Article

Optimization of spacing and drip irrigation scheduling in indeterminate tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

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Abstract

A study was carried out during winter (rabi) season of 2002 and 2003 on drip irrigation to find out optimum spacing and drip irrigation interval and its effect on growth, yield and water use efficiency in indeterminate tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. nom. cons). Results indicated that the maximum plant height and fruit yield (109.48 tonnes/ha) were obtained under closer spacing (60 cm x 30 cm) whereas number of branches, number of fruits/plant, fruit weight (79.78 g), fruit yields/plant (5.45 kg) and water use efficiency (5.21 to 5.12 tonnes/ha-cm) were noticed higher under wider spacing (60 cm x 60 cm). Drip irrigation at alternate day significantly improved the plant height, fruit yield/plant (5.19 kg) and total yield (96.37 tonnes/ha) over the larger intervals. In general, drip irrigation considerably enhanced most of the growth and yield parameters over the surface irrigation. Maximum fruit yield (114.93 tonnes/ha) was recorded when plants were spaced at 60 cm x 40 cm and drip irrigation was scheduled at an alternate day.

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... The Spacing had significant effects on growth, However, an increasing trend with closer geometry level could be noticed. This may be due to the competition between the inter and intra plants for sun light, water, nutrients and space at closer spacing which encouraged self thinning of branches and enhanced vertical growth rather than horizontal growth (Bahadur and Singh, 2005). The plants attained more vigour with phosphorus as compared to control, due to adequate supply and availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and spacing in balanced combination, resulting in increased dry weight of the plant. ...
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A field experiment was conducted at Central Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, SHUATS, Prayagraj, (U.P.) during Zaid-2020 by adopting two important factor of crop production spacing and phosphorus levels, it seems necessary factors for achieving the higher yield of green gram. The seed rate with unmanaged spacing which increases intra species competition and yield decrease. Besides, P also plays a significant role for the growth of green gram, phosphorus (P) required for energy transformation in nodules which contribute yield, hence green gram cultivation need more attention as it is important pulse crop in India. Spacing and phosphorus levels necessary factors for achieving the higher yield and economics of green gram. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, nearly neutral in soil reaction (pH 7.7), low high carbon (0.44%), low available N (171.48 kg/ha), low available P (9.27kg/ha) and high available K (291.2 kg/ha). The experiment was laid out in randomized block design and having nine treatment consisted of spacing viz., S 1 (20 × 10 cm), S 2 (30 × 10 cm), S 3 (40 × 10 cm) and Phosphorus viz., P 1 (20 Kg/ha), P 2 (40 Kg/ha) and P 3 (60 Kg/ha) which were replicated thrice and effect was observed on summer Green gram. The result shown significantly higher plant height (42.47cm), Dry weight (8.12g), Leaf area (166.05cm 2), number of leaves/plant (8.20), nodules/plant (16.00), Pods/plant (29.70), Seeds/pod (11.73), test weight (36.31g), Seed yield (1222.30 kg/ha), Stover yield (2948.86 kg/ha) and Biological yield (4171.16 kg/ha)was recorded with Spacing 30 × 10 cm along with the application of 60 kg/ha Phosphorus compared to the rest of the treatments. Which is beneficial for the green gram production.
... The pooled data of maximum number of fruits per vine (25.57) and fruit length (17.73 cm) were observed in same treatment i.e.V 1 S 1 F 1 (Kafka + 50×30 cm + once in a week of fertigation). The similar findings of increased number of fruits per vine due to uniformly and proper time for fertigation in whole crop duration was reported by Ughade et al. (2016); Mantur and Patil (2008) and Bahadur and Singh (2005) in tomato. Choudhari and More (2002) reported maximum number of fruits per vine and fruit weight at 1.80 m × 0.45 m spacing with fertigation experimentation in tropical gynoecious cucumber hybrid namely Phule Prachi. ...
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... Whereas, with spacing and organic manures 30×10 cm 2 + FYM 10 t/ha (3.75) are found statistically at par to 40×10 cm 2 + FYM 10 t/ha. Number of branches/plant was found to significantly higher under wider spacing; this may be attributed to more horizontal growth and plant canopy area under wider spacing due to less plant density and competition compared to those in closer spacing (Bahadur and Singh, 2005). The application of various nutrients through different sources either alone or in combination resulted in significantly higher number of branches per plant. ...
... The pooled data of maximum number of fruits per vine (25.57) and fruit length (17.73 cm) were observed in same treatment i.e.V 1 S 1 F 1 (Kafka + 50×30 cm + once in a week of fertigation). The similar findings of increased number of fruits per vine due to uniformly and proper time for fertigation in whole crop duration was reported by Ughade et al. (2016); Mantur and Patil (2008) and Bahadur and Singh (2005) in tomato. Choudhari and More (2002) reported maximum number of fruits per vine and fruit weight at 1.80 m × 0.45 m spacing with fertigation experimentation in tropical gynoecious cucumber hybrid namely Phule Prachi. ...
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The present study was conducted to assess the yield gaps in mustard cultivation that affect its economic efficiency in south-western and central Punjab, India. A total of 81 demonstrations (50 in south-western and 31 in central Punjab) were conducted during rabi-2018-19 to investigate the performance of GSC-7 variety, compared with PBR-91. In south-western Punjab, mean grain yield of GSC-7 was higher by ~14 per cent and average net returns were higher by ~53 per cent, compared with PBR-91. Average gross and net returns for GSC-7 were higher by ~23 per cent and ~52 per cent higher as compared to PBR-91. Average B-C ratio for GSC-7 was ~29 per cent higher in south-western Punjab and ~45 per cent in south-western Punjab, compared with PBR-91. Average grain yield of GSC-7 was ~40 per cent higher and of PBR-91 was higher by ~30 per cent in central Punjab, compared with south-western Punjab. The production efficiency of GSC-7 in central Punjab was higher by 4.0 kg ha-1 d-1 (~42%), compared with south-western Punjab. The percent increase in grain yield was ~46 per cent higher in central, compared with south-western Punjab. Although, mustard yield in south-western and central Punjab were higher, compared with the district and state averages, yet yield gaps of 7.7 and 1.9 q ha-1, respectively existed against yield potential for south-western and central Punjab. Our results indicated a considerable potential of yield maximization in south-western, compared with central Punjab.
... T 1 treatment gave maximum plant height (143.75 cm at 90 DAT), and LAI (2.78). Present results are supported by Bahadur and Singh (2005) that plant height and LAI was highest in sole planting of indeterminate variety in tomato. Further, planting systems had significant effect on number of flower clusters plant -1 , number of flowers cluster -1 and fruit set. ...
Article
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crop grown throughout the world not only in terms of hectarage, but also in terms of its versatility for adoption under wide range of agroclimatic conditions and crop growing situations. It is one of the most popular cash earning vegetable crops for marginal farmers of India. There is an urgent need to increase the production and productivity of tomato in the country and the state as well. The return from this crop has reduced gradually because of poor farmers practices with respect to plant population and selection of varieties. Generally the farmers are cultivating one type of variety at a time i.e. either determinate or indeterminate and creates gluts in the markets. The demand for semi-indeterminate to indeterminate varieties of tomato is increasing among farmers for extending harvesting period, but growing of such varieties require distant spacings and training that involves high cost of production which is a limiting factor. Therefore, there is need to standardize row spacing and combine of varieties for better utilization of available soil, water and atmospheric resources to enhance productivity and quality of tomato for regulating market and fetching better price by marginal farmer
... Bahadur and Singh [5] reported that, increase the number of branches in wider spaced rows was attributed due to more horizontal growth and plant canopy area due to less plant population density and other competitions compared to those in closer spacing. ...
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An experiment was carried out at the research field of Gokuleshwor Agriculture and Animal Science College Baitadi, Nepal from August 5, 2019, to November 10, 2019, to evaluate the impact of plant spacing on yield and yield contributing traits of black gram. The experiment was carried out at four levels of spacing viz. T1 (30×5 cm), T2 (30×10 cm), T3 (45×10 cm) and T4 (60×10 cm). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design having four replications. The differential plant spacing showed remarkable differences in yield and yield contributing traits of black gram cultivation practices at 0.05 level of significance. The highest plant spacing of 60×10 cm performed better in yield contributing traits such as; number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1 and number of seeds pod-1. Whereas, the maximum straw yield was found at closure spacing of 30×5 cm. Similarly, grain yield and harvest index were found superior at the spacing of 30×10 cm. Therefore, plant spacing of 30×10 cm can be recommended to the farmers of Baitadi after confirming the results for a few years. Keywords: Branches; Black gram; Harvest Index; Spacing; Yield
... It is concluded that total yield significantly increased as the spacing between plants within rows was increased. The results of the present study are in the close conformity with [18] and [19] in tomato crop. Among the various levels of spacing, maximum yield per sq meter (18.84 kg) was reported in the treatment S 1 (45 cm x 30 cm). ...
... Although it is impracticable and less remunerative to apply this technology in pulses as these are mostly grown in rainfed marginal lands with less care and management, it is now becoming more promising to grow these proteinyielding crops receiving better remuneration and acceptance (following appropriate policy decisions backed by higher support price; and marketability/storability of the produce in comparison to fruits and vegetables) 9 . In this context, economically viability (community sharing by cooperatives and village welfare schemes and adequate support from Governments in terms of providing subsidies and crop insurance) and better portability of microirrigation systems (such as drip and sprinklers) render its applicability even in pulses for fulfilling its demand right in place and right on time and quantity [10][11][12] . A more cursory look at agro-dynamics of field cultivation of pulses reveals that plant population or canopy arrangement may have pronounced effect on crop growth, development and productivity of crop. ...
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... The row spacing significantly influenced the growth parameters, yield attributes and seed yield in garden pea with superior performance at 60 cm × 10 cm over 45 cm × 10 cm during both the years and pooled over years The superior performance of growth parameters namely, branches/plant and nodes/plant along with yield related attributes such as pod length, seeds/pod and pods/ plant at wider row spacing (60 cm × 10 cm) resulted in significant higher seed yield to the tune of 7.3 per cent over the years besides, it also gave high seed germination and seed vigour index (Table 3). The good response for different growth parameters and yield at wider row spacing might be related to better vegetative growth, more horizontal growth, plant canopy area and efficient photosynthetic activities which might have enhanced the reproductive phase unlike narrow spacing (Bahadur and Singh, 2005). A marked increase in plant height at close spacing of 45 cm × 10 cm was attributed to higher plant population density which might have resulted in less plant canopy area and more vertical growth by producing weak and tall plants due to competition for space, light, nutrients and moisture compared to those at wider spacing (Shrikanth et al., 2008). ...
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A field experiment comprising of twelve treatment combinations was conducted for two years at Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur, India. Crop geometry treatment comprising of two row spacings (60 cm × 10 cm and 45 cm × 10 cm) were allocated to the main plots and six nitrogen management practices namely, Rhizobium inoculation in conjunction with 75 and 50 per cent of recommended N either as basal or split application and recommended N (100 %) were assigned in sub-plots. Wider spacing resulted in significant higher seed yield (7.3%) over close spacing along with superior performance of component traits and nutrient uptake. The split applied nitrogen resulted in better performance of different parameters which together enhanced seed yield by 13.8 per cent over recommended N as basal application. Augmentation of nitrogen with Rhizobium culture positively improved growth and yield parameters leading to net saving of 25 per cent N fertilizers as evident from higher seed yield in treatment comprising 75 per cent split applied N + Rhizobium over recommended N. Interaction effects of split applied N at both row spacings resulted in better performance for seed yield, other related traits and uptake of NPK. Split applied 100 per cent N at wide spacing resulted in 15.5 and 23.6 per cent higher seed yield over recommended N at wider and close spacing, respectively. It could be concluded that Rhizobium inoculation could save 25per cent synthetic fertilizer N. Wider spacing (60 cm × 10 cm) and split applied nitrogen was a better preposition for enhancing productivity of pea in an acid alfisol under north western Himalayas.
... Although precision irrigation system has proved its superiority to the other conventional system of irrigation, especially in remunerative fruit and vegetable crops (Locascio et al., 1989), owing to precise and direct application of water in root-zones (Bahadur and Singh, 2005), it could benefit the annual upland crops especially pulses. However, it is relatively non-adopted and uncommon for these important food crops. ...
... The silver/ black and black plastic mulches resulted in a 95-98% reduction in weed biomass (Rajablariani et al., 2012). Bahadur and Singh (2005) stated that a closer spacing of 60x40 cm recorded the highest plant height of 176.1 cm. Whereas, wider spacing of 60x60 cm recorded the highest number of branches per plant (13.2) in tomato. ...
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Mulching and planting geometry are the important modern agro techniques which can improve the yield and quality of seeds in vegetables. Numerous workers have given reasonable proof that mulches provide many advantages for the user, such as higher yields, better fruit quality, earlier harvest, better moisture retention, inhibition of weed growth, reduced fertilizer leaching, decreased soil compaction, fruit protection from soil deposits and from soil microorganisms. One of the main objectives of using plastic mulch is to increase soil temperature in the root-zone. The favourable root-zone temperature promotes the uptake of water and mineral nutrients, which in turn promotes better foliage, growth and fruit set. Planting geometry determines the plant distribution in the field and thereby affects competition among crop plants for minerals, nutrients and also important to facilitate aeration and light penetration into crop canopy. Plant arrangement has received relatively little attention particularly in bell pepper. In theory, equidistant spacing of plants within the row and between rows (an arrangement approaching a square) should maximize the yield per plant by optimizing canopy exposure to light and by providing a more uniform area for water and mineral uptake by the roots. Plant biomass production per unit area of land is directly related to solar radiation interception. Solar radiation interception depends on leaf area index, which is strongly determined by plant density and arrangement.
... The question of optimal irrigation scheduling for tomato has frequently been brought up in the literature, but the answers are far from being unanimous. Bahadur and Singh (2005) reported maximum tomato yields using DI when irrigation events were scheduled at alternate-day intervals. Vázquez et al. (2006) found that short irrigation intervals reduced both irrigation requirements and drainage loss, thus increasing water use efficiency. ...
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Chapter
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Article
Higher yields and increased water use efficiency has been very often attributed to drip irrigation than the conventional furrow irrigation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of drip and furrow irrigation systems and plant spacing on the yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Marglobe) and water use efficiency. The experiment was conducted at Dire Dawa, Ethiopia on a deep clay loam soil in the rain-free period of the 1991/1992 and 1992/1993 seasons. Two types of emitters, self-compensating and inline emitters, were used for the drip system with a discharge of 0.9 l/h and 1.2 l/h, respectively. Tomato was grown at spacing of 35 cm, 50 cm and 70 cm between plants. Higher yields of tomato were obtained with drip irrigation in both seasons as compared to furrow irrigation. No significant difference in yield was found in the 1992/1993 season among the two types of emitters. A similar trend was also observed on the effect of irrigation systems on fruit size and plant height. Plant spacing did not show any significant effect on fruit size and plant heights in both seasons. No plant spacing×irrigation interaction was observed for yield, fruit size, and plant heights in all the seasons. The water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation application efficiency were determined for both irrigation systems, and it was found that the drip system showed the highest values as compared to furrow irrigation.