Book

School Mental Health: Global Challenges and Opportunities

Authors:

Abstract

The realisation that most mental disorders have their onset before the age of twenty-five has focused psychiatric research towards adolescent mental health. This book provides vivid examples of school mental health innovations from eighteen countries, addressing mental health promotion and interventions. These initiatives and innovations enable readers from different regions and disciplines to apply strategies to help students achieve and maintain mental health, enhance their learning outcomes and access services, worldwide. Through case studies of existing programs, such as the integrated system of care approach in the USA, the school-based pathway to care framework in Canada, the therapeutic school consultation approach in Turkey and the REACH model in Singapore, it highlights challenges and solutions to building initiatives, even when resources are scarce. This will be essential reading for educators, health providers, policy makers, researchers and other stakeholders engaged in helping students achieve mental health and enhance their learning outcomes.
... Funding and workforce are the most significant challenges for SMHS [27]. About 0.06% of the national health budget is the share allocated to mental health in India [28] and mental health is neglected in the national health policy. ...
... A multi-layered approach is recommended with the active participation of policymakers at both central and state levels at the top with intermediary teams supervising SMHS and providing feedback to the top and, finally, school teachers implementing the SMHS. Hence, both top-down as well as bottom-up approaches are needed [27]. School-based mental health screening programs need to be increased as many of the existing SMHS are aimed at mental health promotion [31]. ...
... Our understanding of MHL has changed over the last number of years [10,16,18,21] and is defined as: (1) understanding how to obtain and maintain positive mental health; (2) understanding mental disorders and their treatments; (3) decreasing stigma related to mental disorders; and (4) enhancing help-seeking efficacy (knowing when and where to seek help and developing competencies designed to improve one's mental health care and self-management capabilities [10,16,18]. MHL is considered as the foundation for mental health promotion, early identification of mental illness, intervention and continuing care [20]. However, in Tanzania, there has been little research conducted on approaches to improving MHL. ...
... One significant and well-established institution that can be used to address various aspects of mental health (promotion, prevention and care) for young people is the school and, for this reason, school mental health is increasingly receiving global attention [12,13,17,20,23]. Simply put, schools are an ideal location in which to address MHL for both teachers and students. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Mental health literacy (MHL) is foundational for mental health promotion, prevention, stigma reduction, and care; School supported information pertaining to MHL in sub-Saharan Africa is extremely limited, including in Tanzania. Successful application of a school MHL curriculum resource may be an effective way to increase teacher MHL and therefore help to improve mental health outcomes for students. Methods: Secondary school teachers in Tanzania were trained on the African Guide (AG) a school MHL curriculum resource culturally adapted from a Canadian MHL resource (The Guide) for use in Africa. Teacher training workshops on the classroom application of the AG were used to evaluate its impact on mental health literacy in a sample of Tanzanian Secondary school teachers. Pre-post training assessment of participant knowledge and attitudes was conducted. Help-seeking efficacy for teachers themselves and their interventions for students, friends, family members and peers were determined. Results: Paired t test (n = 37) results demonstrate highly significant improvements in teacher's overall knowledge (p < 0.001; d = 1.14), including mental health knowledge, (p < 0.001; d = 1.14) and curriculum specific knowledge (p < 0.01; d = 0.63). Teachers' stigma against mental illness decreased significantly following the training (p < 0.001; d = 0.61). Independent t tests comparing the paired sample against unpaired sample also demonstrated significant differences between the groups for teacher's overall knowledge (p < 0.001). Teachers also reported high rates (greater than ¾ of the sample) of positive help-seeking efficacy for themselves as well as for their students, friends, family members and peers. As a result of the training, the number of students teachers identified for potential mental health care totaled over 200. Conclusions: These positive results, when taken together with other research, suggest that the use of a classroom-based resource (the AG) that integrates MHL into existing school curriculum through training teachers may be an effective and sustainable way to increase the MHL (improved knowledge, decreased stigma and positive help-seeking efficacy) of teachers in Tanzania. As this study replicated the results of a previous intervention in Malawi, consideration could be given to scaling up this intervention in both countries and applying this resource and approach in other countries in East Africa.
... Despite continued national and international efforts to improve children's mental health services, many youth do not receive treatment due to a variety of barriers, including perceived stigma, limited access to services, transportation difficulties, or limited financial resources (Fontanella et al. 2015;Kutcher et al. 2015;Owens et al. 2013). Indeed, it has been estimated that 20 % of youth experience social and emotional difficulties while only 6.0-7.5 % access mental health services (Kataoka et al. 2002), including those youth who struggle with the most significant impairments (Burns et al. 1995;Kataoka et al. 2002). ...
... Specifically, the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health (United States Department of Health and Human Services 2003), the Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health (United States Department of Health and Human Services 1999) and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001Act of (2002, all call for the expansion of mental health services for youth in schools. Although the rationale for providing mental health services in schools is strong and the energy for increasing these efforts has grown in the United States in recent decades (Foster et al. 2005;Weist and McDaniel 2013), strengthening the capacities of schools to provide high quality, evidencebased, on-site services remains a critical and on-going effort (Kutcher et al. 2015;Weist et al. 2014). Benefits to providing SMH programs have been documented for supporting youth with internalizing and externalizing symptoms broadly (e.g., Albright et al. 2013;Owens et al. 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Many evidence-based programs to address the emotional needs of youth experiencing mood difficulties are based on implementing “manualized” interventions. This approach often presents feasibility challenges in the school setting. In contrast, modular strategies, which involve implementing the most effective practices for specific emotional/behavioral problems, may be more feasible. Research, however, on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of modular approaches in schools to address youth experiencing mood difficulties is lacking. The multi-site current study tested the effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of a modular intervention approach delivered in schools for youth presenting with mood disorder symptoms. The pilot study included 20 participants (ages 12–16) and parents/caregivers for each student. Data were collected at baseline, throughout treatment, and following intervention or end of school year. The intervention, called the Student Emotional and Educational Development (SEED) project, included a modularized manual of efficacious and common practice elements for the treatment of mood disorders among adolescents. Decision making protocols guided provision of specific modules based on baseline and treatment data. Statistically significant differences were found between pretest and posttest assessments with modest to large effect sizes for youth and/or parents’ report of mood-related symptoms, including reduced symptoms of depression, anxiety and inattention. Clinically significant findings were also detected with more than 50 % of participants demonstrating reliable improvement on a global assessment of mental health symptoms. With regards to feasibility, these results were achieved with an average of nine, 45-min sessions across 2–3 months, and a subsample of participants overwhelmingly supported the acceptability of SEED. Although limited by the lack of a controlled comparison and small sample size, findings from this pilot study suggest this modular intervention focused on internalizing symptoms in students can be feasibly implemented in the school setting, is acceptable to students, and holds promise for improving their psychosocial functioning.
... School based intervention and life skills education aims to not only prevent suicide among children but also aims at promoting the mental health wellbeing of children in schools (Kutcher, 2015). School Social Workers can introduce the positive mental health promotion programmes in the schools as informed and supplemented by WHO (2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide is one of the major issues facing Kerala. This paper explores the incidence and causes of suicide. It reviews the literature and policy documents on the subject and draws on the research and professional experience of the authors to put forward strategies for suicide prevention and recommendations for practice. The strategies discussed range from family-based interventions to calling for different sectors of the state to work together to provide effective services that are aimed at addressing suicide in the community. Finally, recommendations for practice and the challenges facing social workers are discussed.
... Intergenerational psychiatry integrates three lines of investigation. The first, familial high-risk studies, examines risk of mental disorder as it travels within families 1,2 . Studying individuals at risk by virtue of their familial background, this approach helps isolate pathways by which mental disorder is transmitted in families, as well as endophenotypes predating disorder onset such as, for instance, cortical thinning and altered neural connectivity 3 . ...
... Teachers' involvement in supporting students' mental health presupposes they understand salient issues students will confront, but frequently, this is not the case. Data from across the world, including western industrialized countries, indicate that teachers have limited knowledge on this front regardless of the specific measures used (Kutcher et al., 2015). Thus, focused efforts at promoting mental health literacy (MHL) are critical. ...
Article
Teachers in the US are now considered integral to promoting students’ mental health; here we report on two major challenges for educators in high achieving schools (HAS). The first involves high adjustment disturbances among students. We present data on nine HAS cohorts showing elevated rates of clinically significant symptoms relative to norms; rates of anxious-depressed symptoms, in particular, were six to seven times those in national norms on average. As high achieving youth often keep internalizing symptoms hidden, their teachers will need help in understanding how to identify early signs of these types of distress, and to ensure appropriate, timely interventions. The second challenge we consider has to do with relationships between service providers and parents. Data obtained from the former showed that they tend to perceive relatively wealthy parents more negatively, and as more likely to threaten litigation, compared to parents from middle- or low-income backgrounds. We discuss the importance of proactively addressing such potentially adversarial relationships for the success of both the early detection of HAS students’ adjustment problems, and appropriate interventions for them. Next, we appraise how the aforementioned challenges can greatly exacerbate risks for burnout among educators in HAS settings, and how this might be alleviated via evidence-based, institutional-level interventions. Schools must ensure ongoing support for educators who carry the weighty, dual charge of tending to the emotional needs of a group of highly stressed students, in addition to ensuring their continued, exemplary levels of educational accomplishments.
... Esta distinción cobra especial relevancia en el campo de la salud mental en escuelas, pues gran parte de los dificultades que se abordan en este contexto tienen que ver con problemas de ajuste escolar que puede manifestarse tanto a través de conductas internalizantes o externalizantes, que requieren ser evaluadas para diferenciar si se trata sólo de un estado esporádico en los niños, de un factor de riesgo dada su intensidad o de indicadores tempranos del desarrollo de un trastorno de salud mental que requieren ser abordados a través de un diagnóstico y atención especializada (Kutcher, Wei, & Weist, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Early identification of children who may have a mental health problem is essential to implement preventive and treatment actions. In order to do this, it is necessary to have valid instruments adapted to the characteristics of the population and the contexts in which they are applied. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to validate the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-17) in Chilean first grade elementary school students. A random sample of 5177 students participating in a national school mental health program was used. The children were evaluated by their parents or caregivers and their teachers. Results of a Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed a three-factor structure composed of: internalizing, externalizing and attention difficulties. These findings are consistent with what has been reported in the literature, transforming the PSC-17 into a good screening tool for use in schools and health centers.
... Los trastornos de salud mental en la población infanto-adolescente se han convertido en uno de los problemas de salud pública más relevantes en el mundo (Belfer, 2008). Para abordarlos se han desarrollado modelos de intervención que vinculan dispositivos de prevención y tratamiento en un continuo de cuidados, entre los que destacan los aplicados en la escuela por su cobertura, costo-efectividad y capacidad de articular metas de distintos sectores (Kutcher, Wei, & Weist, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
La adherencia es una de las variables más estudiadas de la fidelidad de la implementación en salud mental escolar, pero son pocos los estudios que la abordan considerando los componentes estratégicos de intervención. Objetivo. El propósito de esta investigación fue indagar si los patrones de adherencia a componentes estratégicos influyen sobre los resultados del programa chileno Habilidades para la Vida. Metodología. Se tomaron datos de 110 comunas del país. Se aplicó el Cuestionario de Evaluación de la Calidad de Programas de Salud Mental Escolar a coordinadores de equipos de implementación y se creó un índice comunal de mejoramiento socioemocional basado en las respuestas de padres y profesores a la encuesta de evaluación anual del programa. Resultados. Se identificaron 19 componentes que se asocian a estrategias de intervención, diseño y evaluación, trabajo colaborativo y aprendizaje del modelo del Programa. Con estos se calcularon modelos de clases latentes, encontrando dos patrones de adherencia. A través de un ANOVA se evidenció que los equipos que desarrollan un patrón adherente obtienen resultados significativamente mayores que los que desarrollan un patrón no adherente. Discusión. Se concluye que los resultados del programa son mejores cuando los equipos son adherentes a ciertos componentes estratégicos definidos como esenciales. Se discuten las implicancias prácticas de este hallazgo.
... Esta distinción cobra especial relevancia en el campo de la salud mental en escuelas, pues gran parte de los dificultades que se abordan en este contexto tienen que ver con problemas de ajuste escolar que puede manifestarse tanto a través de conductas internalizantes o externalizantes, que requieren ser evaluadas para diferenciar si se trata sólo de un estado esporádico en los niños, de un factor de riesgo dada su intensidad o de indicadores tempranos del desarrollo de un trastorno de salud mental que requieren ser abordados a través de un diagnóstico y atención especializada (Kutcher, Wei, & Weist, 2015). ...
... internacional ha intentado definir la forma cotidiana que adquieren las intervenciones en SME, con tal de entregar lineamientos para el mejoramiento de la calidad (Lever, Chambers, Stephan, Page, & Ghunney, 2010;Vostanis, Humphrey, Fitzgerald, Deighton, & Wolpert, 2013), lo que ha permitido comparabilidad y generalizaci?n de las estrategias m?s pertinentes y efectivas para ayudar a los estudiantes a enfrentar sus dificultades socioemocionales y acad?micas La salud mental escolar desde la perspectiva de profesionales chilenos [ 3 ] ( Kutcher, et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN La articulación entre los servicios educativos y los servicios de salud mental ha fortalecido el estudio de las intervenciones efectivas de salud mental en el contexto escolar. Esta investigación indaga en ese campo a través de la descripción de los problemas de salud mental presentes en las escuelas, las condiciones contextuales de implementación y las intervenciones necesarias de realizar desde la perspectiva de profesionales chilenos. Participaron 197 ejecutores del programa Habilidades para la Vida, contestando una encuesta on-line. Las respuestas fueron analizadas mediante análisis de contenido cuantitativo. Se encontró que la mayor dificultad de salud mental que enfrentan los profesionales son las conductas externalizantes de los estudiantes. Entre las condiciones contextuales que obstaculizan la implementación, se destaca el modelo educacional y la falta de espacios en la agenda escolar. Los profesionales sugieren que es necesario intervenir en padres y profesores, fortaleciendo acciones auxiliares, como la articulación de redes dentro y fuera de la escuela. Se discuten los resultados a la luz de la evidencia internacional destacando la necesidad de profundizar las investigaciones nacionales. Palabras clave: condiciones de implementación, dificultades externalizantes, programas escolares, prevención escolar, salud mental escolar ABSTRACT The articulation between educational services and mental health services has strengthened the study of effective mental health interventions in the school context. This study investigates in this field through the description of mental health problems present in schools, the contextual conditions of implementation and the necessary interventions to be carried out from Chilean professionals' perspective. An on-line survey was administered to 197 school mental health professionals who implemented the Skills for Life Program throughout the country. A quantitative content analysis was used to analyze the answers. It was found that the major difficulty of mental health faced by professionals is the externalizing behavior regarding the contextual conditions that obstacle implementation, the educational model and the lack of spaces in the school agenda stand out. On the other hand, professionals suggest that it is necessary to intervene with parents and teachers, strengthening this way auxiliary actions, such as the articulation of networks inside and outside the school. The results are discussed in light of international evidence highlighting the need to deepen national investigations.
... Also, the author proposed a training programme on mental health delivered to the general population to improve MHL interventions [9]. These studies point out the need to increase MHL due to the high number of mental disorder cases among young people and the low precocious diagnosis [15], the need to carry out these types of interventions in school settings [16][17][18] and the importance of working together in a coordinated way among the different services (educational centres, mental health services and community health) so as to benefit the health of young people [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: One half of adults who develop any mental disorder do so during adolescence. Previous literature showed that Mental Health Literacy (MHL) interventions impact mental health knowledge, reduce the associated stigma, and promote help-seeking among the adolescent population. However, evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these programmes remains inconclusive. The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol that evaluates the effectiveness of the " EspaiJove.net " programme. " EspaiJove.net " consists of a universal MHL intervention designed to promote mental health knowledge, increase help-seeking, reduce the stigma associated with mental illness, and prevent mental disorders in Spanish school settings. Methods: A school-based clustered randomised controlled trial (cRCT) design with 12 months of follow-up. Subjects: At least 408 secondary school students who attend the 3rd year of E.S.O (Compulsory secondary education for 13- to 14-year- olds) will be recruited from 8 schools within Barcelona city, Catalonia (Spain). Intervention: A dose-response intervention will be delivered with 4 arms: 1) Sensitivity Programme (SP) in Mental Health (1 h); 2) Mental Health Literacy (MHL) Programme (6 h); 3) MHL plus first-person Stigma Reduction (MHL + SR) (7 h); 4) Control group: waiting list. Primary outcomes: 1) MHL: EspaiJove.net MHL Test (EMHLT); 2) Stigma: Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) and Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI). Others outcomes: 1) Acceptability of intervention; 2) Mental health symptoms and emotional well-being (SDQ); 3) States of Change Scale (SCS); 4) Bullying and Cyberbullying; 5) Quality of life (EQ-5D); 6) Help seeking and use of treatment; 7) Health benefits. Discussion: Results would be informative for efforts to prevent mental disorders and promote mental wellbeing in secondary school students. Trial registration: NCT03215654 (date registration July 12, 2017).
... Also, the author proposed a training programme on mental health delivered to the general population to improve MHL interventions [9]. These studies point out the need to increase MHL due to the high number of mental disorder cases among young people and the low precocious diagnosis [15], the need to carry out these types of interventions in school settings [16][17][18] and the importance of working together in a coordinated way among the different services (educational centres, mental health services and community health) so as to benefit the health of young people [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation of a mental health literacy program for adolescents. The “Espai Jove.net” project is a mental health literacy program whose purpose is the promotion of mental health, the prevention of mental disorders and the eradication of stigma in school youth. During the three school years 2012 to 2015, 5.231 teenagers have participated in some training activity and 2.813 completed a satisfaction questionnaire with the following results: 91 % it has seemed interesting and useful, 85,4 % were pleased to have participated, 73,7 % have resolved their doubts and 78 % recommend the activity.
... American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Task Force on Mental Health, 2009;President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health's, 2003). Requests to improve the integration of mental health care in schools have long been promoted (Stephan, Weist, Kataoka, Adelsheim, & Mills, 2007) and a body of literature supporting the positive impact of school mental health (SMH) services on youth outcomes exists (Kutcher, Wei, & Weist, 2015;Weist, Lever, Bradshaw, & Owens, 2014). In addition to schools, primary care settings have been noted as critical locations for mental health care integration (World Health Organization, 2005), in part because of their potential to overcome numerous barriers to care, as well as the unique strengths presented by paediatric primary care providers (PCPs; Bray, Frank, McDaniel, & Heldring, 2004;Hagan, Shaw, & Duncan, 2008;Kolko, 2009). ...
Article
Education and primary care sectors have been called upon to attend to shortages in access to mental health services among children and adolescents. In response, these settings have increasingly attempted to address this need, though research exploring such collaborative efforts remains limited. The current special issue features research examining collaborations between school and paediatric primary care settings, bringing original research and clinical examples to bear on partnerships which leverage opportunities to improve access to high-quality mental health care. Articles in this special issue underscore the positive youth outcomes associated with effective collaboration across these systems and augment the literature describing innovative and successful approaches to this work. Further, articles in this issue identify barriers to collaborative efforts and present opportunities for future research and practice.
Article
Aims: Young people often seek help from their peers for mental health problems. However, little is known about young people's experiences of helping a peer with a mental health problem. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on young people's help-giving actions, highlight any gaps in the research and examine the evidence for interventions designed to increase and improve help-giving. The secondary aim was to compare findings between help-giving in face-to-face and online settings. Methods: Embase, SCOPUS, PsycINFO and MEDLINE electronic databases were searched for English studies published from 2003 onwards. Studies focusing on the help-giving actions of young people (aged 12-25 years) towards a peer with a mental health problem were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute quality appraisal tools. Data were synthesized using thematic and narrative analysis. Results: Twenty-one studies (3440 participants) were included. The most frequently reported help-giving themes were encouraging professional and adult support and providing emotional support. Although limited studies reported on online help-giving, online settings allowed for immediate help to be provided despite time or location. Both positive and negative outcomes for helping were identified. Improvements in the quality of help-giving were found after training; however, help-giving for mental health crises was poor. Conclusions: Further research regarding the young people's help-giving actions to peers online is required. Training programs need to consider how to further improve the quality of help-giving among young people and to increase the trainees' confidence in helping, particularly in a mental health crisis.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Mental state and social condition are integrally linked to a person's physical health. The present study investigates the mental health literacy levels of patients aged 30-50 years who presented to the outpatient clinics of training and research hospital, as well as the relationship between mental health literacy and sociodemographic characteristics. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study included 522 patients aged 30-50 years who presented to the Adult Outpatient Clinics of Karabuk University Training and Research Hospital between October and December 2021. The participants were administered a two-part, 33-item face-to-face questionnaire, in which the first part included 11 items assessing sociodemographic characteristics, and the second part included a 22-item scale comprising three (knowledge, belief, and resource-oriented) subscales for the measurement of the level of Mental Health Literacy (MHL). Results: The mean scores of knowledge, belief and resource-oriented subscales were 8.92±0.98, 1.16±0.92 and 3.37±0.71, respectively, and the mean total MHL scale score was 13.46±1.39. The participants' education level, employment status, financial status, presence of chronic and psychiatric diseases, and psychiatric medication were significantly associated with the MHL scale scores (p=0.013, p=0.023, p=0.024, p=0.000, p=0.000 and p= 0.000, respectively). Conclusion: As the level of MHL increases, so does the person's awareness of the symptoms of mental health disorders and the correct use of appropriate treatment resources. It is believed that training programs aimed at improving mental health literacy will improve health-related social outcomes, thereby reducing the burden of disease.
Article
Application of evidence-based mental health literacy (MHL) curriculum resources by classroom teachers has been demonstrated to significantly improve knowledge and decrease stigma in the short term. Aims: To report results that extend these positive findings for a period of one year. Method: In a naturalistic cohort study, 332 grade 9 students (ages 14-15) in a Canadian school district learned from an evidence-based curriculum resource (the Guide) applied by classroom teachers who trained in its use. Evaluations of knowledge and stigma were conducted before the Guide, immediately following the Guide delivery and at one-year follow-up. Results: Students showed significant (p < .001) and substantial (d = 0.68 and 0.67) short-term and significant (p < .001) and substantial (d = 0.44 and 0.58) long-term improvements in knowledge and reductions in stigma. Significant stigma reduction was found among female students than male students, but no gender differences on knowledge were found at long-term follow-up. Educators showed significant and substantial short-term improvements in knowledge (p < .001; d = 1.03) and reductions in stigma (p < .05; d = 0.35). Conclusions: The Guide resource delivered by trained classroom teachers may have value in enhancing MHL outcomes for young people.
Chapter
This chapter is about childhood adversities and the problems and mental health of street children, child laborers, and child slaves and soldiers. It describes intolerable and worse distressing aspects of child deprivation that are complex, social, cultural, political, and economical in nature; that often overlap as the different categories or types can be mutually inclusive and difficult to differentiate; or they are hard to understand the constraints of the constructs thereof; are controversial in terms of their impact on child development and mental health; and more importantly, to anybody they stimulate evoke variable responses and a range of thresholds of emotive issues such as degrees of acceptability, child rights, ethics, and morals (ILO 2015; Geneva 2015; Liebel 2015; Munthali 2018; Myers 2001). These constructs in this chapter referring to street children, child laborers, child slaves, and soldiers are dealt with separately in more detail. Finally, this chapter cites some examples of what works in improving the lives of child laborers, street children, and child slaves and soldiers.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to identify the elements that characterize local teams which implement a nationwide preventive mental health intervention in schools and achieve better results. A mixed‐methods sequential explanatory design was conducted in two phases: (a) teams were characterized according to their level of achievement in the preventive intervention through latent class analysis; and (b) case studies of three teams with different implementation results were conducted by performing content analysis on interviews, observations, and documents. It was established that the more effective teams have better planning, the more they are familiar with the intervention, and more aware of their strengths and weaknesses. This team also implement culturally pertinent actions aimed at increasing knowledge about the intervention, which causes schools to experience it as part of their community, since they include the intervention in their regular dynamics. Lastly, the importance and relevance of these elements when working in educational communities is discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Psychotherapy supervision, as an ever-evolving signature pedagogy, is briefly described, its essentials summarized.
Chapter
This chapter is an introduction to forensic psychiatry. It provides information of what constitutes forensic psychiatry practice in different countries. The interplay between justice, criminal responsibility and mental health varies among countries. Although there are shared principles acknowledging some relationship between mental disorder and offending, how this is put into practice within the judicial process may differ. This chapter consequently describes in detail the British system and focuses on issues such as the remit of clinical forensic psychiatry and how it is practiced in courts, in prisons, in specialised hospitals and also in the community. It also lays out details about the different forensic psychiatry systems in Europe (outside UK), Australia, Asia, America and the Middle East.
Article
Full-text available
Background High rates of mental illness and addictions are well documented among youth in Nicaragua. Limited mental health services, poor mental health knowledge and stigma reduce help-seeking. The Mental Health Curriculum (MHC) is a Canadian school-based program that has shown a positive impact on such contributing factors. This pilot project evaluated the impact of the MHC on mental wellness and functioning among youth in Leon, Nicaragua. Methods High school and university students (aged 14–25 years) were assigned to intervention (12-week MHC; n = 567) and control (wait-list; n = 346) groups in a non-randomized design. Both groups completed measures of mental health knowledge, stigma and function at baseline and 12 weeks. Multivariate analyses and repeated measures analyses were used to compare group outcomes. Results At baseline, intervention students showed higher substance use (mean difference [MD] = 0.24) and lower perceived stress (MD = −1.36) than controls ( p < 0.05); there were no other group differences in function. At 12 weeks, controlling for baseline differences, intervention students reported significantly higher mental health knowledge (MD = 1.75), lower stigma (MD = 1.78), more adaptive coping (MD = 0.82), better lifestyle choices (MD = 0.06) and lower perceived stress (MD = −1.63) ( p < 0.05) than controls. The clinical significance as measured by effect sizes was moderate for mental health knowledge, small to moderate for stigma and modest for the other variables. Substance use also decreased among intervention students to similar levels as controls (MD = 0.03) ( p > 0.05). Conclusions This pilot investigation demonstrates the benefits of the MHC in a low-and-middle-income youth population. The findings replicate results found in Canadian student populations and support its cross-cultural applicability.
Article
A substantial body of evidence verifies that social-emotional learning (SEL) can be effectively taught in schools and can reduce the prevalence and impact of emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) among children and youth. Although the positive effects of SEL on individual student’s emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes have been investigated in some detail in recent years, most studies have focused on evaluating programs aimed at directly training social and emotional competencies with a focus on the individual. Far less is known about the role of interpersonal group dynamics and systems functioning at the levels of the peer group, classroom, and school community. Drawing on Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory and Harris’s group socialization theory, this article reviews the literature on SEL and group dynamics to identify the ways in which existing SEL frameworks already encapsulate social group processes that contribute to the promotion of positive social-emotional development of children and youth. The goals of this contribution are twofold: (a) to document how EBP can be attenuated by addressing group-level processes that already exist within SEL practices and (b) to provide educators with specific SEL strategies to address group dynamics in their classrooms to optimize outcomes for all students, including students with EBP.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.