustained competitive advantage. Nonetheless, studies relating technology orientation strategy and manager and hotel characteristics in the hotel industry in Eastern Africa are scare. Based on Resource Based View, and a sample of 247 senior hotel managers, this paper provides an analysis of hotel and manager characteristics and their relationship with technology orientation in the luxury hotel industry in Kenya. The paper uses empirical data and shows that age of hotel (rho=0.14; ρ<0.05) and size of hotel (rho=0.22; ρ<0.05) had a positive correlation with technology orientation in luxury hotels at the 5% level of significance. On the other hand, age of senior managers (rho=-0.13; ρ<0.05) had a negative correlation with technology orientation, while level of education among senior managers (rho=0.14; ρ<0.05) had a positive correlation with technology orientation in luxury hotels. Implications of the findings for hotel management practice and research are provided in the paper.
... According to the Pew Research Center, only 25% of teens spend time with their friends after school on a daily basis, and 5% do not meet with their friends outside of school (6). According to the Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT), although it is evident that both genders use technology and social media intensively, males and females do not use it in the same way (7). The intention of this research project is to determine the difference between males' usage and females' usage of technology as well as trying to correlate technology usage and popularity of students at school. ...
This study tests the correlation between technology usage and teens’ social lives. The addition of student popularity and the effects of extracurricular activities on technology usage were also examined. A group of 50 students was surveyed (25 males and 25 females; 25 middle schoolers and 25 high schoolers). The survey primarily asked the students to rate the social environment in their school, find the ratio of their in-school to out of school friends, vote for the three most popular students in their grade, and identify their technology usage from one to five (1 representing not dependent at all and 5 representing extremely addicted). A negative correlation was found between participation in extracurricular activities and technology usage (p=0.032), which means that students who participated in extracurricular activities used statistically significantly less technology than the ones who do not. There was no significant difference between the technology usage of middle and high school students. One major finding was that boys used technology mainly for gaming and entertainment (p=0.039), whereas girls mainly used it for social media (p=0.016). Most interestingly, the survey showed that the students who were voted to be more popular by others had higher social media usage on average than those who were not. Unexpectedly, a common answer received in the popularity ranking question was the denial of any presence of popularity in the specified grade. The denying students received significantly fewer “popularity votes” than others. The final results added to an increased understanding of the relationship between technology usage and teens’ social lives.
... In real life, gender "ideology" influences the behavior and choices of women and men that determine their socioeconomic relations in society (including in the family and the world of work). Women socialize themselves as a group with subordinate or self-subordinating characteristics (stereotypes) (Goswami & Dutta, 2016). Gender "ideology" influences the process of identifying public works according to the more feminine nature of women and their involvement in following the standards or values imposed on women as the subordinate sex. ...
ARTICLE INFO The Industrial Revolution 4.0 and Society 5.0 became one of Indonesia's educational attainment standards. The integration of technology in education is mandatory. As an integral part of education, guidance, and counseling are required to support a conducive and technology-friendly educational climate. Digital literacy is one of the competencies that must be possessed by guidance and counseling (GC) teachers. This study aims to map the distribution of GC teachers' digital literacy competencies. The respondents are 64 guidance and counseling teachers at a state high school in Bandung. Similar studies have been conducted but are not yet based on comprehensive competency standards. This study uses a quantitative approach with descriptive research methods. Data was collected through a survey using a GC teacher digital literacy self-assessment inventory. Collecting data using a questionnaire to reveal the level of digital literation, which is then analyzed conceptually and empirically from the digital literacy profile of GC teachers, using Technical Competencies for Counselor Education-The Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES). Based on the study results, GC teachers' digital literacy competency profile at public high schools in Bandung City has a good trend, where GC teachers can use digital literacy to support the primary activities of the daily counseling profession. Generally, men have a higher trend in digital literacy competencies than women. In the use of social media, women have a higher tendency than men. The penetration rate of ICT implementation in counseling services is still low.
... For instance, according to Dirin et al. [61], females aged from 19 to 34 years old may manage New Technologies and AR better than males do because they get more emotionally involved with the content of them and get more enthusiasm from such innovative applications. On the other hand, there have been studies concluding that, in general, males tend to adopt New Technologies more easily than females [62]. ...
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Nowadays, Augmented Reality flourishes in educational settings. Yet, little is known about teachers’ and children’s views of Augmented Reality applications in Preschool. This paper explores 71 preschoolers’ opinions of Augmented Reality teaching integrated into a traditional learning activity. Additionally, five educators’ views of Augmented Reality applications in Preschool are captured. Mixed methods with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used. The questionnaires record children’s preferences regarding their favorite learning activity between traditional and the Augmented Reality one. Additionally, they explore the activity preschoolers would like to repeat and found most enjoyable: playful. Regarding quantitative data analysis, independent/paired samples t-tests and chi-square test along with bootstrapping with 1000 samples were used. As for the qualitative data collection, educators’ semi-structured interviews focused on three axes: (a) children’s motivation and engagement in Augmented Reality activities, (b) Augmented Reality’s potential to promote skills, and (c) Augmented Reality as a teaching tool in preschool. The emerging results are: Preschoolers prefer more Augmented Reality activities than traditional ones. There are no statistically significant gender differences in preferences for Augmented Reality activities. Educators regard Augmented Reality technology as an innovative, beneficial teaching approach in preschool. However, they express concern regarding the promotion of collaboration among preschoolers via Augmented Reality.
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Introduction Mobile health (mHealth) apps are a promising adjunct to traditional mental health services, especially in underserviced areas. Developed to foster resilience in youth, the JoyPop™ app has a growing evidence base showing improvement in emotion regulation and mental health symptoms among youth. However, whether this novel technology will be accepted among those using or providing mental health services remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the JoyPop™ app's acceptance among (a) a clinical sample of youth and (b) mental health service providers. Method A qualitative descriptive approach involving one-on-one semi-structured interviews was conducted. Interviews were guided by the Technology Acceptance Model and were analyzed using a deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Results All youth ( n = 6 females; M age = 14.60, range 12–17) found the app easy to learn and use and expressed positive feelings towards using the app. Youth found the app useful because it facilitated accessibility to helpful coping skills (e.g., journaling to express their emotions; breathing exercises to increase calmness) and positive mental health outcomes (e.g., increased relaxation and reduced stress). All service providers ( n = 7 females; M age = 43.75, range 32–60) perceived the app to be useful and easy to use by youth within their services and expressed positive feelings about integrating the app into usual care. Service providers also highlighted various organizational factors affecting the app's acceptance. Youth and service providers raised some concerns about apps in general and provided recommendations to improve the JoyPop™ app. Discussion Results support youth and service providers' acceptance of the JoyPop™ app and lend support for it as an adjunctive resource to traditional mental health services for youth with emotion regulation difficulties.
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The advent of the Internet has revolutionized the way banking is done. Realizing the importance of what is popularly known as e-banking, in June 2000, the Central Bank of Malaysia allowed banks to conduct banking activities via the Internet. Four years later, almost all major local banks are providing e-banking services. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of e-banking adoption in Malaysia. It begins by analyzing the local bank websites using a model introduced by Chung and Payter (2002). The study then examines the different types of e -banking products used by adopters before finally describing the characteristics of e -banking adopters. Five hundred and forty two usable questionnaire responses were received to a survey, of which fifty four percent were from e-banking adopters. Most of the adopters took advantage of the service to carry out basic activities like viewing balance inquiries, obtaining summary reports of their transactions and using savings and current account facilities. A large number of the adopters used the e-banking services when necessary, i.e. once a month to pay utility bills and accessed the facilities either from home or the office. Many were encouraged by friends and family members to use e-banking. The study also illustrates that there were more adopters among the younger age groups, among those with higher salaries and those holding higher positions.
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This study presents a modified Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to examine keyfactors that affect the intention to accept and the subsequent use of mobile commerce (M-commerce) amongJordanian consumers. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 447 undergraduate universitystudents using a stratified random sample, and analyzed by using a structural equation modeling (SEM); byusing the WarpPLS 3.0 software. Results show that user acceptance and use of Mobile commerce services canbe predicted from the users’ behavioral intentions, which are affected significantly by Performance Expectancy,Effort Expectancy, and Social Influence. From among these variables, Social Influence is the most significantdeterminant that directly affects behavioral intention to use M-commerce services in Jordan followed by EffortExpectancy then Performance Expectancy. Facilitating Conditions and moderating variables (gender, age,monthly expense, and experience) have no significant effect on Behavioral Intention to use M-commerceservices in Jordan. Ultimately, this study finds that there is a direct effect between behavioral intention and the eventual use ofM-commerce services in Jordan. This research should help merchandisers avoid spending thousands or evenmillions of dollars that may on investments that will have little effect on whether or not the consumer willactually accept and use M-commerce. The study also gives quantified indicators and presents a model that mighthelp in understanding the M-commerce environment in Jordan. It concludes with an examination of theimplications of the research findings and offers suggestions for future research.
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The purpose of this study is to determine individuals' usage purposes of social networks with a focus on the possible differences between females and males. Facebook, which is one the most popular and being most widely used social network, is investigated in this study. The study group consisted of 870 Facebook users who responded an online survey designed by the researchers. Analyses of the results showed that usage purposes can be categorized under four categories, namely maintaining existing relationships, making new relationships, using for academic purposes and following specific agenda. Significant differences were found between genders in all of the purposes mentioned. While the difference on making new contacts was in favor of males, the differences on the other three user purposes were in favor of females.
Fast advances in the wireless technology and the intensive penetration of cell phones have motivated banks to spend large budget on building mobile banking systems, but the adoption rate of mobile banking is still underused than expected. Therefore, research to enrich current knowledge about what affects individuals to use mobile banking is required. Consequently, this study employs the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to investigate what impacts people to adopt mobile banking. Through sampling 441 respondents, this study empirically concluded that individual intention to adopt mobile banking was significantly influenced by social influence, perceived financial cost, performance expectancy, and perceived credibility, in their order of influencing strength. The behavior was considerably affected by individual intention and facilitating conditions. As for moderating effects of gender and age, this study discovered that gender significantly moderated the effects of performance expectancy and perceived financial cost on behavioral intention, and the age considerably moderated the effects of facilitating conditions and perceived self-efficacy on actual adoption behavior.
When developing and aiming to achieve success in the arena of mobile commerce, user behaviour is one of the main aspects for consideration. This research seeks to analysis whether individuals' (gender, age, education level) influences their mobile commerce usage within the context of Saudi Arabia. The individuals analysed are own smartphone. We further present three hypotheses that investigate whether demographic factors have a significant statistical impact on the perception of those factors for mobile commerce acceptance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Survey data were collected from 574 participants in several cities across Saudi Arabia. The results emphasise that age affect statically on the actual usage. However, gender and education level all considerably not affect on the mobile commerce actual usage.
The major banks in India are increasingly providing services through electronic channels such as ATMs, internet banking, tele banking and mobile banking. The paper is an attempt to examine the various usage patterns by customers of these technologyenabled services provided. A survey research is conducted among the customers of some of the leading banks in India who are residing in the selected metro and urban banked centres in India. The findings show that though ATMs have been widely adopted, the level of adoption of other electronic banking means like internet banking, tele banking and mobile banking despite their potential are yet to pick in a big way. The usage patterns revealed through this study has several pointers to bank managements in india.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of stock investors' intention towards using mobile stock trading. Based on a modified UTAUT (unified theory of acceptance and use of technology) with risk perceptions, a comprehensive research model was proposed. An empirical survey with a valid sample of 329 stock investors was conducted in Taiwan to test the research model. The analysis results of PLS reveal three positive determinants (i.e., performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence) and three negative determinants (i.e., security risk, economic risk, and functional risk) that significantly influence stock investors' behavioral intention to use mobile stock trading. Furthermore, the results of moderating effect analysis indicate that gender differences moderate the effects of social influence on behavioral intention to use mobile stock trading, while age differences moderate the impact of effort expectancy on mobile stock trading use intention. This implies that to facilitate the intention to use mobile stock trading, securities firms need to consider stock investors' technological perceptions and risk perceptions of this type of trading. The findings of this study not only have important implications for m-commerce research, but also provide insights for securities firms and developers of mobile stock trading systems.