Article

How consumer-generated images shape important consumption outcomes in the food domain

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Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of the present research is to investigate consumer-generated images (CGI), or images of products and experiences that are produced and controlled by consumers, particularly in the food domain, and the influence that producing such images has on the consumer creating the image. Design/methodology/approach – The authors present three studies that manipulate the type of food (indulgent vs healthy) and whether participants create CGI prior to consumption. Data were analyzed using a combination of ANOVA and PROCESS. Findings – It is shown that producing CGI causes a momentary active delay in consumption, which increases the savoring associated with consumption of pleasurable (i.e. indulgent) foods and, in effect, increases attitudes and taste evaluations of the experience when consumption actually takes place. When descriptive social norms regarding healthy eating are made salient, CGI can also lead to more favorable outcomes for less pleasurable (i.e. healthy) foods. Practical implications – The findings provide insight into the effects of consumers taking pictures of their food before consumption, a growing trend on social media sites (i.e. Instagram). Marketing managers can develop strategies to encourage their consumers to take pictures of their food. Originality/value – To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research is the first to demonstrate the effects of consumer-generated images on a product consumption experience and identify the conditions and process under which these effects occur.

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... Photo-sharing is a very common way of user-generated content generation (Coary and Poor, 2016;Shi et al., 2018). People take photos to record their travel experiences and selectively share and publish them to express their personal identity (Barasch et al., 2017b;Krämer et al., 2017). ...
... There is also evidence that the expectation of future positive valence experiences leads consumers to have more positive effects (Nowlis et al., 2004). For example, photographing beautiful food during the travel briefly delays consumption, and tourists can participate and interact with the beautiful food during the delay (Coary and Poor, 2016). This short delay evokes the taste of the coming consumption experience, which can increase the functional perception of the experienced product (Nowlis et al., 2004), contributing to the improvement of product evaluation and attitude (Coary and Poor, 2016). ...
... For example, photographing beautiful food during the travel briefly delays consumption, and tourists can participate and interact with the beautiful food during the delay (Coary and Poor, 2016). This short delay evokes the taste of the coming consumption experience, which can increase the functional perception of the experienced product (Nowlis et al., 2004), contributing to the improvement of product evaluation and attitude (Coary and Poor, 2016). ...
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This study tested a conceptual model in which photo-sharing behavior during travel elicits tourists’ emotional state, and in turn improves evaluation of the tourism product. The research results in the context of tourist attractions and restaurants provide support for the proposed model. Specifically, tourists’ photo-sharing behavior was significantly associated with more positive product evaluation, both directly and indirectly via the emotion of pleasure. These associations were stronger when the interdependent self-construers had good social experience. The results provide practical guidance for marketers to developing marketing strategy.
... The explosion of content on food-related peer-review websites such as TripAdvisor and Yelp (Melumad et al., 2019) would Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org suggest that food photography -sometimes also referred to as "foodtography" (Coary and Poor, 2016) -is a widely prevalent activity. However, it can be controversial. ...
... Poor et al., 2013). Coary and Poor (2016) have shown that food photography can increase the taste evaluation of indulgent but not healthy food. The researchers provide evidence illustrating how photography both (1) directs attention to the food, i.e., increasing awareness of its properties, and (2) delays consumption, leading to an increased savoring of the indulgent experience. ...
... In the former, baseline attention might have already been optimal, whereas, in the latter, the distracting environment made photography beneficial. The authors justify their study design referencing previous literature (i.e., Coary and Poor, 2016;Diehl et al., 2016), yet the lack of a proper control group or session randomization seem like a missed opportunity. ...
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Obesity continues to be a global issue. In recent years, researchers have started to question the role of our novel yet ubiquitous use of digital media in the development of obesity. With the recent COVID-19 outbreak affecting almost all aspects of society, many people have moved their social eating activities into the digital space, making the question as relevant as ever. The bombardment of appetizing food images and photography – colloquially referred to as “food porn” – has become a significant aspect of the digital food experience. This review presents an overview of whether and how the (1) viewing, (2) creating, and (3) online sharing of digital food photography can influence consumer eating behavior. Moreover, this review provides an outlook of future research opportunities, both to close the gaps in our scientific understanding of the physiological and psychological interaction between digital food photography and actual eating behavior, and, from a practical viewpoint, to optimize our digital food media habits to support an obesity-preventive lifestyle. We do not want to rest on the idea that food imagery’s current prevalence is a core negative influence per se. Instead, we offer the view that active participation in food photography, in conjunction with a selective use of food-related digital media, might contribute to healthy body weight management and enhanced meal pleasure.
... In line with this reasoning, two recent papers characterized the impact of phone photography on the enjoyment of food (Coary & Poor, 2016;Diehl, Zauberman, & Barasch, 2016). Compared to participants who did not take any photos (and who simply ate the food), those who first engaged in photography savoured the food more and rated its taste more positively (Coary & Poor, 2016); they also found the eating experience more enjoyable (Diehl et al., 2016). ...
... In line with this reasoning, two recent papers characterized the impact of phone photography on the enjoyment of food (Coary & Poor, 2016;Diehl, Zauberman, & Barasch, 2016). Compared to participants who did not take any photos (and who simply ate the food), those who first engaged in photography savoured the food more and rated its taste more positively (Coary & Poor, 2016); they also found the eating experience more enjoyable (Diehl et al., 2016). ...
... We also assessed whether taking food photographs would increase the amount of food eaten (Study 2). Finally, although previous studies found benefits in enjoyment, these were observed relative to eating without any prior activity (Coary & Poor, 2016;Diehl et al., 2016). Correspondingly, it remains unclear whether the effects observed were specific to taking food photographs, as compared to any form of phone use or to general photography. ...
... communal meals, gifting food) that can help achieve pleasure with food when an enjoyable consumption takes place. Next, we focus on the digital world (sharing online) where new media tools, such as social media, allow for the connections between consumers, heightening food pleasure and facilitating healthy food consumption (Coary and Poor, 2016). Finally, we consider the current demand of consumers for a positive societal impact based on food consumption (Batat et al., 2017) emphasizing the relationship between food, pleasure, corporate social responsibility, cause-related marketing programs and sustainability (sharing for society). ...
... For example, Chandon (2016a, 2016b) explored the impact of pleasure on adopting healthy eating behaviors by reducing portion size through imagery, thus improving consumer well-being. Coary and Poor (2016) investigated how the act of taking a picture before eating and posting it onto a social media account creates a sensory experience with the food (e.g. visual appeal of the food; smell; imagined taste) which amplifies the pleasurable experience of eating healthy food. ...
... "foodstagramming"; foodtography; "#foodporn") so that photographing food is as common as eating it together with friends. We use food pictures as an art form to create a food diary and autobiographical memories, to show our latest recipe and creation, or to celebrate a special occasion (Coary and Poor, 2016). We also privately consume them: we send food pictures to friends, and we look at other's food pictures (Kozinets et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to introduce and define social food pleasure as a new conceptual framework that can promote pleasurable and healthy food experiences. Design/methodology/approach By reviewing the literature related to food well-being and pleasure primarily from marketing and management fields and by looking at current trends appealing to food consumers and food enjoyers, the authors propose a new conceptual framework of social food pleasure. Findings The authors conceptualize social food pleasure as “the enjoyment derived from the acts of sharing food experiences offline, online, and for society at large, that positively contributes to consumers’ overall pleasure and satisfaction with consumer’s food consumption”. Moreover, the authors identify three key contexts of applications of social food pleasure. Sharing offline relates to the social activities that can help achieve pleasure with food. Sharing online concerns new media tools which allow for the connection between consumers and food to enhance food pleasure. Sharing for society considers the current pleasure of consumers derived from having a positive social experience based on food consumption. Originality/value By defining social food pleasure and proposing a conceptual framework of the three contexts of application, the authors advance the understanding of what constitutes pleasurable food experiences, connecting it to healthy food choices and well-being.
... Opportunities such as ease of use, accessibility, connectivity, and relative low cost, make the camera phone the perfect tool for capturing everyday moments, it seems the camera phone 1 Higgs, S. (2015), Op.Cit. p.6. 2 Ibid, p.8. 3 Coary, S., & Poor, M. (2016). How consumer-generated images shape important consumption outcomes in the food domain. ...
... While food has long served as a matter of art and later photography, the rise of photocentric social media platforms has taken the use of foodtography mainstream. Coary and Poor (2016) 1 mentioned that consumers capture and share pictures of food for a variety of reasons, such as a type of food diary, to document an unusual creation or a self-creation, to seize a special occasion, as food art, for a recipe tutorial or a restaurant review. Social media has raised and modified the beauty standards, which made people want to be like the models they see every day on the social media, so they are affected by their lifestyle and are trying to copy them in order to look like them. ...
... People may be encouraged to eat healthily when they see the influencers posting their healthy food online. Coary and Poor (2016) 2 also conducted that people are very concerned about the likes they get on pictures and the number of followers they gain, and since healthy food is becoming a trend and foodtography is in the picture too, this motivates them to eat healthy in order to capture their food, post them, get the most likes and gain more followers. Coary and Poor (2016) 3 concluded that even though some of those who eat healthy may not be really enjoying it and are just doing it for the acceptance of others, the act of capturing a picture of a food inherently causes the consumer to pause before eating to focus on the full sensory experience (smell of the food, imagined taste of the food, visual appeal of the food, touch of arranging the food, and sound of the camera clicking) and in this matter be more aware and appreciative of the pleasure they are about to experience. ...
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This Research is talking about how social influences and demographics affect healthy food consumption but in the Egyptian culture, as many of previous studies stated that there is a relation between healthy food consumption and social influences, but the gap was; this study weren’t made on the Egyptian culture. The main objectives of this research were; to measure the relationship between cultural dimensions and healthy food consumption, to identify the effect of demographics on healthy food consumption, and to explain the effect of social influences on healthy food consumption. The methodological tools used in this research was the quantitative approach as researchers used structured (Self-administered) written questionnaire for data collection tool and analyzed the results using SPSS. The results found stated that there is no relation between cultural dimensions, demographics, and social influences on healthy food consumption.
... Instagram is one of the main motives for participating in social networking sites [5] Instagram aside from being an application that can upload photos and videos, it can also help us gain in-depth insights about social, cultural, and environmental aspects [6][7][8]. Instagram content is largely dominated by personal experience, but some people make this content as a learning medium used to upload food or food recipes [8][9][10][11]. Uploading food on Instagram users can be judged as the nature of self-presentation of a post [5]. ...
... In addition to self or personal posts, Instagram is also used for media information and educational facilities, especially how to cook [20,21]. Judging from its impact, Instagram also turns out to be a media that can express its users seen from every post on Instagram [10]. As for the advantages and disadvantages of Instagram media that will have an impact on users and followers [16,22,23]. ...
Article
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Social media have taken a big part of people’s lives within the industrial revolution era 4.0. One of the most widely used social media in Instagram, a platform to upload photos and videos with various purposes. This paper identifies the use of Instagram in digital learning, particularly with posts related to food. Various features on Instagram were sorted and analyzed. The results showed that the feed and story are the most effective features to promote food-related posts in comparison to the other feature: IGTV. It has also been inferred that Instagram is the most popular social media for business purpose which is a good thing for the industry.
... The origin of food (Coary & Poor, 2016;Hess, Lagerkvist, Redekop, & Pakseresht, 2016). 0 = Vegetal Origin 1 = Animal Origin Risk type ...
... This analysis seeks to broaden the understanding of FSRP by considering many studies carried out in different contexts and allow for a more robust understanding of the production of effect sizes. The first moderator is food origin: vegetal or animal (Coary & Poor, 2016). It is expected that FSRP may generate more significant negative effects on WTB for foods with animal origin (milk, meat, eggs, etc.) than for food of vegetal origin (cereals, vegetables). ...
Article
Studies investigating food safety risk perception (FSRP) have substantially increased in recent years, particularly because of recent cases of food contamination. Most studies analysed the effects of FSRP antecedents and their consequences but reported heterogeneous effects. To consolidate these results and provide a more robust and parsimonious picture of FSRP, we conducted a meta-analysis of 128 empirical studies that investigated the key drivers and outcomes of FRSP and potential moderator variables. Our findings reveal the key drivers (trust, knowledge, subjective characteristics, and socio-demographic characteristics) of FSRP and a robust negative consequent effect on the willingness to buy (WTB). Also, we reveal the moderation role of the food origin, risk type, healthiness, shelf life and pleasure in the consequent effect. Our results contribute to the growing literature related to FSRP by consolidating previous results and help establish a foundation for further advancement in this topic. More importantly, our findings provide a more comprehensive picture of the FSRP phenomenon to help in the design of guidelines and rules that shape supplier behaviour to enhance food safety along the food supply chain.
... It is unclear in these studies whether the marketing identified was encouraged by food and beverage companies (like in the Coca-Cola campaign). However, research suggests that exposure to food and beverages embedded in seemingly authentic content is associated with more positive attitudes and taste evaluations during later consumption (Coary and Poor, 2016), which is concerning not only because of the volume of exposure, but also because of the techniques that blur the lines between advertising and entertaining content. ...
... The prevalence of "less healthy" food and beverages in the current study may give children the impression that influencers regularly consume these items ( Vassallo et al., 2018;Norwegian Consumer Council, 2019), and encourage similar behaviors ( Martínez and Olsson, 2018). Indeed, previous research has showed that young people's exposure to HFSS cues in social media, including via influencers content, increases attitudes toward, and immediate intake of, these products (Coary and Poor, 2016;Baldwin et al., 2018;Coates et al., 2019a;Folkvord et al., 2019). Although data on the amount of time that children in the United Kingdom spend watching YouTube video bloggers is not available, data from other countries enable an estimation of children's potential exposure to "less healthy" food and beverage cues via this content. ...
Article
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Food and beverage cues (visual displays of food or beverage products/brands) featured in traditional broadcast and digital marketing are predominantly for products high in fat, sugar and/or salt (HFSS). YouTube is hugely popular with children, and cues featured in content uploaded by YouTube video bloggers (influencers) has been shown to affect children’s eating behavior. However, little is known about the prevalence of such cues, the contexts in which they appear, and the frequency with which they are featured as part of explicit marketing campaigns. The objective of this study was to explore the extent and nature of food and beverage cues featured in YouTube videos of influencers popular with children. All videos uploaded by two influencers (one female, one male) over a year (2017) were analyzed. Based on previous content analyses of broadcast marketing, cues were categorized by product type and classified as “healthy” or “less healthy” according to the UK Nutrient Profiling Model. Cues were also coded for branding status, and other factors related to their display (e.g., description). In total, the sample comprised 380 YouTube videos (119.5 h) and, of these, only 27 videos (7.4%) did not feature any food or beverage cues. Cakes (9.4%) and fast foods (8.9%) were the most frequently featured product types, less frequent were healthier products such as fruits (6.5%) and vegetables (5.8%). Overall, cues were more frequently classified as less healthy (49.4%) than healthy (34.5%) and were presented in different contexts according to nutritional profile. Less healthy foods (compared with healthy foods) were more often; branded, presented in the context of eating out, described positively, not consumed, and featured as part of an explicit marketing campaign. These data provide the first empirical assessment of the extent and nature of food and beverage cue presentation in YouTube videos by influencers popular with children. Given the emerging evidence of the effects of influencer marketing of food and beverages on children’s eating behavior, this exploratory study offers a novel methodological platform for digital food marketing assessment and delivers important contextual information that could inform policy deliberations in this area.
... Although some research suggests that such mental simulation positively affects consumers' affective responses to experiences (i.e. the emotions and feelings that consumers report having; Coary and Poor, 2016;Nowlis et al., 2004), other research suggests the opposite (Chan and Mukhopadhyay, 2010). Further, marketers appear to implicitly accept Andy Warhol's view (above) that such mental simulation augments experiential consumption. ...
... One stream of research (Coary and Poor, 2016;Loewenstein, 1987;Nowlis et al., 2004) suggests that mental simulation increases the enjoyment of a product or experience when it is actually consumed. This research focuses on the utility derived from anticipation. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between mental simulation and affective misforecasting of hedonic consumption experiences. Design/methodology/approach The authors present a series of lab and field studies that manipulate mental simulation and experience type (ordinary versus extraordinary) and measure affective misforecasting and mindfulness. Data were analyzed using a combination of ANOVA and PROCESS. Findings Mental simulation before an experience causes negative affective misforecasting to occur for extraordinary experiences but not ordinary experiences. The authors further show that mindfulness mediates the effect of mental simulation on affective misforecasting. Practical implications The findings provide insight into how thinking about experiences before consumption affects consumers’ actual engagement with the experience. This paper suggests that, by encouraging consumers to mentally simulate their experiences before consumption, marketers may cause consumers to miss out on enjoying their experiences to the fullest. Instead, marketers may want to maintain some mystique by encouraging consumers to “come see for themselves”. Originality/value The authors demonstrate a novel cause of affective misforecasting: mental simulation before the experience and provide initial evidence in support of a novel psychological process explanation (i.e. mindfulness) for the effect of mental simulation on affective misforecasting.
... This attitude may be linked to previous findings in food consumption literature, which suggest that "the rituals enhance the enjoyment of consumption because of the greater involvement in the experience that they prompt" (Vohs et al., 2013(Vohs et al., , p. 1714. In this context, a ritualized expression of consuming food, such as taking a picture of it before eating, which includes all the bright-light seeking and angle tweaking time, makes the food taste better and create favorable outcomes for less pleasurable (i.e., healthy) foods (Coary and Poor, 2016). Similarly, sharing healthy food pictures on Instagram may be considered a ritual that could enhance the pleasure and rationalize the consumption of this particular food that will not be preferred otherwise. ...
... Also, posting good diet pictures on Instagram accompanied with relevant hashtags serves as a means of documenting consumer's healthy lifestyle and consumption patterns. Respective post engagement, such as likes and comments under the photographs, works as the means of support, appreciation, and motivation for the individual while inspiring others to eat healthier and share their food (Coary and Poor, 2016). This network of food-related posts constitutes a major component of health discourse in our data, notably through the display of commodities. ...
Article
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Purpose: Historically, research on perceptions of health either converged upon the meanings created and proposed by specialists in the healthcare industry or focused on people who have medical conditions. This approach has failed to capture how the meanings and notions of health have been evolving as medicine extends into non-medical spheres and has left gaps in the exploration of how the meanings surrounding health and well-being are constructed, negotiated, and reproduced in lay discourse. This paper aims to fill this gap in the understanding of the perceptions surrounding health by investigating consumers’ digitized visual accounts on social media. Design/methodology/approach: Textual network and visual content analyses of posts extracted from Instagram are used to derive conclusions on definitions of health and well-being as perceived by healthy lay individuals. Findings: Research demonstrates that digital discourse of health is clustered around four F’s; namely; food, fitness, fashion, and feelings, which can be categorized with respect to their degrees of representation on a commodification/communification versus bodily/spiritual well-being map. Originality/value: Our knowledge about the meanings of health as constructed and reflected by healthy lay people is very limited and even more so about how these meaning-making processes is realized through digital media. This study contributes to theory by integrating consumers’ meaning-making literature into health perceptions, as well as investigating the role of social networks in enabling a consumptionscape of well-being. Besides a methodological contribution of employing social network analysis on textual data, this article also provides valuable insights for policy makers, communicators, and professionals of health.
... On the other hand, research by Harrar et al. (2011) in Spence et al. (2016) states that photos of high-fat foods trigger a faster brain response than photos of low-fat foods. Another study by Coary & Poor (2016) showed that food photos could increase the deliciousness of the food but do not apply to healthy foods. ...
Article
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Lockdown is one way to reduce the transmission rate of COVID-19. Nevertheless, on the other hand, lockdowns also increase human psychological problems to cause the emergence of emotional eating. In addition, social media exposure that presents food photos can trigger the desire to eat. However, this only applies to high-fat and high-calorie foods, while healthy foods do not have the same stimuli. Therefore, more research is needed on the properties of healthy food photos desired by consumers in order to be able to create or design healthy food photos with an effect that resembles photos of high-fat and high-calorie foods. This study employed the Kansei Engineering approach in designing healthy food photos. Through Kansei Engineering, we can determine the nature of healthy food photos consumers want. The type of Kansei engineering used in this study was Kansei Engineering Type I and was limited to the Semantic Space stage. The process of factor reduction from the results of the semantic differential was carried out by using factor analysis to obtain the most critical factors related to healthy food photos. The semantic space spanning resulted in 23 pairs of Kansei words that related and represented healthy food photos. Based on the factor analysis results, these Kansei words were then into 6-factor groups. Each of the factor groups was represented by the Kansei word pair with the highest loadings value. The selected pair of Kansei words showed that healthy food photos could be represented by Kansei words attractive, contrast, proper lighting, neat, high-quality image, and straightforward.
... In recent years, the possibilities for many of us to digitally interact with food/food imagery have become increasingly advanced (see Bridge, 2018;Coary & Poor, 2016;Petit et al.,2019, Velasco, Obrist, Petit, & Spence, 2018Zhang, Chen, Huang, & Wan, 2019;Zhao, Huang, Spence, & Wan, 2017;Velasco, Barbosa Escobar, Petit, & Wang, 2021). Furthermore, new visualenabling technologies, such as VR and augmented reality (AR), are now being used to develop realistic contextual environments in which to conduct food sensory evaluation research (e.g., Xu, Siegrist, & Hartmann, 2021). ...
Article
In recent years, a growing number of academic researchers, as well as many marketing and design practitioners, have uncovered a variety of factors that would appear to enhance the visual attractiveness, or deliciousness, of food images to the typical consumer. This review, which contains both narrative and systematic elements, critically evaluates the literature concerning the various factors influencing the eye appeal of food images, no matter whether there is an edible food stimulus physically present in front of the viewer or not. We start by summarizing the evidence concerning the human brain’s ability to rapidly determine energy-density in a visual scene and pay attention accordingly. Next, we focus on the importance of embodied mental simulation when it comes to enhancing visual deliciousness. Thereafter, we review the literature on the importance of visual aesthetic features in eye-appeal. The wide range of visual attributes that help to enhance food attractiveness include symmetry, shape, freshness, glossiness, dynamic-presentation, etc. The review concludes with sections on the importance of background/ambient lighting/colour, and the tricks used by those who digitally manipulate images. Taken together, therefore, many different factors ultimately influence the visual deliciousness of food images.
... Savoring has also been identified as a resource in bereavement (Permanadeli and Sundararajan, 2021), in lowering suicide risk (Klibert et al., 2019), and in protecting soldiers from the psychological effects of combat exposure (Sytine et al., 2018); and kill-joy thinking has been found to mediate the relationship between depression symptomatology and gambling disorder severity (Rogier et al., 2019). In addition, researchers have used savoring to increase people's consumption of healthy foods (Coary and Poor, 2016), decrease overeating (Black and Areni, 2016), and promote healthy relationships with food (Batat et al., 2019). ...
Article
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As research on savoring has increased dramatically since publication of the book Savoring: A New Model of Positive Experience ( Bryant and Veroff, 2007 ), savoring has gradually become a core concept in positive psychology. I begin by reviewing the evolution of this concept, the development of instruments for assessing savoring ability and savoring strategies, and the wide range of applications of savoring in the psychosocial and health sciences. I then consider important directions for future theory and research. To advance our understanding of how naturalistic savoring unfolds over time, future work should integrate the perceptual judgments involved in not only the later stages of attending to and regulating positive experience (where past research has concentrated), but also the initial stages of searching for and noticing positive stimuli. Whereas most research has investigated reactive savoring, which occurs spontaneously in response to positive events or feelings, future work is also needed on proactive savoring, which begins with the deliberate act of seeking out or creating positive stimuli. To advance the measurement of savoring-related constructs, I recommend future work move beyond retrospective self-report methods toward the assessment of savoring as it occurs in real-time. The development of new methods of measuring meta-awareness and the regulation of attentional focus are crucial to advancing our understanding of savoring processes. I review recent research on the neurobiological correlates of savoring and suggest future directions in which to expand such work. I highlight the need for research aimed at unraveling the developmental processes through which savoring skills and deficits evolve and the role that savoring impairments play in the etiology and maintenance of psychopathology. Research is also needed to learn more about what enhances savoring, and to disentangle how people regulate the intensity versus duration of positive emotions. Finally, I encourage future researchers to integrate the study of anticipation, savoring the moment, and reminiscence within individuals across time.
... The "One You Programme" from the UK also encourages adults to change their lifestyles and adopt healthier behaviours (Hayes, 2013). Furthermore, previous research has investigated how 'junk' food and non-alcoholic beverages are promoted on Facebook (Freeman et al., 2014) and Instagram (Ginsberg, 2015) particularly on the behavioural effects of user-generated images (Coary and Poor, 2016). ...
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The purpose of this research is to examine: (1) the health-related factors namely perceived health consciousness and perceived risk that motivate a person's intention to avoid junk food consumption, and (2) the influence of regulatory focus (promotion vs prevention foci) on a person's intention to avoid junk food consumption under the conditions of gain-framing vs loss-framing health communication and messages. A set of hypotheses are tested across three studies. Study 1 (n = 148) shows that regulatory focus influences the consumers' intention to avoid junk food. Also, health consciousness mediates the relationship between regulatory focus and junk food avoidance intention. Study 2 (n = 132) finds that perceived risk amplifies the relationship between regulatory focus and health consciousness. Study 3 (n = 168) demonstrates that message framing combined with the appropriate regulatory focus positively influences the consumers' intention to avoid junk food. The findings validate and extend the current theoretical framework in relation to unhealthy eating behaviours (e.g., junk food consumption). Based on the findings of this research, the practitioners can utilise the correct type of health information or claims for the appropriate consumer segment (whether prevention or promotion foci) to effectively implement campaigns and programs.
... In parallel, some other studies related to food experience analysis have yielded relatively mixed results. Coary and Poor (2016), who investigated consumer-generated food images and the influence of such images on the consumer creating them, argue that posting activity leads to a delay in food consumption, which can increase the savouring of indulgent foods, and, only in some cases, of healthy foods as well. Similarly, a study exploring how adolescents communicate food images on social media suggests that it could be challenging to monitor the use of these tools in the marketing of unhealthy foods (Holmberg et al., 2016). ...
Article
Background Academic interest in the use of social media data is rapidly increasing. The application of social media analysis in various domains is an emerging trend due to a massive volume of available data, accessibility, and interaction. Food is often a protagonist of the posting activity on social networks; however, the analysis of social media use in relation to food is still limited. Scope and approach The dual purpose of this systematic review was, firstly, to provide an overview of the existing literature about the phenomenon of food in social media, in order to identify the role of the consumer, the interlocutors of the message, and the type of content conveyed. Secondly, evaluate the impact of social media use, and understand whether the access to social media content can affect consumer knowledge, awareness of healthy food choices, or drive consumers towards unhealthy food practices. Key findings and conclusions Studies can be classified according to two types of communication flow, named from (consumer as the sender of a message) and to consumers (consumer as a receiver). Content analysis outlined four main categories: user-generated content, information measures and risk communication, digital marketing and exposure. Our results revealed a dual nature of social media use in relation to food: a virtuous one, leading to an increase in consumer knowledge and information, and a bad one, which tends to change individual behaviours in the direction of unhealthy food consumption practices.
... The hashtag #foodporn is one of the most popular hashtags on social media, especially on visual media, which is often used along with a close-up of a dish (Mejova, Abbar, & Haddadi, 2016). Research reveals that people who have seen photos of dishes on Instagram perceive the food to be tastier than those who did not scan such images (Coary & Poor, 2016). A marked shift in focus is observed in the growing emphasis given on the way food is plated, presented and also-we argue-is performed over prioritising the taste. ...
Article
The discourse surrounding the Indian foodscape has constantly evolved. In the recent past, the Indian foodscape has observably undergone a stark change, especially in the way people perceive and present food. The globalisation and proliferation of both traditional and social media have had a strong impact on the food fabric of India on the restaurant and household level. While shows like MasterChef Australia were instrumental in diffusing artistic food parlance, social media tools, such as Instagram, made mobile phones synonymous with cutlery on tables. The diverse offerings and food packaging in the Indian culinary landscape is slowly turning the food culture into an ‘experience culture’ and consequently, a ‘taste culture’. Also, table theatrics and fusionism have become rampant in the Indian foodscape often creating a hyperreal dining experience. Based on the in-depth interviews with food bloggers, food experts and food enthusiasts, this article argues that the contemporary Indian foodscape increasingly looks beyond just sustenance and attaches meanings of class and art to it. Therefore, this article problematises and assesses the emerging trends in the contemporary Indian food industry through a ‘social-mediatised gaze’, thereby making substantial contributions to the field of media studies and culture studies.
... People who are physically together, but seemingly isolated, at one and the same time (see also Rimer, 2009 for a report on families' struggles in this regard), which may, in fact, have a negative impact on their perception of face-to-face social interactions (Rotondi et al., 2017), including those at the dining table. Taking a picture has been shown to enhance people's memory for what they ate, even if they do not look at that picture again (Coary and Poor, 2016). At the same time, however, it is important to note that excessive media use has been shown to impair people's memory for various kinds of experience (Tamir et al., 2018; see also Robinson et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Commensality is a key aspect of social dining. However, previous research has identified a number of pros and cons associated with the incorporation of digital technology into eating and drinking episodes. For instance, those who are distracted by digital technology may eat/drink more (that is, they may overconsume) as a result of their failure to attend to the food-related sensations that are thought to cue the termination of eating. Similarly, it has often been suggested that the use of mobile devices at mealtimes can disrupt the more commensal aspects of dining/drinking (at least among those who are physically present together). At the same time, however, looking to the future, it seems clear that digital technologies also hold the promise of delivering opportunities for enhanced multisensory experiential dining. For instance, they might be used to match the auditory, visual, or audiovisual entertainment to the eating/drinking episode (e.g., think only about watching a Bollywood movie while eating a home-delivery Indian meal, say). Indeed, given the growing societal problems associated with people dining by themselves, there are a number of routes by which digital technologies may increasingly help to connect the solo diner with physically co-located, remote, or even virtual dining partners. In this review of the literature, our focus is specifically on the role of technology in inhibiting/facilitating the more pleasurable social aspects of dining, what one might call “digital commensality.” The focus is primarily on Westernized adults with reasonable access to, and familiarity with, digital technologies.
... Finally, the chronological distribution showed a significant increase in the last five years, when 25.95 percent of the studies were performed. It is a way of measuring how much less powerful members in a society accept and expect the uneven distribution existing (De Mooij and Hofstede, 2010) It was calculated the median of the indicator and divided into (0) low and (1) The origin of food (Coary and Poor, 2016;Hess et al., 2016) Animal (0) Nutritional benefits of food (Shimazaki et al., 2017;Xie et al., 2016) Unhealthy food (fast food/ processed food/ready to eat) (0) vs Health food (functional food/low fat/ sugar-free) (1) The relationships of the original model are stronger (weaker) in health (risky) food choice Ethical concern food (ECF) ...
Preprint
Purpose The theory of planned behavior (TPB) emerged as one of the main theoretical bases for understanding consumer intentions and behaviors, with robust results covering different topics. In the context of food, the use of theory has motivated the replication and extension of the model under different circumstances. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The aims of this meta-analysis were to synthesize the literature on TPB in the food choice context and analyze the moderator effect on direct relationships under theoretical, methodological and cultural circumstances A random-effects meta-analysis of 155 studies ( n =367.994) was conducted. Findings There was a robustness in the application of the TPB model to predict food choice; in particular, attitude was the stronger predictor of intention ( r =0.386). The analysis of moderators showed that food origin, life cycle, involving technology, healthcare, ethical concerns, motivation and convenience change the original model relations. Research limitations/implications This meta-analysis is limited by the scope of the investigated literature and publication bias. This approach contributes to the literature in two ways. It confirms the robustness of the theoretical model for predicting behaviors in the context of food choice. Furthermore, this research is the first to provide support to sample, cultural and situational moderators. Originality/value The findings offer insights into the food choice context and identify some gaps and opportunities for future research.
... The main advantage here is offered by the simplicity and ubiquitous availability of Instagram. As long as universities are able to constantly post fresh and interesting content, more potential students would be generated (Coary & Poor, 2016;Conejo, 2014). ...
Thesis
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The main aim of this study is to investigate the motives and influences affecting the service selection intention, in relation to the higher education system with a specific focus on the students’ choice of their engineering major. In order to fulfill this aim, a research question is formed and research is carried out to answer it: What are the motivational influences relating to higher education major selection? A quantitative study is carried out, utilizing a survey and gathering 309 responses. Correlation as well as regression analyses are carried out, identifying which constructs have a significant effect on service selection intention. The prime finding of this study is that financial motivations have a paramount significance for students when deciding which engineering major to select. Other factors identified, in order of their significance, are mentor influences, intrinsic motivations and social good motivations. The research carried out in this study and subsequent results and their interpretations give a high–valued insight for faculty advisers aiming to steer more students into one major or faculty over the others.
... retrieved on June 25, 2018), suggesting the pleasure consumers take in the aesthetic appeal of their food. Simply pausing to take a photo of one's food might increase savoring behavior (Coary & Poor, 2016). Marketing and public policy researchers may wish to investigate whether enhancing the visual aesthetics of food alone can slow down eating, encourage mindful consumption, and increase savoring. ...
Article
This paper introduces experiential pleasure of food (EPF) as a journey that involves the enduring cognitive and emotional pleasure consumers gain from savoring the multisensory, communal, and cultural meanings of food experiences. Specifically, our paper extends work by Cornil and Chandon (2016a and 2016b) on epicurean eating pleasure (EEP) and identifies and defines three stages (contemplation, connection, and creation) and its determinants as they lead to consumers' food well-being (Block et al., 2011). EPF (vs. EEP) aims to promote enduring (vs. improved) consumer well-being and explores marketing and public policy implications and future research areas that might help achieve food well-being (FWB) (Block et al., 2011). EPF offers a clear path to connect pleasure and EEP with FWB. Specifically, our conceptualization of EPF will serve scholars, public policymakers, and marketers who are interested in understanding enduring healthy eating through the perspective of food as pleasure rather than as a health deterrent. Highlights: • This paper introduces a new and important construct related to food well-being: the Experiential Pleasure of Food (EPF). • This paper offers a conceptual framework of a pleasure-centric and savoring approach to enduring healthy eating. • This paper brings a unique, deep, and multidisciplinary perspective on food as a meaningful experience to be savored. • This paper offers useful insights to scholars, marketers, and public policy makers to promote enduring healthy eating.
... The literature has provided a comprehensive overview of social media behaviour (Whiting and Williams, 2013) and the effects of the increasing importance of social media on consumer behaviour in differentiated food industries (Russo and Simeone, 2017). In a similar vein, there has been a heightened interest to investigate the impact of user-generated food images within the social media space (Coary and Poor, 2016;Yang et al., 2017) which underlines the trend of foodism to indicate "contemporary hyper-attention to food" (Calefato et al., 2016, p. 372). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the motives for posting or sharing food photos using social media, focussed within the context of fine dining (FD) restaurants. Design/methodology/approach Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in France by combining analysis of qualitative diary research and transcripts of focus group discussions. Findings The motivation to take food images can be broadly categorised according to experiential (hedonism, altruism and passion collecting) and symbolic (social status, uniqueness, self-esteem and self-presentation) benefits. Research limitations/implications This research is limited by its relatively small sample size and the inability to consider the direct influences of demographic variables and attitudes to FD and social media. Moreover, the cultural context of the study needs to be considered as the study took place in France. Practical implications User-generated images are increasingly an integral aspect of the holistic dining experience. Luxury restaurants need to leverage the opportunities of user-generated content. The FD experience needs to be visually captured and expressed. This can include both tangible and intangible attributes. Originality/value Although the literature has provided a comprehensive overview of social media behaviour, the efficacy of a gastronomic perspective is limited. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to investigate consumer-generated postings of images of food within the luxury restaurant classification.
... Interestingly, a study by Coary and Poor [4] found that, when taking a picture of food before eating it, people "evaluate the taste of the food significantly higher than those who did not. " ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we present Flavorlens, a mobile application for sharing dish observations. Each observation consists of one or more photographs, a title, a location tag, a description, a rating, a sensoring experience reporting about flavors, textures, and odors of a particular dish. Finally, we describe the design and implementation of our system which is based on a requirement analysis.
... Highfield & Leaver, 2016) researching on social media, show that pictures and the topic of food have become a strong presence in social media posts and conversations. Coary and Poor go so far as to suggest that taking a food selfie may even enhance the taste of the food one is about to consume (Coary & Poor, 2016). In order to better understand the socio-cultural aspects of food selfies as part of everyday digital engagements, this article uses 'food selfies' posted by university students to explore their eating practices at an inner urban campus. ...
Article
This article uses ‘food selfies’ posted on social media as a means of exploring the changing spatio-temporal characteristics of eating practices. It is inspired by a research that views the digital practice of posting food selfies on social media as a complex socio-cultural phenomenon. In this research, images of food and eating or ‘food selfies’, posted on Facebook were used to follow the eating practices of university students on and off campus. This article argues that such digital methods not only offer an innovative means of capturing social practices in motion, but they also reveal hidden or ignored aspects of practices that may not be evident from conventional methods. In particular, I argue that the affordances of social media platforms such as Facebook enable privileged access to people’s everyday social practices. The article proposes that such digital practices provide an on-going method of research that may offer institutions access to real time and archival data that is neither spatially nor temporally constrained.
... Research in psychology and related disciplines has demonstrated that the emotional consequence of a decision is anticipated by consumers and it is relevant in making the choice (Zeelenberg et al., 2000;Elgaaied, 2012) confirming that emotions can be generated by appraising processes. Consumers may savour the anticipated pleasure connected with attaining something desirable, leading to more favourable attitudes and evaluations of the consumption experience (Coary and Poor, 2016). However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research to date that investigates the role of these anticipated emotions in decision-making about products. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore the role of positive and negative anticipated emotions on adoption and continued usage of consumer products. The components of value eliciting anticipated emotions are investigated as well. Design/methodology/approach The conceptual model proposed is tested in two empirical studies, one focussing on functional and hedonic products and one on incremental and radical product innovations. Data are collected through online surveys on consumers and are analysed using structural equation modelling. Findings Results confirm the ability of anticipated emotions to influence product decision-making process. Moreover, anticipated emotions mediate the influence of value perceptions on product attitude. Findings show that these relationships vary greatly between initial adoption and further usage of the product. Practical implications Findings from this study may help marketers in the development of the right brand strategies and communication campaigns, aimed at building emotional connections with the consumer which prompt product adoption and usage. Originality/value Anticipated emotions, the predictions about the emotional consequences of a behaviour, have been acknowledged as strong drivers of consumer choices. Despite that, the role of anticipated emotions in product decision-making has not been explored yet. The present research, by means of a novel conceptual model, uncovers the role of anticipated emotions in both product adoption and continued usage decisions and depicts the components of value arousing such anticipated emotions.
... Most intervention studies evaluated discussion forums, which are the oldest forms of social media and have the lowest scores in respect to social presence and media richness, as they are textbased and hence only allow for simple exchanges [7]. We found no study conducted uniquely with social media platforms such as Instagram, which has emerged as a popular tool to share foodrelated pictures [96] and convey social media norms regarding healthy eating [97,98], or Twitter, which has been recognized as a useful channel for the sharing and dissemination of health information [99,100]. Therefore, although best practices for the evaluation of the effectiveness of social media remains a debated question among behavioral research scientists [101], more research is needed to draw clear conclusions regarding the effectiveness of social media in dietetic practice and their mechanisms of action to support costeffective and clinically significant behavior change. ...
Article
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Background: Social media platforms are increasingly used by registered dietitians (RDs) to improve knowledge translation and exchange in nutrition. However, a thorough understanding of social media in dietetic practice is lacking. Objective: The objective of this study was to map and summarize the evidence about the users, uses, and effects of social media in dietetic practice to identify gaps in the literature and inform future research by using a scoping review methodology. Methods: Stages for conducting the scoping review included the following: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies through a comprehensive multidatabase and gray literature search strategy; (3) selecting eligible studies; (4) charting the data; and (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting results for dissemination. Finally, knowledge users (RDs working for dietetic professional associations and public health organizations) were involved in each review stage to generate practical findings. Results: Of the 47 included studies, 34 were intervention studies, 4 were descriptive studies, 2 were content analysis studies, and 7 were expert opinion papers in dietetic practice. Discussion forums were the most frequent social media platform evaluated (n=19), followed by blogs (n=13) and social networking sites (n=10). Most studies targeted overweight and obese or healthy users, with adult populations being most studied. Social media platforms were used to deliver content as part of larger multiple component interventions for weight management. Among intervention studies using a control group with no exposition to social media, we identified positive, neutral, and mixed effects of social media for outcomes related to users' health behaviors and status (eg, dietary intakes and body weight), participation rates, and professional knowledge. Factors associated with the characteristics of the specific social media, such as ease of use, a design for quick access to desired information, and concurrent reminders of use, were perceived as the main facilitators to the use of social media in dietetic practice, followed to a lesser extent by interactions with an RD and social support from fellow users. Barriers to social media use were mostly related to complicated access to the site and time issues. Conclusions: Research on social media in dietetic practice is at its infancy, but it is growing fast. So far, this field of research has targeted few social media platforms, most of which were assessed in multiple-component interventions for weight management among overweight or obese adults. Trials isolating the effects and mechanisms of action of specific social media platforms are needed to draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of those tools to support dietetic practice. Future studies should address barriers and facilitators related to the use of social media written by RDs and should explore how to make these tools useful for RDs to reach health consumers to improve health through diet.
Chapter
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Food is more than just nutrition. Its preparation, presentation and consumption is a multifold communicative practice which includes the meal's design and its whole field of experience. How is food represented in cookbooks, product packaging or in paintings? How is dining semantically charged? How is the sensuality of eating treated in different cultural contexts? In order to acknowledge the material and media-related aspects of eating as a cultural praxis, experts from media studies, art history, literary studies, philosophy, experimental psychology, anthropology, food studies, cultural studies and design studies share their specific approaches.
Article
Students are often unmotivated to engage with their online coursework. Research has shown that concretely visualizing one's goals (e.g., photo‐taking) can improve motivation to learn. This study explored the effect of taking a photo of one's study space (i.e., a studygram photo similar to a post on Instagram) on students' motivation to start, engagement with, and enjoyment of routine assignments. In a within‐subjects design, students took a photo of their study space before starting or after completing the assignment or took no photo. Data were collected from six undergraduate courses across three disciplines (Education, Psychology, and Theatre). Results revealed that students in an online Education course completing routine and formulaic assignments were significantly more motivated to start their coursework when they took a photo compared to when they did not. Results were similar for student engagement and enjoyment. Outcomes were replicated in the course's second iteration but were not found in the Psychology or Theatre courses. Differences between the courses' formatting may have lessened the impact of photo‐taking on students' experiences. Together our results suggest that motivation and engagement with routine coursework may be influenced by an easy‐to‐implement visualization intervention under certain circumstances. Potential implications for teaching are reviewed.
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Yemeğin, beslenme ve açlığı giderme amacı dışında imaj ve izlenim oluşturma, cinsiyet rollerini sergileme, yeni kimlikler yaratma gibi amaçları da bulunmaktadır. Paylaşım ekonomisinin aracıları olan sosyal medya platformlarında yiyecek-içecek görüntülerinin artması yemeğin anlamı dışına taşan bir forma dönüşmesine neden olmaktadır. Sosyal medyanın gıda ile olan yakın ilişkisi de bu yeni anlamlara hizmet etmekte ve gıdanın sosyal medyadaki yeni formunu güçlendirmektedir. Yiyeceklerin tedariği, üretimi, hazırlanması, sunumu ve tüketimine dair görüntülerin parlak, sanatsal ve kültürel özelliklerde sunulması, yemek yapmanın veya tüketmenin göz alıcı ve kusursuz bir görsel şölene dönüşmesi, kavramı pornografik bir seviyeye taşımıştır. Henüz Türkçe yazında ele alınmamış olan #foodporn kavramını açıklamak, ne olduğunu ortaya koymak ve beraberinde hangi akımların gıda ve sosyal medya arasındaki ilişkide rol oynadığını göstermek bu çalışmanın temel amaçlarındandır. #Foodporn kavramını açıklayan ilk Türkçe kaynak olma özelliğini taşıması ve gelecekte bu konuda yapılacak araştırmalara rehberlik etmesi bu çalışmayı önemli kılmaktadır.
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Background Patient-generated health data are increasingly used to record health and well-being concerns and engage patients in clinical care. Patient-generated photographs and videos are accessible and meaningful to patients, making them especially relevant during the current COVID-19 pandemic. However, a systematic review of photos and videos used by patients across different areas of health and well-being is lacking. Objective This review aims to synthesize the existing literature on the health and well-being contexts in which patient-generated photos and videos are used, the value gained by patients and health professionals, and the challenges experienced. Methods Guided by a framework for scoping reviews, we searched eight health databases (CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science) and one computing database (ACM), returning a total of 28,567 studies. After removing duplicates and screening based on the predefined inclusion criteria, we identified 110 relevant articles. Data were charted and articles were analyzed following an iterative thematic approach with the assistance of NVivo software (version 12; QSR International). Results Patient-generated photos and videos are used across a wide range of health care services (39/110, 35.5% articles), for example, to diagnose skin lesions, assess dietary intake, and reflect on personal experiences during therapy. In addition, patients use them to self-manage health and well-being concerns (33/110, 30%) and to share personal health experiences via social media (36/110, 32.7%). Photos and videos create significant value for health care (59/110, 53.6%), where images support diagnosis, explanation, and treatment (functional value). They also provide value directly to patients through enhanced self-determination (39/110, 35.4%), social (33/110, 30%), and emotional support (21/110, 19.1%). However, several challenges emerge when patients create, share, and examine photos and videos, such as limited accessibility (16/110, 14.5%), incomplete image sets (23/110, 20.9%), and misinformation through photos and videos shared on social media (17/110, 15.5%). Conclusions This review shows that photos and videos engage patients in meaningful ways across different health care activities (eg, diagnosis, treatment, and self-care) for various health conditions. Although photos and videos require effort to capture and involve challenges when patients want to use them in health care, they also engage and empower patients, generating unique value. This review highlights areas for future research and strategies for addressing these challenges.
Article
The impact of technology on mindfulness is theoretically and practically important. We propose that photo-taking can naturally promote mindful attention to visual aspects of experiences. Such mindful photo-taking can increase enjoyment of and memory for experiences, generate positive mood, and heighten life-satisfaction. When people adopt a social or temporal outward-focused perspective, threats to mindful photo-taking may negate these positive consequences. A social outward-focus can arise when considering others’ evaluations of shared photos. A temporal outward-focus can arise with the principal objective and outcome of photo-taking: creating durable visual representations of experiences. Ultimately, reviewing photos provides visual memory cues, can improve memory, and allows people to reminiscence, although these benefits depends on the stock of accumulated photos.
Article
Purpose Access-based services (ABSs) provide short-term access to goods, physical facilities, space or labor in exchange for access fees without transferring legal ownership (e.g. bike-sharing). This study aims to investigate what service providers can do to minimize financial losses when customers misbehave with the service providers’ assets in ABSs. The study also examines the effects of product misuse on subsequent customers and what factors may mitigate it. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a scenario-based experiment to test the conceptual model. Findings Injunctive norms reduce the mediating effect of descriptive norms on misbehavior contagion. As generally accepted and approved (injunctive) norms become salient, they override the impact of prevailing (descriptive) norms, thereby breaking the vicious cycle of misbehavior contagion. Customer-company identification (CCI) and reduced interpersonal anonymity mitigate the effects of previous misbehavior on misbehavior contagion. Practical implications ABS firms should strive to mitigate the financial and reputational losses they suffer from customer misbehavior. Such mitigation would be a win-win for the ABS firm (reduced misbehavior) and the customers (improved user experience). Originality/value The research complements prior research highlighting the role of social norms in misbehavior contagion. The study demonstrates the role of boundary conditions by investigating the interactive effects of descriptive and injunctive norms. In addition, it shows the positive impact of CCI and reduced interpersonal anonymity on containing misbehavior contagion.
Article
Social norms can influence the consumption of high and low energy-dense (HED/LED) snack foods. Such norms could be communicated via social media, however, there is little experimental research investigating this possibility. This laboratory study aimed to investigate the acute effect of socially endorsed social media posts on participants' eating behaviour. Healthy women students (n = 169; mean age = 20.9; mean BMI = 23.3) were assigned to either a HED, LED or control condition, where they viewed three types of images (HED foods, LED foods and interior design as control), but only one type was socially endorsed (e.g. in the control condition, only interior design images were socially endorsed). Participants completed questionnaires and were also provided a snack buffet of grapes and cookies. One-way ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of condition on participants’ relative consumption of grapes (percentage of grapes consumed out of total food intake), for both grams and calories consumed (both ps < .05). Follow-up t-tests revealed that participants consumed a larger proportion of grapes (grams and calories) in the LED condition vs HED condition (all ps < .05), and a larger proportion of calories from grapes in the LED compared to control condition (p < .05). These findings suggest that exposure to socially endorsed images of LED food on social media could nudge people to consume more of, and derive more calories from these foods in place of HED foods. Further research is required to examine the potential application of these findings.
Chapter
The relationship between young generations (Millennials and Gen Z), luxury, and food is a current and complex subject. Millennials and Gen Z are the first digital native generations to be very comfortable with technology devices and interested at an early stage in luxury food experiences. By exploring youth food culture and current luxury food experiences and practices, the authors identify three trends (digitalization, extended realities, and cause-related marketing) as key areas food brands and food actors (e.g., restaurants) should capitalize on to educate, facilitate, and promote the adoption of pleasurable, healthy, and sustainable food consumptions. The authors provide an overview of these three new key trends together with examples Millennials and Gen Z consumers are attracted to considering luxurious food consumption and experiences. This chapter contributes to the need to look at contexts of application (food) where sustainability and the digital transformation highlights the present and future for the promotion of luxury goods and experiences.
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This paper explores how ideological positions associated with food are construed multimodally in Instagram posts produced by everyday social media users. Discourse about food choices is an important site for revealing syndromes of values that characterise the ideological positions that are embedded in everyday life. An example of a highly valued food is the avocado which is an important bonding icon in semantic domains from veganism, clean eating, keto/low-carb eating, ethical/sustainable eating to fitness. We explore how values associated with avocado toast are enacted intermodally through the interplay of meanings made in the images, captions, and tags in a corpus of 64,585 Instagram posts tagged #avotoast. The study draws on previous social semiotic work on visual intersubjectivity and everyday aesthetics in social photography ( Zhao and Zappavigna 2018a ) to interpret the visual meanings made in these posts. It also draws on research into intermodal coupling (image-text relations) and ambient affiliation (online social bonding) ( Zappavigna 2018 ) to understand how different values are construed in these texts. A modified grounded theory approach is used to isolate and exemplify the visual and textual features at stake, and then to explore ideological positionings through close multimodal analysis. A particularly interesting pattern in the corpus is the interaction of aesthetic and moralising discourses. For instance, a regulative metadiscourse realised through hashtags is used to project an instructional discourse about how to eat and what is considered ethical, sustainable, and nutritious food consumption. Rather than being directly encoded as judgement of behaviour these assessments tended to be expressed as appreciation of food items and their aesthetics or worth (e.g., clean, healthy, etc.).
Article
Visual imagery is a vital component in consumer perceptions, especially with food products. However, research has neglected the role of imagery types (i.e., representational versus abstract) in those perceptions, especially in relation to two important categorizations of food items: vices and virtues. Three studies demonstrate that consumers respond more favorably when food products are depicted with representational (versus abstract) imagery. However, these effects vary depending upon if the product is a vice or a virtue. Specifically, vice products result in greater purchase intentions when depicted with representational imagery versus abstract imagery, whereas that advantage is attenuated between imagery types for virtue products. Further, visual clarity is revealed as the underlying process, and symbolic meaningfulness and anticipated guilt are ruled out as potential alternative explanations. The findings carry implications for retailers and brands seeking to increase or decrease consumption of vices and virtues, depending on the desired goal.
Conference Paper
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Until recently social media and social media analytics (SMA) were basically used only for communication and marketing purposes. However, thanks to advances in digital technologies and big data analytics, potential applications of SMA extend now to production processes and overall business management. As a result, SMA has become an important tool for gaining and sustaining competitive advantage across various sectors, industries and end-markets. Yet, the food industry still lags behind when it comes to the use of digital technologies and advanced data analytics. A part of the explanation lies in the limited knowledge of potential applications of SMA in food innovation and production. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of literature on possible uses of SMA in the food industry sector and to discuss both the benefits, risks, and limitations of SMA in food innovation and production. Based on the literature review, it is concluded that mining social media data for insights can create significant business value for the food industry enterprises and food service sector organizations. On the other hand, many proposals for using SMA in the food domain still await direct experimental tests. More research and insights concerning risks and limitations of SMA in the food sector would be also needed. The issue of responsible data analytics as part of Corporate Digital Responsibility and Corporate Social Responsibility of enterprises using social media data for food innovation and production also requires a greater attention.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral reactions of diners when witnessing a food safety violation in a restaurant. Protection motivation and social norms theories were used to identify risk-related behavior to measure risk assessment, appraisal of food safety health threats, and the impact of descriptive and injunctive norms on reaction behaviors of diners in response to unsanitary food handler behavior and restaurant conditions. A mixed-methods approach was used with focus groups to develop the survey instrument that was distributed to 1,800 recipients, resulting in 1,169 usable surveys. Results suggest that if customers perceive a threat to be severe or if they have a belief that responding in a certain way will reduce the risk of a food safety concern, they are more apt to intervene to eliminate the threat. This study also shows that social norms mediate the influence of intervention, despite the severity of threat assessment. Practical and academic implications are discussed.
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Contemporary cuisine still becomes a culinary destination that is loved by millennials. The generation which is connected with the use of social media often uploads every social activity, including culinary. Posting pictures before eating on social media becomes an activity that is usually done by millennials before enjoying culinary. This study aims to determine the motives of the Ponorogo millennial generation in the act of posting before eating when they enjoy a culinary dish. This type of research is descriptive qualitative research with a phenomenological approach. Interview, observation, and documentation triangulation techniques are used to collect data from 20 informants who actively use social media to post before eating. The results showed that the motives of the millennial generation to take pictures before eating are as a means to share fun or hobbies, share information about current culinary recommendations, and show self-existence. Kuliner kekinian masih menjadi tujuan kuliner yang digandrungi oleh generasi milenial. Generasi yang dalam kehidupannya erat dengan penggunaan media sosial ini sering kali mengunggah setiap aktivitas sosialnya termasuk dalam hal kuliner. Membagikan gambar yang hendak dimakan ke media sosial menjadi suatu aktivitas yang biasa dilakukan oleh generasi milenial sebelum menikmati sajian kuliner. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui motif generasi milenial Ponorogo dalam melakukan tindakan posting before eating ketika akanmenikmati sajian kuliner kekinian. Metode penelitian yang digunakan penelitian kualitatif deskriptif dengan pendekatan fenomenologi. Teknik triangulasi yaitu wawancara, observasi dan dokumentasi digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data dari 20 orang informan yang aktif menggunakan media sosial untuk melakukan tindakan posting before eating. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa motif generasi milenial melakukan tindakan posting before eating antara lain sebagai sarana untuk menyalurkan kesenangan atau hobi, membagikan informasi tentang rekomendasi tempat kuliner kekinian dan menunjukkan eksistensi diri.
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Jika orang-orang dulu berpesan, "berdoa dulu sebelum makan", sekarang kita mengenal ungkapan "foto makanannya dulu sebelum makan". Perkembangan teknologi komunikasi dan informasi saat ini telah membawa manusia ke level yang lebih luas dalam berinteraksi. Kehadiran fitur kamera pada smartphone cukup berpengaruh pada perkembangan aplikasi media sosial. Dari waktu ke waktu angka pengguna media sosial semakin bertambah. Salah satu media sosial berbasis grafis dan foto yang banyak diminati adalah Instagram.Hal ini menyebabkan terjadinya fenomena baru yakni tren mengunggah foto makanan di media sosial.Foto makanan yang diunggah ke media sosial seperti Instagram merupakan salah satu bentuk pesan nonverbal.Makanan saat ini tidak hanya dipandang sebagai kebutuhan utama manusia tapi juga sebagai lifestyle. Fokus penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat motif followers akun Instagram @sigerfoodies dalam kegiatan mengunggah foto makanan di Instragram.Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan metode fenomenologi. Adapun data diperoleh dari studi literatur sejumlah jurnal dan buku mengenai fenomena mengunggah foto makanan di media sosial serta wawancara mendalam dengan followers aktif dari akun @sigerfoodies. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa motif followers akun Instagram @sigerfoodies yang mengunggah foto di media sosial yaitu sebagai food diary, mendokumentasikan self creations, special occasions, food art, momen makan bersama, dan resensi menu makanan atau restoran. Keyword: Fotografi, Instagram, Lampung, Makanan, Media Sosial. PENDAHULUAN Jika orang-orang dulu berpesan, "berdoa dulu sebelum makan", sekarang kita mengenal ungkapan "foto makanannya dulu sebelum makan". Ini terbukti bahwa setiap satu menit ada 90 foto makanan baru di Instagram dengan tanda tagar (hash tagged) #foodporn. Food Photography adalah salah satu cabang seni fotografi yang bertujuan untuk mengabadikan segala macam bentuk makanan yang disetting sedemikian rupa sehingga mampu tergambarkan lezatnya makanan tersebut tanpa bercerita dan hanya gambar yang berbicara (Ambarsari, 2011). Selama ini, fotografi makanan lebih sering dilakukan oleh industri makanan untuk tujuan pemasaran seperti, produsen makanan atau restoran.Semenjak kehadiran fitur kamera yang cukup canggih pada ponsel pintar, perkembangan fotografi makanan juga berkembang menjadi sebuah tren, bahkan seorang amatir pun bisa mengabadikan foto makanan yang menarik selayaknya professional hanya dengan ponsel pintar mereka.
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