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This study investigated the effects of visualization on college students’ academic performance. One control group and two experimental groups were utilized. The participants were the first year Bachelor of Science in Psychology students of Batangas State University. Results obtained from the experiment showed that visualization has no significant effect on the academic performance of the two experimental groups. However, grade improvements were higher in these treatments compared to the control group. The students’ performance before and after the visualization showed a computed p-value of 0.16 and 0.20 respectively, higher than 0.05 level of significance which failed to reject the null hypothesis. On the other hand, the control group showed significant effect which yielded a p-value of 0.009 lower than the 0.05 level of significance. The results also showed a chi-square value of 0.163 for experimental groups 1 and 2 which made the two approaches equally significant in improving academic performance.
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International
Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, April 2014
156
DOI: 10.7763/IJIET.2014.V4.389
AbstractThis study investigated the effects of visualization
on college students’ academic performance. One control group
and two experimental groups were utilized. The participants
were the first year Bachelor of Science in Psychology students of
Batangas State University. Results obtained from the
experiment showed that visualization has no significant effect
on the academic performance of the two experimental groups.
However, grade improvements were higher in these treatments
compared to the control group. The students’ performance
before and after the visualization showed a computed p-value of
0.16 and 0.20 respectively, higher than 0.05 level of significance
which failed to reject the null hypothesis. On the other hand, the
control group showed significant effect which yielded a p-value
of 0.009 lower than the 0.05 level of significance. The results
also showed a chi-square value of 0.163 for experimental groups
1 and 2 which made the two approaches equally significant in
improving academic performance.
Index TermsAcademic performance, college student,
positive psychology, visualization.
I. INTRODUCTION
Visualization is a process of cognitive stimulation to direct
things imagined to work. According to Jack Canfield (2005)
in order to reach a goal, one has to visualize the goal ―as
already complete in vivid detail, and then allow yourself to
feel that result of your goal (fuel the emotions)‖ [1].
Tal Ben-Shahar, an author and lecturer of Positive
Psychology at Harvard University, mentioned during one of
his lectures that a study by Shelley Taylor, Ph.D., a
psychologist at University of California, Los Angeles
(UCLA), conducted an experiment on how visualization
affects individuals in achieving goals. This study became the
basis and framework of the researchers’ experimentation.
Science has indeed shown that visualization does work to
some extent, primarily in the field of Sports Psychology. An
experiment done by Australian psychologist Alan
Richardson has revealed that athletes who visualized
shooting free throws did just as well as those who actually
practiced [2]. A study in Ohio by GuangYue, an exercise
psychologist from Cleveland Clinic foundation, showed that
by visualizing weightlifting, athletes gained muscle mass
nearly as much as half the mass as those who actually trained;
and prominent athletes who use visualization in sports are
Tiger Woods, Jack Nicklaus, and Muhammad Ali [3].
Manuscript received June 25, 2013; revised November 8, 2013.
N. L. Narvacan and E. A. Bulaquiña are with Batangas State University,
Batangas City, 4200, Philippines (e-mail: nicolandichonarvacan@gmail.com,
evangeline1119@yahoo.com).
L. D. Evangelista is with the College of Arts and Sciences, Batangas State
University, Batangas City, 4200, Philippines (e-mail:
balotevangelista@yahoo.com).
Thoughts generate the similar mental ―instructions as
actions‖ according to brain studies. Cognitive processes are
affected by mental simulation. Doing mental exercises can
improve one’s effectiveness in performance and motivation.
It can also increase confidence and chance for success in any
endeavours in life [3].
Mental exercise can be practiced as one of the ways to
attainsuccess [3]. This notion of cognitive exercise aroused
the researchers’ interest to conduct the study to help students
become more optimistic in their studies. Moreover, they
wanted to determine how visualization can help improve
students’ performance by acquiring better study habits and
positive behavior towards schooling.
In this generation of modern advancement, changes greatly
affect students’ mindset toward schooling. Some of them
become very negative or unconcerned with their studies even
during examinations and tend to get low grades. Lack of
motivation and positive thinking is one of the factors that
affect poor performance. This investigation aimed to know
the effect of visualization in students’ academic performance.
To determine a more effective method of visualization was
also the thrust of the study.
II. METHODOLOGY
A. Research Design
This study is a true experimental design. It specifically
investigated the effects of visualization among first year BS
Psychology students’ academic performance to determine if
this method can improve performance, study habits, and
positivity. The statistical treatments used were mean,
standard deviation, paired t-test, independent t-test, and
chi-square.
B. Participants
The participants in this study were the first year BS
Psychology students of Batangas State University. The
samples were chosen using multistage sampling technique
particularly stratified proportional sampling and simple
random sampling. The researchers obtained the following
number of participants for each treatment using the Slovin’s
formula. Both the control group and the experimental Group
1 had 24 out of 29 students. The experimental Group 2 had 23
out of 29 students.
C. Materials
Results of the Semi-final examination (Science,
Technology, and Society subject)
Grades on the Midterm examination (Science, Technology,
and Society subject)
Mobile phones
Effects of Visualization on Academic Performance of
College Students
Niño Fredrico L. Narvacan, Evangeline Atienza-Bulaquiña, and Lucille D. Evangelista
International
Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, April 2014
157
Daily Note Sheet
After-experiment evaluation sheet (for personal
evaluation)
D. Procedure
The researchers informed each class about the experiment.
It was assumed that the participants were willing to be part of
the experiment.
The participants were briefly informed about the
methodology and the relevance of the study. However, the
real purpose and nature of the study was not disclosed until
the experiment was finished to avoid external and internal
contaminations of results.
The participants in each section represented each of the
different treatments. Section 1201 was the control group
wherein basically no treatment was provided, but they were
simply asked to take down notes of their study habits. Section
1202 served as the first experimental group wherein the
participants were asked to visualize the goal of achieving a
grade of 1.00 (98-100) and to evoke the emotion of happiness
and pride upon achieving that goal on Science, Technology,
and Society (STS) subject for their Semi-final examination.
Lastly, Section 1203 stood as the second experimental group
wherein the participants were told to visualize the goal of
achieving a grade of 1.00 (98-100) and to evoke the emotion
of happiness and pride upon achieving that goal as well as the
journey or actions toward the goal like studying and
reviewing lectures and notes, listening to the professor during
classes, taking down notes, actively participating in class
discussions, going to the library to study, doing group studies,
and turning down friends who invite them to go out.
Each participant was to carry out the instructions for seven
consecutive days each morning upon waking up for five
minutes. They were reminded by the researchers every day
for seven days through personal monitoring and SMS
messaging. If they were not able to do so, then they were told
to do it before they go to sleep.
The participants took the Semi-final examination on the
scheduled day of the exam which was the date indicated in
the university calendar.
The researchers took the results of the Semi-final
examination as well as the Midterm examination from the
Science, Technology, and Society (STS) professor for
statistical evaluation.
After the experiment, the participants were debriefed (that
is explaining the true nature and purpose of the study).
E. Research Matrix
III. RESULTS
TABLE I: MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
OF PARTICIPANTS IN STS SUBJECT
Group Midterm
Mean s
Semi-final
Mean s
Control 90.13 5.83 85.83 8.93
Experimental1 88.87 6.11 90.52 7.43
Experimental2 86.52 8.74 88.43 10.16
The mean shows where the data is centered. The table
presents the mean scores for the Midterm examination of the
control group of 90.13, the experimental Group 1 of 88.87,
and the experimental Group 2 of 86.52. It can be noted that
the control group got the highest mean score. On the other
hand, the mean score for the Semi-final examination of the
control group was 85.83, the experimental Group 1 was
90.52, and the experimental Group 2 was 88.43.
The standard deviation shows how spread the data is. The
table shows that the standard deviation for the Midterm of the
control group was 5.83, the experimental Group 1 was 6.11,
and the experimental Group 2 was 8.74. On the contrary, the
standard deviation for the Semi-final of the control group was
8.93, the experimental Group 1 was 7.43, and the
experimental Group 2 was 10.16.
Fig. 1. Distribution of scores of respondents in the Control Group.
It can be noted that the result of the Midterm examination
of the control group is higher compared to their Semi-final
examination.
Fig. 2. Distribution of scores of the respondents in the Experimental Group 1.
Fig. 2 shows the variation of scores of Midterm and
Semi-final of the experimental Group 1. It can be noted that
the Semi-final exam improved a little in this treatment.
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Fig. 3. Distribution of scores of respondents in the Experimental Group 2.
Fig. 3 shows the variation of scores of the Midterm and
Semi-final examination of the experimental Group 2 which
improved a little as well.
TABLE II: DIFFERENCE ON PARTICIPANTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE FOR
MIDTERM AND SEMI-FINAL EXAMINATION
Group p-values Computed
t-values Decision on
Ho Verbal
Interpretation
Control 0.009 2.87 Reject Significant
Exp 1 0.16 -1.44 Failed to
Reject Not Significant
Exp 2 0.20 -1.33 Failed to
Reject Not Significant
Table II shows the representation of scores of respondents
in their Midterm and Semi-final examination.
Since the p-value of 0.009 is lower than 0.05 level of
significance, the computed t-value of 2.87 is found to be
significant. This can also mean that the control group
differssignificantly in their academic performance compared
to the experimental groups.
Specifically, it can be noted that majority of the
participants in the control group shows lower grade results in
their Semi-final examination compared to the
Midtermexamination. On the other hand, participants in the
experimental groups gained higher test results compared to
the control group but it is not high enough to be statistically
significant.
TABLE III: DIFFERENCE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PARTICIPANTS IN THEIR
SEMI-FINAL EXAMINATION IN STS SUBJECT
Pairwise
comparison p-value Computed
t-value Decision
on Ho Verbal
Interpretation
Exp1 vs Exp2
0.43
0.80
Failed to
Reject
Not Significant
Control vs
Exp1
0.059 -1.938 Failed to
Reject Not Significant
Control vs
Exp2 0.36 -0.93 Failed to
Reject Not Significant
Table III shows the pairwise comparison of each treatment
conditions. The result shows no significant difference in any
of the following conditions being compared.
TABLE IV: COMPARISON OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE BETWEEN
EXPERIMENTAL GROUP 1 AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUP 2
Value df Asymp. Sig.
(2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 198.567
a 18
0 0.163
Likelihood Ratio 91.728 18
0 1.000
Linear-by-Linear
Association 7.776 1 0.005
N of Valid Cases 23 - -
208 cells (100.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum
expected count is .04.
Table IV shows the comparison of scores between
Experimental Group 1 (Outcome Visualization) and
Experimental Group 2 (Process Visualization). The data
shows that the results are not significant. Therefore, the two
approaches have equal effects on the variable being
measured.
IV. DISCUSSION
The experiment ―Effects of Visualization on Academic
Performance of College Students‖ was conducted in order to
determine the effects of outcome visualization and process
visualization as differentiated by Pham and Taylor (1999) [4],
assigned to experimental Group 1 and experimental Group 2,
respectively, on the academic performance of Psychology
students at Batangas State University. It also determined the
more effective method of visualization between the two
means.
The study’s main goal about visualization was tested and
interpreted after experimentation. The study done by Shelley
Taylor and Lien Pham of UCLA showed that the process
visualization group performed better than the outcome
visualization group. There was also a control group, and the
results showed that outcome visualization improved two
points while process visualization increased by eight points,
but Taylor also expressed doubts that the outcome
visualization may not lead an individual to achieve one’s goal
[5].
In the experiment done by the researchers, the two
experimental groups represented the outcome visualization
and process visualization groups wherein scores were tested
and statistically analysed. Results indicated that the two
approaches in visualization showed the same effect in
improving academic performance. The comparison between
two groups showed a p-value of 0.163 which was higher than
0.05 level of significance. The computed value of 198.567
was found to be not significant. This could also mean that the
performance of experimental Group 1 exposed to outcome
visualization approach does not vary with the performance of
experimental Group 2 exposed to process visualization
approach.
The experimenters gathered 24 participants for the control
group and the experimental Group 1 while experimental
Group 2 had 23 participants. One participant for both the
control group and the experimental Group 1 was removed
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Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, April 2014
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because the researchers were informed later on that they were
not enrolled in Science, Technology, and Society subject
(STS).
Various studies were done to determine factors affecting
students’ academic performance. These factors are
communication, learning facilities, proper guidance, and
family stress‖ [6]. According to Carol Jo Durr, a negative
attitude toward a subject or course would demonstrate less
effort than on an anticipated class, thus, considering
motivation as one factor as well [7]. The best indicator
contributing to high student performance is the higher level
of socio-economic status according to Farooq, Chauhdhry,
Shafiq&Berhanu [8].English competence and active class
participation are the most important factors for a positive
effect on students’ performance. On the other hand, missing
classes frequently and the less number of hours spent
studying are most important factors for a negative effect on
students’ performance according to Harb& El-Shaarawi [9].
Results showed no significant difference on the effects of
outcome visualization and process visualization to the
academic performance of psychology students. The
researchers believed that willingness to participate in the act
of visualization contributed to its effectiveness. According to
Walter J. Freeman, an act of perception is a step in a
trajectory by which brains grow, reorganize themselves and
reach into their environment to change it to their own
advantage[10]. In general, participants who actively took
part and were more focused on visualization got the benefit
of closely achieving or achieving the target goal. Participants
were asked to describe their experience and comments about
the activity which ranged from being enjoyable to being
boring, from being willing to simply following when
reminded according to their own convenience. Since
perception is affected by experience, motives, and emotions,
the participants had varying degrees of involvement with
regard to visualization [11].
V. CONCLUSION
Based on the findings, the researchers came up to the
following conclusions:
1) Visualization is statistically insignificant in terms of
academic performance.
2) Students who do process and outcome visualization
score higher compared to the control group.
3) Based on the findings of the study, the two approaches
on visualization, i.e. outcome visualization and process
visualization are equally effective in improving
academic performance.
Based on the results of the experimental study, the
following recommendations can be considered for
improvement:
1) Other variables may be studied by future researchers on
visualization such as age or age group, gender, length of
time, or perception.
2) Visualization should be closely monitored as much as
possible and provide a more detailed means of proper
visualization to obtain more accurate results.
3) Future researchers may consider using only participants
who are willing and will actively participate in
visualization or use a within-subject group design to
precisely determine whether visualization is an effective
means of achieving the goal.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This research would not have been possible without the
guidance and help of several individuals who, in one way or
another, contributed and extended their valuable support in
the preparation and completion of this paper.
First and foremost, the researchers would like to thank the
teachers and the faculty of the College of Arts and Sciences
specially to Psychology professorswho molded them to
become competent students and to the whole BatStateU
community. This achievement is for them.
The researchers would also like to recognize their
classmates and friends who gave them the everlasting support
and confidence that they can finish this research successfully.
They have been their aide and inspiration in every step of the
way.
The researchers would like to thank theirfamilies who gave
them unwinding support and love which is something beyond
words to describe.They are forever grateful to them.
E. A. Bulaquiña would like to give a special mention to her
son who has been her inspiration for all her most recent
accomplishments including this study.
Finally,the authors offer this piece of humble work tothe
Almighty God.For answering their prayers and giving them
the knowledge to make this an accomplishment, to God be
the glory!
REFERENCES
[1] B. Bobbins. (February 2010). How to really use visualization to
achieve your goals-no bs secret stuff here. Don’t Step In the Poop: How
to Avoid Screwing up Your Life and Your Career. [Online]. Available:
http://dontstepinthepoop.com/visualization-for-success-goals
[2] A. Reyes. (April 2012). Does visualization really work? Here’s
evidence that it does. Expert Enough: Just Enough to be Dangerous.
[Online]. Available:
http://expertenough.com/1898/visualization-works
[3] A. LeVan. (December 2009). Seeing is believing: the power of
visualization. Psychology today. [Online]. Available:
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/flourish/200912/seeing-is-beli
eving-the-power-visualization.
[4] J. Dean. (March 2011). The right kind of visualisation. Psyblog
Understand your mind. [Online]. Available:
www.spring.org.uk/2011/03/the-right-kind-of-visualisation.php
[5] R. M. King. Thinking without knowledge. King’s Psychology Network.
[Online]. Available. http://www.psyking.net/id205.htm
[6] I. Mushtaq and S. N. Khan, ―Factors affecting students’ academic
performance, Global Journal of Management and Business Research,
vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 3-4, June 2012.
[7] C. J. Durr, Factors affecting student performance in principles of
macroeconomics courses, Issues in Political Economy, vol. 8. pp. 5-7,
July 1999.
[8] M. S. Farooq, A. H. Chaudhry, M. Shafiq, and G. Berhanu, Factors
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[9] N. Harb and A. El-Shaarawi (July 2006). Factors affecting students’
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[10] W. J. Freeman. (February 1991). The physiology of perception.
Scientific American. [Online]. 264(2). pp. 13. Available:
http://sulcus.berkeley.edu/flm/ms/physio.percept.html
[11] G. Johns and A. M. Saks, Organizational Behaviour Understanding
and Managing Life at Work, 6th ed., Pearson Education, 2010, ch. 3.
Niño Fredrico L. Narvacan was born on August 31,
1993 in Calaca, Batangas, Philippines. He is currently
a fourth year student of Batangas State University
taking up Bachelor of Science in Psychology.
Mr. Narvacan was the Financial Manager of the
Psychological Organization for the Promotion of
Mental Health (POPMH) under the Philippine Mental
Health Association (PMHA) Lipa-Batangas
Chapter from July 2011 August 2013. He is also a consistent elected officer
of the university based organization, Psychology Student’s Society (PSS)
of Batangas State University from 2010 2012. His research interest
includes environmental psychology, cognitive and biological science and
human resource development studies.
Evangeline Atienza-Bulaquiña is a resident of the
Philippines and was born on November 19, 1979.
Evangeline is currently a fourth year BS Psychology
student at Batangas State University, Batangas City,
Philippines. She is also a Registered Chemist in the
Philippines with a BS Chemistry degree from the same
institution in 2000.
She has years of experience working as a
Laboratory Analyst in a food manufacturing plant. She also has years of
experience as a Medical Transcriptionist in an office-based setting. Currently,
she is a full-time Psychology student whose primary interest is career
counseling.
Ms.Atienza-Bulaquiña is a member of the Integrated Chemists of the
Philippines, Philippine Mental Health Association, and Psychology Students
Society.
Lucille D. Evangelista was born on July 25, 1977 in
Alamada, North Cotabato, Philippines. She received
her Bachelor’s degree in Clinical Psychology at
Polytechnic University of the Philippines (1998),
received her Master’s degree on Educational
Psychology in 2003 with distinction as a Cum Laude
at University of Santo Tomas, and finished her Ph.
D. in Psychology in 2008 from the same university.
She is currently the assistant director of the Testing and Admission
Officeat Batangas State University. She is also a College Professor in the
same institution since 1998.
Dr. Evangelista is affiliated with the Psychological Association of the
Philippines as an Associate and a member of the following organizations:
National Confederation of Public and Private School Educators of the
Philippines, MAVEC Specialist Foundation, Philippine Association for
Teacher Education, BatStateU Faculty Association, and Teacher’s Network.
.
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Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, April 2014
160
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This study was conducted to examine different factors influencing the academic performance of secondary school students in a metropolitan city of Pakistan. The respondents for this study were 10 th grade students (300 male & 300 female). A survey was conducted by using a questionnaire for information gathering about different factors relating to academic performance of students. The academic performance was gauged by the result of their 9th grade annual examination. Standard t-test and ANOVA were applied to investigate the effect of different factors on students' achievement. The results of the study revealed that socioeconomic status (SES) and parents' education have a significant effect on students' overall academic achievement as well as achievement in the subjects of Mathematics and English. The high and average socioeconomic level affects the performance more than the lower level. It is very interesting that parents' education means more than their occupation in relation to their children's academic performance at school. It was found that girls perform better than the male students.
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In preparing the 4th edition of "Organizational Behavior," I concentrated on developing several themes that are current in contemporary organizational life. This development included adding new content, expanding previous coverage, and addressing the themes throughout the text to enhance integration. The global aspects of organizational life have received expanded treatment in this edition. The changing nature of workplace demographics and a need to provide a welcoming work environment for all organizational members has led to explicit coverage of workforce diversity. Contemporary organizations are focusing more and more on teamwork. Many organizations are reengineering, exploiting advanced technology, and experimenting with total quality management programs. These interrelated topics, all involving organizational change, are the focus of another theme in this edition. Finally, the [textbook] reflects the continuing role of ethics in organizational decision making. Each chapter concludes with an executive summary, key concepts, and discussion questions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
How to really use visualization to achieve your goals-no bs secret stuff here. Don't Step In the Poop: How to Avoid Screwing up Your Life and Your Career
  • B Bobbins
B. Bobbins. (February 2010). How to really use visualization to achieve your goals-no bs secret stuff here. Don't Step In the Poop: How to Avoid Screwing up Your Life and Your Career. [Online]. Available: http://dontstepinthepoop.com/visualization-for-success-goals
Does visualization really work? Here's evidence that it does. Expert Enough: Just Enough to be Dangerous
  • A Reyes
A. Reyes. (April 2012). Does visualization really work? Here's evidence that it does. Expert Enough: Just Enough to be Dangerous. [Online].
Seeing is believing: the power of visualization. Psychology today
  • A Levan
A. LeVan. (December 2009). Seeing is believing: the power of visualization. Psychology today. [Online].
The right kind of visualisation. Psyblog Understand your mind
  • J Dean
J. Dean. (March 2011). The right kind of visualisation. Psyblog Understand your mind. [Online].
Thinking without knowledge. King's Psychology Network
  • R M King
R. M. King. Thinking without knowledge. King's Psychology Network. [Online]. Available. http://www.psyking.net/id205.htm
Factors affecting students' academic performance
  • I Mushtaq
  • S N Khan
I. Mushtaq and S. N. Khan, -Factors affecting students' academic performance,‖ Global Journal of Management and Business Research, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 3-4, June 2012.