Nowadays, many students access online resources using their mobile devices, substituting this for traditional learning interactions. However, the new concept of ‘big data’ in recent ICT discussions extends the promising research direction on online learning and big data integration. Big data promises content that can be tailored for each student based on the context and Internet behaviour of users in online learning. This study examines recent Internet activities and literacy in Brunei Darussalam (Brunei) relating to the Internet behaviour and online learning of residents. The study highlights milestones in terms of recent issues, challenges, and trends in Internet activities, focusing on online learning and its potential in the big data era. An extensive nationwide survey was conducted to ensure the reliability of the data. The survey revealed that people in Brunei expect and demand
better learning services and experiences through an online learning system to improve literacy as well as the quality and ef ciency of learning. Regardless of the limitations of the survey, the general public has shown great support for online learning systems. The results of the survey provide a solid argument for further research on big data in online learning by developing a framework incorporating the expectations of the people. Finally, the study provides a baseline for future studies of Internet adoption in Brunei.