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Launching Your Business Law Course With an "Awesome First Day!"



This paper addresses the benefits of using a realistic role-playing exercise in an undergraduate business law course, particularly on the first day of class. The exercise used by this instructor is the negotiation of the purchase/sale of a particular used car (with details of the car and its Kelly Blue Book valuation furnished to the students). The desired learning objectives for this exercise include: introducing students to the type of critical thinking and reasoning skills necessary to the study of business law; creating a positive first-day classroom experience to generate enthusiasm for the course; promoting active student-centered learning; and encouraging student participation in a friendly, non-threatening environment. The details of using this exercise in the classroom are addressed in the paper which includes a teaching note with suggested discussion questions. According to the results of an anonymous student survey, using this exercise on the first day of class is a highly successful way of achieving the desired learning objectives. As one student summed it up on his/her anonymous survey: “Awesome First Day!”
Fall 2015 Gedge/341
What can match the excitement of the first day of class? Just picture it –
each student with his/her new notebook, sharpened pencil and bright-eyed
enthusiasm for what’s to come. It’s true that in place of a notebook and
pencil, students these days come to class with their laptops or tablets; but
their interest and enthusiasm at the beginning of the semester is clearly
visible. Our job on the first day of class is to encourage that sense of
excitement and enthusiasm. This instructor uses a realistic group exercise on
the first day to help promote student enthusiasm for the course. The exercise
actively engages the students, introduces them to the subject matter of the
course and sets the tone for a collegial and inviting classroom atmosphere.
On the very first day of class, with the exercise described in this article,
students jump into the negotiation of a contract – the purchase/sale of a used
Part I of this article addresses the benefits of using a realistic role-
playing exercise in a business law course, particularly on the first day of
class. Part II describes the learning objectives of this exercise. The details of
using this exercise in the classroom are addressed in Part III including a
teaching note with suggested discussion questions. Part IV contains student
feedback on the effectiveness of this exercise as a first-day activity. Overall
conclusions regarding the use of this exercise are included in Part V.
Students are introduced to the study of business law through a realistic
role-playing exercise. The ‘actors’ in each group consist of a seller, a
potential buyer and a lawyer. The buyer and seller in each group negotiate
the purchase/sale of a particular used car and are prompted to address all the
issues they think are important in the deal. The job of the lawyer in this
exercise is to take notes and prepare a written outline of the final agreed-
upon terms of the transaction for the parties to sign. Details of the car are
provided (a copy of an actual Craigslist ad is used to make the exercise more
realistic). In addition, the Kelly Blue Book value of this particular used car is
included in the handout. The simple one-page handout furnished to the
students is attached as Exhibit A.
342/Vol. XXV/Southern Law Journal
The subject matter of this exercise, buying a used car, has the benefit of
being within all students’ personal realm of experience. Even if a student has
not actually bought a used car, he/she will most likely have personal
experience in operating a car and perhaps have experience of a car breaking
down if not properly maintained. The student will also likely have experience
in buying or selling other used goods (e.g. textbooks, collectibles, etc.). An
exercise that draws on a student’s own experiences helps the student relate to
the subject matter and can be effective in grabbing their attention.1
Using a real-life situation helps make the exercise relevant to the
students and is therefore more likely to engage their interest.2 Connecting the
course material to real-world situations can improve student understanding of
the content and can help students remember and use the material.3 Problem-
J.D., Assistant Professor of Business Law, Quinnipiac University School of Business.
1 The benefit of using examples that relate to the students’ own experiences is commonly
noted. See, e.g., Shelley McGill, The Social Network and the Legal Environment of Business:
An Opportunity for Student-Centered Learning, 30 J. LEGAL STUD. EDUC. 45, 54 (2013) (using
the story of the founding of Facebook described as an effective means of connecting legal
topics with the student’s daily life); Michael R. Koval, Step Away from the Syllabus: Engaging
Students on the First Day of Legal Environment, 30 J. LEGAL STUD. EDUC. 179, 184 (2013)
(using an exercise describing a host of legal problems raised in the operation of a typical
restaurant over a 24-hour period in the format of the popular television show ‘24’ described as
an effective method because students are drawing on their own experience); Susan J. Marsnik
& Dale B. Thompson, Using Contract Negotiation Exercises to Develop Higher Order
Thinking and Strategic Business Skills, 30 J. LEGAL STUD. EDUC. 201, 204 (2013) (discussing
the benefit of using a contract exercise based on the sale of goods because every student has
already entered into contractual arrangements for goods) (internal citations omitted).
2 See, e.g., McGill, supra note 1, at 54 (“[L]earning is most likely to occur when instructors
present primary experiential opportunities that are relevant, reality based, and connected to the
student’s world… thereby increas[ing] the likelihood of student engagement.”) (internal
citations omitted); Andrea Giampetro-Meyer, Perspectives on Teaching, What’s Your Cheese?
29 J. LEGAL STUD. EDUC. 145, 150 (2012) (describing the value of tying course material to
students’ lives, for example, using an apartment lease agreement in the study of contract law);
Tammy W. Cowart & Wade M. Chumney, I Phone, You Phone, We All Phone with iPhone:
Trademark Law and Ethics from an International and Domestic Perspective, 28 J. LEGAL
STUD EDUC. 331, 332 (2011) (“Students are most likely to be engaged by a case [using a
realistic scenario] and to put forth the effort required for its proper analysis if they appreciate
its relevance and timeliness.”).
2013)(“[C]ognitive theory provides good support for the idea that knowledge learned and used
in a realistic, problem-solving context is more likely to be remembered and used appropriately
when needed later.”); Lucille M. Ponte, The Case of the Unhappy Sports Fan: Embracing
Student-Centered Learning and Promoting Upper-Level Cognitive Skills Through an Online
Dispute Resolution Simulation, 23 J. LEGAL STUD. EDUC. 169, 175-76 (2006) (“Many
pedagogical experts assert that student-centered or active learning is critical to student
comprehension and retention of course concepts and skills… Pedagogical commentators assert
that active or student-centered learning emphasizes the intertwining of abstract concepts with
practical skills to improve student understanding of both substantive concepts and professional
Fall 2015 Gedge/343
based learning (such as contract negotiation exercises) can help students
become actively engaged in the learning process. One’s own teaching
experience can readily confirm that students who are actively engaged in the
learning process gain an improved understanding of the material. Scholars
also point to a clear connection between active student-centered learning and
improvement in students’ critical thinking and reasoning skills.4
Using problem-based learning such as this used car exercise can help
students build bridges between the course materials and their own context of
knowledge.5 Problem-based learning encompasses a wide range of teaching
methods including case studies, experiential exercises (such as contract
negotiations) and other realistic simulations and role-playing exercises.6 This
used car exercise is an example of a simple contract negotiation.7
competencies.”) (internal citations omitted); Robert C. Bird, Lucille M. Ponte, Gerald R.
Ferrera, and Stephen D. Lichtenstein, Troubled Times at Upturn Records: Getting Traditional
Legal Concepts to Dance to the New Online Beat, 22 J. LEGAL STUD. EDUC. 1, 3 (2004)
(crediting the use of case studies, with their connection to real-world situations, with
improving student retention of materials and increasing student-based, rather than instructor-
focused, learning) (internal citations omitted).
4 See, e.g., Marsnik & Thompson, supra note 1, at 203 (“What makes skills-based exercises
so important is that they move students beyond knowledge and comprehension of content to
higher forms of learning.”) (internal citations omitted); Peter J. Shedd, Perspectives on
Teaching, Teaching is Our Calling: Do Something Worthwhile! 29 J. LEGAL STUD. EDUC.
363, 366 (2012) (identifying from his personal teaching experience that students who
participate in interactive role-play simulations are actively engaged in the learning
environment which produces “more meaningful and lasting learning”); Ponte, supra note 3, at
169-70 (describing the view of many legal experts that effective legal education needs to
encourage active or student-centered learning, rather than passive teacher-centered instruction
because an active learning environment encourages students to effectively develop written and
oral communication abilities and critical thinking and reasoning skills).
5 See, e.g., MCKEACHIE, supra note 3, at 63 (“If we are to teach our students effectively, we
need to bridge the gap between the structure in the subject matter and structures in the
students’ minds.”); Sean P. Melvin, Case Study of a Coffee War: Using the Starbucks v.
Charbucks Dispute to Teach Trademark Dilution, Business Ethics, and the Strategic Value of
Legal Acumen, 29 J. LEGAL STUD. EDUC. 27, 34 (2012) (describing one of the benefits of
problem-based learning as helping “the student bridge the gap between theory and practice”)
(internal citations omitted).
6See, e.g., MCKEACHIE, supra note 3, at 211 (describing experiential learning as a valuable
part of one’s teaching strategies which includes cases, problem-based learning, games and
simulations); Marsnik & Thompson, supra note 1, at 205 (“As the name implies, PBL is a
methodology in which problems serve as the stimulus and context for student learning.”)
(internal citations omitted); Ponte, supra note 3, at 177 (identifying numerous student-centered
learning strategies including problem-based learning, realistic simulations and role-playing
7 Contract negotiations are the basis of numerous problem-based learning exercises. These
range from the simple to the complex. See, e.g., Marsnik & Thompson, supra note 1, at 206
(describing the value of contract negotiation exercises as a problem-based learning method
with the authors preferring a complex contract negotiation problem); Sharlene A. McEvoy, A
344/Vol. XXV/Southern Law Journal
This exercise effectively introduces students to the type of critical
thinking skills necessary to the study of business law. In addition, using this
exercise on the first day of class sends a message to the students that the
content of this course is applicable to them personally and can impact them
in their everyday lives. Furthermore, by encouraging student participation at
the outset, the instructor is able to set the desired tone for the course where
students can feel comfortable speaking up in a non-threatening collegial
environment. Using a group exercise such as this to launch the course can
significantly impact students’ level of interest in the course and provide a
concrete example of the type of active learning environment students can
expect throughout the semester.
We all know the familiar adage: You only get one chance to make a first
impression. The first day of class is the instructor’s one and only chance to
make a positive first impression with the students.8 This role-playing exercise
can help start the semester off on the right foot.
The first day of class provides an excellent opportunity to lay the
groundwork for an intellectually rewarding semester. In addition to
introducing the students to the substantive area of contracts, this exercise is
particularly useful in helping set the tone for the semester.9 Using this
introductory group exercise, it is clear to students from the outset that they
are expected to actively participate in the learning process. This first class
can set the tone for an intellectual journey in which we can all enjoy the
benefits of a welcoming, interactive forum for discussion and debate.
In particular, the primary learning objectives of this exercise are:
To introduce students to the type of critical thinking and reasoning
skills necessary to the study of business law10
Contract Writing Exercise, 14 J. LEGAL STUD. EDUC. 81, 81 (1996) (describing the benefit of
using a simple fact pattern in a contract negotiation exercise).
8 See Koval, supra note 1, at 183 (explaining that using a problem-based learning exercise on
the first day of class provides the instructor a great opportunity to connect with the students
and creating a positive first-day experience that can lead to higher student motivation
throughout the course)(internal citation omitted).
9 Id. at 181 (describing one of the benefits of using a problem-based learning exercise on the
first day of class as a way “to model and promote the types of behaviors and skills desired
throughout the course”) (internal citations omitted).
10 In particular, this exercise introduces students to the importance of asking the question:
‘What if …?’ See infra, Part III for specific types of discussion questions that can be used to
help expand the students’ thought processes in this exercise.
Fall 2015 Gedge/345
To create a positive first-day classroom experience to generate
student enthusiasm for the course
To promote active student-centered learning
To encourage student participation by showing the students at the
outset that our classroom will be a friendly, non-threatening
To provide an introduction to the substantive law of contracts using
a concrete example within the typical student’s personal experience
To present contract law as something that has importance to a
student’s own personal life
A. Overview
This is a simple group exercise in which students role-play the
purchase/sale of a particular used car with the details of the car provided by
the instructor. This exercise is particularly useful on the first day as the
subject matter is within the context of knowledge of all undergraduate
students. It requires no substantive knowledge of the law and presupposes no
course pre-requisites. In this way, all students (from freshmen to seniors) are
able to grasp the material.11 Using an exercise based on concrete facts with
which the student is familiar brings contract law to the student’s level. This
helps the student relate to the subject matter as something he is both
interested in and capable of understanding. There is plenty of time later in the
semester to address more complex fact patterns such as the terms of business
contracts between multinational corporations.12
Students divide up into groups of three consisting of the seller, the
potential buyer and the attorney. (The attorney in this exercise is not
representing either the buyer or the seller. This student’s role is to prepare a
contract reflecting the agreed-upon terms and to report out the results of the
negotiation to the class.) Generally students easily break up into groups on
the basis of whom they are sitting near and this works well. In a class of 36
students, this results in 12 student groups. If the number of students in the
class is not divisible by three, a fourth or fifth student added to a group and
can be assigned the role of a friend/trusted advisor of the buyer or seller or as
11 See Koval, supra note 1, at 183 (describing that use of a first–day group exercise should
assume that students have done no pre-assigned reading so that the content is understandable
to students with no preparation).
12 See MCKEACHIE, supra note 3, at 206 (describing the value of choosing an initial problem
with simpler facts to help promote student success and building up later to subtle, more
complex problems).
346/Vol. XXV/Southern Law Journal
a second potential buyer. Because each student has an assigned role in his/her
group, everyone is actively participating in the exercise. With so many
groups, the result is a classroom filled with (purposeful) noise, a highly
desirable learning atmosphere.
The students easily slip into their roles. They are told that while they
cannot deviate from the facts provided in the handout, they can provide any
additional information they think appropriate. During the first 5-10 minutes
of the exercise, students familiarize themselves with the information in the
handout, identify their respective roles and begin the process of negotiating
the transaction.
After the students have had a chance to get involved in the nitty-gritty of
the negotiations, it is helpful for the instructor to circulate amongst the
student groups. In this way the instructor can find out how the group is doing
and what issues the students have been addressing. It is not unusual for
students initially to limit their focus solely to the purchase price. The
instructor can nudge them to resolve the purchase price issue and to move on
to other important issues. For instance, how will the buyer verify the
mechanical condition of the car? How and when will the seller be paid the
purchase price? In this way the instructor can begin to encourage critical
thinking by the students. In addition, this allows the instructor to set the tone
for the course - that discussion is encouraged and takes place in a friendly,
non-threatening atmosphere.13
B. Teaching Note
Students need no expertise in business law (or in any other academic
subject) to fully participate in and benefit from this exercise. For this reason,
it is particularly well-suited for the first day of an introductory undergraduate
business law or legal environment course. Approximately 30-40 minutes is
recommended to complete this exercise as described herein. This leaves the
remaining 10-20 minutes of a typical 50-minute class for other introductory
13 See Koval, supra note 1, at 189, n. 29 (describing this type of interaction with groups during
a first day exercise as beneficial in terms of connecting with students and putting them at
14 Some instructors may want to use this remaining time to address ‘housekeeping’ items such
as grading and other matters included in the course syllabus. See id. at 190 (describing the
importance of reserving time after a first-day group exercise to address the “process-related
needs of the students”). Others may prefer to engage in additional participatory activities.
This instructor has found it both informative and enjoyable to use this time to offer to purchase
various items from students to introduce them to the study of formation of a contract by offer
and acceptance.
Fall 2015 Gedge/347
Approximately 10-15 minutes is allocated for the group discussions.
Following this, the instructor chooses a group and asks the student-attorney
to report out the terms agreed to by the parties. After the student-attorney has
summarized the contract terms agreed to by the parties, the instructor can ask
the buyer and seller in turn whether they’re satisfied with the terms of the
transaction. When they confirm that, yes, they’re satisfied with the
transaction, the instructor can congratulate them on a successful negotiation
(regardless of the specific terms agreed upon).15 This can be used to
introduce one of the fundamental principles of contract law, the doctrine of
freedom of contract, i.e. that parties are free to enter into a contract on
essentially whatever terms they choose and, in general, courts will enforce
the terms of their contract.16 There is no right or wrong deal to be made in
this exercise.
While circulating amongst the groups, the instructor can also make note
of which issues have been addressed by which groups. Although there clearly
will not be enough time to ask each group for a detailed report, it is helpful to
ask three or four groups to report to the class. This is a good opportunity for
the instructor to pose follow-up questions for the group/class.17 Here are
some specific examples although many more can and do come up in each
“Seller, you and the buyer have agreed on a purchase price of
$4,000 but I didn’t hear anything about the method of payment.
What if the buyer pays you with a $4,000 personal check, you sign
over title to the car, hand him the keys and 3 days later your bank
informs you that the buyer’s check bounced. Would you be a happy
Clearly the seller will not be pleased in this ‘what-if’ scenario. This
leads to a discussion of what the seller could have done in
15 In the uncommon event that a buyer and seller are unable to make a deal, this can be
identified as an equally successful interaction as each party is free to negotiate with another
buyer/seller to make an acceptable deal.
16 The doctrine of freedom of contract is a fundamental principle of business law. See 16A
Am. Jur. 2d Constitutional Law § 615 (2014) (“The right to contract freely with the
expectation that the contract will endure according to its terms is as fundamental to our society
as the right to speak without restraint. The freedom to contract is thus a part of the liberty
protected by the Due Process Clauses of the Fifth and 14th Amendments.”) (internal citations
17 See MCKEACHIE, supra note 3, at 207 (describing the instructor’s role in exercises like this
as “primarily to facilitate discussion – by listening, questioning, clarifying, challenging,
encouraging analysis and problem solving…”).
348/Vol. XXV/Southern Law Journal
negotiating this contract to help avoid this problem. Other groups
may have dealt with this issue and can be solicited for input.18
“Buyer, what if after you’ve paid $4,000 for this car, it develops
serious engine trouble in the first week (even though the seller told
you it was in ‘tip-top’ condition). It will cost you $1,500 to have it
fixed. Would you be a happy camper?”
Clearly the buyer will not be pleased in this ‘what-if’ scenario. This
leads to a discussion of what the buyer could have done in
negotiating the contract to help avoid this problem. The instructor
can nudge the student-buyer to a possible solution by asking such
follow-on questions as: “Did you look at the engine before you
agreed to buy the car? Do you know anything about how car
engines work? (I know I don’t!) If not, how could a buyer satisfy
himself about the mechanical condition of a car before he buys it?”
Again, other groups may have dealt with this issue and can be
solicited for input.19
On occasion, a buyer will negotiate some type of warranty from the
seller. For example, a seller might agree to pay for any repair the car
needs for a period of 30 days following the sale. If so, the instructor
could ask: “Seller, what if 4 days after the sale the buyer presents
you with a bill for $2,000 for replacement of all 4 tires and a new
exhaust system. The buyer tells you that he brought the car to the
local Midas Muffler Shop and that’s what they said it needed.
Would you be a happy camper?”
Clearly, the seller will not be pleased in this ‘what-if’ scenario. This
leads to a discussion of ways the seller might have limited the terms
of the warranty (as to dollar amount, type of repair covered, etc.) Or
perhaps the seller will identify that, on reflection, he shouldn’t
provide any warranty on a car that’s more than 10 years old.
This type of analysis helps students begin the process of looking beyond
the immediately apparent and encourages them to carefully examine a
situation. Using these type of ‘what-if’ questions introduces students to the
18 While it may seem obvious to the instructor that the seller should insist on payment in
‘good’ funds such as a cashier’s check, this issue is often not obvious to typical undergraduate
students based on their own limited experience.
19 As in the prior example, it is not uncommon for students to overlook the importance of
having a mechanic perform a pre-contract inspection based on their own limited experience.
Fall 2015 Gedge/349
type of intellectual inquiry that is essential to the study of business law. This
is an effective way to lay the groundwork for the type of critical thinking that
students will be engaged in throughout the semester.20
The author has used this car-buying exercise in her business law course
for a number of years. More recently, she has used this exercise as an
introduction to contract law on the first day of class. Student feedback on the
use of group exercises such as this has overall been positive. To obtain
specific feedback regarding the car-buying exercise and its impact on
students’ first-day impressions, the author asked students in her spring 2014
classes to complete an anonymous survey at the end of the first day of
class.21 In total 131 students submitted the anonymous survey at the end of
class (out of a total of 135 students in attendance on the first day). The results
are shown on Exhibit B. The survey results provide support for the
conclusions that:
Students enjoy participating in the buying a used car exercise
(89.3% of the respondents answered ‘Agree’ or ‘Strongly Agree’).
Students are enthusiastic about what is to come in this course based
on the first class (92.4 % of the respondents answered ‘Agree’ or
‘Strongly Agree’).
Students feel more comfortable about speaking up in this class
based on the first day’s experience (74.9% of the respondents
answered ‘Agree’ or ‘Strongly Agree’).
Students’ narrative comments on the anonymous survey are, with few
exceptions, overwhelmingly positive. Here are a few of their comments:22
“I thought the exercise was a great way to start the course!”
“It was [a] fun first day and I look forward to this semester.”
“The group exercise was a perfect way to let students engage with
each other and feel more comfortable.”
20 It can also be used to highlight one of the roles of a business lawyer – to identify the risks in
a proposed transaction and structure it to minimize those risks, all in a manner satisfactory to
the parties. It’s not enough to identify a problem; we also need to provide possible solutions
to the problem.
21 The student survey questions were drawn from a similar student survey described by
Professor Koval in his excellent article. See Koval, supra note 1, at 193.
22 Anonymous survey sheets are on file with the author.
350/Vol. XXV/Southern Law Journal
“I think this class will be very interesting and the prof creates a
comfortable classroom atmosphere.”
“It was a great introduction [to] the course in general and to the
professor’s teaching style. It made me excited to be taking this
“The exercise helped a lot because it used an everyday situation to
teach the law principle.”
“I love the hands on experience. It makes learning easier.”
“Most interesting first class I’ve been to.”
“Awesome first day!”
Without doubt, use of this role-playing exercise has successfully
achieved the desired learning objectives. Students leave class on the first day
of a new semester enthused about what is to come and are prepared to
actively participate in our exploration of business law. Using this exercise
can help you launch your business law course (in the words of one student)
with an “awesome first day!”
Fall 2015 Gedge/351
As the buyer, you are looking for a reliable car. It doesn’t have to be
a pretty car or a ‘snazzy’ car. It just has to provide you with reliable
transportation. You need a vehicle in a hurry (otherwise you won’t
be able to visit your boyfriend/girlfriend at University of Vermont
next weekend!). Your grandmother has told you that she will give
you $3,000 towards the purchase of a car so long as it’s a Nissan
(which she believes are the safest and most reliable cars). (You’ve
also got $1,500 saved up from your summer job.)
As the seller, you really need to sell this car. You’re moving out of
the country to start a new job and you’re flying out in less than a
See below for seller’s ad on Craigslist New Haven.
Divide into groups of 3 students each
Within each group identify:
o 1 student who will play the role of
o 1 student who will play the role of
o 1 student who will play the role of the
lawyer who will take notes and
prepare an outline of the final-agreed
on terms
Negotiate the purchase/sale of this car
addressing all the issues that are
important to the buyer and/or seller.
Outline of Final
When the negotiations are complete, make
sure the written outline fully summarizes
the agreed-on terms then buyer and seller
sign and date it
Class Review
The lawyer in each group will report out
the summary of the final agreed-on terms
of their transaction.
352/Vol. XXV/Southern Law Journal
Nissan Sentra SE 2001 - $4,000 (East Haven)
Great Condition Nissan Sentra SE 2.0 2001 with a lot of extras!!! I am
selling my car because I'm moving out of country. The car is in mint
condition, fully loaded and worth looking at it if anyone is interested. The car
has 106,300 highway miles, power windows, sunroof, spoiler, brand new
rims and tires, engine in excellent condition, no dents, racing engine, 4
cylinders, low in gas, four doors, plenty trunk space, the radio is I phone
compatible. The car is ready to go and does not need any fixing. Title is
clean. The price is negotiable and if anyone is interested please send me an
email, call me or text me my phone number is 203xxxxxx. Serious buyers
According to Kelly Blue Book, a used car like this, in a private party
sale has a value of-
$4,326 (Excellent condition); $3,961 (Very Good Condition); $3,861
(Good Condition); $3,436 (Fair Condition)
Fall 2015 Gedge/353
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree
1. I liked participating
in the buying a used
car exercise on the
first day of class.
1.5% .8% 8.4% 48.1% 41.2%
2. Before our first
class, I thought this
course would not be
relevant to me
personally in my
day-to-day to life.
12.2% 35.9% 28.2% 20.6% 3.1%
3. Based on our first
class, it seems this
course may be
relevant to me
personally in my
day-to-day life.
.8% 0% 7.6% 52.7% 38.9%
4. Based on our first
class, I am
enthusiastic about
what’s to come in
this course.
.8% 0% 6.9% 51.9% 40.4%
5. Based on our first
class, I have a good
understanding of the
professor’s teaching
.8% 0% 8.4% 45.0% 45.8%
6. Based on the first
day of class, I feel
more comfortable
about speaking up
in this class.
.8% 3.8% 20.6% 48.9% 25.9%
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