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Online Learning: trends, issues, and challenges in the Big Data Era

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Abstract

Nowadays, many students access online resources using their mobile devices, substituting this for traditional learning interactions. However, the new concept of ‘big data’ in recent ICT discussions extends the promising research direction on online learning and big data integration. Big data promises content that can be tailored for each student based on the context and Internet behaviour of users in online learning. This study examines recent Internet activities and literacy in Brunei Darussalam (Brunei) relating to the Internet behaviour and online learning of residents. The study highlights milestones in terms of recent issues, challenges, and trends in Internet activities, focusing on online learning and its potential in the big data era. An extensive nationwide survey was conducted to ensure the reliability of the data. The survey revealed that people in Brunei expect and demand better learning services and experiences through an online learning system to improve literacy as well as the quality and ef ciency of learning. Regardless of the limitations of the survey, the general public has shown great support for online learning systems. The results of the survey provide a solid argument for further research on big data in online learning by developing a framework incorporating the expectations of the people. Finally, the study provides a baseline for future studies of Internet adoption in Brunei.

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... The conditions or environment created by the pandemic as well as the context of educators are also important. Some studies showed that both educators and students encounter many challenges in online learning (Amhag, Hellstrom, & Stigmar, 2019;Anshari, Alas, Yunus, Sabtu, & Hamid, 2016;Kebritchi, Lipschuetz, & Santiague, 2017;Obrad, 2020;Yu, Liu, Huang, & Cao, 2021). For example, Anshari et al. (2016) showed that both educators and students are under pressure when adjusting to online learning. ...
... Some studies showed that both educators and students encounter many challenges in online learning (Amhag, Hellstrom, & Stigmar, 2019;Anshari, Alas, Yunus, Sabtu, & Hamid, 2016;Kebritchi, Lipschuetz, & Santiague, 2017;Obrad, 2020;Yu, Liu, Huang, & Cao, 2021). For example, Anshari et al. (2016) showed that both educators and students are under pressure when adjusting to online learning. Education institutes organized online sessions such as seminars and workshops to expand both educators' and students' technology-related capacities for teaching and learning purposes during the pandemic. ...
... Educators may also experience social influence at work form their peers and superiors. Higher education institutes should also facilitate educators by facilitating their development (Anshari et al., 2016;Kebritchi et al., 2017). In doing so, collaboration, interactivity, flexibility, and accessibility are identified as important in the context of online teaching and learning (Anshari et al., 2016). ...
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With the pandemic, academic activities of education institutes such as teaching, learning, and assessment as well as programmes targeted for educators’ personal and professional development have been transformed to online from physical mode. The use of online platforms has become an essential pedagogical tool. This study investigated educators’ acceptance of online platforms for their personal and professional development during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sri Lanka. One hundred and ninety-nine responses were received for the survey, and data were analysed using statistical methods. The study found the importance of belief structures- attitudinal, normative and control beliefs, and attitude toward the behaviour, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control in determining educators’ acceptance of online platforms for their personal and professional development purposes. This paper concludes with a discussion on implications of the findings for theory and practice on educators’ acceptance of new technologies for teaching and learning purposes.
... [11] allude that Big data support management to manage the resources i.e. modules with high number of students can be identified and allocation of bigger classroom or labs for those modules can be done on time. [12] note that Big data can improve the institutions of higher education's success rate as the risks of poor performance can be tracked at the early stage and that enable the institutions of higher education's to predict outcome as it enable the university to monitor the progress of the university through students' performance [13]. ...
... Despite the potential of Big data to support Higher education institutions to meet/achieve the outcome based funding targets, Big data has a number of challenges such as lack of required developer and programmer's skills as [14] states that there are limited developers and programmers at hand to manage the data and [12] add that data storage is an issue as the massive data cannot be stored in traditional database as the data comes in Exabyte's which is a very big load of data .Researchers [15] note that most technology and policies that support Big data usually don't incorporate security adequate that facilitate compliance which results in data been attacked. [16] note data quality must be implemented as correctness and timeliness of the data coming from different sources must be assured to deliver quality results Furthermore, [17] highlights that large amount of data create complexity in terms of data processing to perform data mining methods to discover hidden pattern in order to make smart decision [18]; [13]. [19] Pose that management requires to understand the big data value to obtain their buy in, as it needs to be incorporated in the strategic plan of the organisation. ...
... 6) Detecting student behavior by group collaboration activities the lecturer gives on learning management system 7) Student Skill assessor as the student can be assessed his/her skills immediately marked and captures by the system they immediately after they finish the activity. [13] note that Big data offers the following benefits to higher education universities 1) Predict outcome as it monitor the progress of the university 2) predict the outcome of the university from the historical Big data 3) understand the baseline understanding of the students about a particular module 4) Deliver relevant service to the students VI. CONCEPTUAL MODEL The conceptual model was formulated from the related work that shows the factors which can influence university performance if big data generated by the university is been analysed adequately. ...
... Unlike the emotional limitations of online communication, a face-to-face exchange process provides participants additional emotional clarity. Participants interacting face to face have the advantage of an extended range of interpretable information available for sensemaking (Anshari, Alas, Yunus, Sabtu, & Hamid, 2016;Nam, 2014;Pettersen, 2016). The reduced range of online communication makes it harder for participants to acquire an accurate meaning of words, phrases, and concepts. ...
... Unlike the face-to-face exchange process, it is more difficult to gain accurate understanding while communicating information online. Essential to sensemaking, valuable emotional information such as observable behaviors, body language, and facial expression are mostly unavailable within a written exchange process (Alsharo, Gregg, & Ramirez, 2017;Anshari et al., 2016;Cooke, 2016;Lilian, 2014;Nam, 2014). With limited emotional informational available for sensemaking, some students can expect to experience misunderstandings within their discussions. ...
... The meaning of words, phrases, and concepts develops more quickly in virtual environments that employ face-to-face technologies. Synchronous communication provides valuable emotional context that can help to make sense of the information exchanged (Anshari et al., 2016;Nam, 2014). Without trust, students' online discussions are more likely to be less frequent and of lower quality than when they trust their ...
Research
The reduced range of online communication means that less information is available for the parties in a communication to acquire an accurate meaning of words, phrases, or concepts in an exchange process. In online communication, encoded emotional information is often subtle and difficult to interpret with any degree of accuracy; this interpretation is even more difficult in academic discussions that are lacking in emotion. The resulting misunderstandings contribute to a degree of uncertainty and confusion with some students, and to full-blown conflict with others. Uncertainty is problematic because it can inhibit or altogether collapse a conventional trust perception. The most valuable communications, therefore, develop on a foundation of trust. This study was designed to explore swift trust, a lesser form of trust that can form instantly from the initial communications expressed in a community. A swift trust perception can bridge social development and allow communicants to ignore the communication and environmental challenges that impede a conventional form of trust from developing for virtual communities. This quantitative study utilized multiple regression analysis to predict relationships between the predictive variables and examine the criterion variables in focus. The multiple regression analysis was used to interpret the survey data and provide insight into the trust-inducing potential of a fragile swift trust perception for elevating online discussions to a higher level. Keywords: swift trust, online learning, critical dialogue, knowledge sharing, multiple regression
... The COVID-19 pandemic has encouraged many countries to implement the online learning methods at all educational levels in accordance with the national health protocols. Anshari et al (2016) believed that online learning systems are highly popular and provide suitability for students who do not have a lot of flexibility in their daily routines. However, Anuwar (2004) stated that even though online learning has transitioned from traditional learning, Malaysians are still unfamiliar with the concept of online learning. ...
... Due to the exponential expansion of the internet and information technology, online learning has experienced substantial transformation (Biasutti, 2017). As such, innovations in learning technology will continue to have a significant influence on methods of teaching and learning in the future years (Anshari et al., 2016). The use of technology in online learning is undeniable. ...
... Online learning refers to the use of technological resources available through a computer or a device wherein learning can be achieved by going through a goal of extracting substance or can be a by-product of an experience (Saul, 2004). Anshari et al. (2016) specified that online learning has become the standard practice by many education institutions which use information and communication technologies (ICT) in managing the processes of learning and delivering teaching. According to Gillett-Swan (2017), higher education institutions are providing a range of options for engagement to the current and potential learners. ...
... Online education is not entirely a new concept as it is already existent and booming from the early 1980s and 1990s to the 2000s (Anshari et al., 2016;Ribeiro, 2020). Ribeiro added that online learning, at that point, was only considered as an alternative way of delivering education other than face-to-face or the traditional classroom setup. ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Students use mobile phones for various purposes. They also use it for voice calls, text, voice messages, playing games (Lee et al., 2014), group chatting, music, movie (Anshari et al., 2016;Basu et al., 2018;Lee et al., 2014), internet browsing (Rezaei et al., 2016), online shopping, payments (Tak & Panwar, 2017), photography, and videography (Anshari et al., 2016;Woodcock et al., 2012), social networking via Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, Instagram (Basu et al., 2018), health & physical activities (Middelweerd et al., 2015) and also for mutual learning (Al-Emran et al., 2021). Possession of a mobile phone also provides students a sense of security as well as a tool to manage time, build relationships and social networks Li & Lin, 2018). ...
... Students use mobile phones for various purposes. They also use it for voice calls, text, voice messages, playing games (Lee et al., 2014), group chatting, music, movie (Anshari et al., 2016;Basu et al., 2018;Lee et al., 2014), internet browsing (Rezaei et al., 2016), online shopping, payments (Tak & Panwar, 2017), photography, and videography (Anshari et al., 2016;Woodcock et al., 2012), social networking via Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, Instagram (Basu et al., 2018), health & physical activities (Middelweerd et al., 2015) and also for mutual learning (Al-Emran et al., 2021). Possession of a mobile phone also provides students a sense of security as well as a tool to manage time, build relationships and social networks Li & Lin, 2018). ...
Article
Mobile phones have emerged as ubiquitous devices beyond simple means of communication. Students studying at tertiary-level educational institutions are one of the major target groups for mobile companies. Notwithstanding, the educators and the marketers of mobile phones and services do not know much about their needs and mobile phone usage behavior. This study aims to determine the mobile phone needs and usage behavior of university students in Oman. The study delves upon longitudinal data collected over three different points of time in a decade and analyzes the changes in students' needs and mobile usage behavior. The findings suggest that students' preferences over time for mobile phones have changed not only for brands but also the way they patronize mobile phones and associated services. The study gives a vital lead to educators and the marketers of mobile phones and services. By understanding the mobile phone needs and usage behavior of students, educators can target their content and deliveries and marketers can target their features, apps, and services innovatively to this emerging segment.
... Another important component within contemporary educational systems is the creation of personalized course materials and learning for individualized professional development opportunities (especially important for adult learners) (Anshari et al., 2016). Secondly, students demand immediate feedback either because they are used to communicate with their peers through social media or because of professional reasons (Balakrishnan & Gan, 2016;Milligan & Littlejohn, 2017). ...
... In this regard, the increasing number of students who are enrolled in this type of scenario justifies the development of such tools. Moreover, on the instructor's side, these electronic systems have facilitated both the creation of personalized course materials and students' evaluations (Anshari et al., 2016). Consequently, instructors can dedicate more time to other aspects of the teaching-learning process. ...
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This article describes the development of an application for the grading and provision of feedback on educational processes. The too, named EduZinc, enables instructors to go through the complete process of creating and evaluating the activities and materials of a course. The application enables for the simultaneous management of two teaching-related aspects: (a) creation of individualized learning products (activities, tests and exams) and (b) automatic grading (for every learning product; automated creation of student, class, and competency-based reports; and delivery of personalized reports to students, instructors and tutors). The system also has a series of warnings in place to notify instructors and tutors when a student is falling behind. As a means to reward the efforts made during the course, the program keeps relevant statistics, notifying when a student is excelling in the course.
... Accordingly, in the present study, we focus on the analysis of UGC in the education sector with the aim of developing and demonstrating reliable and re-usable techniques for understanding the users, issues, and trends in the education [18]. Similar techniques for analyzing social network data have been applied in various research areas and market sectors [2,18] with promising results, especially for improving understanding of how users are grouped into communities [19][20][21]. The refined approach used provides an overview of social media around the education sector, giving us the possibility to focus on key themes, especially around innovation [21][22][23]. ...
... Shelton et al. [18] demonstrated the importance of studying new trends in education, concluding that progress and quality depend on continuous learning. Likewise, Reyes [19] pointed out the need to apply data-based techniques to Big Data to identify trends in education and to learn new teaching skills by applying learning analytics techniques. Furthermore, Anshari et al. [20] concluded that research focused on the discovery of trends for the improvement of education, can be developed with techniques based on knowledge extraction, data mining, or Big Data. ...
Article
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New analysis and visualization techniques are required to glean useful insights from the vast amounts of data generated by new technologies and data sharing platforms. The aim of this article is to lay a foundation for such techniques so that the age of big data may also be the age of knowledge, visualization, and understanding. Education is the keystone area used in this study because it is deeply affected by digital platforms as an educational medium and also because it deals mostly with digital natives who use information and communication technology (ICT) for all manner of purposes. Students and teachers are therefore a rich source of user generated content (UGC) on social networks and digital platforms. This article shows how useful knowledge can be extracted and visualized from samples of readily available UGC, in this case the text published in tweets from the social network Twitter. The first stage employs topic-modeling using LDA (latent dirichlet allocation) to identify topics, which are then subjected to sentiment analysis (SA) using machine-learning (developed in Python). The results take on meaning through an application of data mining techniques and a data visualization algorithm for complex networks. The results obtained show insights related to innovative educational trends that practitioners can use to improve strategies and interventions in the education sector in a short-term future.
... In addition to the problems caused in the form of learning loss for students [27], low student involvement [28], low student motivation to learn [29], the fact is that new learning innovations that are more adaptive and massive have been found. Until finally online and distance learning have become alternative options that encourage a more global student exchange [30]. The college confidently opens online classes for students from abroad without even having to be present on campus [31]. ...
... In distance learning -also known as online learning-, information technology (ICT) facilities are needed to bridge the communication between teachers and students such as accessing teaching materials using the internet, participating in virtual discussions, collecting tasks, and getting feedback electronically. With these internet facilities, learning can be done anytime and anywhere both globally and locally, and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of learning (Anshari, Alas, Hj Mohd Yunus, Pg Hj Sabtu, & Sheikh Abdul Hamid, 2016;Tarisayi & Munyaradzi, 2021). ...
Article
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This research aims to determine students" engagement levels and factors in attending ESP online courses during the Covid-19 pandemic. In performing data and data analysis, a qualitative research design was employed with the interpretation of descriptive statistics. This research distributed a questionnaire to 59 students in the nursing department. The research findings showed that four dimensions of students" engagements got a means score in the level of "Agree"; skills engagement with 4.18, participation/interaction engagement with 3.99, emotional engagement with 3.88, and performance engagement with 3.86. For factors influencing students' engagement, all factors consisting of direct and indirect factors got a means score of "Strongly Agree" as 4.38. The findings showed that the students were engaged in an ESP online course. Both direct and indirect factors influence students" engagement including learning resources, teaching competency, knowledge base, learning style, teaching context, social network, and technology.
... Singh and Singh (2017) postulated that e-Learning is significant for the teachers to realise a need to move the students' attitude toward learning readiness in e-Learning by adjusting to technological difficulties, community, and synchronous preparation. Without proper e-Learning readiness, the desired outcome would be a failure (Anshari et al., 2016). E-Learning does not require students and teachers to gather in one place physically. ...
Research
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E-Learning has been practising in many countries as one of the teaching and learning processes to enhance pedagogy. COVID-19 pandemic has made it compulsory for students to have virtual classes at full usage for the first time of Movement Control Operation (MCO) from 18 March 2020. Are Malaysian university students ready for e-Learning? Thus, this study aims at determining three variables of attitude, skills, and knowledge related to the e-Learning readiness in having the classes at their own home. A total of 425 questionnaires on Google form were distributed via WhatsApp. Descriptive statistics and inferential analysis of readiness are employed. The finding shows that attitude contributes the most to the student's readiness. There is no difference in respondents' e-Learning readiness between those who stay in rural or town. The majority of respondents are at a moderate level of readiness. This finding will give an insight into the Ministry of Higher Education to consider appropriate actions to ensure the teaching and learning for University learning are not disrupted due to the COVID-19 outbreak.
... The study focused on online learning and its potential in the big data era, highlighting milestones in recent difficulties, and trends in Internet activity. According to the survey, Brunei expect improved learning services and experiences through an online learning system to promote literacy and the quality and efficiency of learning, according to the survey (Anshari, Alas, Sabtu, & Hamid, 2016). In addition, research looked into the obstacles to elearning deployment in Kenyan public universities. ...
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Teachers face several drawbacks and potential issues while participating in an online class. This study explored the challenges encountered by teachers in implementing online distance learning in the Basic Education Department, specifically in the Junior and Senior High School, of Misamis University, Ozamiz City. The study utilized a qualitative approach using phenomenological design. The study included twenty (20) participants from the teachers handling online classes in the Junior and Senior High Schools, selected through purposive sampling. In-depth face-to-face interviews were used in gathering information from the teachers. The researcher employed the seven steps of Colaizzi’s method of data analysis. Results revealed the following themes: (1) the need to motivate the students in learning the lessons; (2) the preparation of learning resources; (3) poor internet connection; and (4) constant communication with students and parents. Teachers may integrate activities that would keep the students engaged throughout the lesson. Back-up plans may be designed to address the challenge of internet connectivity which interfere the teaching-learning process.
... In the first stage, the writer made observations by making observations to the principal and teachers of elementary school Karya Mekar especially to the target that the author aimed at, namely students in grades 3 and 6 regarding what learning media were used in online learning during the current pandemic. The learning media used are only through WhatsApp, not with others as shown in Figure 1 and 2. By only using WhatsApp, students still have difficulties with economic constraints, as for students who do not have cell phones or their parents do not have cell phones, therefore some students who do not have cell phones must submit their assignments directly to school while adhering to health protocols (Anshari et al., 2016). In learning, students are divided into groups, so that at the time of collecting assignments directly only the group leader goes to school. ...
Article
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The Covid-19 disease is not an epidemic that can be ignored, the development of the transmission of this virus is quite significant because its spread is global and all countries are feeling the impact, including Indonesia. The impact of Covid-19 has a very strong impact on education, therefore in the education sector, the government through the Ministry of Education and Culture has implemented a learning from home policy. Online learning is a solution to the implementation of online learning, but we already know that online learning is not as easy as learning as usual or offline learning. In this article, we will discuss online learning using Zoom Meeting. The research method used is a qualitative method with a phenomenological approach and conducting observations and interviews. The obstacles faced are electronic media and internet quotas for online learning. Not all students are equal in terms of economics, which is the only problem.
... Anshari, Muhammad, et al. [9] examined present Internet literacy and activities in Brunei Darussalam (Brunei) regarding Internet behavior and learning that is online. It has outlined milestones with regards to current problems, trends, and challenges in Internet tasks, centering on online learning and its perspective when you look at the data that are big. ...
Article
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Recommender systems utilize the opinions of a residential district of users. It assists individuals for the reason that the community more effectively identifies the content of great interest from a set that is potentially overwhelming. The instructor provides an online course which consists of the learning materials, self-quiz, and learning path in a virtual classroom. Typical learners study course material and do self-quiz so that you can evaluate their knowledge. The essential thing that is important to the success learners relates to the standard of the educational materials that are not only be determined by given materials by the instructor but additionally be determined by other learners' recommendations. Recommender systems have now been a helpful tool to recommend items in a lot of online systems, including e-learning. However, not much research has been done to gauge the learning effects regarding the learners if they use e-learning with a recommender system. Instead, most of the researchers were concentrating on the recommender system precision in forecasting the learner's recommendation as opposed to the knowledge gain. The detailed literature review is presented by the various researchers in the Recommender Systems for the Smart E-Learning environment in this survey article.
... Online learning, or e-learning, provides a virtual learning environment that engages students in various activities involving a multitude of subjects through the audio-visual platform (Al-Rahmi et al., 2018). Online learning is used for delivering information, while the database system is used for managing, communicating content, interacting or facilitating teaching and learning activities (Anshari et al., 2016) Online learning is essential for the teaching and learning process, besides face-to-face and other traditional methods (Mokhtar et al., 2020). There are several reasons for adopting online learning, as mentioned in previous studies. ...
... With e-module, students' are free to decide when and where they want to study [4,23,24] either with or without using internet connection. This choice apply pretty well for Indonesian context, at which students in rural areas are most likely to experience difficulty accessing internet connection, e-module could still provide instruction materials to support their learning. ...
Article
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Connecting understanding on atomic structure to explain the periodical properties of elements has always been a challenge over the years. One of the factors behind this is the lack of availability of syllabus-relevant, user-friendly, practical and accessible learning resources on the topics. Therefore, this research and development study aims to produce a valid and practical e-module hyper-content to support the learning process of structure atom and periodical properties of element by preservice science teachers. The e-module was developed through ADDIE model which consists of five stages namely Analysis, Design, Develop, Implementation, and Evaluation. The validity test of the product was conducted through expert judgements and the practicality test was conducted involving 110 third semester students of Science Education Department of Universitas Negeri Padang. Result of the feasibility test indicated that the e-module with hyper-content on structure atom and periodical properties of elements belongs to very high category for both validity and practicality. Analysis of students’ responses on open-ended questionnaires revealed that this e-module is beneficial for better learning on the topic due to the ease of use and integrative way of presenting information on relevant topics.
... Although we focused on teaching abstract concepts that lead up to inference, dynamic graphics can be expanded to teach other abstract statistical concepts (e.g., see McClelland, 1999). Freely accessible web applications in the form of dynamic graphics, built on Monte Carlo methodology, promise to enhance teaching and learning in statistics, especially in a future that is trending towards online learning and hybrid classrooms (Anshari, Alas, Yunus, Sabtu, & Hamid, 2016). ...
Article
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The sampling distribution and the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) are the basis for many statistical procedures and inferences. Despite their ubiquitous nature in statistics, these concepts are some of the most abstract and difficult for students to understand. To foster a deeper understanding of these concepts, a web-based application was created that uses dynamic graphics to illustrate the concepts and engage students with active learning. We provide an outline of three in-class activities using the web application to promote the learning of population distributions, simple random sampling, sampling variability, the idea of a statistic, the sampling distribution, the Law of Large Numbers, and the CLT. These in-class activities tie the concepts together and place emphasis on their role as building blocks of statistical inference. By linking abstract theoretical concepts together before introducing statistical inference, the web application facilitates statistical thinking that students can utilize both inside and outside the classroom.
... 97). More recently, the value of big data has been acknowledged and further applied to various domains including healthcare [23], manufacturing [24], digital media [25], the e-learning environment, [26] and so on. ...
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This research discusses the potential of using big data for vocabulary learning from the perspective of learner-generated pictorial annotations. Pictorial annotations lead to effective vocabulary learning, the creation of which is however challenging and time-consuming. As user-generated annotations promote active learning, and in the big data era, data sources in social media platforms are not only huge but also user-generated, the proposal of using social media data to establish a natural and semantic connection between pictorial annotations and words seems feasible. This research investigated learners’ perceptions of creating pictorial annotations using Google images and social media images, learners’ evaluation of the learner-generated pictorial annotations, and the effectiveness of Google pictorial annotations and social media pictorial annotations in promoting vocabulary learning. A total of 153 undergraduates participated in the research, some of whom created pictorial annotations using Google and social media data, some evaluated the annotations, and some learned the target words with the annotations. The results indicated positive attitudes towards using Google and social media data sets as resources for language enhancement, as well as significant effectiveness of learner-generated Google pictorial annotations and social media pictorial annotations in promoting both initial learning and retention of target words. Specifically, we found that (i) Google images were more appropriate and reliable for pictorial annotations creation, and therefore they achieved better outcomes when learning with the annotations created with Google images than images from social media, and (ii) the participants who created word lists that integrate pictorial annotations were likely to engage in active learning when they selected and organized the verbal and visual information of target words by themselves and actively integrated such information with their prior knowledge.
... Dependence on smartphones is quite clear, and smartphone usage among teenagers and students was overgrowing (Vanden Abeele, 2016). They used the smartphone for daily online activities (García-Ormaechea et al., 2014) and supporting their learning (Anshari et al., 2016). ...
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Learning Management System Supported Smartphone (LMS3) is a new and innovative application in online physics learning synchronously. The research aims to investigate the level of students' satisfaction in using LMS3 and determine predictor variables that affect the level of students' satisfaction. A descriptive study with survey method was implemented to 71 physics education students who attended online physics learning. The instrument in this research was a Students' Satisfaction of LMS3 Questionnaire (S2LMS3Q). The average percentage determined the level of student's satisfaction, and multiple correlations and multiple regressions determined the predictor variables. The level of satisfaction in using LMS3 reached a high level with an average of 76.03%. At the 0.01 significance level, the adjusted R 2 value of four predictor variables was 0.393. The multiple correlation analysis showed β for each predictor variable were 0.34 for gender, 0.07 for age, 0.43 for experience in using LMS, and 0.13 for internet connection. In conclusion, the level of students' satisfaction was high, and the most influential predictor variables were the experience in using LMS and age. This study suggests an in-depth evaluation of online learning through students' perceptions in order to improve the quality of further learning.
... What is online learning? The questions have been asked since the emergence of online learning, which has started more than a decade ago, and become a trend in recent years [6], [14], [2]. In brief, all educational activities that take place over the internet can be described as online learning. ...
... Thanks to its accessibility and affordability, online learning is more prevalent in K-12 schools and colleges and universities (Anshari et al., 2016;Korableva et al., 2019;Zhang et al., 2004). In response to increased demand for online learning, the online education market has grown steadily, and continued growth is anticipated (Lee, 2012;Stone, 2017;Sun & Chen, 2016). ...
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As education is increasingly going online, propelled by the COVID 19 outbreak, how to build student engagement has become critically important, and it is, therefore, necessary to explore the motivators and barriers to student engagement comprehensively. Given the nature of an online learning environment, this study specifically focused on security and privacy concerns as the major issues that may be restricting student engagement. Based on the data collected from 296 students studying at Y university, South Korea, this study reported the results of the structural model test supporting that perceived usefulness and peer behavior directly influences RTOC participation intention. This study further showed the negative impact of privacy concern and security concern on the perceived ease of participation, which consequently influences RTOC participation intention through perceived usefulness and peer behavior. As technology-enabled contactless activities, including online education, have become new normal, this study’s approach will provide insightful implications that help encourage student participation and active learning.
... The consensus among participants was that more online [PETE] programs pop up as a way to incentivize the PETE master's program for students considering an advanced degree. At present, countless students access online educational resources with the use of mobile devices, often substituting this for traditional learning interactions (Anshari, et al., 2016). Using online learning has aided professors in increasing efficiency and teaching effectiveness (Park & Lim, 86 2015;Puzziferro & Shelton, 2014). ...
... MOOCs have gained wide popularity and are producing a large amount of data that can be used to monitor both a single user's performance and trends resulting from groups of learners. To this aim, learning analytics has been introduced as an emerging research field to manage information gathered from massive platforms and use it to inform learning design decisions and better satisfy future learners' needs [19,2]. ...
Article
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During the last few years, increasing emphasis has been given to geo-education in middle and high school curricula, transforming the way certain subjects are now taught to provide students with comprehensive knowledge about dynamics and interconnections in the world, which also rely on relevant geographic information. This is the case for history, geography, the earth sciences, and other subjects. However, so far, little has been done to provide adequate learning tools that can support such an important transformation. This paper proposes the integration of advanced geospatial technology in traditional interactive learning tools as a way to describe experiences that help students understand phenomena and improve their competencies. The system is the result of a usability engineering process aimed at providing users with an effective learning experience, iteratively analysing their expectations and needs with respect to geo-referenced content. The resulting learning environment, Maps4Learning, allows users to manage content in terms of learning objects named geoLO+, which are extended with spatial and temporal components and built according to standardized metadata. The system was tested in the context of a middle school programme. A usability study was carried out to analyse the impact of geoLO+ resources in terms of perceived quality, engagement, and student learning performance, and the outcomes of the resources were compared to the outcomes of traditional teaching methods. The results were encouraging and showed that learning improvement can indeed be achieved using Maps4Learning.
... This paper comprehensively articulated the traits and benefits emanated from CC technology along with the mode of adopting to it by the educational institutes. he challenges or complexities lie in its adoption are also addressed, followed by some measures. The problems related to cloud computing must properly be addressed for its future implementation in the public-private organizations (Anshari et al., 2016). Cloud computing trust on the accessibility of great speed internet access and reliability of the cloud. ...
Technical Report
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Japan is the top market for cloud services internationally, ranked 1st in my research analysis. Japan has consistently been one of the top markets for growth in information and communications technology (ICT) and cloud services. The emergence of cloud computing (CC) and its prevalence in the IT industry in recent years has pulled substantial attention to a multitude of private-public sectors. When it comes to the educational sector, a number of universities all around the world have been seen transmitting traditional ways of conducting classes to digital learning services, thereby aking the most of today"s technological boom. In this research we design and developed web base application http://cloudcomputingreview.muhammadsuhaib.com for data collection. The utilization of cloud computing in educational institutes renders numerous benefits cost-effectively, and that is why many other institutes, especially in Asian countries, are adapting to this digital service. Taking the position of higher education institutes into consideration, the adoption of Cloud Computing has now become an imperative research area. This write-up endeavors to probe the present behavior of educational institutes in Japan with respect to CC adoption with a view to enriching the interest of researchers in this particular area. Moreover, the limitations and gaps during the research conduct are identified. Besides, further areas of research vis-à-vis cloud computing are also demarcated for the favor of future research. Educational institutes need to get encouragement through this research regarding the adoption of cloud computing technology.
... Mobile learning as a part of the electronic learning can enhance education process that is facilitating teaching and learning activities to promote effectiveness and efficiency [21]. Mobile learning nowadays has become common practice by many education institutions [22]. In fact, students are able to access their lectures or tutorials their mobile devices, complementary for conventional learning interactions [23]. ...
... In recent ICT studies big data plays a vital role in innovations for providing better learning services (Anshari et al. 2016). Moreover, a need arises for developing effective analytical tools to manage the data generated through various LMSs for example in Fig. 3 Representation of aspects of smart education studies order to provide new knowledge to improve methodologies for leaning (Cantabella et al. 2019). ...
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Smart education research has been rapidly developed for transforming education systems leading to engage and empower students, educators and administrators more effectively. Despite decades of the adoption of new technologies in improving education systems, approaches are frequently criticized for lacking appropriate theoretical and technological basis. The aim of this paper is to describe the current state of smart education research as a theoretical substance for introducing an initial innovative approach called Students Career Assistance System (SCAS). We conduct systematic literature review for capturing necessary insights to establish the initial solution design understanding. A total of 40 selected sample articles were qualified through a selection criterion developed to identify the most relevant existing studies in the smart education domain. Content analysis technique was used for processing the meta-details as key findings. The key findings suggest that smart education is a rapidly evolving research field that complements applications of a range of latest technologies. Combining them, a new innovative framework of smart education artefact is introduced as a case demonstration, which is mainly a mobile-based SCAS enabling the student to manage both their learning and career development for a better future.
... In this context, a lot of research has been done to incorporate the big data dimension in the e-learning field. Anshari et al. (2016) explored online learning trends, issues, and challenges in the big data era. According to their study, there are three major challenges of big data generated by the multiple platforms of online learning. ...
Article
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The new information and communication technologies have changed the way of teaching and learning. In particular, the big data technology that has recently been developed to overcome the limitations of traditional systems of storage, processing, and analysis. It offers a rich set of new technologies and techniques to bring solutions to various educational problems such as the courses recommendation engine, the prediction of learner behaviour, etc. This article presents the big data paradigm, its components, technologies, and characteristics. It proposes an approach for incorporating big data, online learning systems, and cloud computing in order to enhance the efficiency of the distance learning environment. Also, it provides a methodology to store and process the data produced by online learning platforms using advanced big data technologies and tools. Moreover, it explores the advantages and benefits that big data offer to students, teachers and online learning professionals.. His current research interests are focused on e-learning, distance learning, big data, cloud computing, modelling of learner based on ontology. This paper is a revised and expanded version of a paper entitled 'Big data: a distributed storage and processing for online learning systems' presented at ISCSA2017, Errachidia, 26-28 October 2017.
... Within the flow of the learning with the flexible learning environment, continuously improving community of practice with the technology's transformational impact can be employed. In addition, the significance of technology on education has been considered to do with online learning implementation, like Big Data approach as learning trends (Anshari, Alas & Guan, 2015;Anshari et al, 2016a), smartphone use on learning assistance ( Anshari et al, 2017;Shin et al, 2011), supporting teacher education (Duhaney, 2001) and also for innovative teaching (Huda et al, 2016). In particular, an attempt to establish communication through adopting the Internet and computers is significant to make an effective medium for educational institution ( and those involved among between schools, teachers, students and parents to handle many issues surrounding them such as difficulties on finding address through geographical limitations due to lack of adequate training technologies. ...
... Within the flow of the learning with the flexible learning environment, continuously improving community of practice with the technology's transformational impact can be employed. In addition, the significance of technology on education has been considered to do with online learning implementation, like Big Data approach as learning trends (Anshari, Alas & Guan, 2015;Anshari et al, 2016a), smartphone use on learning assistance ( Anshari et al, 2017;Shin et al, 2011), supporting teacher education (Duhaney, 2001) and also for innovative teaching (Huda et al, 2016). In particular, an attempt to establish communication through adopting the Internet and computers is significant to make an effective medium for educational institution ( and those involved among between schools, teachers, students and parents to handle many issues surrounding them such as difficulties on finding address through geographical limitations due to lack of adequate training technologies. ...
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This paper aims to explore the modern learning environment (MLE) which may emerge from the secondary education into the tertiary education. This integration usually derives from enhancing the pedagogical skill and adaptive technology to strengthen the teaching and learning process. Literature review from referred books and journals was conducted with thematic analysis. The investigation was employed in depth analysis from referred books, journals and conferences using the keywords of pedagogical skill and adaptive technology and modern learning environment. The multiple finding from met-synthesis was conducted by searching for the information which is organised using substantive keywords. The findings reveal that the role of MLE can be divided into attempting to perform learning quality, integrating the learning with continuous process, making easy in getting the sources, creating flexibility in learning. This study is expected to contribute the way of maintaining inside factor within the human being which is significantly necessary to make effort in assisting spirit performance in teaching process. To assist students across learning environment by pedagogical skills with encouraging higher teaching and learning, making convince into the pedagogy might be necessary a way to promote a range of pedagogical skills continuing integration with technological tools. In addition, using experience to boost the abstract ideas acquired in certain subjects as the source of knowledge itself can become a particular principle for the enhancement of learning in higher education. Index Terms: learning quality, innovation, pedagogical skill, adaptive technology, 21 century learning, modern learning environment, openness in education, access to resources, flexibility in learning.
... Smartphone is so handy and used for people to perform their daily as well as their professional activities, to access information and knowledge from the internet, using it in classrooms and lectures. In fact, some students capture the teachers lecture notes or other notes showing it to become a learning aid in class [3]. In Brunei next with 87% of the students used it for listening to music or video/movie streaming, and social networks, online learning (67%), and browsing e-news or e-book with 55%. ...
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As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the learning and evaluation processes have been moved to an online modality to keep social distance and reduce the spreading of the virus. The strategies implemented for assessment and proctoring in this online remote teaching and assessment emergency are no exception when proctoring test-takers. This problem is addressed from a practical context of study: the English Language Proficiency Tests of a University in southeast Mexico. Considering an iterative user-centered mixed methodology, a set of dashboards was designed, implemented and evaluated to visualize the information generated by test-takers during the administration process. An increase in the Usability of the dashboards is observed in all heuristic categories, with visual design being greater. The use of the mixed methodology and the constant user feedback during the process helped us to reduce development time compared with other works found in the literature. Moreover, it is possible to use the proposed dashboards in other application domains like medicine, or care facilities where user activity monitoring is needed to make informed decisions. categoryHuman-centered computing; Information visualization
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Reducing student attrition in tertiary education plays a significant role in the core mission and financial well-being of an educational institution. The availability of big data source from Learning Management System (LMS) can be analysed to help with the attrition issues. This study aims to use an integrated Design science research (DSR) methodology to develop and evaluate a Big Data Analytical Solution (BDAS) embedded in Educational Decision Support System as an educational artefact. The BDAS as DSR artefact harnesses the outcome of the application of Artificial Intelligence(AI) based approaches on the dataset collected from student interaction with LMS to train a predictive model to predict potential students at risk. Identifying students at risk helps to take timely intervention in the learning process to improve student academic progress to increase the retention rate. To evaluate the performance of the predictive model, we compare the accuracy of the collection of representational Artificial Intelligence algorithms in the literature. The BDAS aims not to replace any existing practice but to support educators to implement a variety of pedagogical practices to improve students’ academic performance.
Conference Paper
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The education system plays important role in human life and the modern world. The impact of education is multiple, given that it indirectly affects the growth and development of the entire society and the state. Modern society is built upon a high standard of living and education that can be used in the best way to face a required standard. Leadership and learning are two components that are depending on each other. The paper analyzes the theoretical impact of leadership on education and the interrelation between these two components. This paper aims to emphasize the strategic importance of leaders in the education system as an unbreakable link between the transfer of knowledge and skills to their followers and show how best to approach the leader in the educational process to reach the desired goal.
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Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has bestowed upon the global citizens what is now known as the new normal. The Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia has acted accordingly by commanding every academic institution to practice online learning to lower the transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus. This abrupt pedagogical transformation imposes a new challenge for both students and teachers. Consequently, continuous monitoring and evaluation of the study process are essential to maintain high quality education. This research aimed to illustrate the perception of student's experienced virtual learning environment (VLE), chosen learning approach, and the association between them. Methods: A cross-sectional design was chosen for this study. Participants (n=210) currently registered as pre-clinical undergraduate medical students during the 2020/2021 academic year were asked to complete an online survey. Online Learning Environment Survey (OLES) and Revised Study Process Questionnaire 2 Factors (R-SPQ-2F) are used to determine VLE effectiveness and learning approach, respectively. Results: The study showed that 99% (n=208) of the students perceived their VLE as highly effective and 88,6% (n=186) used the deep learning approach. Fisher’s exact test revealed a significant correlation between perceived VLE and the learning approach (p=0,013). Conclusion: An effective VLE is of paramount importance as it influences students' approach to learning during their study. Academic institution needs to support proper evaluation of VLE to ensure high quality education is being delivered continuously.
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The development of group cohesion for small groups in face-to-face educational learning settings has been widely studied for decades. The calibre of group cohesion within these contexts is typically associated with increases in performance, resulting in a productive collaboration that helps drive knowledge building and innovation within a learning environment. However, understanding and measuring cohesion in technology-mediated learning experiences still requires additional research. This paper reports on a systematic literature review of small groups in technology-mediated learning settings to explore the definitions of cohesion and the methodologies used for the measurements that have been identified arising in this area. Furthermore, the review provides a characterisation of the factors that impact collaborative learning in computer supported environments, highlighting two important aspects: i) there is a significant gap in measuring cohesion using unobtrusive methods, such as relying on log or trace data and ii) there is a lack of longitudinal approaches to understand the emergence of cohesion. Finally, we discuss implications for future research in studying group cohesion.
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This paper intends to share empirical challenges of Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) History students faced during COVID-19. COVID-19 was characterised by, amongst other things, social distancing, which put lectures on hold in favour of online learning. A group of 32 students participated in the study. Data were collected through narrative inquiry, and a thematic data analysis method was used. The study revealed that PGCE history students faced challenges of adapting to and accessing online learning and library materials, an expectation to do a lot of academic work, individual instead of classroom or library learning, unconducive home learning space, lack ofparental support, and financial constraints. Therefore, this study concludes that students struggled to cope with online learning and recommends that institutions of higher learning should consider the above challenges when undertaking online learning under COVID-19 conditions in future.
Chapter
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Conference Paper
Brief overview of the Serbian IT sector employment situation is given. Through the summary of the past online learning experiences it is shown that online learning can be an effective tool to reeducate the Serbian workforce to serve the countries growing IT employment demands. The nature of the UN Development grants in Serbia is explained together with the details of the joint proposal from the University of San Diego Extension and the Mathematical Institute of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The proposal consisted of a group of Java and Python courses that were delivered online in English to 34 students selected from more than 80 people that applied. The results presented show that the program was very effective with an extremely high satisfaction rate both in terms of the content and online delivery platform, and that the similar methods can be used in the future for further education of the IT workforce.
Chapter
The current trend of technology advancement with digital devices such as smart phones, tablets, and laptops has shifted the way of societal life including teaching and learning. This initiative might also contribute to the typical approach of information and communication technology (ICT) to increasingly enhance the achievement through utilizing it in the education setting in the higher education context. Adopting social media in network data massively within the big data trends, the extraction of the particular means in providing structured data from enterprise resources data and sources of unstructured data from audio and video can begin with providing the value from information space such as message, conversation, transaction, and other sources. This chapter attempts to explore the design of adaptive learning technology in big data approach. Attempts to achieve particular advantage of big data with analytic process could provide the innovative environment of adaptive online technology to enhance pedagogy and technology skill to support the initiative way of teaching and learning process in the higher education (HE) context.
An ethical issues and distrust are pervasive in big data era. The largest data leaks in the social media’s history were the controversy of Facebook data breach to unauthorized parties. Big data are useful for business to analyze large sets of heterogeneous data effectively. Because big data is seemingly accessible does not make it ethical for business in converting them into profits without users’ concern. Big data needs ethical foundation that cannot be simplified just because data is accessible especially through social media. The objective of this study is to examine how the phenomenon of big data could affect the issues of ethics in business organizations. Then, it analyzes the ethical challenges of big data in business for gain business value and competitive advantage. The study was a case study to analyze ethical challenges for organization in deploying big data initiatives. This paper is basically a case study analysis. Qualitative approach was used to carry out this research where secondary data was retrieved from various credible journals and articles that are relevant to the issue discussed.
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As the demand for online education continues to increase, institutions are faced with developing process models for efficient, high-quality online course development. This paper describes a systems, team-based, approach that centers on an online instructional design theory (Active Mastery Learning) implemented at Colorado State University-Global Campus. CSU-Global Campus is a newly-created online campus within the Colorado State University System, and launches in Fall 2008 with fully-online undergraduate degree completion programs and Master’s degrees.
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Current trends suggest that academia may be behind the curve in delivering effective Business Intelligence programs and course offerings to students. In December 2009 and 2010, the AIS Special Interest Group on Decision Support, Knowledge and Data Management Systems (SIGDSS) and the Teradata University Network (TUN) cosponsored the Business Intelligence Congresses and conducted surveys to improve the understanding of the state of BI in academia. This panel report describes the key findings and best practices that were identified. The article also serves as a "call to action" for universities regarding the need to close a widening gap between the BI skills of university graduates in Information Systems and other fields and BI market needs. The IS field is well positioned to be the leader in creating the next generation BI workforce. To do so, it is important for IS to begin moving on this opportunity now. We believe the necessary first step is for BI and IS leaders to advance the BI curriculum.
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As the demand for online education continues to increase, institutions are faced with developing process models for efficient, high-quality online course development. This paper describes a systems, team-based, approach that centers on an online instructional design theory (Active Mastery Learning) implemented at Colorado State University-Global Campus. CSU-Global Campus is a newly-created online campus within the Colorado State University System, and launches in Fall 2008 with fully-online undergraduate degree completion programs and Master's degrees.
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There has been a strong push towards eliteracy in India, particularly in the distribution and usage of information and communication technologies (ICT) in schools for economic and social growth. As a result, the Vidhya Vahini scheme was launched in Kuppam, a marginalized village constituency in Andhra Pradesh. This scheme strives to disseminate computers to all high schools by 2005 with the intention of scaling this pilot initiative nationwide. In this paper, I argue that in spite of strong governmental initiative and multifarious private-public partnerships, there are considerable barriers in the implementation of computers in public high schools. To optimize these cost intensive resources, we need to address some of the chronic educational challenges prevalent in the school system. With the constant flux in participation by public and private actors in this process, the question of sustainability is critical in the transformation of schools as e-learning communities.
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Conference Paper
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Big data generates knowledge and value for business organization and government. Big data optimizes capabilities process, high growth and diversified data that create value for generating pervasive knowledge. The paper examines the Strategic Thrusts (STs) of ASEAN ICT Masterplan 2015 (AIM 2015) focusing on economic transformation, people empowerment and engagement, innovation, development of human capital and infrastructure, and bridging the digital divide. The study critically examines the progress of STs for ASEAN members respectively, and describes challenges for ASEAN Economic Community facing a big data era. Researchers employed thematic literature analysis and discussed broader issues related to the STs’ performance indicators and recommended for future improvement. Despite the limitation of the study, the paper proposes a model for potential solutions along the five STs Dimensions.
Chapter
This chapter outlines the concept of ‘big data driven business model ’ and utilizes it to describe a set of businesses that rely on big data to achieve their key value proposition and to substantially augment their value proposition to differentiate themselves in order to gain competitive advantage. It describes the impact of big data on each of the elements as identified in the Business model canvas. Also the chapter discusses the potential of big data for mass customization and personalization of product and services, as a value proposition in its own right, on B2B and B2C logistics as well as for customer relationship management and customer service. It also touches upon how big data has facilitated a shift in our conceptions of utility as opposed to resources as the basis for socio-economic value creation. Also, the chapter explores this issue a bit further by understanding the implications of big data on partnerships, monetization, and the opportunities and challenges it raises for accounting, budgeting and performance metrics. In conclusion, the chapter acknowledges the synergistic potential with other emerging technologies such as 3D printing, Robots, Drones, self-driving cars, and the like.
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The purpose of the research was to understand effects of environmental and human constructs on the success of e-learning in an online university in Korea. The participants of the study completed an online course entitled "Foundations of Online Learning" during 2013-14 winder semester. The participants were asked to respond to the questionnaires on the course content quality, instruction configuration quality, LMS quality, self-regulated learning ability, and instructor-learner/learner-learner/learner-content interactions. Among a total of 196 participants, valid data from 177 participants were used for the analyses. The results included effects of some independent variables on academic achievements and class satisfaction. Based on the findings, suggestions were made.
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Big data, because it can mine new knowledge for economic growth and technical innovation, has recently received considerable attention, and many research efforts have been directed to big data processing due to its high volume, velocity, and variety (referred to as ??3V??) challenges. However, in addition to the 3V challenges, the flourishing of big data also hinges on fully understanding and managing newly arising security and privacy challenges. If data are not authentic, new mined knowledge will be unconvincing; while if privacy is not well addressed, people may be reluctant to share their data. Because security has been investigated as a new dimension, ??veracity,?? in big data, in this article, we aim to exploit new challenges of big data in terms of privacy, and devote our attention toward efficient and privacy-preserving computing in the big data era. Specifically, we first formalize the general architecture of big data analytics, identify the corresponding privacy requirements, and introduce an efficient and privacy-preserving cosine similarity computing protocol as an example in response to data mining??s efficiency and privacy requirements in the big data era.
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This article addresses implications for democracy of two interconnected developments involving big data and the media. One is the targeting of consumers for advertising by marketers and the new data-capture industry that supports them. The other involves the transformation of advertisers’ approach to subsidizing media content production. We describe these developments and consider their consequences for democratic life, drawing on classical and recent democratic theory (Paine, Dahl, Mouffe, Rosanvallon). We conclude that big data’s embedding in personalized marketing and content production threatens the ecology of connections that link citizens and groups via information, argumentation, empathy, and celebration as members of a shared social and civic space. Unless challenged, these developments risk eliminating the connective media necessary for an effective democracy.
Conference Paper
Understanding learners' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of information and communication technology (ICT) use, including those in the broad category of social media, is both important and critical to the success or failure of integration of ICT in higher education settings. Using theories of educational psychology and technology integration, a 50-item survey was constructed and data were collected from 14,283 students from 12 Québec universities in Canada, using a probabilistic sampling strategy. Exploratory factor analyses followed by multiple regressions show that engaging lectures, effective use of ICT tools for individual study and group-work, as well as active and self-regulated study strategies have a positive and significant impact on students' perceptions of course effectiveness. Results are discussed in light of research on social media tools, instructional effectiveness and gender difference in technology use.
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Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) developed under constructivism and embedded personalization learning functions have the potential to meet different requirements of different learners, and thus increase e-Learning effectiveness. We formulated internal personalized learning mechanisms by implementing intelligent agents in a VLE under a constructivist learning model, and further developed an e-Learning effectiveness framework by integrating educational and IS theories. An empirical field experiment involving 228 university students was conducted. The findings suggested that personalized e-learning facilities enhance online learning effectiveness in terms of examination, satisfaction, and self-efficacy criteria.
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Big data, the authors write, is far more powerful than the analytics of the past. Executives can measure and therefore manage more precisely than ever before. They can make better predictions and smarter decisions. They can target more-effective interventions in areas that so far have been dominated by gut and intuition rather than by data and rigor. The differences between big data and analytics are a matter of volume, velocity, and variety: More data now cross the internet every second than were stored in the entire internet 20 years ago. Nearly real-time information makes it possible for a company to be much more agile than its competitors. And that information can come from social networks, images, sensors, the web, or other unstructured sources. The managerial challenges, however, are very real. Senior decision makers have to learn to ask the right questions and embrace evidence-based decision making. Organizations must hire scientists who can find patterns in very large data sets and translate them into useful business information. IT departments have to work hard to integrate all the relevant internal and external sources of data. The authors offer two success stories to illustrate how companies are using big data: PASSUR Aerospace enables airlines to match their actual and estimated arrival times. Sears Holdings directly analyzes its incoming store data to make promotions much more precise and faster.
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