Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Food production, especially meat, is one of the main pressures on the environment and experts agree that diets have to change into a more sustainable direction. The present paper examines whether Self-Determination Theory (SDT) can be of help in fostering more sustainable food choices by taking a closer look at the relationship between food-related types of motivation and different aspects of meat consumption, based on a survey among 1083 consumers in the Netherlands. SDT appeared to be useful for studying why consumers can be motivated to make more sustainable food choices and also why these preferences are not shared by all consumers. Consumers with different types of motivation differed in their level of meat consumption (frequency and portion size), reasons for not frequently eating meat, frequency of buying carefully produced meat, frequency of buying meat substitutes, and preferences in favour or not of plant-based protein products. Internalized motivation was the main factor that made a difference, but intrinsic enjoyment of cooking and eating also played a role. The conclusion is that SDT provides both theoretical and policy-oriented insights into fostering more sustainable food choices.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In view of the efforts made by vegetarians to manage vegetarianism (Greenebaum, 2012; Jabs, Sobal, & Devine, 2000), it may be important to examine their food-related motivation and enjoyment of food in ways that can be compared to nonvegetarians (e.g. see Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014). ...
... In countries where meat is widely available and also relatively cheap, frequent meat eating may become a conventional meal pattern that is intricately linked to one's identity as a consumer, which feels right and does not require further reflection (e.g. Graça, Calheiros, & Oliveira, 2015; Lea, Crawford, & Worsley, 2006; Macdiarmid, Douglas, & Campbell, 2016; Pohjolainen, Vinnari, & Jokinen, 2015; Schösler et al., 2014; Vanhonacker, Van Loo, Gellynck, & Verbeke, 2013). For non-vegetarians the influence of identity-based motivation may become salient in situations where they meet vegetarians (Rothgerber, 2014) or miss the meat (Ensaff et al., 2015; Lea, Crawford, & Worsley, 2006). ...
... In an early Australian study, which oversampled the number of vegetarians, Lea and Worsley (2004) concluded that a significant minority of the non-vegetarian population had similar beliefs about red meat and vegetarian diets as vegetarians and were less likely than the remaining non-vegetarians to eat red meat. A population-based study in the Netherlands, which did not oversample the number of vegetarians, observed that non-vegetarians mentioned several reasons to moderate their meat eating frequency, which broadly correspond with the reasons vegetarians might have to abstain from meat, including health and animal welfare (Schösler et al., 2014). However, no studies until now have sufficient data for a complete comparison of strategically relevant categories of meat eaters, which are, according to experts (Scarborough et al., 2014), low (less than 50 g/d), medium (50 to 99 g/d) and high meat-eating (100 g/d and more). ...
Article
This study provides insight into differences and similarities in the mindset and motivation of four dietary groups (young self-declared vegetarians, low, medium and high meat-eaters) to support the development of strategies for a general transition to a less meat-based diet. The paper highlights the value of the identity concept for our understanding of both vegetarians and meat eaters. The analysis involves a comparison of the four dietary groups focusing on the strength and the profile of their food-related motivation and their reasons for and against frequent meat eating. To check for the generalizability of the results, the analyses were performed in two samples of adults (aged 18–35) in the Netherlands (native Dutch, n = 357, and second generation Chinese Dutch, n = 350). In both samples, the vegetarians had the same level of food-related motivation as the other groups, but a different motivational profile and distinctive, taste- and animal-welfare related reasons to justify their abstinence from eating meat. The low and medium meat-eaters often considered health a reason to eat meat as well as to moderate meat eating, plus they liked to vary their meals. In these aspects they were different from both the vegetarians and the high meat-eaters. The findings are relevant for (non) governmental organizations that aim to influence dietary choices, as well as for businesses that operate in the market of meat substitutes.
... In view of the efforts made by vegetarians to manage vegetarianism ( Greenebaum, 2012;Jabs, Sobal, & Devine, 2000), it may be important to examine their food-related motivation and enjoyment of food in ways that can be compared to nonvegetarians (e.g. see Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014). ...
... In countries where meat is widely available and also relatively cheap, frequent meat eating may become a conventional meal pattern that is intricately linked to one's identity as a consumer, which feels right and does not require further reflection (e.g. Graça, Calheiros, & Oliveira, 2015;Lea, Crawford, & Worsley, 2006b;Macdiarmid, Douglas, & Campbell, 2016;Pohjolainen, Vinnari, & Jokinen, 2015;Schösler et al., 2014;Vanhonacker, Van Loo, Gellynck, & Verbeke, 2013). For non-vegetarians the influence of identity-based motivation may become salient in situations where they meet vegetarians ( Rothgerber, 2014) or miss the meat ( Ensaff et al., 2015;Lea, Crawford, & Worsley, 2006a). ...
... In an early Australian study, which oversampled the number of vegetarians, Lea and Worsley (2004) concluded that a significant minority of the non-vegetarian population had similar beliefs about red meat and vegetarian diets as vegetarians and were less likely than the remaining non-vegetarians to eat red meat. A population-based study in the Netherlands, which did not oversample the number of vegetarians, observed that non-vegetarians mentioned several reasons to moderate their meat eating frequency, which broadly correspond with the reasons vegetarians might have to abstain from meat, including health and animal welfare ( Schösler et al., 2014). However, no studies until now have sufficient data for a complete comparison of strategically relevant categories of meat eaters, which are, according to experts ( Scarborough et al., 2014), low (less than 50 g/d), medium (50 to 99 g/d) and high meat-eating (100 g/d and more). ...
Article
This study provides insight into differences and similarities in the mindset and motivation of four dietary groups (young self-declared vegetarians, low, medium and high meat-eaters) to support the development of strategies for a general transition to a less meat-based diet. The paper highlights the value of the identity concept for our understanding of both vegetarians and meat eaters. The analysis involves a comparison of the four dietary groups focusing on the strength and the profile of their food-related motivation and their reasons for and against frequent meat eating. To check for the generalizability of the results, the analyses were performed in two samples of adults (aged 18-35) in the Netherlands (native Dutch, n = 357, and second generation Chinese Dutch, n = 350). In both samples, the vegetarians had the same level of food-related motivation as the other groups, but a different motivational profile and distinctive, taste- and animal-welfare related reasons to justify their abstinence from eating meat. The low and medium meat-eaters often considered health a reason to eat meat as well as to moderate meat eating, plus they liked to vary their meals. In these aspects they were different from both the vegetarians and the high meat-eaters. The findings are relevant for (non) governmental organizations that aim to influence dietary choices, as well as for businesses that operate in the market of meat substitutes.
... Indeed, intrinsic motivation seems to be a major driver of healthy dietary behaviors (Michaelidou, Christodoulides, & Torova, 2012) and sustainable lifestyle choices (Steinhorst & Klöckner, 2018). When combined with knowledge about the relationship between food and the environment, intrinsic motivation has been shown to reduce the frequency of meat consumption and thus lead to more sustainable dietary lifestyles (Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014;Stancu, Grønhøj, & Lähteenmäki, 2020), included reduced portion sizes of animal-based foods (Schösler et al., 2014). In spite of these findings, however, the factors that form, sustain and connect different facets of sustained lifestyle behaviour change remain underexplored (Botvinik-Nezer, Salomon, & Schonberg, 2020). ...
... Indeed, intrinsic motivation seems to be a major driver of healthy dietary behaviors (Michaelidou, Christodoulides, & Torova, 2012) and sustainable lifestyle choices (Steinhorst & Klöckner, 2018). When combined with knowledge about the relationship between food and the environment, intrinsic motivation has been shown to reduce the frequency of meat consumption and thus lead to more sustainable dietary lifestyles (Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014;Stancu, Grønhøj, & Lähteenmäki, 2020), included reduced portion sizes of animal-based foods (Schösler et al., 2014). In spite of these findings, however, the factors that form, sustain and connect different facets of sustained lifestyle behaviour change remain underexplored (Botvinik-Nezer, Salomon, & Schonberg, 2020). ...
... Previous studies have already explored changes in dietary lifestyle based on wellbeing and ethical concerns (e.g. Schösler et al., 2014;Stancu et al., 2020;Whiting, Konstantakos, Carrasco, & Carmona, 2018). Likewise, scholars have previously examined the issue of reflexivity in relation to sustainable transformation and consumption (e.g. ...
Article
Globally, the adverse effects of increased animal-protein consumption on the environment, the society, and the economy are a cause of growing societal concern. As a result, issues of food system sustainability have received considerable attention within the national and international community. For the European community, changes in food lifestyles of consumers, in particular a reduced share of animal-based foods within the diet, are of great importance for the establishment of sustainable food supply structures. Meanwhile, a worldwide trend for alternative nutrition and lifestyles is obvious, which is reflected by a growing number of plant-based nutrition styles and craft-foods. Often, alternative nutrition styles are ethically or health motivated. Nonetheless, changes in regard to nutrition are often not consistent. Up to now, research mainly focused on the quantitative and qualitative aspects of food lifestyle changes. However, extreme, alternative nutrition lifestyles seem to be more disciplined with regard to nutrition transformation. Nonetheless, especially extreme food consumption patterns have not been assessed with regard to a long-lasting sustainable transformation potential. However, we propose that a comprehensive framework of these issues must contain information on the specific motivational themes that lead people to make substantial changes in their diets. Hence, the objective of the proposed study is to assess the transforming potential by in-depth interviews with extreme alternative nutrition styles. We aim in gathering knowledge on the content of the motivational dynamics influencing consumers in adapting alternative food lifestyles like raw-foodism, Paleolithic diet, or Anthroposophic diet. The theoretical framework applied is grounded in self-determination theory, a meta-theoretical construct used for explaining motivational change dynamics in humans. The research questions that will be addressed are: “What motivates people to adapt extreme alternative dietary styles?”, “How do identity and individual worldview influence the transition process?” and “Which strategies were applied to successfully implement new dietary habits into daily routine? In-depth interviews, following an experience interview will be conducted with 18 participants who had practiced an alternative food lifestyle for a long-term period. The transcripts of these interviews will be structured using content analysis. Since data collection will take place in May 2019 results cannot be described by deadline for the call of abstracts. Results and conclusion that will be addressed in the FENS Conference will include the motivational drivers for long-lasting transformation potential and discuss the applicability for society and behavior change communication.
... The distinct "food philosophy" of dedicated organic consumers has recently been analyzed from a health and sustainability perspective (Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2013). The food philosophies of gourmets have not been studied from a health and sustainability perspective so far, but might be particularly relevant because taste-and quality-oriented consumers are not only highly involved with food itself but also with its origin (Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014), which may provide new insights for researchers and policymakers in this field. To explore this topic in some depth, the present paper analyses the results of qualitative interviews with fifteen gourmets in the Netherlands with studies on gourmet culture as a background. ...
... The concept refers to happiness as a result of "living well", which implies engaging with and acting on deeply held values (Ryan, Huta, & Deci, 2008). This contributes to a sense of personal fulfilment and positive involvement with food that has also been shown to mediate more sustainable food choices (e.g. less and better meat) (Schösler et al., 2014). ...
... From the perspective of consumers, however, there seems to be room for a change. Different studies in the Netherlands have shown that many consumers have varying motivations to eat or to abstain from meat (Dagevos & Voordouw, 2013;Schösler et al., 2014;de Boer, Schösler, & Aiking, 2017), which means that policy efforts to promote, for example, healthy and high-quality meat-free diets may be harmonized with consumers' pleasure-, creativity-and taste-oriented motives for food choice. This harmonization will be country-dependent, but the general point is, as Macdiarmid, Douglas, and Campbell (2016) have argued, that cultural, social and personal values around eating meat must be integrated into future dietary recommendations, if healthy, sustainable dietary habits are to be achieved. ...
Article
Food has become a central focus for the achievement of sustainability objectives. One of the current challenges is that promoting food sustainability requires much more attention to cultural and social contexts and the food philosophies of specific groups of consumers. The present paper focuses on those consumers in the Netherlands who intrinsically appreciate the taste and the quality of food (hereafter "gourmets"). Our expectation was that, due to their respect for the origin of food and their distance from mainstream food culture, the gourmets may be able to reveal practices and cultural assumptions that help to find entry points for promoting more sustainable food choices among the general population. Drawing on literature about gastronomy, Slow Food and craft consumption, fifteen in-depth interviews were held to examine the food philosophies of individual gourmets from a health and sustainability perspective. The results demonstrated how the values of pleasure of taste, food competences and social relatedness may contribute to the extent of complementarity between culinary and ethical principles. Entry points for promoting change in a more sustainable direction include a shift from quantity to quality, such as meals with less but better meat, a shift towards making meals less focused on meat and a general open-mindedness towards other eating styles (a new look at vegetables), a shift to planning for a competent use of leftovers and a shift in willingness to accept limitations on food choices, such as the seasonal unavailability of food.
... Control-motivated individuals engage in a behaviour only if controlling contingencies are present, and once these contingencies are removed, the behaviour will be discontinued (Laran & Janiszewski, 2010). In their study, Schösler, de Boer, and Boersema (2014) showed that the internalized motivation and intrinsic enjoyment of cooking and eating were the main factors of meat consumption, and SDT provides both theoretical and policy-oriented insight into fostering more sustainable food choices. In their study, Moller, Ryan, and Deci (2006) showed that SDT identifies the basic psychological need for autonomy as a central feature required for understanding effective self-regulation and wellbeing, and promoting autonomous choices to induce behavioural changes is often more effective than the use of coercion, especially when evaluating policy on a broad level with a long-term perspective. ...
... This result is consistent with previous studies indicating that attitude has a positive and significant effect on intentions (Bamberg & Möser, 2007;Chen, 2007;Irianto, 2015;Li, Phau, Lu, & Teah, 2018;Martić Kuran & Mihić, 2014), personal norms have a positive and significant effect on behavioural intentions (Bamberg & Möser, 2007;Doran & Larsen, 2016;Klöckner & Ohms, 2009), subjective norms have a positive and significant effect on intentions (Ajzen, 1991(Ajzen, , 2015Bamberg & Möser, 2007;Irianto, 2015;Klöckner & Ohms, 2009;Li et al., 2018;Martić Kuran & Mihić, 2014), and perceived behavioural control has a positive and significant effect on intentions. Additionally, intention has a positive and significant effect on behaviour (Ajzen, 1991(Ajzen, , 2015Bamberg & Möser, 2007;Chen, 2007;Klöckner & Ohms, 2009), and high self-determination motivations have a positive and significant effect on intentions (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Moller et al., 2006;Patrick & Williams, 2012;Schösler et al., 2014;Vansteenkiste, Lens, & Deci, 2006;Wehmeyer, 1995). ...
... Ranjbar Shamsi, et al. Food Quality and Preference 79 (2020) 103743 These results are inconsistent with previous studies indicating that low self-determination motivations have a significant effect on intentions (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Moller et al., 2006;Patrick & Williams, 2012;Schösler et al., 2014). Attitude in terms of negative or positive evaluations of behaviour (affective judgments) and value interpretation (evaluative judgments) are based on knowledge, information, and personal sentiment. ...
... Studying this behavior provides unique contributions to marketing by providing helpful implications for researchers, policymakers and marketers (Chatzidakis and Lee, 2013). Meat anti-consumption has a special position in these studies, because meat consumption has negative impacts on three sensitive elements: human health, sustainability and animal welfare (Schösler et al., 2014;Verain et al., 2015;Vitterso and Tangeland, 2015). In spite of these problems, meat consumption has increased in recent decades (Apostolidis and McLeay, 2016b). ...
... This diversification stems from the conflict between preferences for avoiding meat consumption and the fact that meat is an important source of protein and a major component of a traditional diet for many consumers (Apostolidis and McLeay, 2016b). Although there are some studies about orienting consumers toward sustainable food choices, or about analyzing the motives of meat consumption, a coherent conceptual framework about meat anti-consumption is lacking in the literature (Schösler et al., 2014;Mohr and Schlich, 2016). Accordingly, this study focuses on the reasons for meat anti-consumption, aiming to fill a gap in the literature by analyzing consumer perspectives on meat anti-consumption in pre-defined categories, and consequently providing a holistic approach to meat anti-consumption within a coherent conceptual framework. ...
... In this context, meat consumption issues are generally elaborated in two streams of research in the literature. The first stream has focused on the effects of meat consumption on human health (Schösler et al., 2014). The second stream of research has focused on the impact of meat production on our planet, a prominent topic in the recent literature (Vitterso and Tangeland, 2015). ...
Article
Purpose Controversies about meat consumption mainly stem from health and environmental concerns, and as a result a substantial number of consumers avoid consuming meat. Meat anti-consumption is a central topic in nutrition, and a relevant issue for consumer studies. The purpose of this paper is to understand why and how consumers avoid meat consumption. Design/methodology/approach A content analysis of web forums was conducted. Findings Meat avoiders think that meat is unhealthy and expensive. Other reasons for meat anti-consumption include concerns associated with lifestyle and sustainability, but the prevalence of these factors is considerably lower than health and economic concerns. Research limitations/implications Attitudes toward all kinds of meat were evaluated in the forum data. Further studies can be conducted on separate preferences for red or white meat. Since these data were collected from web forums in Turkey, research can also be extended to other countries. Practical implications Regarding health and sustainability concerns, consumer trust in producers and consumer consciousness about the environment may be improved by social marketing. To address lifestyle concerns, marketers can provide meatless offerings in convenient servings. Originality/value This study provides a coherent four-dimensional conceptual framework about the motives for meat anti-consumption, focusing on sustainability, personal health, economic concerns and lifestyle.
... However, the methods of capturing dietary motivations are diverse, making it difficult to organize and assess across the literature. Methods range from the Food Choice Questionnaire (25,26,31,(54)(55)(56)(57)(58), which asks participants to rate their level of agreement (on a Likert scale) with 36 statements related to determinants of their food choices, to questionnaires that list motivations for selection (27,28,33,34,38,40,43,(45)(46)(47)49,50,52,(59)(60)(61) or provide a free response option (35,44,48,(62)(63)(64)(65). Given the heterogeneity of these methods, evidence mapping would be appropriate for summarizing the available evidence on motivations to adopt plant-based diets. ...
... We examined the eligible publications and extracted data on publication year, demographic profile of the sample, categories of plant-based diet followers, methods of capturing data on dietary motivations, and categories of dietary motivations. For four of the identified publications with analyses on dietary motivations, we retrieved information about the research methods and demographic profile of participants from previous publications (49,60,(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83). ...
... Different approaches were used to categorize followers of plant-based diets in observational studies. For instance, studies asked participants to self-identify their dietary pattern (22,24,27,29,30,34,35,38,41,46,47,49,50,53,55,56,61,64,(85)(86)(87)(88)(89), to indicate the animal-based foods that they consumed or avoided (32,39,40,45,51,52,62,84,90,91), or to complete a questionnaire about their frequency of meat consumption (26,60,65,92,93). Other studies applied a combination of the above (25,28,33,36,37,43,44,54,57,59,79,82,94). ...
Article
Full-text available
Motivations to adopt plant-based diets are of great public health interest. We used evidence mapping to identify methods that capture motivations to follow plant-based diets and summarize demographic trends in dietary motivations. We identified 56 publications that described 90 samples of plant-based diet followers and their dietary motivations. We categorized the samples by type of plant-based diet: vegan (19%), vegetarian (33%), semi vegetarian (24%), and other, unspecified plant-based diet followers (23%). Of 90 studies examined, 31% administered multiple choice questions to capture motivations, followed by rate items (23%), Food Choice Questionnaire (17%), free response (9%), and rank choices (10%). Commonly reported motivations were health, sensory/taste/disgust, animal welfare, environmental concern, and weight loss. The methodological variation highlights the importance of using a structured questionnaire to investigate dietary motivations in epidemiological studies. Motivations among plant-based diet followers appear distinct, but evidence on the association between age and motivations appears limited.
... Indeed, intrinsic motivation seems to be a major driver of healthy dietary behaviors (Michaelidou, Christodoulides, & Torova, 2012) and sustainable lifestyle choices (Steinhorst & Klöckner, 2018). When combined with knowledge about the relationship between food and the environment, intrinsic motivation has been shown to reduce the frequency of meat consumption and thus lead to more sustainable dietary lifestyles (Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014;Stancu, Grønhøj, & Lähteenmäki, 2020), included reduced portion sizes of animal-based foods (Schösler et al., 2014). In spite of these findings, however, the factors that form, sustain and connect different facets of sustained lifestyle behaviour change remain underexplored (Botvinik-Nezer, Salomon, & Schonberg, 2020). ...
... Indeed, intrinsic motivation seems to be a major driver of healthy dietary behaviors (Michaelidou, Christodoulides, & Torova, 2012) and sustainable lifestyle choices (Steinhorst & Klöckner, 2018). When combined with knowledge about the relationship between food and the environment, intrinsic motivation has been shown to reduce the frequency of meat consumption and thus lead to more sustainable dietary lifestyles (Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014;Stancu, Grønhøj, & Lähteenmäki, 2020), included reduced portion sizes of animal-based foods (Schösler et al., 2014). In spite of these findings, however, the factors that form, sustain and connect different facets of sustained lifestyle behaviour change remain underexplored (Botvinik-Nezer, Salomon, & Schonberg, 2020). ...
... Previous studies have already explored changes in dietary lifestyle based on wellbeing and ethical concerns (e.g. Schösler et al., 2014;Stancu et al., 2020;Whiting, Konstantakos, Carrasco, & Carmona, 2018). Likewise, scholars have previously examined the issue of reflexivity in relation to sustainable transformation and consumption (e.g. ...
Article
Any transition to a sustainable food system will require long-term changes in consumer behaviour, including a major reduction in the proportion of animal-based foods in people's diets. Such long-term dietary changes have widely been found difficult to achieve, however, since eating behaviors are interlinked with habits and lifestyles. In order to attain a better understanding of the driving forces that guide and support changes in eating patterns, this study identifies some of the key factors that lead people not only to adopt alternative dietary lifestyles but also to sustain these lifestyles over the long term. A generic qualitative methodology was used to gather and analyse qualitative data on the food-related motivations and identities of 17 long-term ‘alternative dieters’. Our content analysis of this data revealed the following three factors to be particularly relevant in motivations for dietary change: (1) the experience of a ‘key moment’; (2) the accumulation of knowledge; and (3) health concerns. While our findings show that the experience of key moments tends to catalyse immediate behavioral responses, changes due to knowledge and health concerns appear to lead to more gradual and organized processes of change. Regarding the mentalities that seem to reinforce and help sustain the transition to long-lasting alternative diets, our study identified three further characteristics: (1) self-reflectiveness; (2) responsibility; and (3) interconnectedness. Overall, our findings provide valuable insights into the key drivers that initiate processes of long-lasting dietary change as well as the mentalities that serve to underpin and sustain such changes. Follow-up research with a largersample of participants is recommended to confirm and further explore these characteristics as a means of informing policies aiming at achieving a transition to more sustainable food systems.
... A large body of consumer acceptance research focusses on specific cases of alternative proteins, namely pulses (i.e., lentils and beans, Allegra, Muratore, & Zarba, 2015;de Boer et al., 2013;Lea et al., 2005;Melendrez-Ruiz et al., 2019), algae (i.e., aquatic organisms for consumption, Brayden et al., 2018;Birch, Skallerud, & Paul, 2019a;Moons et al., 2018), insects (e.g., Adámek et al., 2018;Ali, 2016;Baker et al., 2016;Balzan et al., 2016), plant-based meat alternatives (Gravely & Fraser, 2018;Hoek et al., 2011;Schösler et al., 2014), and cultured meat (i.e., clean meat produced by in vitro procedure, Bekker et al., 2017;Circus & Robinson, 2019;Siegrist et al., 2018;Slade, 2018;Wilks et al., 2019). These studies include a wide range of possible factors that drive consumer acceptance of these products-for example, food choice motives Vainio et al., 2016), attitudes towards alternative proteins (Lemken et al., 2017), food neophobia (Birch et al., 2019a;Moons et al., 2018), and familiarity with alternative proteins (Schlup & Brunner, 2018;Verbeke, 2015;Woolf et al., 2019). ...
... Product-related attributes •Motives or barriers to accept a : moral and ethical motives (Circus & Robinson, 2019), perceived appeal (Bryant et al., 2019), perceptions of environmental impact, and health-consciousness (Siegrist & Hartmann, 2019), internaliszed motivation, enjoyment of eating and cooking (Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014), type of mince, fat content, country of origin, price (Apostolidis & McLeay, 2016), concerned about the additives, artificiality, and insufficient essential vitamins and micronutrients, and taste of meat (Weinrich, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers’ dietary patterns have a significant impact on planetary and personal health. To address health and environmental challenges one of the many possible solutions is to substitute meat consumption with alternative protein sources. This systematic review identifies 91 articles with a focus on the drivers of consumer acceptance of five alternative proteins: pulses, algae, insects, plant-based alternative proteins, and cultured meat. This review demonstrates that acceptance of the alternative proteins included here is relatively low (compared to that of meat); acceptance of insects is lowest, followed by acceptance of cultured meat. Pulses and plant-based alternative proteins have the highest acceptance level. In general, the following drivers of acceptance consistently show to be relevant for the acceptance of various alternative proteins: motives of taste and health, familiarity, attitudes, food neophobia, disgust, and social norms. However, there are also differences in relevance between individuals and alternative proteins. For example, for insects and other novel alternative proteins the drivers of familiarity and affective processes of food neophobia and disgust seem more relevant. As part of gaining full insight in relevant drivers of acceptance, the review also shows an overview of the intervention studies that were included in the 91 articles of the review, providing implications on how consumer acceptance can be increased. The focal areas of the intervention studies included here do not fully correspond with the current knowledge of drivers. To date, intervention studies have mainly focussed on conscious deliberations, whereas familiarity and affective factors have also been shown to be key drivers. The comprehensive overview of the most relevant factors for consumer acceptance of various categories of alternative proteins thus shows large consistencies across bodies of research. Variations can be found in the nuances showing different priorities of drivers for different proteins and different segments, showing the relevance of being context and person specific for future research.
... Chiu et al. (2019) found selfdetermination to positively affect consumers' perceived relevance, as well as subsequent citizenship behaviour intended for organic food. Further, internalized motivation and intrinsic enjoyment have been identified to be driving forces for sustainable choices of consumption (Schösler et al., 2014). Shamsi et al. (2020) determined highly self-determined motives to positively affect purchase intention aimed at organic food. ...
... Instead, majority of activities are enacted for attainment of external rewards, such as an enhanced social image or monetary benefits (Wang and Hou, 2015). Schösler et al. (2014) found that extrinsically motivated consumers exhibit a lower propensity to consider the effect of food-related choices on sustainability, which could be attributed to lower levels of perceived competence or autonomy. On the other hand, organic food adoption may be higher for consumers who perceive a need to attain social status among their peers (Kim et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although consumer interest in organic food has risen over time, resulting in a generally positive attitude toward these organic food products, scholarly research suggests a comparatively low volume of its consumption in the market. This has resulted in an urgent need to study the motivations which enhance consumers’ proclivity to purchase food items produced organically. The current research attempts to understand potential associations between motivations (intrinsic and extrinsic), attitude, and buying behaviour towards organic food. Self-determination theory (SDT) was applied to develop a theoretically grounded framework which was evaluated with 378 organic food consumers. The hypotheses were tested by analyzing the data through structural equation modelling (SEM), wherein environmental concerns and trust were the moderating variables. The study results demonstrate the significant influence of intrinsic motivation, integrated and external regulation on consumer attitude, and buying behaviour. But, attitude had no significant association with buying behaviour. The findings indicate consumers’ motivation may be stimulated to encourage higher frequencies of purchasing organic food by emphasizing values that reflect motivations arising from ethical or green consumerism, health, and social benefits. Furthermore, policymakers should focus on avenues to integrate organic food as permanent parts of individual lives and a socially exalting behavioral action.
... Food choice is laden with many moral and ethical implications (Thompson, 2015), not the least of which includes its impact on the environment. While a few studies have examined the determinants of sustainable food intake (e.g., de Boer, Hoogland, & Boersema, 2007;Pelletier, Laska, Neumark-Sztainer, & Story, 2013;Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014;Lindeman & Vänäänen, 2000), much remains to be done in order to reach an in-depth understanding of the factors driving morally-engaged food choice. As issues of climate change, sustainability, and concerns over fresh water supply loom ever larger, moral engagement around issues in the food system is an increasingly salient topic of research. ...
... Previous studies have shown that moral concerns can translate into different dietary choices (de Boer et al., 2007;Pelletier et al., 2013;Schösler et al., 2014;Lindeman & Vanaanen, 2000), though none have specifically looked at sphere of moral concern, nor general moral engagement with the food system. Further, while Lindeman and Vanaanen (2000) introduced a measure for assessing ethical food choice motives, this is the first study to formally and specifically operationalize the construct of moral engagement around the food system, a broader and more distal construct than food choice motives, reflecting the felt sense of connection, participation and obligation towards the food system as opposed to the motivations underlying specific food choices. ...
Article
Given that researchers have demonstrated that different degrees of moral concern for valued entities (Biospheric, Altruistic, Egoistic) are linked with different attitudes and behaviors, the scope and degree of moral concern for any individual may have implications for how potential moral conflicts in the food system are navigated. We developed a measure of moral engagement in the food domain. We recruited adult subjects (N = 495) from the USA and Germany. In both countries, moral engagement with food exhibited high internal reliability. In both countries, as hypothesized, we found that moral engagement around food was significantly associated with greater degrees of Altruistic and Biospheric concern. In both countries, the impact of Altruistic and Biospheric spheres of concern on dietary intake and sustainable eating patterns was significantly mediated by moral engagement with food. The data suggest moral engagement with food is an appropriate construct for investigating both the ways in which underlying value orientations are operationalized with respect to concerns in the food system, and how these values mobilize people towards more sustainable eating patterns.
... Reflective motivations for reducing meat consumption and eating more plant-based diets usually included beliefs regarding the consequences of eating more planted-based diets, namely improved health and well-being (Baker, Thompson, & Palmer-Barnes, 2022;Cramer, Kessler, et al., 2017;Chatard-Pannetier et al., 2004;Fox & Ward, 2008;Jabs et al., 1998;Link & Jacobson, 2008;McIntosh et al., 1995;), having more sustainable eating habits (de Boer et al., 2016;de Boer et al., 2013;Hunter & Röös, 2016;Kalof et al., 1999;Truelove & Parks, 2012;Verain et al., 2012), concerns with animal suffering (Bobić et al., perceived convenience, familiarity and perceived easiness to replace meat were also consistently identified as key features for using meat substitutes, reducing meat consumption and following more plant-based diets (Apostolidis & McLeay, 2016;de Boer et al., 2014;Elzerman et al., 2015;Ensaff et al., 2015;Frenko et al., 2015;Hoek et al., 2004;Lea et al., 2006aLea et al., , 2006bMullee et al., 2017;Richardson et al., 1994;Schösler et al., 2014;Sniehotta et al., 2005;Tucker, 2014;. ...
... Reflective motivations for reducing meat consumption and eating more plant-based diets usually included beliefs regarding the consequences of eating more planted-based diets, namely improved health and well-being (Baker, Thompson, & Palmer-Barnes, 2022;Cramer, Kessler, et al., 2017;Chatard-Pannetier et al., 2004;Fox & Ward, 2008;Jabs et al., 1998;Link & Jacobson, 2008;McIntosh et al., 1995;), having more sustainable eating habits (de Boer et al., 2016;de Boer et al., 2013;Hunter & Röös, 2016;Kalof et al., 1999;Truelove & Parks, 2012;Verain et al., 2012), concerns with animal suffering (Bobić et al., perceived convenience, familiarity and perceived easiness to replace meat were also consistently identified as key features for using meat substitutes, reducing meat consumption and following more plant-based diets (Apostolidis & McLeay, 2016;de Boer et al., 2014;Elzerman et al., 2015;Ensaff et al., 2015;Frenko et al., 2015;Hoek et al., 2004;Lea et al., 2006aLea et al., , 2006bMullee et al., 2017;Richardson et al., 1994;Schösler et al., 2014;Sniehotta et al., 2005;Tucker, 2014;. ...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND. There is increasing consensus that transitioning towards reduced meat consumption and more plant-based diets is a key feature to address important health and sustainability challenges. However, relevant evidence that may inform these transitions remains fragmented with no overarching rationale or theoretical framework, which limits the ability to design and deliver coordinated efforts to address these challenges. SCOPE AND APPROACH. Eleven databases were systematically searched using sets of keywords referring meat curtailment, meat substitution and plant-based diets, as well as consumer choice, appraisal or behavior (2602 articles selected for title and abstract screening; 161 full-texts assessed for eligibility; 110 articles selected for extraction and coding). Barriers and enablers were identified and integrated into an overarching framework (i.e., COM-B system), which conceptualizes behavior as being influenced by three broad components: capability, opportunity and motivation. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION. This review mapped potential barriers and enablers in terms of capability, opportunity, and motivation to reduce meat consumption and follow more plant-based diets. These included lack of information for consumers and difficulty to acquire new cooking skills (barrier, capability), changes in service provision in collective meal contexts (enabler, opportunity), and positive taste expectations for plant-based meals (enabler, motivation). Evidence on variables referring to the motivation domain is clearly increasing, but there is a striking need for studies that include capability and opportunity variables as well. The results of this review are relevant to a variety of fields and audiences interested in promoting sustainable living and health improvements through dietary choice.
... Self-determination theory has been widely used to shed light on proenvironmental intentions and behaviors (e.g., Aitken et al., 2016;Schösler et al., 2014;Vansteenkiste et al., 2007). Self-determination theory propose a main distinction between internalized and noninternalized motivation (e.g., Ryan & Deci, 2000b;Schösler et al., 2014;Thøgersen, 2003). ...
... Self-determination theory has been widely used to shed light on proenvironmental intentions and behaviors (e.g., Aitken et al., 2016;Schösler et al., 2014;Vansteenkiste et al., 2007). Self-determination theory propose a main distinction between internalized and noninternalized motivation (e.g., Ryan & Deci, 2000b;Schösler et al., 2014;Thøgersen, 2003). Ryan and Deci (2002) further distinguish between a continuum of motivation and regulation types, from amotivation through external, introjected, identified, and integrated motivation to intrinsic motivation. ...
Article
Previous research reported conflicting results on the effectiveness of economic incentives versus green appeals for promoting pro-environmental behavior and neglected the possibility of combining both as well as country differences. Through online experiments in Germany, the USA and China, we tested a monetary reward for recycling that is only redeemable for eco-friendly products – a “green reward” – in comparison to a standard reward (redeemable for any product) and a green appeal (highlighting environmental impact). In China, green rewards significantly increased recycling intentions via introjected motivation. In the USA, rewards improved intentions mainly via extrinsic motivation. In Germany, green appeals appeared to be the best strategy. Extrinsic rewards are expected to reduce perceived autonomy support, but only did so in the USA. Differences between countries are identified with regard to “crowding-out” of internalized motivation. It appears that under some conditions an environmental purpose can neutralize negative effects of extrinsic incentives.
... Familiarity refers to a tendency to opt for familiar products (e.g., Pelchat & Pliner, 1995;Tuorila et al., 1998). Specifically, for acceptance of meat-reducing strategies, familiarity with a product, ease of how to use a product, and a fit with accustomed meal patterns are relevant (Schösler et al., 2014). Familiarity is also relevant in understanding the acceptance of, for example, pulses (e.g., Akaichi et al., 2012;Florkowski & Park, 2001), insects (Schlup & Brunner, 2018;Verbeke, 2015;Woolf et al., 2019), and cultured meat . ...
... Consumers who are willing to adopt meat-reducing strategies may not always be aware of the number of alternative options and ways to prepare specific meat alternatives or plant-based dishes. A substantial body of research concedes that preparation difficulties, including difficulties in preparing vegetarian meals (Schösler et al., 2014) and plant-based diets (Haverstock & Forgays, 2012), are perceived as barriers to consuming pulses, algae, insects, cultured meat, and plant-based meat alternatives (e.g., Balzan et al., 2016;Figueira et al., 2019;Lea et al., 2005;Lensvelt & Steenbekkers, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Protein transition, i.e. the transition from high levels of traditional meat consumption towards consuming less meat or more plant-based or alternative animal-based proteins, is highly dependent on consumer behaviour. This position paper adds to the literature by integrating the research streams on behavioural sciences and meat reducing strategies, thereby contributing to the use of behavioural science insights in developing meat reducing interventions towards a more plant-based food transition. Scope and approach Meat-reducing strategies involve substituting meat with novel proteins, consumption of less meat or consuming meat less often, and becoming a vegetarian or vegan. Based on previous literature four systematic steps for effective interventions towards behaviour change are described in view of the current literature in the specific context of meat reduction. Finally, emergent strands of future research are identified. Key findings and conclusions The four described steps compromise: (1) identifying the problem and desired behaviour change, (2) examining the main drivers of behaviour change, (3) select fitting interventions, and (4) impact assessment. Based on the meat-reducing literature the key strands for future interventions in the context of protein transition are identified. Moreover, literature gaps are defined. Resulting in an overview of systematic steps for interventions to support behaviour change in the protein transition.
... Only a few consumers (4-19%) indicated environmental concerns for having reduced or avoided meat intake in studies conducted in Belgium, The Netherlands and the U.S. [23,45,46]. However, when specific population groups and certain meat curtailment strategies are considered the percentage of environmental meat reducers or avoiders increases. ...
... However, considering the one study that did [43], and the fact that this review found the highest percentage of meat avoiders because of the environment, in a survey of 3433 students attending different universities based in eleven Eurasian countries [51], it appears that young people may be the most motivated by ecology for already having reduced or stopped meat intake. The degree of involvement with food and sustainability, regardless of age, is another covariate that also correlated positively with environmental reasons for meat curtailment [46,47]. Ethnicity, as well, had a significant impact in one study conducted in The Netherlands [36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Meat consumption is a major contributor to global warming. Given the worldwide growing demand of meat, and the severe impact of meat production on the planet, reducing animal protein consumption is a matter of food security and public health. Changing consumer food behavior is a challenge. Taste preferences, culinary traditions and social norms factor into food choices. Since behavioral change cannot occur without the subject’s positive attitude based on reasons and motivations, a total of 34 papers on consumer attitudes and behavior towards meat consumption in relation to environmental concerns were examined. The results show that consumers aware of the meat impact on the planet, willing to stop or significantly reduce meat consumption for environmental reasons, and who have already changed their meat intake for ecological concerns are a small minority. However, environmental motives are already appealing significant proportions of Westerners to adopt certain meat curtailment strategies. Those who limit meat intake for environmental reasons are typically female, young, simply meat-reducer (not vegan/vegetarian), ecology-oriented, and would more likely live in Europe and Asia than in the U.S.
... Others, using cluster analysis, have segmented consumers according to their awareness of 16 the environmental impact of meat and found six clusters, from individuals who are highly 17 conscious of meat-related environmental problems to those who are resistant to this view 18 (Pohjolainen, Tapio, Vinnari, Jokinen, & Räsänen, 2016). The more conscious groups were in 19 favor of reducing meat consumption, whereas the resistant group strongly opposed it. ...
... Reducing meat consumption: Group-specific inhibitors 19 two motives for having done so. Health was the most common motivation (76%), followed by 19 environmental (36%), financial (34%), ethical (32%), and social considerations (16 %). ...
Article
Consumption of animal products is an important greenhouse gas emitting behavior. However, perceived hindrances to incorporating more plant-based diets present challenges for the successful design of behavior-change interventions. Latent profile analysis of survey responses revealed three distinct groups. Meat-reducers perceive the fewest inhibitors and are the most willing to incorporate more meat-free days in their diets. Moderate-hindrance meat eaters perceive many more inhibitors, and are hindered by a lack of social support, attachment to meat, not wanting to change their routine, and less awareness of the health benefits of eating less meat. They are willing to incorporate new healthy foods in their diet and are somewhat willing to avoid meat on some days. Strong-hindrance meat eaters report weak self-efficacy and the most inhibitors but are somewhat willing to incorporate healthier foods in their diets. Implications for tailored meat-reduction interventions are discussed. For example, when targeting meat-attached individuals, it might be beneficial to focus on replacing red meats with less carbon-intensive protein sources.
... Important motivations for consuming meat are the 4Ns; that it is 'natural', 'necessary', 'normal' or 'nice' (Piazza et al., 2015;Valli et al., 2019), while health and sustainability are important motivations for avoiding meat (Valli et al., 2019). For example, many consumers believe that meat is difficult to replace from a nutritional perspective, that it is natural to eat and part of their culture, and they enjoy the taste of meat (de Boer et al., 2017;Lacroix and Gifford, 2019;Schösler et al., 2014). Lacroix and Gifford (2019) and Malek et al. (2019) identified consumer segments based on reasons for consuming (or avoiding) meat, conducting latent profile and factor analysis. ...
Article
The food sector is a major contributor to climate change, and reducing meat consumption is important to achieve significant reductions in global carbon emissions. The implementation of information policies to reduce carbon emissions from red meat consumption entails understanding of how such information is expected to be received and used by consumers. This study uses survey data from a consumer panel, and match this with data on the same respondents' actual purchase behavior based on scanner data. Individuals with lower knowledge levels about the climate impact from food purchase the highest share of red meat, and the lowest share of sustainability labeled products. This indicates that information provision has the potential to increase knowledge among individuals with the highest climate impact. Four sub-groups of consumers are identified in a latent class cluster model based on their motivations for consuming or avoiding meat. It is mainly the ‘meat reducers’ and ‘meat avoiders’ that are interested in using climate information when purchasing food. However, individuals in these sub-groups already purchase the least amount of meat and the highest amount of sustainable products. These findings point to limitations with climate information as a policy instrument, and suggests that other measures are needed as complements to initiate and achieve the necessary changes in consumption patterns.
... At the time, impediments were unfamiliarity, physical appearance, taste, nutritional value, availability of other substitutes like fish and the artificiality of the product. Today, the perception of taste and the appearance of the meat substitute is still one of the most important impediments, regardless of country of residence [33][34][35][36][37]. Habits are another strong barrier [34,35] Personal characteristics such as sociodemographic variables, food lifestyle and attitudes towards a vegetarian diet [34,35,38] as well as enjoying cooking and eating were also essential factors in terms of persuasion [39]. Further drivers for persuasion to consume meat substitutes are animal welfare concerns, environmental impact of meat production and sustainability aspects in general as well as health aspects [34][35][36]40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews empirical research on consumers’ adoption of meat substitutes published up to spring 2018. Recent meat substitutes often have sustainable characteristics in line with consumers’ concerns over aspects of healthy food and the environmental impact of food production. However, changing lifestyles with less time for cooking, any transition from a strongly meat-based to a more plant-based diet depends on the successful establishment of convenient meat substitutes. This article reviews the growing body of research on meat substitutes. These research articles were classified into five different stages in line with the innovation-decision process of: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation. The research was analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively, with results suggesting that although health, environmental and animal welfare aspects can persuade consumers and influence their decision to try a meat substitute, the appearance and taste of those meat substitutes are crucial factors for their consumption on a regular basis. However, there still remains a gap in research articles focusing on the regular consumption of meat substitutes.
... The present study makes this comparison by examining statistical interactions between the effects of ethnic group and gender on a number of meat-related variables that have proven their strategic relevance in earlier work on sustainability and health. The variables are preferred meat portion size, number of meat eating days per week, familiarity with, and use of, meat replacers (Schösler et al., 2012), familiarity with the benefits of a meatless day and willingness to adopt it (de Boer, Schösler, & Aiking, 2014), main reasons for frequently eating meat and for not frequently eating meat (Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014). Although the present study is not focused on acculturation and cultural identity, we will also take into account to which ethnic groups the participants considered themselves to belong. ...
Article
The achievement of sustainability and health objectives in Western countries requires a transition to a less meat-based diet. This article investigates whether the alleged link between meat consumption and particular framings of masculinity, which emphasize that ‘real men’ eat meat, may stand in the way of achieving these objectives. From a theoretical perspective, it was assumed that the meat-masculinity link is not invariant but dependent on the cultural context, including ethnicity. In order to examine the link in different contexts, we analyzed whether meat-related gender differences varied across ethnic groups, using samples of young second generation Chinese Dutch, Turkish Dutch and native Dutch adults (aged 18-35) in the Netherlands. The Turkish group was the most traditional; it showed the largest gender differences and the strongest meat-masculinity link. In contrast, the native group showed the smallest gender differences and the weakest meat-masculinity link. The findings suggest that the combination of traditional framings of masculinity and the Western type of food environment where meat is abundant and cheap is bound to seriously hamper a transition to a less meat-based diet. In contrast, less traditional framings of masculinity seem to contribute to more healthy food preferences with respect to meat. It was concluded that cultural factors related to gender and ethnic diversity can play harmful and beneficial roles for achieving sustainability and health objectives.
... Changing consumer preferences toward a low-meat diet is difficult (Alexander et al., 2017;Graça, Calheiros, & Oliveira, 2015;Macdiarmid, Douglas, & Campbell, 2016) and only a minority of consumers seem willing to substantially substitute plant-based proteins for animal proteins (Hartmann & Siegrist, 2017). Although many consumers are aware of potential health issues and meat-related concerns, they remain unwilling to reduce the level of meat consumption (Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014;Tucker, 2014) and are reluctant to make wholesale changes in diets in the short term due to cultural values, tradition, and extravagant lifestyles (de Bakker & Dagevos, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Defined as meat cultured in a laboratory within a bioreactor under controlled artificial conditions, in vitro meat is a relatively recent area which has opened a whole universe of possibilities and opportunities for the meat sector. With improved chemical and microbial safety and varied options, in vitro meat has been proposed as a green, healthy, environmentally friendly and nutritionally better product that is free from animal suffering and death. Cell culture and tissue culture are the most probable technologies for the development of this futuristic muscle product. However, there are many challenges in the production of a suitable product at an industrial scale under a sustainable production system and a great body of research is required to fill the gaps in our knowledge. Many materials used in the product development are novel and untested within the food industry and demand urgent regulatory and safety assessment systems capable of managing any risks associated with the development of cultured meat. The future of this product will depend on the actions of governments and regulatory agencies. This article highlights emerging biotechnological options for the development of cultured meat and suggests ways to integrate these emerging technologies into meat research. It considers the problems and possibilities of developing cultured meat, opportunities, ethical issues as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area.
... Intrinsic motivators may refer to inherent enjoyment that may drive consumers to purchase green products or adopt environmental-friendly behaviors such as returning products, repairing materials, reducing wastes, and recycling efforts. Reducing costs and meeting environmental regulations can be extrinsic factors that direct consumers to adopt circular economy and sustainability initiatives [68,69]. Similar to what we discussed in organizational value and knowledge, blockchains can play an important role in building environmental knowledge that fuels the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in consumers. ...
Article
Full-text available
The circular economy (CE) is an emergent concept to rethink and redesign how our economy works. The concept recognizes effective and efficient economic functioning at multiple scales—governments and individuals, globally and locally; for businesses, large and small. CE represents a systemic shift that builds long-term resilience at multiple levels (macro, meso and micro); generating new business and economic opportunities while providing environmental and societal benefits. Blockchain, an emergent and critical technology, is introduced to the circular economy environment as a potential enabler for many circular economic principles. Blockchain technology supported information systems can improve circular economy performance at multiple levels. Product deletion, a neglected but critical effort in product management and product portfolio management, is utilized as an illustrative business scenario as to blockchain’s application in a circular economy research context. Product deletion, unlike product proliferation, has received minimal attention from both academics and practitioners. Product deletion decisions need to be evaluated and analyzed in the circular economy context. CE helps address risk aversion issues in product deletions such as inventory, waste and information management. This paper is the first to conceptualize the relationships amongst blockchain technology, product deletion and the circular economy. Many nuances of relationships are introduced in this study. Future evaluation and critical reflections are also presented with a need for a rigorous and robust research agenda to evaluate the multiple and complex relationships and interplay amongst technology, policy, commerce and the natural environment.
... Participants' descriptions of how they perceive the movements they are part of may fit with this. Quite a few previous studies have applied SDT to investigate sustainable behavior (Hedlund-de Witt et al. 2014;Pelletier and Sharp 2008;Schösler et al. 2014). It looks as if factors that increase intrinsic and autonomous motivation in living sustainably are important for creating lasting changes. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this qualitative enquiry was to map the psychological motives behind sustainable lifestyles. Narrative interviews with inhabitants (N = 8) of the ecovillage in Hurdal north of Oslo and the Sustainable Lives movement in Bergen were conducted. A thematic analysis shows that the informants express taking responsibility for climate change, which suggests that they perceive sustainability as a moral issue. They report a greater sense of alignment with their own values when living sustainably, something that is experienced as rewarding, but living sustainably is also recognized as more positive in own right. For example, the participants enjoy a lifestyle that is more social after a change to sustainable living. Nevertheless, there is acceptance that the informants sometimes have to live in ways that are less environmentally friendly in order to achieve the long-term goal; this duality helps them to continue their sustainable lifestyle even in the face of setbacks.
... The starting point of the current set of studies was the notion that a reduction of meat and dairy products consumption would be an important element of an effective climate protection strategy and that currently there is a lack of research on how to best motivate people to do this (Bailey et al., 2014). The three studies presented in this article were designed to shed light on the psychological determinants underlying voluntary meat consumption reduction and add to the previous literature (e.g., Schösler et al., 2014). The results indicate that an individual's intention to voluntarily reduce his or her meat consumption consistently reflects the attitude toward such a behavioral change as well as the personal perception of how easy or difficult this will be (e.g., Ajzen, 1991;Armitage & Conner, 2001;McEachan et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Reducing meat consumption is an important element of an effective climate protection strategy, but meat consumption is highly habitualized and therefore difficult to change. This article uses an extended version of the theory of planned behavior with habit strength as additional predictor. In one longitudinal (N = 227) and one prospective correlational study (N = 212), attitudes toward and perceived ease of meat consumption reduction explained about 60% of variance of meat consumption reduction intentions, with habit strength being the strongest correlate of actual self-reported meat consumption. A third experimental study (N = 192) demonstrated that implementation intentions can be an effective strategy for realizing reduction aims. We discuss the central role of habits for meat consumption.
... Several studies showed the potential effects of health and environmental concerns separately. Two Dutch studies found that health concerns and a preference for variety were the most reported reasons for a low level of meat consumption among non-vegetarians (de Boer et al., 2017;Schösler et al., 2014). Other studies showed that the willingness to curtail one's consumption and to use fewer environmental resources was intrinsically appealing to some people and that this was also positively related to intentions to eat less meat (de Boer et al., 2016;Van der Werff et al., 2014;Verain et al., 2015). ...
Article
This paper adds to the food, health and sustainability literature by examining the content, merits, and limitations of a frame-based approach to assist consumers on the path to a healthy and sustainable diet, focusing on reducing conventional meat consumption. The paper combined literature on frames with literature on meat consumption. It showed that meat eating was connected to the frames that guide consumer choices through sensory-based associations (savory, satisfying) and conceptual interpretations of meals and social situations. It also showed that the science-based health and sustainability arguments in favor of a diet change do not sufficiently reach consumers or are too difficult for them to comprehend. To reach consumers, therefore, it is crucial to develop bridging frames that work as push factors away from routine meat eating, or pull factors that encourage the consumption of primarily plant-based protein and special meat types. These frames (recipes, point-of-sale information) should build on the familiar culinary principles of variety, balance, and moderation, offer a moderate amount of novelty, and enable consumers to make positive sensory associations and coherent interpretations of healthy and sustainable protein dishes. A potential limitation of a frame-based approach is that it requires much attention to detail and context.
... Beyond considering the delivery mode, there is growing evidence to support the use of theory in the development, implementation and evaluation of telehealth interventions to target and evaluate mechanisms of change (Davis et al., 2015;Pagato and Bennett, 2013;Pingree et al., 2010). Although seldom used to guide telehealth interventions as of yet (Brouwer et al., 2011;Davies et al., 2012), evidence supporting the utility of self-determination theory (SDT; Deci and Ryan, 2000) for health behaviour change is mounting (Patrick and Williams, 2012;Schosler et al., 2014;Silva et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Young adult cancer survivors living in rural areas have reported barriers to participating in health behaviours due to their geographical location and the developmental milestones associated with their age. Existing health behaviour change interventions have generally been delivered face-to-face and have not been tailored to the preferences of young adults living in rural areas, thus not adequately addressing the needs of this population. To address these limitations, this trial aims to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a 12-week telehealth intervention drawing on self-determination theory to promote physical activity participation and fruit and vegetable consumption. Design The intervention will be tested with young adults who are between the ages of 20 and 39 years, have completed primary treatment, live in an area with fewer than 35,000 inhabitants, are not currently meeting physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption guidelines, have access to the Internet and audio-visual devices, are ambulatory and are able and willing to provide informed consent. The target sample size is 15. Method Feasibility data will be collected by recording recommended outcomes throughout the trial. Additional feasibility data as well as acceptability data will be collected using an online questionnaire administered pre- and post-intervention and a semi-structured interview. Results Results may inform the design and implementation of supportive care services for young adults, and potentially other adults living in rural areas who experience similar barriers to participating in health-promoting behaviours. Conclusion This trial is one of the first to explore the feasibility and acceptability of a theory-based telehealth behaviour change intervention targeting young adult cancer survivors living in rural areas in order to mitigate the disease burden.
... SDT states that individuals tend to engage in a behaviour for their own sake, interest, or pleasure and as an essential determinant of behavioural change (Smit et al., 2018). SDT has been used to explain human behaviour in various domains, especially in terms of changing diets to include more sustainable food choices (Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014). Intrinsic motivation based on SDT to adopt healthier lifestyle patterns, such as healthy eating, fruit and vegetable consumption, and exercising, has been found to directly predict the actual adoption of these behaviours in the long term (Teixeira et al., 2015). ...
Article
Two studies were conducted to investigate the factors determining consumers’ purchase intentions towards dried fruit in Taiwan. In the first study, we identified the most appropriate scale structure by using exploratory factor analysis on data from 306 participants. In the second study, the factor structures were verified by performing a confirmatory factor analysis of a sample comprising 575 participants. Structural equation modelling was then applied to test the hypothesised relationships, followed by a correspondence analysis to associate the eating experience of dried fruits with all participant sociodemographics. The results revealed that first, the high purchase intention towards dried fruits is positively influenced by autonomy motivation, relatedness motivation, and perceived convenience value, whereas it is negatively influenced by competence motivation and perceived health value. Second, the eating attitude mediates the effects of autonomy and competence motivation as well as perceived emotional and health values on the purchase intention. Third, marked differences are present in the choice and eating habit of dried fruits in the analysis of socioeconomic variables. Overall, the study results imply that dried fruit purchasing is a hedonistic-oriented behaviour, and that consumers are confused regarding the products that are considered dried fruits; hence, a clear definition of dried fruits and effective consumer education are necessary. Furthermore, dried fruit manufacturers must improve the utilitarian values of health and convenience.
... Although using this method can be more parsimonious, research has shown that it can overlook the contribution of different types of motivations within each category when predicting important and distinctive emotions and behaviors (Burton, Lydon, D'alessandro, & Koestner, 2006;Koestner & Losier, 2002;Koestner, Losier, Vallerand, & Carducci, 1996). Some studies have started to investigate the associations between some specific types of motivations for healthy eating and their behavioral consequences (e.g., Carraça, Leong, & Horwath, 2019;Schösler et al., 2014). However, to our knowledge, no studies have looked at all the types of eating motivations simultaneously in the context of unhealthy eating. ...
Article
The present research applies self‐determination theory (SDT) to the context of unhealthy eating. The extent to which each of the six types of motivations stemming from the SDT continuum applies to unhealthy eating is examined, as well as the contribution of each motivation for eating unhealthily in predicting psychological well‐being and frequency of unhealthy eating. A three‐wave longitudinal study (N = 379) was conducted before, during, and after the Christmas holidays. Results demonstrated that three types of motivations (i.e., identified, introjected, and external regulation) for unhealthy eating fluctuated over time and peaked during the holidays, a time when unhealthy eating becomes especially salient in Western societies. However, amotivation for unhealthy eating reached its lowest level during the holidays. While identified regulation was associated with greater well‐being, introjected regulation, and amotivation for unhealthy eating were linked with lower well‐being. Integrated regulation was associated with lower well‐being only before and after the holiday period. Finally, the integrated, introjected, external regulations, and amotivation were linked to higher frequency of unhealthy eating. These results confirm that each type of motivation presents distinct patterns of associations with well‐being and actual behavior. Results also demonstrate that the social context in which eating takes place can have an impact on the relationship between motivations and well‐being as well as behavior.
... However, the current data reveal relatively strong overall effects of national normative influence and normative alignment in the context of eating meat. It may be that other aspects of identity (e.g., self-determination motives, Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014;in-group prototypicality, Hoffmann et al., 2020) may be more relevant in the context of national norms of meat eating. Again, further empirical work is clearly required. ...
Article
Through meat-eating choices, people are able to express their national social identification and adhere to broader cultural norms. The current research examines the relationship between people’s perceptions of national descriptive and injunctive meat-eating norms and their national social identification, on the one hand, and their attitudes toward meat-eating and their intentions to eat meat, on the other hand. In a sample that includes American, British, and Australian participants, we observe that: (1) favorable attitudes toward meat eating are positively predicted by national injunctive but not descriptive norms, and (2) intentions to eat meat are positively predicted by national descriptive but not injunctive norms. National social identification positively predicts both attitudes and intentions. Intentions to eat meat were also predicted by a three-way interaction between descriptive and injunctive norms, and social identification. Alignment of relatively high descriptive and injunctive meat-eating norms predicted meat-eating intentions than alignment of relatively low descriptive and injunctive norms. With normative misalignment, however, people began to rely on their national social identifications as a basis for meat-eating intentions. The data are discussed with reference to the impact of social factors in influencing meat consumption. Moreover, we consider the potential for national social identification to have a normative component of meat consumption independent of descriptive and injunctive norms. This work advances our understanding of meat consumption by revealing national-level normative and identity processes beyond more focused identities of, for example, an environmentalist, a health conscious person, or an animal rights activist.
... 13 This study adds to existing research pointing to SDT as a useful framework for understanding health behaviour change. 59,62 Limitations of this study include the small number of men (five out of twenty participants). Men are reported to be more likely to have a poor diet and less likely to be interested in or initiate lifestyle change (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Improving diet quality has been shown to be an effective way to improve health and well-being. Yet information on how to assist those wanting to transition to and maintain a healthier diet is still limited. The aim of this study was to explore what motivated people to initiate and maintain a healthy diet. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 participants (all Australian residents) who had made significant improvements to their diets and had maintained these changes for a minimum of two years ( n female = 15, n male = 5, M age = 37.7, SD = 12.4). The transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis which identified five overarching themes: A desire to feel better, investigation and learning, helpful habits, benefits, and values. Results Participants reported a strong wish to feel better and investigated the role of diet as a possible way to improve well-being. Through daily habits and continuous engagement with the topic, healthy eating became a way of life for many participants. Experiencing the benefits of a healthier diet and having developed strong values regarding diet and health supported long-term maintenance. Conclusions Findings from the present study contribute to the literature in highlighting the importance of internal motivation and autonomy for health behaviours. Findings may inform the development of healthy eating interventions. Encouraging autonomy, fostering values aligned with a healthier diet, and helping individuals establish daily habits is likely to support change.
... Such a course of action would enable youth to transition into responsible citizenship. Young individuals will have garnered a better understanding of individual responsibility concerning the different dimensions of sustainable well-being, for instance in terms of diet and health choices [68], and the shaping of environmental civic engagement within communities [69]. Table 2 displays the transformative pathways capable of leveraging sustainable and equitable food security from a knowledge economy perspective. ...
Article
Full-text available
The global goal to end hunger requires the interpretation of problems and change across multiple domains to create the scope for collaboration, learning, and impactful research. We facilitated a workshop aimed at understanding how stakeholders problematize sustainable diet transition (SDT) among a previously marginalized social group. Using the systems thinking approach, three sub-systems, namely access to dietary diversity, sustainable beneficiation of natural capital, and ‘food choice for well-being’, highlighted the main forces governing the current context, and future interventions of the project. Moreover, when viewed as co-evolving processes within the multi-level perspective, our identified microlevel leverage points—multi-faceted literacy, youth empowerment, deliberative policymaking, and promotion of sustainable diet aspirations—can be linked and developed through existing national macro-level strategies. Thus, co-designing to problematize transformational SDT, centered on an interdisciplinary outlook and informational governance, could streamline research implementation outcomes to re-structure socio-technical sectors and reconnect people to nature-based solutions. Such legitimate aspirations could be relevant in countries bearing complex socio-political legacies and bridge the local–global goals coherently. This work provides a collaborative framework required to develop impact-driven activities needed to inform evidence-based policies on sustainable diets.
... For instance, consumer awareness-and even understanding-of the benefits of consuming APs is limited. Today, poor awareness (e.g.,Schösler et al., 2014), perceived "unnaturalness" (e.g.,Kemper, 2020), and technological framing (e.g.,Bryant & Dillard, 2019) are inhibiting AP uptake, and environmental and the credibility of ethical food attributes (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions, water conservation, country of origin, and animal welfare) are unclear. Our reviewed studies indicate that consumers have reservations about the extensive technical processing and composition of APs(Sexton, 2018;Wilks & Phillips, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Marketing plays a critical role in addressing macro‐level societal problems, one of which relates to the reduction of meat consumption and increased consumption of alternative proteins. Such consumption practices are gaining attention given the rising concerns about food sustainability, safety, security, nutrition, and animal welfare. This paper provides a framework‐based systematic review of alternative protein consumption research, identifying relevant articles published between 2000 and 2020. Our framework combines the socio‐ecological model and capability, opportunity, and motivation model of behavior (COM‐B) to identify the various factors influencing alternative protein consumption. Antecedents – facilitators and barriers – of alternative protein consumption are organized, synthesized, and discussed using this combined model of behavioral influence. Our review outlines methodological approaches, identifies main variables of interest, highlights the opportunity for further theoretical development, and identifies gaps in research related to individual‐level opportunities and system‐level motivations. We conclude with theoretical, contextual, and methodological directions for marketing and consumer research to better understand and shape decisions and practices regarding the consumption of alternative proteins.
... Fostering more sustainable food choices: Can Self-Determination Theory help? (Schösler et al., 2014) Protection-Motivation theory ...
Article
The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthier and most balanced dietary models currently in existence. Different studies suggest that it is environmentally friendly: it combines low greenhouse gas emissions, low demand of soil water and less deforestation. Climate change can be mitigated through what consumers decide to eat. This article addresses the issue of by studying the intention of young consumers to shift their diets towards the Mediterranean Diet to prevent climate change through face interviews, collected in Crete, Greece (N=287). Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, the objective is to identify whether attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control guide such a behavior. Our findings highlight that young consumers’ perceived behavioral control have the highest influence on the intention, followed by their attitudes. As for the subjective norms, it has no significant impact on the intention
... This topic can be addressed by the SDT (Ryan & Deci, 2000), which defines relative autonomy as the key indicator describing general motivation. Autonomous motivation has been found to be positively influencing changes in health behavior (Ntoumanis et al., 2021) as well as sustainability (Schösler et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Modeling behavior has been a core topic of Psychology and the Social Sciences since their respective inception as academic disciplines. This has resulted in a fractured landscape of different theories, all addressing different aspects of behavior. At the same time the need to formalize the design of computer and smartphone applications has spawned the field of User Experience (UX). With the convergence of everyday behavior and the use of mobile devices the overlap between these two fields becomes ever more important. In this paper we present a comprehensive model of behavior, integrating five well-established theories, with the aim of creating a design framework for smartphone applications that foster motivation and promote the execution of a target behavior. The operationalization of the approach is demonstrated by showing how to design and implement a prototypical application to support healthy and sustainable grocery shopping behavior. While the framework proposed is not limited to this application, it is used to exemplify the relation with previous design approaches, and the concrete implications of the model-derived framework on its implementation. Our view is that both areas of research can benefit from each other: findings from behavioral theory can inform application design, while at the same time the ubiquitous integration of mobile applications allows to dynamically apply, operationalize, and implement behavioral models into everyday life.
... Externalities including environmental impact (e.g., climate change, biodiversity loss, and natural resource depletion), and negative impacts on human health and culture (e.g., obesity, cancer, diabetes, loss of cultural heritage, impacts on rural businesses, access to green spaces) are generally not included in the price of commodities (Lassalette et al., 2014;Beattie and McGuire, 2016;Benton, 2016;Notarnicola et al., 2017;Schanes et al., 2018;Sustainable Food Trust, 2019;Taghikhah et al., 2019;Viegas and Lins, 2019). Encouraging consumers to adopt more sustainable food behaviour, such as locally sourced foods or diets containing less meat, is essential to reduce the impact of food production and consumption, especially in developed countries (Kerr and Foster, 2011;Schoesler et al., 2014;Hartmann and Siegrist, 2017;Ferrari, et al., 2019;Hedin et al., 2019;FAO, 2019;de Grave et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
As population growth continues, sustainable food behaviour is essential to help reduce the anthropogenic modification of natural systems, driven by food production and consumption, resulting in environmental and health burdens and impacts. Nudging, a behavioural concept, has potential implications for tackling these issues, encouraging change in individuals’ intentions and decision-making via indirect proposition and reinforcement; however, lack of empirical evidence for effectiveness and the controversial framework for ethical analysis create challenges. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of nudging interventions on sustainable food choices, searching five databases to identify the effectiveness of such interventions. Of the 742 identified articles, 14 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Overall, the potential of certain nudging interventions for encouraging sustainable food choices were found in strategies that targeted ‘system 1’ thinking (automatic, intuitive and non-conscious, relying on heuristics, mental shortcuts and biases), producing outcomes which were more statistically significant compared to interventions requiring consumer deliberation. Gender, sensory influences, and attractiveness of target dishes were highlighted as pivotal factors in sustainable food choice, hence research that considers these factors in conjunction with nudging interventions is required.
... Chiu et al. (2019) found that self-determination has a positive influence on personal relevance, which positively affects customer citizenship behavior toward organic food. Schösler et al. (2014) indicated that internalized motivation is the main factor that makes a difference in the intrinsic enjoyment of cooking and eating behavior. Prior studies have provided rich evidence for the predictive ability of SDT on consumers' behavioral outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers care about healthy food. Thus, several firms use organic appeals advertising to change consumer attitudes and persuade them to purchase organic food. Organic appeals advertisement often presents content that provides information and knowledge about organic elements of a food product (e.g., health, safety, a lack of chemicals, and rich nutrition). In contrast, non-organic appeals advertisement does not present information about organic elements of a food product. This study aims to clarify the effect of organic appeals advertisement on consumer motivations and behavior. It uses the stimuli-organism-response model and self-determination motivation theory to investigate the relationship between organic appeals advertisement and purchase intention toward organic milk considering the mediating role of intrinsic motivation and the moderating role of emotional appeals. Two experimental designs are used to test the hypotheses. Results show that consumers receiving organic appeals advertisement have a higher intention to purchase organic milk than those receiving non-organic appeals advertisement. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation is found to have a mediating role in the link between organic appeals advertisement and purchase intention. In other words, when consumers receive advertisements of an organic milk product, they have higher intrinsic motivation and hold higher intention to purchase organic milk products. Furthermore, emotional appeals have a moderating effect on the relationship between organic appeals advertisement and intrinsic motivation. The influence of organic appeals advertisement on intrinsic motivation is stronger when emotional appeals are positive and weaker when emotional appeals are negative.
... Utilizing this measure, self-determined motivation could be shown to be associated with more and more robust environmental behaviors (Lavergne et al., 2010;Pelletier et al., 1999;Pelletier et al., 1998;Séguin et al., 1998;Villacorta et al., 2003) and perseverance for PEB, especially when it was difficult or uncomfortable (Aitken et al., 2016;Cooke et al., 2016;Green-Demers et al., 1997). Internalized motivation predicted more sustainable food choices (Schösler et al., 2014) and commitment to environmental activism (Sheldon et al., 2016). Similar results can be found across cultural contexts (Boeve-de Pauw & Van Petegem, 2017; Kaplan & Madjar, 2015;Karaarslan et al., 2014;Karpudewan & Mohd Ali Khan, 2017) and among young people (Renaud-Dubé et al., 2010). ...
Article
In this paper, I argue for how environmental psychology as a discipline could benefit both conceptually and practically from considering basic psychological needs as specified within Self-Determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2017). I begin with a definition of basic psychological needs as “innate psychological nutriments that are essential for ongoing psychological growth, integrity, and well-being” (Deci & Ryan, 2000, p.3) and outline how this perspective can be utilized to explain human responses to climate change. After introducing and comparing several theories of psychological needs, I focus on Self-Determination Theory, its implications and empirical basis that points to a positive relation between basic psychological need satisfaction and (self-determined motivation for) pro-environmental behavior. However, more systematic research is warranted that disentangles levels and domains of basic psychological need satisfaction, and specifically considers relations of basic psychological need satisfaction with human responses to climate change. To this end, I propose a working model that may guide future research efforts. I conclude that enabling experiences of basic physiological but also psychological need satisfaction for all people may be a prerequisite to cope with the threat of climate change productively, to foster appropriate responses to climate change, and to work towards a socio-ecological transformation.
... According to the participants, the most important factors that motivated them to reduce their meat consumption were environmental protection, animal welfare and discovering new things. This matches previous research results emphasising the relevance of animal welfare, environmental and health concerns, and the desire for variety and cost savings (Fox and Ward 2008;Schösler et al. 2014). On the other hand, the largest barriers were social influence, habit, protein or nutrient deficiency, and taste. ...
... According to the participants, the most important factors that motivated them to reduce their meat consumption were environmental protection, animal welfare and discovering new things. This matches previous research results emphasising the relevance of animal welfare, environmental and health concerns, and the desire for variety and cost savings (Fox and Ward 2008;Schösler et al. 2014). On the other hand, the largest barriers were social influence, habit, protein or nutrient deficiency, and taste. ...
... When the goal pursuit is extrinsically motivated, goal congruent behaviour can be explained by different regulatory styles . It is generally agreed upon that these regulatory styles differ in perceived locus of causality Schösler, de Boer, & Boersema, 2014;Vansteenkiste et al., 2005). External regulation and introjection are entirely or mainly dependent on external control, whereas identification and integration are mainly or entirely dependent on internal autonomy (Schmeichel & Vohs, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable consumption is hampered by a discrepancy between consumers’ attitudes and their actual behaviour in the market place. Psychological construal level theory provides an explanation for the attitude to behaviour gap as a motivational conflict between high and low level of mental construal. Based on self-determination theory it is argued that this motivational conflict presupposes extrinsic motivation for sustainable behaviour. Based on self-regulatory styles, the present paper identifies and illustrates four types of intervention strategies that can cater for extrinsic motivation for sustainable development among light users. The underlying mechanisms of these interventions suggest that the transition from external to internal regulation is catalysed by social feedback.
Article
Full-text available
In today’s fast-paced and globalized business landscape, the need for sustainability has increased for organizations. The need to re-evaluate practices, however, can be difficult if existing practices or models of operation are traditionally change adverse. For organizations to be motivated to make these changes, understanding both the intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for change are essential. This is especially true in the festival industry. This study applied the Drivers of Sustainability Framework and linked it to the underlying psychological factors outlined in Self-determination Theory in the context of Canadian festivals. Interviews were conducted with 38 festival organizers to determine intrinsic and extrinsic motivations along with barriers towards the implementation of sustainability practices. Four key findings were identified. First, intrinsic motivations were the primary driver towards festival sustainability management and are a key influence on the holistic integration of sustainability. Second, intrinsically driven volunteers contribute greatly to the adoption of sustainability practices. Third, extrinsic motivations affect how festivals address their sustainability efforts but are often short-term and isolated in nature. Fourth, autonomy, competence, and relatedness were recognized to increase self-determination of festivals in adopting sustainable initiatives.
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis analyzes the causes, factors and implications of the problem of food waste. Examines consumer behavior in relation to food and food waste. Finally, it includes quantitative research on consumer behavior towards food, food waste and implications of the problem of food waste in Greece.
Article
In his influential article on the ethics of eating animals, Alastair Norcross argues that consumers of factory raised meat and puppy torturers are equally condemnable because both knowingly cause serious harm to sentient creatures just for trivial pleasures. Against this claim, I argue that those who buy and consume factory raised meat, even those who do so knowing that they cause harm, have a partial excuse for their wrongdoings. Meat eaters act under social duress, which causes volitional impairment, and they often act from deeply ingrained habits, which causes epistemic impairment. But puppy torturers act against cultural norms and habits, consciously choosing to perform wrongful acts. Consequently, the average consumer of factory raised meat has, while puppy torturers lack, a cultural excuse. But although consumers of factory raised meat aren’t blameworthy, they are partially morally responsible for their harmful behavior – and for this, they should feel regret.
Article
Food consumption affects the environment because it requires the usage of water, land, and oil resources. In particular, the consumption of red meat is associated with sustainability issues. Replacing meat with plant-based meat substitutes offers a useful way of reducing the burden that meat consumption places on the environment and dealing with issues regarding animal welfare. However, consumer acceptance of such products is low in some countries. The purpose of this paper is to clarify consumer attitudes toward meat substitutes and discuss them from a marketing perspective. The findings of this study, which are based on content analyses of web forums in Turkey, indicate that negative consumer perceptions can be categorized into three main dimensions: unhealthy, unusual, and tasteless. A marketing perceptive is used to discuss the findings.
Article
Full-text available
Consumers play a crucial role in reducing the burden on the environment through their food choices. Currently, food choices are mainly determined by price, convenience, taste and health. To change eating patterns to more sustainable eating patterns, it is essential to understand how consumers interpret “sustainability” in relation to the food supply chain. The aim of this systematic review is to categorize and to describe consumer perceptions of food-related environmental sustainability in general. We conducted a systematic literature review of quantitative and qualitative studies published between January 2010 and June 2020. This resulted in 76 articles; 49 quantitative, 21 qualitative and 6 mixed-method studies. Open coding (grounded theory) was used, and codes were subsequently categorized into subcategories, categories and domains (domain analysis). In total, 834 codes were categorized into 118 subcategories. These subcategories were clustered into 30 categories describing seven different overarching domains: 1) production, 2) transportation, 3) product, 4) product group, 5) consumer, 6) waste and 7) contextual factors. The domains production (31%), transportation (19%) and product (14%) were the largest domains identified in quantitative studies, and in qualitative studies these were production (25%), consumer (20%) and product (20%). Environmental impact, (locally and organic) food choices and ethical production are the most frequent categories mentioned by consumers. However, this literature review also showed that consumers still lack key knowledge on some other specific food-related sustainability topics. In particular, consumers have difficulty defining the concept “sustainability” and to estimate the environmental impact of their food choices. Consumers believe that sustainability does not (yet) influence their food choices. Currently, consumers consider price, taste and individual health more influential than sustainability. It would be useful for policymakers to communicate sustainability knowledge in a transparent, evidence-based and controlled way and to guide consumers by designing a highly regulated and controlled sustainability label.
Article
Agriculture being responsible for 35% of gas emission worldwide (Foley, 2011), it is now relevant more than ever before, to adopt more sustainable eating behaviours. Given its nature, ecological eating is considered both an eating and an environmental behaviour. The literature, however, has yet to identify whether ecological eating is primarily associated with motivation towards the environment or the regulation of eating. Using Self-Determination Theory framework, the present research aimed to identify the principal motivational predictors of ecological eating by using a path model combining and comparing the predicting value of eating and environmental motivation on ecological eating behaviours. Results suggest that ecological eating predominately belongs to the environmental domain, is mainly related to self-determined motivation towards the environment, and to a lesser extent, self-determined motivation towards eating. Understanding the motivational processes underlying ecological eating is critical to designing efficient intervention and directing future research.
Article
Full-text available
El estudio de la motivación humana es un constructo altamente complejo y con una gran variabilidad de enfoques. La teoría de la autodeterminación (TAD) ha demostrado una relativa efectividad y consistencia en muchos aspectos relacionados con la salud, como por ejemplo el ejercicio físico, la alimentación, el sueño, el bienestar psicológico o el consumo de tabaco. Las investigaciones muestran que la motivación autodeterminada se corresponde con la motivación intrínseca y en cambio la motivación extrínseca y sus formas de regulación pueden corresponderse con comportamiento no autodeterminados, pudiendo llegar hasta la desmotivación. En este trabajo se formula una construcción teórica sobre este modelo, introduciendo la percepción de riesgo (PR) y la vulnerabilidad percibida (VP) como elementos que pueden variar el sentido final de la motivación e incluso mejorar alguna de sus regulaciones extrínsecas y la desmotivación. Una de las posibilidades teóricas que sugerimos para intentar neutralizar los tipos no autodeterminados es procurar aumentar la PR y la VP de la persona, ya que estando estas dos variables altas, la probabilidad de que la desmotivación aparezca se reduce significativamente, y las acciones forzadas de la regulación externa y la regulación introyectada pueden amortiguarse y aumentar la internalización lo que podría favorecer los comportamientos de salud.
Chapter
The livestock sector is growing steadily and is responsible for around 18% of global greenhouse‐gas‐emissions, which is more than the global transport sector (Steinfeld et al. 2006). This paper examines the potential of social marketing to reduce meat consumption. The aim is to understand consumers’ motivation in diet choices and to learn what opportunities social marketing can provide to counteract negative environmental and health trends. The authors believe that research to answer this question should start in metropolitan areas, because measures should be especially effective there. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Ajzen 1991) and the Technology‐Acceptance‐Model by Huijts et al. (2012), an online‐study with participants from the metropolitan region (n = 708) was conducted in which central socio‐psychological constructs for a meat consumption reduction were examined. It was shown that attitude, personal norm and habit have a critical influence on the intention to reduce meat consumption. A segmentation of consumers based on these factors led to three consumer clusters: vegetarians/flexitarians, potential flexitarians and convinced meat eaters. Potential flexitarians are an especially relevant target group for the development of social‐marketing‐measures to reduce meat consumption. In co‐creation‐workshops with potential flexitarians from the metropolitan region, barriers and benefits of reducing meat consumption were identified. The factors of environmental protection, animal welfare and desire for variety turn out to be the most relevant motivational factors. Based on these factors, consumers proposed a variety of social marketing measures, such as applications and labels to inform about the environmental impact of meat products.
Article
Food consumption is responsible for a considerable proportion of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). This study aimed to determine whether different dietary emission patterns (EPs) are evident in the Irish population. Respondents of the national nutritional survey were segmented using cluster analysis based on GHGE generated from food groups; thereby profiling similarities in how emissions were attained. Three distinct EPs were observed: Unsustainable, Culturally Sustainable, and Nutritionally Sustainable. The Unsustainable pattern had a significantly greater climatic impact; generating significantly higher emissions from processed meat, alcohol, carbonated beverages and savoury snacks, but significantly lower emissions from dairy.Total GHGE did not differ significantly between the Culturally Sustainable and the Nutritionally Sustainable despite the latter deriving significantly lower emissions from red meat. Nevertheless, the Nutritionally Sustainable pattern adhered to more dietary guidelines than other EPs. The results imply that policy instruments should be holistic in naturerather than concentrating on individual food groups.
Article
Background: Self-regulated motivation is associated with better behavior change, health, and hedonic well-being in the health domain. Meanwhile, there are evidences that eudaemonic well-being contributes to health. As well as reducing lifestyle diseases, the promotion of IKIGAI well-being (encompassing hedonic and eudaemonic well-being) has been targeted in Japan. However, little is known about the impact of IKIGAI well-being on the motivation for health. This study explored the relationships between autonomous motivation for eating and exercise for health, IKIGAI well-being, sense of coherence, and social support. Methods: The participants were 622 Japanese (269 males and 353 females, aged 20 to 59 years). They completed a questionnaire on motivation for healthy eating (MHE), exercise motivation for health (EMH), sense of coherence, social support, and IKIGAI well-being. Results: IKIGAI well-being was positively associated to the relative autonomy index (RAI)-MHE and RAI-EMH. Social support exerted a positive effect on sense of coherence and IKIGAI well-being; sense of coherence positively affected IKIGAI well-being. The invariances of the model across groups, such as gender, age, and subjective economic status, were verified using multiple-group structural equation models. Conclusion: With IKIGAI well-being as a mediating factor, social support and sense of coherence play important roles in promoting autonomous motivation for healthy eating and exercise.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study draws on self-determination theory (SDT) and describes a study that elucidates how motivation can be fostered in the local management context. The study aims to provide state and local officials with a decision-making tool that allows evaluation of the quantity and quality of the public services by using SDT to interact with locals and students. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative approach and thematic analysis (TA) were used to find common themes and to develop an in-depth insight by gathering specific information from the point of view of local residents. In total, 19 interviews with locals were conducted using questions drawn from SDT. Findings The study found that the most significant obstacles were autonomy, competence and relatedness to intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as managing budgets, provision of basic services such as waste management, accessibility and support for local non-government organisations and local festivals and lack of knowledge about sustainable tourism product development among local residents. Originality/value Although there is growing knowledge related to environmental and social concern, the municipality's engagement level in this area is low. Hence, the study provides state and local officials with a decision-making tool to evaluate public services' quantity and quality through the SDT on locals and students, and it is significant to explain the application of SDT to the tourism service at the local level and its potential to develop sustainable tourism.
Article
Full-text available
Current patterns of meat consumption are considered to be unsustainable. Sustainable development may require that consumers choose to eat smaller quantities of meat as well as meat that is produced in a more sensible way. A policy tool directed at consumer behaviour is that of enhancing consumer-oriented transparency of the production chain. Transparency is expected to allow people to make more mindful consumption choices, in line with their personal values. As most dietary habits are deeply rooted in the past, an assessment of the effect of transparency on food choices requires a historical perspective to food culture. Such a perspective provides us with at least two trends of relevance to meat consumption: increased concern for animal welfare and an ongoing dissociation of meat from its animal origin. Combined, these two trends may interact to allow people to consume in ways that actually conflict with their personal values: their concern for animal welfare does not translate into corresponding food choices, as the product meat does not remind them of its animal origin. An experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that people sensitive to animal welfare will respond to increased salience of animal origin and of animal welfare, and that they will show this by either avoiding to buy meat or by favouring free range and organic meat. Results confirmed the expected effect. The effect was observed mainly among those with Universalistic values, which limits the ultimate prospects of transparency as a policy tool.
Book
Full-text available
In the years since publication of the first edition of Food Wars much has happened in the world of food policy. This new edition brings these developments fully up to date within the original analytical framework of competing paradigms or worldviews shaping the direction and decision-making within food politics and policy. The key theme of the importance of integrating human and environmental health has become even more pressing. In the first edition the authors set out and brought together the different strands of emerging agendas and competing narratives. The second edition retains the same core structure and includes updated examples, case studies and the new issues which show how these conflicting tendencies have played out in practice over recent years and what this tells us about the way the global food system is heading. Examples of key issues given increased attention include: nutrition, including the global rise in obesity, as well as chronic conditions, hunger and under-nutrition the environment, particularly the challenges of climate change, biodiversity loss, water stress and food security food industry concentration and market power volatility and uncertainty over food prices and policy responses tensions over food, democracy and citizenship social and cultural aspects impacting food and nutrition policies.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major design and analytical decisions that must be made when conducting a factor analysis and notes that each of these decisions has important consequences for the obtained results. Recommendations that have been made in the methodological literature are discussed. Analyses of 3 existing empirical data sets are used to illustrate how questionable decisions in conducting factor analyses can yield problematic results. The article presents a survey of 2 prominent journals that suggests that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. The implications of these practices for psychological research are discussed, and the reasons for current practices are reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Our growing demand for meat and dairy food products is unsustainable. It is hard to imagine that this global issue can be solved solely by more efficient technologies. Lowering our meat consumption seems inescapable. Yet, the question is whether modern consumers can be considered as reliable allies to achieve this shift in meat consumption pattern. Is there not a yawning gap between our responsible intentions as citizens and our hedonic desires as consumers? We will argue that consumers can and should be considered as partners that must be involved in realizing new ways of protein consumption that contribute to a more sustainable world. In particular the large food consumer group of flexitarians offer promising opportunities for transforming our meat consumption patterns. We propose a pragmatic approach that explicitly goes beyond the standard suggestion of persuasion strategies and suggests different routes of change, coined sustainability by stealth, moderate involvement, and cultural change respectively. The recognition of more routes of change to a more plant-based diet implies that the ethical debate on meat should not only associate consumer change with rational persuasion strategies and food citizens that instantiate “strong” sustainable consumption. Such a focus narrows the debate on sustainable protein consumption and easily results in disappointment about consumers’ participation. A more wide-ranging concept of ethical consumption can leave the negative verdict behind that consumers are mainly an obstacle for sustainability and lead to a more optimistic view on modern consumers as allies and agents of change.
Article
Full-text available
Superior knowledge of customers’ perceptions of value is recognised as a critical success factor in today's competitive marketplace. Despite this, the voice of the consumer is often poorly integrated within the value chain, the UK fresh-meat sector being one example. This supply chain has attempted to add value through the implementation of value-based labelling schemes. Few studies, however, have assessed the value created for consumers. Using both in-depth interviews and a postal survey of 1,000 fresh-meat consumers based in Scotland, this paper offers a strategic insight into how coordinators of value-based labelling schemes might integrate the voice of the consumer within the fresh-meat value chain. Structural equation models are used to develop marketing recommendations. The main attitudes driving consumer purchases of fresh meat bearing a value-based label are identified and the market potential for further differentiation of each value-based label is examined. Future research opportunities are also explored.
Article
Full-text available
In het rapport 'The protein puzzle. The consumption and production of meat, dairy and fish in the European Union' brengen onderzoekers van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) in kaart wat de gevolgen van de productie en consumptie van dierlijke eiwitten zijn voor milieu, natuur en gezondheid. Vervolgens schetst het PBL welke opties er in Europees verband zijn om de negatieve effecten te verminderen. Met deze studie verschaft het PBL relevante feiten en cijfers ten behoeve van het debat over eiwitconsumptie, inclusief een indicatie van de onzekerheden daarbij.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose - This paper aims to explore consumer preference for fresh vegetables labelled as organic in combination with health and environment related quality traits. The study decomposes organic farming into its main quality aspects and measures consumers' preference structure for organic, in general, and for specific organic quality traits in particular. Design/methodology/approach - By means of stated choice preference modelling, the following hypotheses are tested: consumers prefer health over environment related quality traits; the organic label plays a significant role in consumers' choice for organic products; organic farming is perceived as healthier and more environmentally friendly than conventional farming; purchase intention is mainly driven by health related quality traits; both health and environmental concerns influence purchase frequency, though to a different extent. The choice experiment was completed by 527 participants, with four repetitions per participant. Findings - The health-related traits score better than environmental traits in shaping consumer preference for organic vegetables. Consumers prefer organic products over B-branded products, but not over A-branded products, which suggests that consumers classify organic products among other quality niche products. However, they attribute a better score to the health and environment related quality traits of organic products, indicating a difference in quality cues between organic products and quality products in general. Price becomes less important, whereas presence of an organic label becomes more important with increasing buying intensity of organic vegetables. Undesirable traits, such as pesticide residue levels trigger a stronger response than desirable traits, such as environmental or health benefits. Original value - The measurement of the role of health and environment quality traits in consumers' decision to buy organic or not is of relevance given the current debate on the factual differences between organic and conventional vegetables. Furthermore, the use of the stated choice preference to test the hypotheses is original and relevant.
Article
Full-text available
In 3 studies, the authors examined how autonomous and controlled forms of motivation for the regulation of eating behaviors were related to self-reported eating behaviors, and sustained dietary behavior change. Studies 1 and 2 supported the factorial structure and the psychometric properties of a scale designed to measure different forms of regulation as defined by Self-Determination Theory. A motivational model of the regulation of eating behaviors suggested that an autonomous regulation was positively associated with healthy eating behaviors whereas a controlled regulation was positively associated with dysfunctional eating behaviors and negatively associated with healthy eating behaviors. In Study 3, long-term adherence to healthier dietary behaviors in a population at risk for coronary artery disease was examined over a 26-week period. A general measure of self-determined motivation assessed at week 1 was found to be a reliable predictor of the level of self-determination for eating behaviors 13 weeks later. In turn, self-determination for eating behaviors was a significant predictor of dietary behavior changes at 26 weeks. Finally, the dietary behavior measures were related to improvements in weight and blood lipid parameters (LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides). Results are discussed in terms of their implication for the integration and maintenance of a successful healthy regulation.
Book
Full-text available
Every day, we make decisions on topics ranging from personal investments to schools for our children to the meals we eat to the causes we champion. Unfortunately, we often choose poorly. The reason, the authors explain, is that, being human, we all are susceptible to various biases that can lead us to blunder. Our mistakes make us poorer and less healthy; we often make bad decisions involving education, personal finance, health care, mortgages and credit cards, the family, and even the planet itself. Thaler and Sunstein invite us to enter an alternative world, one that takes our humanness as a given. They show that by knowing how people think, we can design choice environments that make it easier for people to choose what is best for themselves, their families, and their society. Using colorful examples from the most important aspects of life, Thaler and Sunstein demonstrate how thoughtful "choice architecture" can be established to nudge us in beneficial directions without restricting freedom of choice. Nudge offers a unique new take-from neither the left nor the right-on many hot-button issues, for individuals and governments alike. This is one of the most engaging and provocative books to come along in many years. © 2008 by Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein. All rights reserved.
Data
Full-text available
We propose a refined theory of basic individual values intended to provide greater heuristic and explanatory power than the original theory of 10 values (Schwartz, 1992). The refined theory more accurately expresses the central assumption of the original theory that research has largely ignored: Values form a circular motivational continuum. The theory defines and orders 19 values on the continuum based on their compatible and conflicting motivations, expression of self-protection versus growth, and personal versus social focus. We assess the theory with a new instrument in 15 samples from 10 countries (N 6,059). Confirmatory factor and multidimensional scaling analyses support discrim-ination of the 19 values, confirming the refined theory. Multidimensional scaling analyses largely support the predicted motivational order of the values. Analyses of predictive validity demonstrate that the refined values theory provides greater and more precise insight into the value underpinnings of beliefs. Each value correlates uniquely with external variables. The Schwartz (1992) theory of basic human values has spawned hundreds of studies during the past two decades. 1 The vast major-ity of these studies examined how the 10 basic values or the four higher order values relate to various attitudes, opinions, behaviors, personality, and background characteristics. Studies have also as-sessed value transmission and development in childhood and ad-olescence and value change over time (e.g., Bardi, Lee, Hofmann-Towfigh, & Soutar, 2009; Knafo & Schwartz, 2003). Recently,
Article
Full-text available
Public concern about environmental issues has grown substantially in the last two decades. As a consequence, the promotion of environmentally conscious behaviours that are integrated in people's lifestyle has become an ongoing and important challenge. Persuasive messages are often perceived as the first step in efforts to motivate people to change a specific behaviour. In this article, the authors propose that (a) tailoring messages according to proposed processes underlying behaviour change (i.e., being aware of a problem, deciding what to do, initiating, and implementing a behaviour); and (b) framing these messages in terms of whether they serve intrinsic goals (i.e., health, well-being) as opposed to extrinsic goals (i.e., make or save money, comfort) could make messages more effective by progressively increasing the level of self-determined motivation of the targeted population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
We propose a refined theory of basic individual values intended to provide greater heuristic and explanatory power than the original theory of 10 values (Schwartz, 1992). The refined theory more accurately expresses the central assumption of the original theory that research has largely ignored: Values form a circular motivational continuum. The theory defines and orders 19 values on the continuum based on their compatible and conflicting motivations, expression of self-protection vs. growth, and personal vs. social focus. We assess the theory with a new instrument in 15 samples from 10 countries (N=6059). CFA and MDS analyses support discrimination of the 19 values, confirming the refined theory. MDS analyses largely support the predicted motivational order of the values. Analyses of predictive validity demonstrate that the refined values theory provides greater and more precise insight into the value underpinnings of beliefs. Each value correlates uniquely with external variables.
Article
Full-text available
Given that overconsumption in industrial countries is a main cause of environmental degradation, a shift toward more sustainable consumption patterns is required. This study attempts to uncover personal and contextual barriers to consumers' purchases of green food and to strengthen knowledge about fostering green purchases. Survey data are used to examine the influence of distinct categories of personal factors (such as attitudes, personal norms, perceived behavior barriers, knowledge) and contextual factors (such as socioeconomic characteristics, living conditions, and store characteristics) on green purchases of Swiss consumers. Results from regression analysis suggest that green food purchases are facilitated by positive attitudes of consumers toward (a) environmental protection, (b) fair trade, (c) local products, and (d) availability of action-related knowledge. In turn, green behavior is negatively associated with (e) perceived time barriers and (f) frequency of shopping in supermarkets. Surprisingly, green purchases are not significantly related to moral thinking, monetary barriers, or the socioeconomic characteristics of the consumers. Implications for policy makers and for companies and marketers engaged in the promotion and commercialization of green products are discussed. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Full-text available
This paper integrates and synthesizes the findings of published research on organic food consumption. We identify several themes that reflect the various rationales used by consumers when deciding to purchase organic food. The literature clearly indicates that the word “organic” has many meanings, that consumers of organic foods are not homogeneous in demographics or in beliefs, and that further research could help better describe the various constituencies that are often lumped together as “organic food consumers”. The organic and broader food industries must better understand the variety of motivations, perceptions, and attitudes consumers hold regarding organic foods and their consumption if their own long-term interests, as well as those of other stakeholders of food marketing, are to be best served. We conclude with implications and suggestions for further research. Copyright
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article was to examine the role played by different orientations in planning for eating behaviors as mediators of the relationship between regulation styles and eating behaviors. In Study 1, a new scale was developed to assess approach food planning and avoidance food planning. Results from confirmatory analyses (N=241) supported the two-factor structure of the scale. In Study 2 (N=202), in agreement with past research on the effects of autonomous and controlled motivation for the regulation of eating behaviors, we found that approach food planning partially mediated the effects of autonomous regulation for eating behaviors on healthy eating behaviors, while avoidance food planning partially mediated the effects of controlled regulation for eating behaviors on dysfunctional eating behaviors. Implications of these results for self-determination theory and for promoting healthy eating behaviors are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Within Western society, many people have difficulties adequately regulating their eating behaviors and weight. Although the literature on eating regulation is vast, little attention has been given to motivational dynamics involved in eating regulation. Grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT), the present contribution aims to provide a motivational perspective on eating regulation. The role of satisfaction and thwarting of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness is introduced as a mechanism to (a) explain the etiology of body image concerns and disordered eating and (b) understand the optimal regulation of ongoing eating behavior for healthy weight maintenance. An overview of empirical studies on these two research lines is provided. In a final section, the potential relevance and value of SDT in relation to prevailing theoretical models in the domain of eating regulation is discussed. Although research on SDT in the domain of eating regulation is still in its early stages and more research is clearly needed, this review suggests that the SDT represents a promising framework to more thoroughly study and understand the motivational processes involved in eating regulation and associated problems.
Article
Full-text available
Hypotheses regarding the role of meat consumption in body weight modulation are contradictory. Prospective studies on an association between meat consumption and BMI change are limited. We assessed the association between meat consumption and change in BMI over time in 3902 men and women aged 55-69 y from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Dietary intake was estimated at baseline using a FFQ. BMI was ascertained through baseline self-reported height (1986) and weight (1986, 1992, and 2000). Analyses were based on sex-specific categories of daily total fresh meat, red meat, beef, pork, minced meat, chicken, processed meat, and fish consumption at baseline. Linear mixed effect modeling adjusted for confounders was used to assess longitudinal associations. Significant cross-sectional differences in BMI between quintiles of total meat intake were observed (P-trend < 0.01; both sexes). No association between total fresh meat consumption and prospective BMI change was observed in men (BMI change highest vs. lowest quintile after 14 y: -0.06 kg/m²; P = 0.75) and women (BMI change: 0.26 kg/m²; P = 0.20). Men with the highest intake of beef experienced a significantly lower increase in BMI after 6 and 14 y than those with the lowest intake (BMI change after 14 y 0.60 kg/m²). After 14 y, a significantly higher increase in BMI was associated with higher intakes of pork in women (BMI change highest vs. lowest quintile: 0.47 kg/m²) and chicken in both sexes (BMI change highest vs. lowest category in both men and women: 0.36 kg/m²). The results remained similar when stratifying on median baseline BMI, and age-stratified analyses yielded mixed results. Differential BMI change effects were observed for several subtypes of meat. However, total meat consumption, or factors directly related to total meat intake, was not strongly associated with weight change during the 14-y prospective follow-up in this elderly population.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major design and analytical decisions that must be made when conducting a factor analysis and notes that each of these decisions has important consequences for the obtained results. Recommendations that have been made in the methodological literature are discussed. Analyses of 3 existing empirical data sets are used to illustrate how questionable decisions in conducting factor analyses can yield problematic results. The article presents a survey of 2 prominent journals that suggests that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. The implications of these practices for psychological research are discussed, and the reasons for current practices are reviewed.
Article
Full-text available
People feel that they have obligations to the animals that they use and show some degree of care behavior toward them. In addition, animal welfare is an aspect of our decisions about whether animal-usage systems are sustainable. A system that results in poor welfare is unsustainable because it is unacceptable to many people. The quality of animal products is now judged in relation to the ethics of production, including impact on the animal's welfare on immediate features and on consequences for consumers. Because genetic selection and management for high productivity may lead to more disease and other aspects of poor welfare, consumers demand some major changes in animal-production systems. In teaching animal welfare, a clear definition that can be related to other concepts such as needs, health, and stress is needed. The methodology for the scientific assessment of animal welfare has developed rapidly in recent years and has become a major scientific discipline. No veterinary degree course should be approved unless a full course on the science of animal welfare and relevant aspects of ethics and law have been taught. Each country should have a national advisory committee on animal-welfare science, made up of independent scientists, including veterinarians, who can write impartial reviews of the state of scientific knowledge.
Article
Full-text available
Why do people purchase proenvironmental "green" products? We argue that buying such products can be construed as altruistic, since green products often cost more and are of lower quality than their conventional counterparts, but green goods benefit the environment for everyone. Because biologists have observed that altruism might function as a "costly signal" associated with status, we examined in 3 experiments how status motives influenced desire for green products. Activating status motives led people to choose green products over more luxurious nongreen products. Supporting the notion that altruism signals one's willingness and ability to incur costs for others' benefit, status motives increased desire for green products when shopping in public (but not private) and when green products cost more (but not less) than nongreen products. Findings suggest that status competition can be used to promote proenvironmental behavior.
Book
Wie ernähren wir uns verantwortungsvoll? Ernährungsethik zählt zu den neuesten Entwicklungen der praktischen Philosophie. Angesichts der globalen Ernährungskrise stellt sie sich den unausweichlichen Fragen: Wie kann sich die Menschheit ernähren? Wie »gut« sollten wir essen, so dass alle in den Genuss guten Essens kommen? Wie lässt sich eine Gastroethik begründen? Weit mehr als von Kapitalismuskritik oder der Ausweitung der internationalen Protestbewegungen geht die Ernährungswende von unserem Denken aus - von einem gastrosophischen Umdenken. Harald Lemke macht deutlich: Es ist höchste Zeit, die dafür notwendigen Grundlagen zu schaffen und mit einer radikalen Selbstkritik der westlichen Philosophie des Essens zu beginnen. Neuausgabe - mit einem ausführlichen Vorwort zur Frage: »Was isst der Mensch?«
Article
This paper aims to improve our understanding of food choices that are more sustainable in terms of moral and health aspects of eating. The aim of sustainability may require that people in Western countries choose to eat smaller quantities of meat as well as types of meat that are produced in a more responsible way. Focusing on mediators of the relationship between broad universalistic values and meat choices, we examined how involvement in food can be separated into promotion-oriented and prevention-oriented motivational goals. In a survey among 1530 Dutch consumers we found that that most of the basic human values were to a certain extent related to the direction of the food choice motives. However, giving priority to universalism appeared to be unique in its impact on food choices favouring less meat or free-range meat. This impact was weak but robust and it was mediated by prevention-oriented food choice motives together with a high level of involvement in food and motive-congruent animal friendly attitudes.
Article
This article distinguishes between hedonic and eudaimonic approaches to wellness, with the former focusing on the outcome of happiness or pleasure and the latter focusing not so much on outcomes as on the process of living well. We present a model of eudaimonia that is based in self-determination theory, arguing that eudaimonic living can be characterized in terms of four motivational concepts: (1) pursuing intrinsic goals and values for their own sake, including personal growth, relationships, community, and health, rather than extrinsic goals and values, such as wealth, fame, image, and power; (2) behaving in autonomous, volitional, or consensual ways, rather than heteronomous or controlled ways; (3) being mindful and acting with a sense of awareness; and (4) behaving in ways that satisfy basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. In fact, we theorize that the first three of these aspects of eudaimonic living have their positive effects of psychological and physical wellness because they facilitate satisfaction of these basic, universal psychological needs. Studies indicate that people high in eudaimonic living tend to behave in more prosocial ways, thus benefiting the collective as well as themselves, and that conditions both within the family and in society more generally contribute toward strengthening versus diminishing the degree to which people live eudaimonic lives.
Article
The extent to which foods differ in their likelihood of eliciting ambivalent attitudes and the effect of dietary restraint on these attitudes was investigated. Positive and negative attitudes toward 5 categories of food were collected from 82 female undergraduates. Two measures of restrained eating, the Restraint Scale and the Drive for Thinness subscale of the EDI-2, were also collected. Ambivalence scores computed from the separate positive and negative evaluations were higher on average for desserts and candies, high-sugar foods, and high-carbohydrate foods than for fruits and vegetables and meats. In addition, food attitudes were more ambivalent on average for restrained eaters, with ambivalence increasing as afunction of restraint for high-fat and high-carbohydrate foods in particular. By contrast, dietary restraint was associated with less ambivalence toward fruits and vegetables. Restrained eating also seemed to affect the negative attitude component more than the positive component. These latter effects suggest the importance of attitudes toward food in understanding restrained eating and its effect on behavior.
Article
“Scripted behaviour” underpins many repetitive and routine tasks, such as grocery shopping, where it is observed that some shoppers take a list and others do not. The notion of “scripts” is used to examine the underlying reasons for the presence and absence of grocery shopping lists on major weekly or two-weekly shopping trips to supermarkets. Little if any current information exists in marketing literature to fully explain the reasons for the presence or absence of lists, though it is known that such behaviour affects purchase activity in supermarkets. Set in New Zealand, this exploratory and preliminary study examines the shopping list being a moderator of purchase behaviour. It confirms previous research into the differences between list and non-list grocery shoppers and suggests that far more planning occurs amongst all grocery shoppers than might be expected. The study reveals that some grocery shoppers, regardless of the presence or absence of a written shopping list, have a flexible approach to grocery shopping that is part of their overall shopping script. It is suggested that supermarket retailing planners could act on this intelligence in such a way as to support shoppers' pre-planning, and thereby protect or increase their share of custom.
Article
The combined effects of population increase and increasing standards of living in developing countries are expected to create a high demand for animal-derived protein by 2050. New initiatives will be required to produce the necessary quantities of high quality protein. We explore a range of initiatives that will help to close this gap. We propose that three simultaneous changes will need to be made to meet future animal-derived protein demand. These are: shifting protein sources up the supply chain; use of plant-based substitutes or extenders for animal-derived protein foods; and use of novel sources for both animal and human nutrition.