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Study the Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract on Serum Lipid in Hypothyroidism Male Rats Induce by Propylthiouracil

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Abstract

This study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of Ginger against the hypothyroidism induce by Propylthiouracil in male rats on serum lipids. Eighteen adult male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups (each of six) and treated as follows for four weeks, First group (C) was daily orally gavages with saline solution served as control.. Second group (G1) was daily orally gavages with Propylthiouracil (6 mg/kg B.W.). Third group (G2) was daily orally gavages with Propylthiouracil (6 mg/kg B.W.) in addition to ginger (200 mg/kg B.W.) Overnight fasting blood samples were collected from the all animals of the experiment at end week of experiment for the determination of serum triiodothyonine (T3), thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The results showed that the A significant (P<0.05) statistical increase in the activity of TSH was observed in propylthiouracil treated groups G1 (3.72±0.73) and G2 (3.28±0.25) as compared to the control (0.0795±0.003) and A significant (P<0.05) statistical decrease in the activity of T3 in treated (G1) (2.62±0.2) as compared to the control (3.92±0.08). As well as the results show, a significant(P<0.05) elevation in serum TAG, TC and VLDL-C and decrease in HDL-C were observed in animals daily orally gavages with Propylthiouracil 6 mg/kg B.W. (G1) group as compared with control. Oral administration of ginger extract caused a non significant (P>0.05) depression in the elevated TAG and VLDL-C concentration in G2 group compared to G1 and control groups. From these results indicating that the effect of orally administration of propylthiouracil to induced hypothyroidism and induction of Dyslipidemia. On conclusions, the present study confirmed the beneficial effects of ginger extract as a hypolipidemic effects gains the dyslipidemia due to hypothyroidism.
Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences Vol. (5) No. (2)  2014
Study the Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) Extract on Serum
Lipid in Hypothyroidism Male Rats Induce by Propylthiouracil
Nabeel M. N. Al-Sharafi and Mohammed R.A. Al-Sharafi
*Department of Physiology and Pharmacology/Faculty of Veterinary
Medicine/University of Kufa/Iraq. Corresponding author: Nabeel M. N. Al-Sharafi
Email address: nabeelm.naji@uokufa.edu.iq
**Department of Medical Laboratory Science /The Humanities and Science University/ Iraq
Abstract
This study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of Ginger against
the hypothyroidism induce by Propylthiouracil in male rats on serum lipids.
Eighteen adult male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups (each of
six) and treated as follows for four weeks, First group (C) was daily orally gavages
with saline solution served as control.. Second group (G1) was daily orally gavages
with Propylthiouracil (6 mg/kg B.W.). Third group (G2) was daily orally gavages
with Propylthiouracil (6 mg/kg B.W.) in addition to ginger (200 mg/kg B.W.)
Overnight fasting blood samples were collected from the all animals of the
experiment at end week of experiment for the determination of serum triiodothyonine
(T3), thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol
(TAG), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and high density
lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C).
The results showed that the A significant (P<0.05) statistical increase in the
activity of TSH was observed in propylthiouracil treated groups G1 (3.72±0.73) and
G2 (3.28±0.25) as compared to the control (0.0795±0.003) and A significant (P<0.05)
statistical decrease in the activity of T3 in treated (G1) (2.62±0.2) as compared to the
control (3.92±0.08). As well as the results show, a significant(P<0.05) elevation in
serum TAG, TC and VLDL-C and decrease in HDL-C were observed in animals daily
orally gavages with Propylthiouracil 6 mg/kg B.W. (G1) group as compared with
control. Oral administration of ginger extract caused a non significant (P>0.05)
depression in the elevated TAG and VLDL-C concentration in G2 group compared to
G1 and control groups . From these results indicating that the effect of orally
administration of propylthiouracil to induced hypothyroidism and induction of
Dyslipidemia.
On conclusions, the present study confirmed the beneficial effects of ginger
extract as a hypolipidemic effects gains the dyslipidemia due to hypothyroidism.
Key word: Hypothyroidism, Propylthiouracil, Ginger, dyslipidemia, Rats.

Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences Vol. (5) No. (2)  2014







.

 (C) 
 (G1)  
.  (G2)  
      ( 
  triiodothyonine (T3)
(TSH) (TC) (TAG) (VLDL-
C)  (HDL-C).
 (P <0.05)  TSH  G1 G2
, (3.72 ± 0.73) (3.28 ± 0.25) 
 (P <0.05) T3  (2.62 ± 0.2)
G1   (P <0.05) 
   (P <0.05) 
 
 (G1)    
  (P> 0.05)          
 G2  G1 
.
.
.

Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences Vol. (5) No. (2)  2014
Introduction
Thyroid hormones are synthesized
and secreted by the thyroid gland (1).
Thyroxine (T4) and L-3, 5, 3’-
triiodothyronine (T3) are the two forms
of thyroid hormone produced.
Follicular cells of the thyroid gland
produce a glycoprotein, thyroglobulin.
The tyrosine amino acid residues on
thyroglobulin are iodinated resulting in
the formation of mono and di-iodo
thyronines (MIT and DIT). Oxidation
of iodide transported into the follicular
cells to iodine, iodination of the
tyrosine residues to form MIT and DIT
are catalyzed by the enzyme thyroid
peroxidase. Eventually, MIT and DIT
are coupled to form T4 and T3(2).
One of the most important effects of
thyroid hormone causes rapid
mobilization and stimulates several
aspects of the lipid metabolism, which
is believed to result indirectly from an
increased overall rate of energy
metabolism in all cells of the body
under the influence of this hormone (3).
several study conclusions that
propylthiouracil-induced
hypothyroidism(4,5). Treatment with
propylthiouracil lead to reduction
plasma T3 levels to 60% of normal,
and to induce a mild hypothyroidism(6).
Ginger, medicinal species: Zingiber
officinale (7) which have strong
aromatic and medicinal properties (8).
Number of studies show a medical
usage of ginger as antibacterial (9),
Antioxidant(10) and decrease serum
cholesterol concentrations (11) .
Materials And Methods
Plant Extraction: The ginger was
purchased from the local market, the
plant powdered of ginger (500 g) was
extracted with 70% ethanol using
Soxhlet apparatus for 48 hr, filtered
with a white cloth and the filtrate was
collected and dried at 40 °C incubator.
Animals: Adult male Wistar albino
rats weighing (200 -250g) were
purchased from animal house of
faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Kufa
University-Iraq. Rats were housed
individually with constant environment
in controlled stainless steel cages,
temperature (25°C ± 5°C) and light
cycle were held constant 12/12 hr. The
experimental period was 4 weeks on
which food and water were provided
ad libitum. Animal's Diet: Pellet diet
(commercial diet).
Experimental design: eighteen adult
male rats were divided randomly into
three equal groups (each of 6 rats). The
experimental groups illustrated as
follow, first group (C) was daily orally
gavages with saline solution served as
control,. second group (G1) was daily
orally gavages with Propylthiouracil (6
mg/kg B.W.) (12) and third group (G2)
was daily orally gavages with
Propylthiouracil (6 mg/kg B.W.) in
addition to ginger (200 mg/kg B.W.)
(13)
Overnight fasting blood samples
were collected from the all animals of
the experiment at end week of
experiment for the determination of
serum triiodothyonine (T3), thyroid
stimulation hormone (TSH), total
cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol
(TAG), very low density lipoprotein-
cholesterol (VLDL-C) and high density
lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C).
Biochemical analysis

Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences Vol. (5) No. (2)  2014
Serum TSH levels were measured
using sand- wich ELISA kit (Human
Gesellschaft for Biochemica und
Diagnostica mbH, Germany) as
described by the manufacturer. This
ELISA has an analytic sensitivity of
<0.10 mIU/L TSH. The absorbance of
standards and specimens was
determined by using ELISA microplate
reader Anthos 2001 (Anthos labtec
instruments Ges.m.b.H, Austria). The
intensity of color is directly
proportional to the concentration of
TSH in the standards and samples.
The serum T3 were measured by using
competitive ELISA kits (Human
Gesellschaft for Biochemica und
Diagnostica mbH, Germany) as
described by the manufacturer. The
ELISA tests have analytic sensitivities
of about 0.05 ng/ml T3. The
absorbance of standards and specimens
was determined by using ELISA
microplate reader Anthos 2001
(Anthos labtec instruments Ges.m.b.H,
Austria). The intensity of the color is
inversely propor- tional to the amount
of T4 and T3 in the standards and
Serum TC TAG and HDL-C
concentration was enzymaticlly
measured using enzymatic assay semi-
automatic chemistry analyzer Belgium
using kit Cyan com./Belgium. And
serum very low density lipoprotein-
cholesterol concentration was
calculated by dividing serum TAG by
five (14) .
Statistic Analysis
The results are expressed as the
mean values with their standard error.
One-way ANOVA followed by
Duncan’s variance was performed to
compare between treatment groups.
Significance was set at p<0.05.by used
Statistical Package for Social Science
(SPSS 20) Ready statistic program 20.
Results And Discussion
The mean value of serum thyrotropin
or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
and triiodothyronine (T3) activity in
treated and control groups is clarified
in Table (1)
A significant (P<0.05) statistical
increase in the activity of TSH was
observed in propylthiouracil treated
groups G1 (3.72±0.73) and G2
(3.28±0.25) as compared to the control
(0.0795±0.003) . The table also
showed a non significant effect
between G1 as compared with G2
(3.37±0.2).
A significant (P<0.05) statistical
decrease in the activity of T3 was
observed in propylthiouracil treated
(G1) (2.62±0.2) as compared to the
control (3.92±0.08). From the result
in table (1) indicating the effect of
orally administration of
propylthiouracil to induced
hypothyroidism.
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Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences Vol. (5) No. (2)  2014
Table1: Effect of ginger extracted on serum thyrotropin (TSH) (mlu /l) and
triiodothyronine (T3) activity (ng /ml) of Propylthiouracil treated rats.
-mean± SE
- Capital letters denote differences between groups, P<0.05 .
Serum lipids concentration (mg/dL) :
Table (2) illustrate the mean values of serum triglycerides (TAG), total
cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and very low density
lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) concentration (mg/dL) in the control and three
treated groups along the experimental period.
the result show, a significant(P<0.05) elevation in serum triglycerides
concentration was observed in animals daily orally gavages with Propylthiouracil 6
mg/kg B.W. (G1) group as compared with control with mean values of (51.79±3.57)
and (30.19±2.17) respectively.
Oral administration of ginger extract caused a non significant (P>0.05)
depression in the elevated TAG concentration in G2 group with mean values of
(39.64±4.11) compared to G1 and control groups .
As well as , Oral administration of ginger to animal in group T3 caused non
significant (P<0.05) effect in the elevated TC concentration induce by gavage of
Propylthiouracil compared to the control group. The mean value for TC in G1 group
was equal to (110.32±5.27) while the mean value in G2 group was equal to
(107.85±4.48) and control group (40.80±2.19).
While, A significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum HDL-C concentration was found
in groups G1 (40.71±2.04) and G2 (39.63±0.90) as compared to the values in G1
control (81.08±1.90).
Oral administration of propylthiouracil to animals in G1 group caused a significant
(P<0.05) increase in the VLDL-C concentration comparing to control group with
mean values (6.03±0.15) and (10.35±1.12) respectively. While orally administration
Groups
Values
Control
G1
gavage
Propylthiouracil
G2
gavage
Propylthiouracil +
Ginger extract
TSH
0.0795±0.003A
3.72±0.73B
3.28±0.25B
T3
3.92±0.08B
2.62±0.2A
3.37±0.2AB
Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences Vol. (5) No. (2)  2014
caused decrease in VLDL-C concentration in G2 near to control group value with non
significant (P<0.05) effect (7.92±0.82) indicating the protective effect of ginger
against propylthiouracil induced hyperlipidemia.
Table 3-2: Effect of ginger extracted on Serum lipids concentration (mg/dL) of
Propylthiouracil treated rats.
-mean± SE
- Capital letters denote differences between groups, P<0.05 .
Propylthiouracil (PTU) was used to
induce hypothyroidism in rat. PTU
Drug Administration approved
thionamide that inhibit thyroid
hormone synthesis by interfering with
thyroid peroxidasemediated
iodination of tyrosine residues in the
thyroid gland at the steps of iodine
organification and iodotyrosine
coupling and also inhibit the
conversion of T4 to T3 in extra
thyroidal tissues (15).
PTU induced hypothyroidism in rat
by oxidative stress is required to
induce cell proliferation in thyroid
gland that lead to tissue damage and
apoptosis resulting in goiter or thyroid
enlargement(16,17). The results show,
hypothyroid status as the serum T3 and
T4 concentration was significantly
decreased while the serum TSH
concentration significantly increased in
the PTU-induced hypothyroid rat
compared to control. The results of the
present study are in line with those
observed by Zbucki et al. (18) .who
showed a significant decrease in the
plasma concentration of T3 and T4 of
hypothyroid rats.
The hypolipidemic effect of ginger
caused by increase pancreatic lipase
activity(19), decrease lipid hydrolyze
Groups
Values
Control
G1
gavage
Propylthiouracil
G2
gavage
Propylthiouracil +
Ginger extract
TAG
30.19±2.17A
51.79±3.57B
39.64±4.11AB
TC
40.80±2.19A
110.32±5.27B
107.85±4.48B
HDL-C
81.08±1.90B
40.71±2.04A
39.63±0.90A
VLDL-C
6.03±0.15A
10.35±1.12 B
7.92±0.82AB
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Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences Vol. (5) No. (2)  2014
gastrointestinal tract(20) and increase
peristalsis movement of intestine(21) as
well as, the action of ginger may be
elevates the activity of hepatic enzyme
cholesterol--hydroxylase which is
the rate-limiting enzyme in the
biosynthesis of bile acids and
stimulates the conversion of
cholesterol to bile acids(22). Moreover,
ginger antihypercholesterolemic effect
may be due to the inhibition of cellular
cholesterol synthesis (23) , this may be
due to the presence of niacin in ginger
(24).
Conclusions
From the results and discussion
obtained from this research, it could be
concluded that the concentration
6mg/kg B.W of propylthiouracil could
induced hypothyroidism and
dyslipidemia in male rats, ginger
extract was effective as hypolipidemic
agent against dyslipidemia induced by
propylthiouracil and this research
provide with how thyroid hormone are
involved in the regulation of lipid
metabolism.
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
... Furthermore, ginger powder was reported to notably reduce triglyceride and total cholesterol compared to placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes given 1.6g ginger powder for 12 weeks [25]. Aqueous ginger extract reduced elevated triglyceride, total cholesterol, and very low density lipoprotein which resulted from Propulthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in male rats [26]. In alcohol-induced dyslipidemia aqueous ginger extract was reported to reduce elevated biomarkers such as fatty acids, triglyceride, total cholesterol, phospholipids and low density lipoprotein cholesterol thus corroborating the reports earlier sited [27]. ...
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Review of Medical Physiology
  • E B Kim
  • M B Susan
  • B Scott
  • L B Heddwen
Kim, E.B., Susan M. B., Scott B. and Heddwen L. B. (2012). Review of Medical Physiology. 24ed. McGraw- Hill Companies,pp:303.
  • R Zbucki
  • M M Winnicka
  • S Boguslaw
  • S Beata
  • A Anna
  • P Zbigniew
Zbucki, R., Winnicka, M. M., Boguslaw, S., Beata, S., Anna, A. and Zbigniew, P. (2007). histochemica et cytobiologica. 45(2):115-21.