The notion of organic architecture originally sprung from the ideas of Violletle-Duc and Ruskin, which influenced Wright and Gaudí. The second interpretation of organic architecture is based on mathematic and geometric laws that originate in nature. According to the third interpretation, organic architecture finds inspiration in nature and emulates the shapes of living organisms.
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... It identifies the shape and structural strength of the Venus flower basket sponge (Euplectella aspergillum) that lives in the deep sea. This proposition has been investigated in the theory of Radiolarians, which is about the way organisms develop their structures in response to a motion to strengthen the organisms themselves or by reducing the material that inhibits them . ...
Architecture is a multidisciplinary field, with or without intention, architecture absorbs knowledge from other fields of discipline to become a part that enriches itself. If knowledge is centered on signs and meanings, then Eco's semiotic theory which is based on communication and signification becomes interesting to be verified as a method of transferring concepts/propositions from other disciplines. This research is a theoretical qualitative research with case studies which include: (1) Analysis to examine the relationship between the components of the structure of the Elementary Communication Model as a coding system descriptively for interdisciplinary purposes; (2) Verification of Modes of Sign Production as a concept transfer method through case studies of “The Gherkin Tower” work of Norman Foster and “Church of the Light” work of Tadao Ando. This study concludes that the difference in the scope of each discipline area lies in the continuum, so it is necessary to add a “Converter” component to the Channel component of the Elementary Communicational Model structure, and Modes of Sign of Production as a converter method.
... In the 19 th century architecture, however, the application of biological principles was rather a topic for debate than a design inspiration or a research subject. While some notable representatives of this period believed that the ultimate beauty of nature should simply continue to be imitated, others, like Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, argued for the architecture that does not copy the nature, but instead emulates its laws . The later design approach was a stimulus for more thoughtful analogies with biological systems that aimed to derive technically usable solutions based on natural abstraction [5:4]. ...
This paper elaborated on a variety of reasons for the use of biological principles in building context over time. A particular accent was placed on position of biological systems within the contemporary concepts of sustainability, circularity, resilience, and regeneration. Existing design barriers were identified and discussed, and the currently available ways to overcome them were outlined. Conclusively, several general steps towards a more comprehensive future application of biological principles in building design were suggested.
Kentsel mekân gibi girdilerin ve değişkenlerin çok fazla olduğu tasarım alanlarında, tasarımcıların öznel bakış açısı yerine nesnel verilerin karar verme sürecinde etkin rol alması gerekmektedir. Çalışmada temel olarak parametrik tasarım araçları kullanılarak performansa dayalı tasarım yöntemi geliştirilmiştir. Bu yöntemde, kentsel mekândaki video görüntülerinden elde edilen yaya hareketlerinin üç boyutlu analiz verileri kullanılarak, sert zeminlerin yoğun olduğu kentsel yaya mekânlarında yumuşak zemin alanları tasarımı için bir yönerge elde edilmektedir. Bu çalışma, tasarımcılara, yaya hareketi ile ilgili veri sağlamak üzere, hesaplamalı tekniklerin nasıl bir tasarım rehberi olabileceğini göstermektedir. Parametrik tasarım yazılımı olan Grasshopper kullanılarak, görsel kodlamaya dayalı analiz yöntemiyle kentsel mekândaki yaya hareketlerinin yoğunluğu elde edilmiş ve bu analiz doğrultusunda tasarım yapan bir algoritma geliştirilmiştir. Algoritmanın türettiği tasarım, konvansiyonel yöntemlerle profesyonel tasarımcılar tarafından geliştirilen tasarımlar ile performans bakımından kıyaslanmıştır. Sonuç olarak geliştirilen algoritmanın türettiği tasarımın, insan eliyle elde edilen tasarımlardan daha performanslı olduğu saptanmıştır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Algoritmik tasarım, yaya davranışları, kentsel tasarım
Tree-like architectures and branching structures are one of the analogical designs that are among the nature inspired structures arousing attention of the designers, inspiring them and that are frequently confronted throughout the history of architecture. Likewise, trees are structural models for designers beyond the plant and branching patterns that are used as architectural ornamentation. Trees have the characteristics of being mentors for architects and engineers concerning how the vertical and the horizontal loads are transmitted through the trunks, branches, and leaves and how the balance is provided. Within this context, it is possible to claim that a quite wide and intuitively developed structural knowledge is acquired with the tree analogies throughout the history of architecture. By the development of computational design technologies, there have been significant developments in the design and the building of tree-like structures. Especially the number of branching, angles of dendroids, lengths, and the other parameters can be defined by using algorithms and can be optimized also by the help of computational tools. In this paper, the historical development and classification of the treelike structures have been carried out and Frei Otto who is the pioneer to pave the way for innovative structures related to this field has been selected to revisit the efficiency of lightweight columns inspired by nature. One of the experimental studies of Otto in which he called as “minimum path system” has been determined as the case study; the parametric design behind the structure has been analyzed and reproduced by using a parametric software. The structural effectiveness has been determined and discussed by testing the obtained models using a FEM program under horizontal and vertical loads. Consequently, the structural effectiveness of today’s computational technologies and the branching structures that Otto built intuitively and by natural analogies have been able to be tested and the possible potentials that can be leading for today’s architects have been demonstrated.
ANALYSIS OF PEDESTRIAN BEHAVIOR AND TRANSFERRING TO DESIGN BY ALGORITHMIC APPROACH
In design fields such as urban space, where inputs and variables are high, objective data should play an active role in decision-making rather than subjective perspective of designers. In this study a performance-based design method was developed by using parametric design tools. This method uses three-dimensional data analysis of pedestrian movements obtained from video recordings in urban spaces for softscape design in urban pedestrian spaces where hardscapes are dense. This study shows how computational techniques can be a design guide providing designers with pedestrian movement data. By using the parametric design software Grasshopper, the intensity of pedestrian movements in urban space is analysed based on visual coding and a design algorithm is developed in accordance with this analysis. This algorithm-derived design is then compared to designs developed by professionals by conventional methods. As a result, it is determined that the design which is obtained by the algorithm developed has a higher performance than the designs obtained conventional manual methods.
Keywords: Algorithmic design, pedestrian behavior, urban design
Contemporary interdisciplinary design requires architects' knowledge and cooperation with such fields as construction, material engineering, fabrication methods, and knowledge in optimisation of the design process, production, and minimisation of used materials and energy. Following the example of other disciplines, contemporary architecture seeks inspiration from Nature on various levels. The development of modern tools and materials opens unprecedented opportunities for designers to shape free forms with precision, following sustainable development guidelines. The article presents the influence of biomimicry inspiration on shaping spatial structures of 20th and 21st-century architecture. The primary conclusion of the review indicates the need for further implementing bio-logic strategies into interdisciplinary, holistic building design.
Architectural innovation, both at morphological and technological scale, have increased the importance of new methodologies and tools for the building performance analysis. New organic shapes have decreased the reliability of traditional specialistic knowledge, highlighting the importance of new methodologies to manage complex models and analyse the indoor comfort. The aim of this paper is to present a case study of the acoustic design of an organic open-space airport, realized integrating architectural and acoustic concepts in the design workflow. The building, characterized by a curvilinear plan, a wavy suspended ceiling, and a tilted façade, behave as a single tall, large volume containing different small low-height closed service boxes. This architectural approach leads to a mixture of functions in the same large volume with a resulting complex problem of acoustic optimization. To that end, different studies have been conducted from the protection from external noise to the optimization of the reverberation time, and to the design of the speakers. Considering the geometric complexity, different tools and a particular methodology have been used to properly model the building and to optimize the use and the placement of acoustic absorbing materials.
The conditions of a building's indoor environment can greatly influence occupant well-being. This influence can be difficult to quantify because of the wide range of parameters. This qualitative study reviews over 200 pieces of literature on both the indoor environment and occupant well-being and attempts to identify the indoor environment criteria and parameters associated with occupant well-being in an office building context. Through semistructured interviews with experts, this paper explored the applicability of the identified indoor environment parameters on occupant well-being in Malaysian office buildings. Thematic analysis assisted by NVivo software was applied to the empirical data, and this resulted in the identification of 15 parameters and classified four criteria for occupant well-being: occupant comfort, occupant health, occupant adaptation, and occupant safety. The findings of this study contribute to the literature a novel conceptual model for evaluating occupant well-being in office buildings, as applied to the case of Malaysian office buildings.
This paper presents a special type of innovative light structural systems under the name of tensegrity. The paper looks into their history, gives a summary of design issues and analyzes some examples of its practical application. These structures require a close cooperation between an architect and a structural engineer from the very beginning. Knowledge of design and in particular of structural principles will certainly contribute to its wider applicability in the future.
Frank Lloyd Wright's admiration for traditional Japanese art has long hen well known. Yet, its precise role in his work has remained far from generally agreed. It is argued here that although Wright was by no means immune to the kind of romanticism that characterized much popular 19th century "Japanism," his particular interpretation of Japanese art differed significantly from the norm through being underpinned with the ideas of his first employer's cousin, the Harvard-educated Japanese art scholar Ernest Fenollosa and that quite apart from molding Wright's views on Japanese art, this early influence also exercised an important influence on his approach to his own work. Evidence is presented that when Fenollosa's analyses of Japanese art were translated into a general system of art education by his erstwhile colleague Arthur Dow, the resulting book, known as Composition, had a direct impact on several of Wright's early designs The primary argument advanced is that the Fenollosa-Dow conception of art in terms of "synthetic line-ideas" appears to have encouraged Wright to take a similar approach to his own discipline with the architectural plan rendering, and decorative design all being treated as aesthetically pleasing "organic wholes" in avid of themselves, above and beyond their practical implications.
Smartgeometry (SG) is a key influence on the architectural community who explore creative computational methods for the design of buildings. An informal international network of practitioners and researchers, the group meets annually to experiment with new technologies and collaborate to develop digital design techniques.
When SG was founded in 2001 by London-based architects and friends Hugh Whitehead (Foster + Partners), J Parrish (AECOM) and Lars Hesselgren (PLP), there was little in the way of parametric tools for architecture. SG was founded to encourage the development, discussion and experimentation of digital design techniques driven by design intent rather than on construction specifications. SG calls for a re-consideration of the design process, where the creation of computational mechanisms become an integral part of designing – not a task done prior to or separate from the process. In the early years of the workshops this need for new ways of design thinking led to the development of Bentley´s GenerativeComponents software. In recent years, the ecology of these design environments has diversified to include multiple software platforms, as well as innovative fabrication techniques and interactive environments. SG has grown accordingly from a handful of experts to an international network of designers who are defining the future of design. Founded by digital pioneers, it creates the algorithmic designers of the future.
Inside Smartgeometry can be seen as a retroactive manifesto for SG, examining and contextualising the work of the SG community: the digital spaces, prototypes and buildings designed using bespoke tools created in response to architectural ideas. From interactive crowd-sourcing tools to responsive agent-based systems to complex digitally fabricated structures, it explores more than a decade of advances that have been influential for architecture. Through 23 original texts including reflections by the founders, and key contributors such as Robert Aish, Martin Bechthold, Mark Burry, Chris Williams and Robert Woodbury, the book offers a critical state of the art of computational design for architecture. Many international design and engineering firms have participated in SG and the book includes chapters by practitioners from offices such as CASE, Design2Production, Foster + Partners, Grimshaw, Populous and SOM.
Smartgeometry (SG) was founded on the premise that a first-principles exploration of geometry in relation to design intent could benefit architectural design. The development, discussion and dissemination of these explorations of technique have been central to the SG workshops and conferences. The SG community explores these through parametric design, computer programming, digital fabrication, interactive design, simulation and optimisation. The scope of these approaches is enlarged at each yearly event. SG has been, and continues to be, a place where these concepts are not only discussed, tested and critically reflected upon, but critically, a place where this knowledge is created. SG explores the ideas of design computation, with the notion that there is a distinction between the generative description of the building, and the resulting generated model of the building.
Vernacular architecture is an important part of our culture. It is simple, modest, but definitely effective. Science, on the other side, is not primitive, modest, nor simple. Vernacular architecture with its primitive methods is closer to science than we can imagine. The prime man understood that order is the most important, the order that could be found in quantities: line, plane and space. He also started to use first measure units: inch (finger), elbow, foot. The paper presents some examples of the use of proportion systems in architecture.
In the 1870s and 1880s, when the establishment of schools of architecture in the United States was in its infancy, one of the main methods of architectural education for builders, carpenters and others who wished to advance in the field was to study the many books on architecture being published after the Civil War. Even professional architects had frequent recourse to books (and also periodicals) for design ideas, theory and contemporary issues. Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc was one author who was avidly read during this period; at least eight volumes of his writing were available in English. His Discourses on Architecture (volume 1 published here in 1875; both volumes in 1881) was of immense importance both to well known architects such as Furness, Van Brunt, Jenney and Root--and probably even Hunt--but also to uncounted lesser architects. Viollet was extolled by architectural critics such as Montgomery Schuyler, and even the young Frank Lloyd Wright owed much to his writings. Viollet's influence here ranged from architectural theory to providing specific design motifs to an eclectic American architecture.
Too often mathematics and architecture are related through concepts that have been central in Renaissance, and through ideas that were new in the 15th century; in this research, we propose sophisticate geometrical ideas and shapes that are still today object of active researches in mathematics, such as curves, vector fiber bundle, fibrations, foliations, non-euclidean surfaces etc...in order to read architectural realizations as well as to “equate” objects with an artistic or design value. This is done independently of the awareness of the “conceiver”.