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Alteraciones de coloración en el plumaje de aves silvestres del Ecuador

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Este artículo analiza 61 casos de aberraciones cromáticas del plumaje (ausencia total o parcial de pigmentos en algunas o en todas las plumas) en 43 especies de aves silvestres ecuatorianas, agrupadas en 21 familias, incluyendo 51 nuevos registros y siendo este el primer reporte de aberraciones en Ecuador para 14 familias. Esta compilación incluye datos colectados por los autores, comunicaciones personales de expertos observadores de aves y visitas a colecciones ornitológicas de museos en Quito, Ecuador. La alteración más común fue el leucismo y las especies con mayor número de reportes fueron el Mirlo Grande Turdus fuscater y el Gorrió Ruficollarejo Zonotrichia capensis. La mayoría de registros proviene de áreas rurales en la zona altoandina, siendo Pichincha la provincia con más registros. La documentación de la distribución y frecuencia de estas aberraciones de coloración de plumaje tiene importantes implicaciones de conservación y monitoreo, permitiendo evidenciar las posibles causas que inducen estas alteraciones en las poblaciones de aves; por ello también presentamos definiciones de los principales tipos de aberraciones cromáticas con el fin de familiarizar a los observadores de aves y estimular la difusión de sus registros.
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... Leucism does not have a specific cause, but it can be the result of genetic mutations and metabolic or dietary problems (Bensch et al., 2000;Møller and Mousseau, 2001;Cadena-Ortiz et al., 2015). Leucistic birds show normal pigmentation in other regions, such as beak, eyes and legs, unlike the case of albinism (Van Grouw, 2006). ...
... The Alcedinidae family (Rafinesque, 1815) has two genera and five species in Brazil, with M. torquata being the only one of the genera and larger than the others whose distribution ranges from Mexico to Tierra del Fuego, throughout South America (Sick, 1997). Among the species in the family, only one possible case of leucism was recorded for a specimen of Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana (Gmelin, 1788), where it presented an atypical plumage (Cadena-Ortiz et al., 2015). ...
... In addition, the beak also showed depigmentation "grayish", a characteristic already described in case of partial leucism (Düpont et al., 2014), fact that the term partial or incomplete albinism is inappropriate (Van Grouw, 2006). In the case of C. americana, they observed that the head, neck and wings exhibited a very distinct whitish color, being diagnosed as possibly a case of leucism (Cadena-Ortiz et al., 2015). ...
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Here, we present the first case of leucism in an adult male of M. torquata. The registration took place on October 15th, 2019 at 10:15 am (see Figure 1), where we observed the specimen in riparian vegetation of the São Lourenço river, municipality of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil (17°40’26.0”S 57°00’57.0”W). However, after the registration date, there was no return on the site, to confirm of specimen persistence in the environment.
... Similarly, in a survey of aberrant plumage coloration of the bird specimens deposited in the collection of the Sarisske Museum Bardejov, Slovakia, only 14 of 5,047 specimens exhibited with aberrant coloration, six with progressive greying and four with dilution (Mikula et al. 2017). However, of 61 cases of chromatic plumage abe rrations in 43 species (21 families) of wild birds in Ecuador, none included dilution (Cadena Ortiz et al. 2015). Neither there are reports of dilution for any bird species in Costa Rica. ...
... 2: e-603 (julio-diciembre 2020) reported in any toucan species, making this the first report for the family Ramphastidae thus far. Only three cases of leucism (Andigena hypoglauca, Aulacorhynchus haematopygus, Pteroglossus torquatus; Cadena-Ortiz et al., 2015) and one case of schizochroism (Pteroglossus erythropygius; Hosner and Lebbin, 2006; but see above) have been reported in Rhamphastidae. More recently, partial leucism was reported in Ramphastos toco (Guimarães Santos and Sousa De Paula 2019), although this is likely, in fact, a case of progressive greying. ...
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Plumage color aberrations are common in birds, but often it is difficult or even impossible to identify them properly in the field. Several of these aberrations are common, especially progressive greying, leucism and ino, although there is confusion among the different mechanisms. Other aberrations are rare or infrequently reported. Dilution, for example, refers to a reduced concentration of melanin granules that dilutes the color, although the pigment itself is not changed. It affects the entire plumage, rather than single feathers. The Yellow-throated Toucan (Ramphastos ambiguus) is predominantly black, and has feathers with brown tips, red under the tail coverts, and feathers above the tail are cream colored. It has a yellow bib covering the throat and chest with red band countering it, and the skin of the face is chartreuse. The Yellowthroated Toucan is most notable for its massive, bicolored bill. Here we report an apparent strong case of dilution in the Yellow-throated Toucan. An individual observed at La Unión, Guápiles on the Caribbean versant of Costa Rica on 10 October 2019 almost lacked melanin, but retained carotenoids. The tertials and some feathers on the rump were very light grey, suggesting strong dilution. We also discuss other possible explanations for this amazing coloration.
... Several plumage aberrations have been recorded worldwide (Van Grouw 2006). Of these, leucism is the most frequent plumage aberration reported in scientific publications (Cadena-Ortíz et al. 2015, Herrera 2017. The aberration is recognized by the absence of pigments in some or all feathers of the body, which can make the affected birds, look partially or totally white (Herrera 2017, Van Grouw 2018. ...
... endogamy) or nutrition (e.g. resource scarcity) (Cadena-Ortíz et al. 2015), this article documents a case of partial leucism in a Blue-black Grassquit female individual sighted and photographed in a suburban area of nor thern Venezuela. ...
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Los reportes de aberraciones del plumaje en aves silvestres, así como su distribución y frecuencia, son importantes debido a sus implicaciones en conservación, ya que pudieran estar asociados con factores ambientales (e.g. contaminación), tamaño poblacional (e g. endogamia) o nutrición (e.g. escasez de recursos). El presente trabajo informa sobre una aberración del plumaje en una hembra del semillero brincador (Volatinia jacarina) avistado y fotografiado en un área suburbana del norte de Venezuela. El individuo aberrante tenía la mayor parte de su plumaje (> 70%) blanco nítido, excepto la corona, alas (plumas primarias y sus coberteras), criso y cola. El plumaje blanco mostraba un patrón simétrico de distribución, y los ojos, tarsos y pico mantenían su coloración normal. Basado en la literatura consultada y el uso de una clave dicotómica para identificar anormalidades pigmentarias en las aves, la aberración del plumaje observada correponde a un leucismo parcial. Este registro constituye el primer caso de leucismo para el semillero brincador en Venezuela, y se une a otros registros de plumajes aberrantes en aves silvestres del Neotrópico.
... (With 1 Figure) Several factors can alter bird coloration patterns (Guay et al., 2012) and reports exist for different groups of birds (e.g. Urcola, 2011;Cadena-Ortiz et al., 2015). ...
... They have a long, narrow and brightly colored beak with either small or large serrations (Short and Horne, 2019). To our knowledge, to date, only three cases of leucism have been recorded for this family, being these species Andigena hypoglauca (Gould, 1833), Aulacorhynchus haematopygus (Gould, 1835) and Pteroglossus torquatus (Gmelin, 1788) (Cadena-Ortiz et al., 2015). Additionally, a distinct type of leukosis aberration, called schizochroism, occurs in Pteroglossus erythropygius (Gould, 1843) (Hosner and Lebbin, 2006). ...
... The only plumage aberration reported for the species is erythromelanism in Ecuador (Hosner and Lebbin 2006). There is no record of partial leucism for the species; although, if it has been reported in other species of the genus Sporophila (Schunck et al. 2011, Cadena-Ortiz et al. 2015. ...
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Leucism is the most common plumage aberration recorded in wild birds around the world, but very few records exist for Neotropical wild bird species with black plumage. In this note I describe the first observation of partial leucism in the Variable Seedeater (Sporophila corvina corvina). The observation was made in Suerre, Pococí, Costa Rica, on 26 July 2021. These observations have important conservation implications for wild birds because they may be associated with environmental, populational and nutritional issues. This record adds to other studies of plumage aberration in wild birds of the Neotropics, and contributes to knowledge on the natural history and conservation of this species.
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