Article

Methods of Conflict Resolution in African Traditional Society

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Abstract

This study examined the patterns or mechanism for conflict resolution in traditional African societies with particular reference to Yoruba and Igbo societies in Nigeria and Pondo tribe in South Africa. The paper notes that conflict resolution in traditional African societies provides opportunity to interact with the parties concerned, it promotes consensus-building, social bridge reconstructions and enactment of order in the society. The paper submits further that the western world placed more emphasis on the judicial system presided over by council of elders, kings’ courts, peoples (open place) assemblies, etc; for dispute settlement and justice dispensation. It concludes that traditional conflict resolution techniques such as mediation, adjudication, reconciliation, and negotiation as well as cross examination which were employed by Africans in the past, offer great prospects for peaceful co-existence and harmonious relationships in post-conflict periods than the modern method of litigation settlements in law courts. Key words: African Conflict, Mediation, Reconciliation, Adjudication, Negotiation, etc

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... The performance level of conflict resolution in African societies enabled participants in the ensuing drama to further understand and depreciate that custom and norms bequeathed to them by their ancestors. Olaoba (2010) opined that, the performance had always been stage managed by notable dramatic personae, which included experience elders, priests, agegrades, chiefs and kings in African societies. The stage as set for the drama of adjudication included homes (as family court), markets (as commercial court), streets (as open court) as Palaces (as royal court). ...
... Thus one of the officers involved in the conflict resolution (a character on the upper stage) was responsible for announcing to other dramatic personae of the commencement of the action on stage. Such announcement signaled to the participants (parties to the conflict, witnesses and audience) of the serene atmosphere which should be adhered to (Olaoba, 2010). The African indigenous methods of conflict resolution places emphasis on the community and parties to the conflict, as opposed to the individuals in conflict. ...
... Thus, conflict derived from diverse sources in African traditional societies. These included the family, economy, chieftaincy, social and religion as well as breakdown of deplumation relations and personal annoyance over behavioural pattern (Olaoba, 2010). According to Tsuwa (2014:23): It is significant to note that the derivatives of conflict in traditional African societies were germane to the cultural activities of the people. ...
... The architecture of the indigenous reconciliatory mechanisms were originally configured to enhance social relations and value consensus as these constituted the core ingredients that actually restored relationships. As Ajayi and Buhari (2014) put it, the African model of conflict resolution is built on consensus building and social-bridge reconstructions. Other researchers (e.g., Albert, Tinu, Georges, & Wuyi, 1995;Ayittey, 1991;Uwazie, 1991) confirmed that the yearning for a return to the African mechanisms of conflict resolution was in the first place occasioned by the institutional flaws and lapses of the modern-day legal system. ...
... As a pathway to genuine reconciliation, truth-telling remains fundamental to any dialogue leading to an amicable settlement of conflicts between disputants (Ajayi & Buhari, 2014). An effort to engage the problem posed by FGM, for instance, would begin with an outright, clear-cut identification of how the society has fared so far under such a custom and how much-or how little-of the acclaimed social order and benefits this practice has ushered in, how the younger generation in particular has fared under it, and most importantly, whose interests this practice actually serves. ...
... According to Ajayi and Buhari (2014), truth-telling begets trust among disputants. They explain that in ancient times, disputing parties could be compelled to tell the truth during proceedings under the threat of the punitive powers of deities. ...
Chapter
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Most African societies are predominantly collectivist in nature with social relations forming their core basis of group identity. The affinity for that which protects the interests and identity of the group has come to be not just the source of strength for these societies, but also their bane, especially in the context of the development of the African child. This chapter begins with a consideration of the vitiated forms of the almajiri discipleship system and the persistence of female genital mutilation (FGM) in parts of Africa today, including the cultural and historical context in which these practices emerged and changed. The chapter next presents three major psychological theories providing insight into the persistence of these practices—Albert Bandura’s theory of moral disengagement, perspectives on non-violence in sociocultural practices from the field of Community Psychology, and Johan Galtung’s theories of cultural violence, positive and negative peace—and illustrates the applicability of these constructs in case study analyses of interviews with eight Nigerian respondents. The chapter concludes with perspectives on intervention and prevention strategies in regard to cultural violence, with a particular focus on the corrupted forms of the almajiri discipleship system and the persistence of FGM. Although most of the child-debasing practices are imbedded in long-standing cultural traditions, Africa also has people-friendly traditions to counter them. Priority should be given to encouraging conflict transformation, peace education, balancing between individual and cultural needs, instilling moral values, and advocating practices such as social cohesion, dialogue, truth-telling, and empathy.
... Typically, communal land clashes manifests as a form of bureaucracy, ranging from disputes between people or groups (such as boundary lines, clashes between neighbours), clashes among communities, states or nations for inheritance (clashes among relatives or relations) to clashes over the use of land. Koelmann et al. (2018) and Adeyinka (2014) argue that land clashes have become a foremost problem for governments, in meeting renewable electricity policy goals in Netherland. ...
... The dynamics, over the years, have continued to evolve, depending on the vicinity of the country affected. Despite the fact that a number of cutting-edge communal land clashes have their roots in pre-colonial clashes, among the numerous community groups involved, most contemporary clashes are traceable to the status quo of the British protectorate, in 1901, and the introduction of administrative limitations that do not replicate community divisions (Adeyinka 2014)). When the Northern and Southern Nigeria were merged together, by the British, in 1914, the dominant communities in each vicinity were faced with the demand of demarcating communal land borders and territories, especially with the inflow of people from different areas of the newly formed country, as migration elevated dramatically (Oluwamotemi 2010). ...
... Furthermore, Fabusoro et al. (2008) posit that ''the significance of territory is possibly why land clashes are so standard in the country and why they are extra hard to resolve than other clashed matters''. However, Egbulefu (2015) and Adeyinka (2014) argue that the timing of resolution of dispute could be very vital, in that if territorial conflicts are not resolved early, there is probability that they will linger for a very long time, living an antecedence failed attempt to peace and resolution. Nigeria as a country has witnessed decades of land clashes, and the number of casualties have grown over the years. ...
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The study focuses on community crimes and insecurity challenges in Tiv and Jukun communities of Taraba State, Nigeria. The history of the two communities and the land-owner groups is laced with aggressions and grievances, which have resulted in crimes at various times. The last one, from January to July 2019, witnessed massive deaths, destruction of lives and property and led to forced displacement of persons. Quite a number of works have emerged on the causes and consequences of community land ownership-related crimes. However, the aftermath of community peace agreements, particularly in respect of tensed relations, community protection and safety in the area is yet to be sufficiently interrogated. This study investigates the state of relations between the Tiv and Jukun as well as the community peace processes in the area after the last inter-communal clashes. Also, it identifies a number of factors causing inter-communal-clashes between the two. Furthermore, the study also reveals complex community protection, safety, and peace processes involving the state, community, land owners, community leaders and land ownership gangs. Specifically, at the moment, the peace in the communities is sustained by the leaders of the gangs. This study answers the following questions: How sustainable is this arrangement? What is the state of relations in the communities? What roles do the actors play? The study made use of both primary and secondary data. Fieldwork for the study was carried out between August and September 2019 in Tiv and Jukun communities of Taraba State. The main method of data collection was unstructured interview, which was conducted with 150 people, made up of all traditional rulers, local, political, religious and youth leaders. Secondary data was sourced from texts, newspapers, magazines, official gazettes, archival materials and the Internet.
... The new justice system has no element or background of African culture; it is deeply rooted in western culture (Dalgleish, 2005). In Nigeria (and Sub-Sahara African countries), the indirect rule introduced, systematically changed people's way of life and completely replaced the existing structure of justice which saw the emergence of the formal court system as a method for settling disputes (Ajayi & Buhari, 2014). The court system is more adversarial in nature and contradicts the traditional principles common in the indigenous communities (Alemika et al., 2009). ...
... The significance of the western system of criminal justice in the context of Africa so far according to Ajayi and Buhari (2014) is widely questionable, this is because the system suffers from numerous problems. Among the problems include but not limited to lack of peoples' trust in fairness and objectivity of investigations, prosecutions and adjudications; arbitrary arrest and detention of criminal suspects which often involve intimidation, threats, and use of force; torture and all kinds of inhumane measures used in the interrogations of suspects (Amnesty International, 2014). ...
... The African customary justice systems were established and developed through a long process of cultural practices and usage of common values, which later stood as an authority that was strictly based on community consensus (Ajayi & Buhari, 2014). People are bound together by this complex set of relationships which eventually developed into an indigenous justice system. ...
Article
The pre-colonial African communities were ethnically and culturally diverse with no single dominant ethnic and religious group. Unwritten customary law and procedures were the means by which local communities resolved disputes in the absence of state authority. The laws were based on a common cultural belief and ethical codes that generate a binding regulation on members. Communities adopted this model to impose sanctions against violators and resolve disputes arising among members through various mechanisms. However, the introduction of a new justice system by the colonialists completely interrupted the indigenous system. Today, the indigenous justice system in many African countries is restricted to handling only civil matters through the application of ADR to address some of the challenges facing the contemporary justice system. This paper argues that the customary justice procedure can be adopted in criminal matters as a model that seeks to understand and address the realities of the social causes of crime. The paper concludes that the two systems of justice can complement each other to restore public confidence in the system by catering for the loss suffered by victims rather than focusing on the offenders and offence, bringing justice closer to people without any stress, reintegrating offenders back into the society and ensuring social harmony.
... It is evident that most individuals, families and communities still prefer indigenous conflict resolution processes in the two countries because they are based on cultural concepts, values, and procedures that are understood and accepted. Similarly, other authors such as [Kariuki, 2015;Midodzi & Jaha, 2011;Bukari, 2013;Emanuel & Ndimbwa, 2013;Ladan, 2013;Theresa & Oluwafemi, 2014] also studied indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms of various communities in Africa and noted their roles in conflict resolution. Malan (n.d) also ...
... Consistent with the findings of this study, several authors [Osei-hwedie & Rankopo, 2012;Kariuki, 2015;Theresa & Oluwafemi, 2014] mentioned that indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms focus on the principles of empathy, sharing and cooperation in dealing with common problems which underline the essence of humanity (Ubuntu). Cultural approaches to resolving and managing disputes play a vital role in promoting and sustaining social cohesion, consensusbuilding, peace, harmony, co-existence and social order in communities. ...
Article
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Ethiopia has been practicing various indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms for many centuries. The study on which this article is based was aimed at describing the role of indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms for maintaining social solidarity and strengthening communities in Alefa district. Descriptive qualitative research method was used with semi-structured face-to-face interviews to collect data. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. The findings reveals that indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms are more flexible than the formal court procedures. Indigenous conflict resolution typically involves consensus building based on open discussions to exchange information and clarify issues about the conflict. The desired end result of indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms is a sense of harmony, solidarity and shared dialogue among conflicting parties not punishment. The absence of clear policy direction in the application of indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms has been found to be a limiting factor. Indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms have great untapped potential in maintaining social solidarity among a multiethnic and multicultural society such as Ethiopia where inter-communal conflicts are prevalent.
... The common approach of seeking for consensus among people through a flexible and participatory process, form the underlying problem-solving principle (cf Anifowoshe, 2010;Mabovula, 2011;Muruthi, 2006). This underlying principle function in the context of a Lekgotla (Setswana for community gathering the king has convened) or an extended family process of resolving a problem or matter. ...
... The researcher or someone identified may assume the role of the king (kgosi) and dikgosana (elders) to describe the situation, after which the Lekgotla may begin to engage (Masiangoako, 1939b: 4-5). The three steps (describing the situation, participation, and consensus) point to African Indigenous Knowledge Systems (AIKS) the community apply in resolving community issues or matters by allowing everyone who has attended the Lekgotla to participate until consensus is reached (cf Anifowoshe, 2010, Mabovula, 2011 Praxis (Describing the situation) ...
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Practical theology has evolved from emphasising pastoral ministry to addressing contemporary issues facing local churches so that they can bring about transformation within the communities in which they operate. In addition, efforts and proposals to support practical theology as interdisciplinary have progressed and are considered to be transformative. This article explores the Lekgotla and Magadi processes by leveraging the African Indigenous Knowledge System (AIKS), with the aim of presenting two Ubuntu-based research methods for practical theology to engage and contribute to the transformational agenda. It combines social constructivism and the Ubuntu worldview to propose the Lekgotla method and the Magadi methods.
... Prior to the adventurism of colonialism and slave trade, each community in Africa had unique systems on varied peacebuilding components, such as conflict monitoring, communal confidencebuilding, peace education as well as cultural and human dependence characters (Ajayi & Buhari, 2014). More remarkably, the indigenous institutions were relatively well-established and highly respectful, such that their decisions command wider acceptability and public legitimacy compared to the colonial model of institutions that is currently put in place mostly in all African Countries. ...
... The other is that most of the efficacious indigenous institutions, especially for justice administration, were either portrayed to be primitive or weakened to its ineffectiveness by the colonial adventurers. However, Olaoba (2005), Omotosho, (2004 and Nwolise (2005) as cited in Ajayi and Buhari (2014) proclaimed that legal systems in Africa were more advanced than the colonialists' courts, because the former was aimed at the management and resolution of conflicts rather than pronouncing judgments as it is being carried out by the latter up till date. ...
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This article discusses the mechanisms of peacebuilding architecture in Africa with a broad spectrum on the interplay of local influences and tendencies within the current modules. In this regard, current modules are explored with a view to understand the dynamisms of peacebuilding in Africa. It unravels the traditional peacebuilding architecture visa -vis the series of metamorphosis that have somehow enabled the efficacy of the subject matter despite the high conflict volaitility and vulnerability often experienced across the regions of the continents. It considered the prevailing strategiesdrifted through the local institutions of governance in response to the conflict-prone environments. It was argued that localism engenders workability and public legitimacy for peacebuilding strategies in most African countries. It concluded that local instincts still remain driving force for peacemaking and peacekeeping mechanisms in African context Peace Studies Journal
... Conflict issues at this stage are treated as civil cases. The peace building processes are carried out by the court of the ward-chief which is locally called Ileejo ijoye Adugbo (Ajayi & Buhari, 2014;Lamidi, 2019b). This committee could not adjudicate on criminal cases, but they are seldom charged with the conduct of preliminary investigations into civil cases for onward transmission to the customary courts. ...
... As laudable as it is in Cameroon, so also in Nigeria when about 85% of the respondents to this study rated cross-examination of disputants to a high extent as peace building strategy for peace enhancement. Furthermore, Ajayi and Buhari (2014) attempted to categorise the action lines of peace building strategies across cultures in Africa. ...
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This paper evaluated the peace building architecture by United Nations using Southwestern Nigeria as a reference point. Quantitative data were generated from responses to the questionnaire. In addition, the qualitative data were gathered from two sources: interview response and theme coding of Focus Group Discussion. Data collected were analysed using frequency, percentage, mean value and standard deviation as well as content analysis methods. From the descriptive statistics, this paper found out that quick intervention, cross-examination, negotiation, and mediation of differences were evaluated to be the key building strategies adopted for the enhancement of peaceful co-existence in local communities within Southwestern Nigeria. In spite of those good remarks, poor nature of ethnic cooperation underlines the causal reason for incessant communal conflicts in Southwestern Nigeria. It therefore concluded that peace building strategies in Southwestern Nigeria were evidently operationalised with observable inconsistencies from the qualitative data.
... But some authors observed that in Judiya it is mostly the respected elderly who fulfill these skills and be accepted as Judiya members. A statement by Ajayi & Buhari (2014) justifies this: "Elders are respected as trustworthy mediators all over Africa, because of their accumulated experiences and wisdom". Mohamed (2012) also observed the elders in rural Sudan are respected for their wisdom and"their words are rarely disputed". ...
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This study explored Judiya which is the main mechanism for traditional mediation, reconciliation and justice in Darfur in Sudan, in relation to humanitarian diplomacy. Ajaweed (respected elders and traditional leaders) play a central role as the mediators in Judiya. The purpose of the study was to elicit the possibilities of utilizing Judiya as a potential resource that may have more promising benefits in humanitarian diplomacy than in political rounds in the context of the Darfur crisis. The study followed a descriptive methodology based on a review of data collected mainly from research articles and documents published in the web (online). The results revealed that Judiya operates in line with humanitarian diplomacy. It embraces the fundamental humanitarian principles: Humanity, Impartiality, Neutrality and Independence. Furthermore the study observed that many tools in the practice of Judiya and Ajaweed are shared with those utilized in humanitarian diplomacy including skills, ownership, the win-win attitude in solutions, and the presence of a protocol that respects the local culture. The study indicated that Judiya leaders as individuals are fit to assume the roles of humanitarian diplomacy actors. Many obstacles and difficulties facing organizations providing humanitarian and relief services in Darfur will probably be tackled by approaching Ajaweed appropriately.
... Decisions in matters are taken openly and in the presence of the parties, members of their family, village or community. Theresa (2014), it is the firm belief that the "presence of the ancestral forces is a factor; some may collapse or be forced to say the truth because of the ancestral forces". 11 In cases where it is difficult to ascertain the truth especially where either the identity of the offender is in doubt or it is very difficult to resolve the facts in issue, instruments like oath taking, divination and trial by ordeal are usually employed. ...
... Unfortunately, modern history shows that Indigenous societies and cultures, as Brigg and Walker (2016) argue, have suffered immensely during the periods of colonial explorations and post-colonial administrations. Ajayi and Buhari (2014) argue that the advent of colonial masters in Africa did not only adulterate, but also wiped out most of the indigenous African methods of conflict resolution. Breed (2007) argues that even though the Gacaca courts in Rwanda were historically effective, their reinvention to establish peace and reconciliation after the civil war through the interventions by the state court system put limitations on this indigenous model of conflict resolution. ...
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Since the process of decolonization started after the conclusion of the Second World War, a major victim of this process was indigenous cultures and social structures in most of the former colonies. This paper draws its analysis from postcolonial theory by considering the detrimental effects that colonialism has left on the culture and governance in tribal societies. The paper attempts to contribute to the growing body of knowledge on indigenous/traditional conflict transformation and peace strategies by studying the role of indigenous strategies in resolving conflicts in Pakistan and Tanzania. In Pakistan, the Pashtun Jirga is a council of elders that plays a significant role in mediating and resolving conflicts among Pashtuns, especially tribal Pashtuns. In Tanzania, two cases of extractive resource conflicts in North Mara and Mtwara show how these conflicts have been resolved and what role indigenous strategies played or could have played if they were to be effectively used. In both Pakistan and Tanzania cases, we find that indigenous strategies of peace and conflict transformation are an important and necessary ingredient to conflict resolution. However, despite their significance, indigenous strategies are hardly a priority for respective post-colonial governments and the international community.
... The Yoruba society has similar tradition. According to Ajayi et al (2014) Yoruba peoples indigenous law derives from customs and traditions which were primarily unwritten. These laws were however preserved through oral tradition. ...
Poster
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Volume one Number four of Journal of African Studies and Sustainable Development
... Olaoba (2010) also asserted that the sources or origin of conflict in traditional Africa societies are associated with their cultural life or heritages. Thus, Africans conceptualizes conflict as a natural phenomenon and are socially inevitable (Ajayi and Buhari, 2014). The same is true among the Dibate of Ethiopia where this article has given due emphasis. ...
... Conflict takes various forms and dimensions in African societies; it is significant to note that there is a lack of consensus among scholars regarding the definition and use of the term 'conflict', "many scholars have noted vagueness, ambiguity and multiple uses of the term" 7 . The conflict, however, seems to be part of the excitement for networking relationships, whether negative or positive 8 . Consequently, conflict is in the magnitude of rage, rift, misunderstanding, family and market brawls, skirmishes and wars, public insurrections and assault. ...
Article
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: Ogoni, the once cherished and peaceful community has recently been characterized by unnecessary killings and destruction of lives and properties as a result of cult-related clashes and inter-communal conflicts. These activities have rendered many homeless and devastated; more so, the government’s effort to curb the menace through amnesty has proved abortive as cultism and other related vices still persist. The situation is so bad that life amongst the deviant youths has no value; this is seen in the incessant destruction of lives and properties which necessitated the Rivers State Government to consider amnesty as a strategy to curb the menace. For this reason, this paper is hinged on the Ogoni indigenous oath-taking as a panacea to curtail the wanton destructions in Ogoni land. It will take into cognizance the types and socio-cultural significance of oath-taking as well as the Ogoni indigenous society in the contemporary age. Using the ethnographic and ethical approach it was established that the persistence in the alarming rate of proliferation of cult groups and criminal activities which is trending in Ogoni today, is a sharp contrast to what was obtained in the pre-modern era when indigenous measures like oath-taking were used in controlling crime. More significantly is the fact that the journey to ensure an atmosphere of justice, honesty, harmony and peaceful co- existence is beyond amnesty. Therefore, it is imperative to make good use of indigenous oath-taking which is within the people’s cosmological perception in synergy with the modern approach of fighting crime.
... It cannot be completely separated from the inter-relationship that exists among human beings. Hence, in the African society, conflict may generally exist whenever or wherever incompatible events occur and may result in "win-lose character" (Ajayi & Buhari 2014). It is a struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power and resources in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rivals (Onigu-Otite & Albert 2001). ...
Article
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The thrust of this paper is on the institution of yira-yii (traditional oath-taking) and its role in curbing disharmony, disequilibrium and socio-political instability among the Ogoni indigenous people, as well as how it has brought social order and peaceful-coexistence. Living in a physical and moral isolation is considered alien, as the Ogoni socio-cultural values emphasize on wholeness, solidarity and tenacity of purpose. Hence, Yira-yii (oath-taking) strengthens community networking as well as performing the healing function in the society. Using the historical and ethnographic approach, the paper focuses on the Ogoni philosophy of yira-yii (oath-taking), personnel involve in administration, the instrument used, the sacred places of administration, the socio-cultural significance, as well as the continuity and discontinuity in the practice of yira-yii (oath-taking). It is regrettably observed that despite the importance of yira-yii (oath-taking) in the Ogoni indigenous society, this religious and socio-cultural practice which hitherto occupies a central place in maintaining peaceful coexistence and social stability is almost on the verge of extinction, as the modern day Ogoni people have relegated this practice background and thus denying their identity, religion and socio-cultural values. The paper therefore advocates for a practical effort and religious revival in the institution of yira-yii (oath-taking) especially, where other known awareness seems to have failed.
... Mediation originated from relationships among parties who can be negotiators, disputants, or parties who could be connected by the intervention (Fisher, 2011;Gartner, 2014). In general, mediators are well known as the third party who can reduce or bring the peace of conflict (Ajayi & Buhari, 2014). Based on this understanding, the mediator can play several roles in order to achieve conflict resolution. ...
Article
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The increase of oil palm plantation and manufacturing in Jambi offers any environmental and social problems, leading to conflict between companies and the local community. In addition, some conflict in there not yet resolved, and for achieving conflict resolution need to understand each element that affects the conflict and offer proper conflict resolution. This research identified and analyzed each element that offers the effect to conflict resolution based on mass media information, literature review, and depth interview with the head of village and section head of conflict management in Jambi. However, this article identified through mediation is the best way to resolve the conflict. Each actor and condition of the place will give effect to the success rate for that conflict to be resolve through mediation. Nevertheless, farmers can be used as a driver to encourage mediation process through joint action in the local community.
... This makes people look forward to the return of the ancestors in the form of Odo masquerade. According to Ajayi and Buhari (2014), 'conflict resolution in traditional African societies provides opportunity to interact with the parties concerned, it promotes consensus-building, social bridge reconstructions and enactment of order in the society (138).' Below in Figure 1 is a picture of a woman complaining to an Odo masquerade: The costume enables them to discharge judgment without fear or favor and because they are under an oath which if not carefully followed can lead to death. In Ogwuge village, their eldest Odo masquerade is in charge of administering the oath of justice which compels the two parties to stand on the land under dispute and swear to its ownership. ...
Article
Umulumgbe is a community in the South Eastern sub-tribe of the Igbo of Nigeria. They are known for their strong belief in the Supreme Being who is known as Chukwu Okike – the Creator and in the ancestors. Although they believe in other smaller gods, their reverence to the ancestors is apparent in the way they perform their Odo masquerade and struggle to sustain it. These ancestors who are known dead relatives in the community visit the living every two years and stay with them for a period of six months in the form of Odo masquerade. Umulumgbe Odo masquerade ritual performance is an art form that reflects the creative and imaginative work of the people of Umulumgbe. The performance provides an avenue for the participants to dramatize how their belief in the afterlife has contributed to their social and psychological wellbeing, especially, during the loss of a loved one. This study also concentrates on how the participants utilize this performance as an opportunity to promote peace, unify the people, and solidify communal bonds. Umulumgbe Odo masquerade performance is a social drama in nature, occupying the space between the real and the imagined, focusing on the continuation of life after physical death in the spiritual world.
... Barki and Hartwick (2004) characterizes conflict as a dynamic process that happens between interdependent parties as they experience negative responses to perceived contradictions and obstruction in the accomplishment of their goals. Conflicts could be violent, uncontrollable, escalating and insolvable or latent and resolvable (Ajayi and Buhari, 2014). ...
Article
The Horn of Africa region stands out amongst the planet's territories that are most volatile and vulnerable to armed violence. Conflicts have greatly affected the region over the past 50 years. The conflicts have disrupted the lives of people as well as the environment in ways that are not fully understood. Although armed conflict has generally had a negative impact on the environment, the environmental impact of conflict within the Horn of Africa has barely been evaluated. Similarly, our understanding that climate variability as well as change could have played a role in increasing or decreasing the impacts of conflicts within the Horn of Africa is insufficient. Therefore, this paper looks at the environmental impacts of conflict in the Horn of Africa since 1970 and also the role of climate variability in increasing or decreasing the impacts of conflict. Scientific publications as well as grey literature were reviewed with the aim to understand the status of past and present conflicts in the Horn of Africa, environmental impacts of conflict and the role of climate variability in decreasing or increasing impacts of conflict. The review demonstrates that conflict has extensive negative impacts on the environment in the Horn of Africa with main causes like grievances, government behaviour and interests, resource scarcity and transborder conflict as well as internal migration and climate variability. Similarly, climate variability plays a great role in exacerbating the impacts of conflict in the region. However, further research is needed to clearly show the impact of conflict and climate variability on the environment in the Horn of Africa.
... 9 The peaceful resolution of the Aguleri-Umuleri-Umuoba Annam war in Imo State of Nigeria involved oath-taking, the declaration the peace treaty of "no more war," and the performance of a cleansing ritual called Ikomue. 10 These spiritual and psycho-social practices are underestimated by Eurocentric perspectives that emphasize institutional over community-centered transformations. Conflict transformation and peacebuilding should be all-encompassing and focus on not only negotiations, Western political agreements, and material reconstruction, but also purification and reconciliation such as mental, spiritual, and traditional healing. ...
Article
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This policy note underlines complementarities between local/indigenous and contemporary peacebuilding approaches and calls on peacebuilders working in both traditions to prioritize identifying and building “hybrid” approaches that integrate local and indigenous knowledge and perspectives into existing best practices.
... Private arbitration also aligns with the cultural contexts of African people who were interviewed in this study. Dispute resolution systems in African communities have historically been community based [1,2]. They resembled what has contemporarily become informal support systems. ...
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In the responses of informal networks to women seeking help for domestic violence, discourses of privatization, minimization and blame shifting emerged as salient. In particular, the discourse of “We need to understand the whole story” was frequently used to justify violence against those women who were seen as potentially violating gendered norms. This paper explores how these discourses contribute to the continuation of women abuse and to negative help seeking experiences for women seeking help for abuse. These discourses are embedded in the cultural contexts within which women seek help and are challenging to overcome by the women themselves. Hence, it is important that these discourses are contested and new narratives that enable help-seeking and help provision are constructed.
... The performance level of conflict resolution in African societies enabled participants in the ensuing drama to further understand and depreciate that custom and norms bequeathed to them by their ancestors. Olaoba (2010) opined that, the performance had always been stage managed by notable dramatic personae, which included experience elders, priests, agegrades, chiefs and kings in African societies. The stage as set for the drama of adjudication included homes (as family court), markets (as commercial court), streets (as open court) as Palaces (as royal court). ...
Chapter
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There are many DNA and RNA viruses that cause infections in human beings leading to their morbidity and mortality. The outbreaks of the human coronavirus COVID 19 show symptoms like that of human pneumonia viral infections. Coronavirus (CoVS) is a member of the family Coronaviridae having 4 genera: Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus. The genome is a ss(+) RNA ~30 kb length and has 6 ORFs, 4 structural and 16 non-structural proteins that are different in their composition and function. Serological relationships and phylogenetic clustering of the structural proteins are encoded by genes clustered at the 3′ end of the 27–31 kb coronavirus genome. In many Evolutionary based studies, it was observed that coronaviruses have been split into two subgroups: murine hepatitis virus and bovine coronavirus, and another subgroup include SARS�CoV. Coronaviruses have structural and non-structural proteins, 4 major structural proteins- spike, membrane, envelope proteins located in the membrane envelope, while nucleocapsid protein in the ribonucleoprotein core. The transcription of the RNA is very unique by forming the replication/transcription complex containing multiple enzymatic functions, such as RNA polymerization, modification, and processing. Different coronavirus has a diverse range of host and tissue tropism. COVID-19 symptoms appear after 6-7 days after an encounter with the virus, the major symptoms include, illness fever, cough sputum production, fatigue, which can be diagnosed by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, real‐time PCR. Currently, there is no possible treatment but in some studies antiviral like Lopinavir and prevention by using precautionary measures can help in the spread of the disease.
... The effectiveness and importance of the Western-based formal criminal justice systems are questionable in most African countries (Ajayi and Buhari, 2014). It primarily aims at punishing the offender and guaranteeing the right of the victim who seeks for justice (Elechi, 2006). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms for resolving ethnic-based conflicts between the Awi and Gumuz communities in Ethiopia. Design/methodology/approach This study followed a qualitative research approach and it has a case study design that is appropriate to collect in-depth information about indigenous mechanisms of resolving conflicts that arise between Awi and Gumuz ethnic groups. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and document review. Findings The results revealed that the Awi and Gumuz ethnic groups resolve conflict through the elder council or shimigilina. This indigenous mechanism conflict resolution mechanism is well recognized, accepted and respected both by the Awi and Gumuz ethnic groups. Shimiglina has different phases and rituals which are finally concluded by kale-mehala (oath) or promising not to take revenge and harm. The Awi and Gumuz ethnic groups view shimigilina as a vital and effective conflict resolution mechanism. Practical implications This study clearly indicated important implications for policy, practice and future research. The Awi and Gumuz communities have used the elders’ council (shimiglina) to solve ethnic-based conflicts for a long time. Therefore, there should be policy frameworks at different levels (national, regional and local) for the integration of the elders’ council with the formal justice system. Put in other words, this indigenous conflict resolution mechanism should be properly organized and institutionalized. However, a comprehensive study should be conducted to understand how to organize and institutionalize this indigenous conflict resolution mechanism. Originality/value This is an original study that contributes to peacebuilding by discovering the role of indigenous knowledge in conflict resolution and peacebuilding.
... First, a high compatibility with the maize root system because of low root density (460 cm −3 ) on the top (0-30 cm) layer of the soil where most of the maize roots are concentrated [5,26,27]. Second, Gliricidia sprouting ability enhances long-term (>10 years) biomass production that reduces the cost of agroforestry re-establishment [5,12,[27][28][29]. Third, Gliricidia reduces termite damage on maize [12,30,31]. ...
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Declining soil fertility and climatic extremes are among major problems for agricultural production in most dryland agro-ecologies of sub-Saharan Africa. In response, the agroforestry technology intercropping of Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)) and Maize (Zea mays L.) was developed to complement conventional soil fertility management technologies. However, diversified information on the profitability of Gliricidia-Maize intercropping system in dryland areas is scanty. Using data from the Gliricidia and maize models of the Next Generation version of the Agriculture Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), this study estimates the profitability of the Gliricidia-Maize system relative to an unfertilized sole maize system. Results show significant heterogeneity in profitability indicators both in absolute and relative economic terms. Aggregated over a 20-year cycle, Gliricidia-Maize intercropping exhibited a higher Net Present Value (NPV = Tsh 19,238,798.43) and Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR = 4.27) than the unfertilized sole maize system. The NPV and BCR of the latter were Tsh 10,934,669.90 and 3.59, respectively. Moreover, the returns to labour per person day in the Gliricidia-Maize system was 1.5 times those of the unfertilized sole maize system. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the profitability of the Gliricidia-Maize system is more negatively affected by the decrease in output prices than the increase in input prices. A 30% decrease in the former leads to a decrease in NPV and BCR by 38% and 30%, respectively. Despite the higher initial costs of the agroforestry establishment, the 30% increase in input prices affects more disproportionally unfertilized sole maize than the Gliricidia-Maize system in absolute economic terms, i.e., 11.1% versus 8.8% decrease in NPV. In relative economic terms, an equal magnitude of change in input prices exerts the same effect on the unfertilized sole maize and the Gliricidia-maize systems. This result implies that the monetary benefits accrued after the first year of agroforestry establishment offset the initial investment costs. The Gliricidia-Maize intercropping technology therefore is profitable with time, and it can contribute to increased household income and food security. Helping farmers to overcome initial investment costs and manage agroforestry technologies well to generate additional benefits is critical for the successful scaling of the Gliricidia-Maize intercropping technology in dryland areas of Dodoma, Tanzania.
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A central goal of peace-building efforts in the 21st Century is to localize peace through involving local actors to achieve sustainable peace. Since the 1990s, in pursuit of sustainable peace, attention has been paid to the renaissance of traditional approaches to peace-building, and successes were documented in Ethiopia, Rwanda, Kenya and Ghana. In Uganda, peace-building programmes were registered in three regions of Acholi, Karamoja, and Teso. Since the discovery of oil in Bunyoro sub-region, conflicts have been reported especially land-related conflicts due to land grabbing. Efforts such as the setting up of the National Petroleum Fund (NPF) to regulate exploration, development and production of oil, the National Oil Company (NOC) to enhance the country’s commercial interests in the oil sector, increasing land titling, setting up district land tribunals, and other government efforts and policies on oil and gas which are intended to address the problem, are not yielding expected results. It seems that local actors at the grass roots level are left out. Therefore, using an action research approach, this study implemented activities aimed at local capacity enhancement in order to realize sustainable and peaceful communities. The overarching objective of this study was to enhance capacities for local peace-building in Bunyoro sub-region through equipping them with knowledge and skills necessary for preventing, resolving and managing conflicts in their communities. The design for this study had three components: exploratory, action research and evaluation components. Data was collected using focus group discussions and in-depth key informant interviews. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a sample of 23 participants in a case study of Hoima district, Bunyoro sub-region. An action team consisting of traditional chiefs, clan leaders, village leaders (Local Council 1 LC1), civil society organizations, and key informants was formed to prevent, resolve and manage conflicts in their communities. The short term outcomes of this study indicate that local peace building capacities have been enhanced through strengthening of Bunyoro traditional approaches of peace-building with an action team that consisted of traditional leaders. Key words: local peace-building, enhancing capacities, Bunyoro sub-region
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Igboscholars International Journal is one of the brain children of Igbo Scholars Forum born out of the zeal to get the young Igbo scholars together so as to start thinking like Igbo sons and daughters through paper publications, meetings and symposia. As a matter of fact, Igbo Scholars Forum was founded by Dr. Onukwube Alexander Alfred Anedo and born at the launching of a festschrift in honour of their life patron, Prof. Obed Muojekwu Anizoba (Ozonwa) on the 15th day of December, 2012. In his kind gesture, Prof O. M. Anizoba therefore established a website http://www.igboscholarsforum.com.ng for them to use in telling the world who the Igbo people are, about their life, what they believe in and their relationship with people and other cultures of the world outside theirs. Other journal outlets through which this Forum wants to let Igbo people and their culture out to the world are Ideal International Journal and Ekwe International Journal which is solely written only in Igbo language.
Chapter
Because of increasing population, rapid urban urbanisation, socio-economic transformations, changes in land values and other factors, most countries in sub-Saharan Africa experience land conflicts. Until a few years ago, litigation and, to a lesser extent, administrative interventions were the preferred ways of resolving land-related conflicts in urban and peri-urban areas. However, litigations and administrative interventions have been criticised as costly, time-consuming, inequitable and unjust to the poor, vulnerable and minority groups. To decrease pressure on legal systems as well as improve access and justice for all, some countries (including Botswana) have introduced Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanisms to complement court processes. Taking Botswana as a case study, this chapter assesses how far ADR has reduced court cases, dispensed justice, improved urban governance and promoted or restored peaceful relationships in land-related conflicts. The chapter reveals critical flaws and limitations in trust and impartiality because the Land Tribunal is viewed as a state agent and a common law court. The chapter makes recommendations on principles for a just and effective alternative land dispute resolution system.
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The paper through critical analysis of available literature, and analysis of data from secondary sources such as official publications, journals, and conference papers aims to examine the Nigerian industrial relations system for its contending issues and challenges. The complex employment interrelationship between the Nigerian government, labour unions, organizations’ management, and employers' associations has been a rocky one. The goal of the interrelations which is to facilitate economic growth and assist all parties to achieve their objectives is menaced by incessant conflicts and a high level of strike propensity. It was found that certain contradicting issues and challenges are apparent in the regulatory framework and administering bodies thus leading to ineffectiveness and inefficiency. Challenges such as insincerity of involved parties, tailoring of the system towards western models, and other political and economic factors are also inhibiting the system.
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Modern thinking about legitimacy has been greatly influenced by Max Weber. According to Weber, people in authority often concoct ‘myths’ about their superiority or natural fitness to be in a position of power. These mythical justifications or claims are often necessary in order to claim moral justifications for their authority and sense of political propriety. These claims come in three broad forms: traditional, charismatic, and legal-rational dominations. They are often referred to as the ‘three inner justifications’ or the ‘basic legitimations of the power holder’. Succinctly put, traditional claims for legitimacy rest on grounds such as: ‘obey me because this is what our people have always done’; charismatic commands such as ‘obey me because I can transform your life’; and lastly, legal-rational orders like ‘obey me because I am your lawfully appointed superior’. These three basic legitimations of power holders and their relevance to modern society, especially their applicability to the African context, is discussed in this chapter.
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The ongoing quest towards the realization of reconciliation and conflict resolution in the context of contentious religious pluralism in contemporary Africa demands a pluriverse perspective which give preferential option to indigenous epistemology, which is oftentimes, undermined and termed as mere myth. The pluriverse argues that contemporary realities in Africa can better be understood within indigenous religio-cultural experience. This article employs the Pyem notion of Ngwakin Darsai Daal [The male-goat that stops fight(ing)] as an option to engender reconciliation and conflict resolution in the context of religious conflict in Jos, Nigeria.
Thesis
This work illustrates reform approaches in Africa using an international legal comparative approach. The research uses Tanzania and Senegal as the primary case studies and France, the United Kingdom and Germany as secondary case studies to illustrate how Europe reformed data protection regimes through the transposition of the EU Data Protection Directive of 1995. Chapter one introduces the work; explaining the forces towards data protection regulations and their basis. Chapter two provides for a ‘back-to-back' comparison in three countries (France, Germany and United Kingdom) against the 1995 Data Protection Directive. The idea behind this chapter is to draw a picture on how the legal culture and the pre-existing notions of the right to privacy inform on data protection legal reforms and determines the nature, contents, context and interpretation of adopted regime for data protection. Eventually, all these aspects affect the nature and extent of protection offered regardless of the substance of the law adopted. Chapter three gives a narrative explanation of nature and perceptions of the right to privacy in Africa and how this may affect data protection reforms in Africa. In the same disposition, African customary legal systems and practices are explained providing a reader with a picture of the overall nature of African systems that makes up an African legal culture. The overview of African privacy perception and legal system is necessary for assessing the workability of any data protection regime to be adopted in Africa which in effect answers the first research question. The chapter draws its rationale from chapter two. In understanding African perceptions of privacy and the African legal culture, one can be able to predict the content and context of the reforms and maybe how the judiciary might interpret the laws based on local perceptions and supporting systems. An overview of the African data protection architecture or rather human right architecture is provided in chapter four; ideally to provide a reader with a picture of the enforcement systems in Africa as a continent. This is followed by chapter five discussing the two major legal systems in Africa; the civil law and the common law system. The chapter also illustrates the position of African landscape in relation to legal harmonization/unification. This aspect is considered necessary because data protection regimes are more focused on legal harmonization and hence the question of how well or to what extent Africa as a continent can bring about harmonization in law became inevitable. Eventually, the chapter offers a comparative mirror analysis of the primary case studies, i.e. Senegal and Tanzania. The analysis is made on the reform approach taken, motivation behind the reforms and on the regime erected (this is done through textual analysis of the law and the draft bill respectively). Chapter six concludes the work by answering research questions based on findings and scrutiny from each chapter. It is concluded that there is a very slim chance for the African States to cling on the cultural defence against the adoption of the Western frameworks for data protection. It is also concluded that, lest Africa becomes an active participant in the global process that informs on data protection challenges and regulations, it faces a danger of becoming a puppet of foreign data protection regulation, which may or may not fit African legal culture. The chapter also illustrates how Africa as a continent and the African States individually have taken up data protection reforms blindly. The motivations for the reforms are vaguely stated and unclear. In the majority of legal instruments, the reforms are not taken as a move towards securing and protecting individual rights rather a purely political move influenced by economic motivations. The reforms are to a large extent, a mere impression to align with global data protection regimes and hence lack the political will to enforce the laws.
Article
Food rituals often abruptly change when Hispanic families migrate to the United States. This report describes changes in rituals of food procurement, preparation, and presentation (food-PPP) in Hispanic women following migration to the United States. Focus groups and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 13 low-income, overweight/obese Hispanic women 27 to 40 years of age. Content analysis was used to analyze cultural and contextual sources for food-PPP. Changes in rituals and traditions in food-PPP occurred, including materials and ingredients for traditional meals. Food rituals may play a role in healthful eating and could, therefore, serve as leverage points for interventions designed to promote healthy eating behaviors.
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Ghana Journal of Linguistics 8.1 (2019) The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana.
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The 1999 Constitution of Nigeria provides expressly for the safety and protection of the rights of citizens in general terms, including other provisions which guarantee the safety of the Nigerian people; however, the Constitution places priority on the rights of criminals over and above the rights and interests of crime victims. This position and situation has engendered public dissatisfaction with the Nigerian criminal justice systems in general and the Constitution in particular. This study has analysed the means and mechanisms available in the Nigerian legal system for crime victims’ compensation and restitution for criminal acts committed against them, and it has found that those means are different to what are obtained in other jurisdictions. The study further found that state-funded compensation for crime victims is practiced to various degrees in places like New Zealand, Great Britain, the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Germany, Finland, Colombia and the Philippines to mention but a few. The study discovered that, as it stands presently in Nigeria, there are no public compensation schemes for crime victims and that the compensation mechanisms that exist in the country which the courts award are grossly inadequate. The study also found that the Nigerian government does not see the need to establish statefunded compensation schemes for crime victims on the premise that crime victims should exercise their rights to claim compensation from the criminal offenders in delictual or tort claims. This study, therefore, argues that the extant legal frameworks in Nigeria are manifestly inadequate to provide for the needs of crime victims effectively in the aftermath of victimization and recommends the development of a system for state-funded compensation for crime victims in Nigeria building on comparative best practices and international guidelines such as the UN Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power and the Commonwealth Guidelines for the Treatment of Victims of Crime
Article
This study is aimed at exploring the traditional conflict resolution system of the Awi: the practices and contemporary challenges. Based on qualitative approach and cross-sectional design, the research employed the primary data collection methods of informal conversation, in-depth interview, and FGD. Informants for the study were chosen based on purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The study findings revealed that shimigilina (eldership), a traditional conflict resolution mechanism of the Awi people, is used to resolve conflicts that range from simple personal matters to vendetta. The basic tenet of shimigilina is rested on the principle of reconciliation and restoring accord. The findings illustrate that the elders play a significant role in reconciliation. The disputants have considerable participation from selecting elders to the finalization of the reconciliation. The traditional system not only restores peaceful social relationships but also attempts to rationally punish as well as compensate the victim party by imposing transactional and social punishments upon the malefactor. Generally, besides the challenges emanating from within its internal function and from external influence, the traditional conflict resolution mechanism is found to be significantly important in maintaining sustainable peace and social cohesion, and in providing truthful justice and assisting the burden of formal courts.
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African tribal societies still rely upon indigenous conflict resolution systems as well as cultural sources to uphold the values of peace, tolerance, solidarity, and respect for one another. The purpose of this chapter was to examine the efficacy of indigenous conflict resolution systems in building peace and promoting social solidarity among indigenous communities in South Africa. Data collection was largely based on critical review of literature relating to the application of indigenous conflict resolution systems in resolving conflicts among indigenous communities. Social capital, Ubuntu, and social solidarity were also used as underpinning theories to guide the study. Findings revealed territorial expansion, resource competition, inheritance or land boundaries, misunderstanding over succession, indebtedness, chieftaincy, adulterous affairs, family property, breach of contract, murder, allegations of bewitchment, theft, matrimonial fall-outs, and cattle raiding as the main causes of violence conflict in indigenous communities. However, the absence of clear policy in the application of indigenous conflict resolution system has been found to be a limiting factor, although these systems are effective in resolving conflicts, building peace, and promoting social solidarity among indigenous communities. Socio-cultural norms and values embedded in indigenous communities have remained an integral part of every organized society. The study thus recommended the establishment of indigenous institutions of governance based on norms, values and principles of conflict resolution and peace building.
Article
The importance of traditional dispute resolution is embedded in the culture of a people. Idiomatic expressions seek to harmonise the process of lekgotla and to heal the families involved in disputes. As a cultural system and a process that is different from the Western courts, lekgotla relies heavily on the use of idiomatic expressions as important guidelines and tenets that are utilised to unravel the complexities and challenges presented by participants in the lekgotla processes. Lekgotla is an African system of dispute resolution in its own right; however, it is subsumed in the South African national legal system, which is colonial in letter and spirit. This article aims to discuss the interrelations between lekgotla and idiomatic expressions in traditional dispute resolution as used by the Bakgatla Ba Mosetlha traditional council in Makapanstad village, North West province, South Africa. The interrelations between lekgotla and idiomatic expressions constitute a complex process with the aim of bringing families together to negotiate, confess, forgive, compensate, heal, and engage in a ceremony that restores harmony in the community. Culture is at the core of this interaction between lekgotla and idiomatic expressions, with the goal of enhancing traditional dispute resolution. Fifteen key village leaders (traditional council members) in the community of Makapanstad were the primary sources for this study. The key idiomatic expressions shared in this article, and as utilised by these village leaders, focus on maintaining the human relationships in the community.
Poster
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JASSD VOL. 2. NO. 8
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IGWEBUIKE: AN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ARTS AND HUMANITIES VOL. 5. NO. 6
Poster
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AMAMIHE: Journal of Applied Philosophy (AJAP) is published by the Department of Philosophy, Imo State University, Nigeria. AJAP is purely dedicated to the publication of original academic papers in the area of Philosophy. Results of research are presented as fresh theories, hypotheses, and analyses of new ideas or discoveries. Extensions of existing theories and review of books of this nature are also covered within the standard range of this journal.
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As long as human beings live there must be conflicts that arise because of greed, hatred, wickedness, selfishness, jealousy, gossip etc. This brings about unhealthy competitions, fight, killings etc. The need to reduce it to a more tolerable level or complete eradication may be too difficult to achieve. This prompted this research. The study is set to investigate {gbandx as a traditional method of conflict resolution in Igbo land, its meaning, types, reasons, how it is administered, how it is used to achieve peace etc. The data is collected through observations and intuitive knowledge as Igbo indigenes. The theory of culture based of (1981) propounded by Ury, William, Fisher, Roger was adopted. It is found that {gbandx promotes healthy living, peaceful coexistence and sustainable development; it is also found that {gbandx controls to an extent greed, killing etc. It is suggested that {gbandx be extended to every establishment, in the formal settings in other to promote a healthy society.
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The study sought to establish the influence of Council of elders on rural land tenure dispute resolution in Pokot Central Sub County.The study applied concurrent triangulation design since it is single-phase design in which researcher implemented the quantitative and qualitative methods during the same timeframe and with equal weight. The study was carried out in Pokot central Sub-County, West Pokot County.The target population for this study comprised of 150 Household heads, 20 chiefs and assistant chiefs and 5 land officers. The sample size was calculated by use of Yamane formula which gave a sample size of 83 respondents. The questionnaires and interview schedule were the main instruments for data collection. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while the data from interview schedule were summarized based on themes. The council of elders was found to be successful in solving land disputes in Pokot central sub County. The study recommended that the capacity of the council of elders be enhanced through trainings to equip the with the government policy requirements so that
Article
The occurrence of land-related disputes remains inevitable due to conflicting interests often associated with land rights. However, how these disputes are resolved remains of great interest to development scholars and policy makers alike. In this paper, both perceived land tenure (in)security and dispute resolution pathway preferences of plot holders are examined using a nationally representative survey dataset from Nigeria. The degree of perceived tenure security in an ordinal scale is measured using the combined indicators of perception of occurrence of ownership dispute and the perception of not losing plot should dispute occurs. Further, a two-stage sequence of choice of institutions for land-related dispute resolutions was constructed from the data to obtain four categories of possible resolution pathways. Partially constrained generalized ordered logit and multinomial logit models were also employed to assess the effects of plot holders’ socio-economic and plot characteristics on perceived tenure (in)security and choice of dispute resolution pathway, respectively. Results reveal that the level of perceived tenure security decreases with increasing indicator combination and the choice of informal – informal pathway remains dominant even in the presence of legal pluralism. Policies that promote land documentation, strengthened extension services, and strengthened institutional capacities and access are envisioned to play significant roles in reducing land-related disputes and facilitating their resolution.
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Conflict between pastoral nomads and host communities in Nigeria today have resulted in the degradation of the environment, and the impoverishment of the host communities. This has occasioned banditry, criminality and even armed insurgency by nomads and host communities. Strategies identified by government and researchers geared towards resolving the conflict and ensuring peaceful co-existence between farmers and herders have not helped to a large extent. Such strategies include among others, establishment of cattle colony in the federating states, establishment of the Commissions of Enquiry, and deployment of securities, environmental dialogue, environmental communication, environmental mediation, regular environmental sensitization meetings. In spite of the above-mentioned strategies, the conflict still persisted. This paper explored some of the indigenous socio-cultural forms which can be integrated in environmental adult education for forestalling conflict between pastoral nomads and their host communities in Nigeria. The paper concludes that since environmental adult education thrives on the experience of the participants derivable from their value systems which brings to bear in learning, efforts should be made to utilize these sociocultural forms which embody peoples’ values systems in mobilizing and educating herders and farmers on the need for peaceful co-existence.
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The deep past of human evolution is murky. Archaeological and fossil evidence from Africa provides critical estimates for dates of past landmark events, but there are gaps in the timeline. They can be filled from combined data on climate conditions, physiological traits, inferred brain and cognitive capacities, and comparative biology. It is argued here that evolutionary survival pressures recruiting the functions of symbolic cognition and the imagination contributed to the rise of the earliest arts. Practical survival preceded symbolic art expressions; utilitarian application of ochre sparked imaginative expansion into body paintings displays. Fire hearths for communal cooking, warmth, and tool making provided space for sharing experiences, real and imagined, and allowed the initiation of storytelling and theater-like acting. Inherited physiological traits were tapped by evolutionary forces in symbolic displays of bonding and solidarity through vocal chorusing and rhythmically moving group kinetic formations. The evolutionary drivers behind the earliest arts were enhancement of survival through symbolic expressions of social cohesion and group effort.
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The marriage institution with its complexity is not exempted from conflict. In the world where emphasis is on conflict resolution, the Efik people speak of marital conflict prevention more than conflict resolution and management. Marital conflict if not prevented or resolved can become inimical to both present and future generation apart from its fire engulfing the entire community. Though female circumcision (which is associated with Nkuho) has been abolished, it is the opinion of this chapter that the educational spirit behind this institution is still a veritable too in preventing marital conflict. The chapter made use of ethno-methodological approach with content analysis to aver that in preventing marital conflict among Efik people, Nkuho institution can be a veritable tool of conflict prevention and peace building. This work has shown that Nkuho institution has something positive to offer to the modern world, especially as it concerns marital conflict prevention.
Article
This paper deals with the possible role that traditional dispute resolution mechanisms can play in reducing the burden of too much litigation in post-colonial countries – particularly in Africa. The importance of such mechanisms has been recognized by the United Nations and by the constitutions and laws of many African countries. The paper addresses the issue of the effect a paucity of lawyers in African countries might have on the litigation in such countries. The approach and methods of traditional dispute resolution in Africa are discussed and the question raised whether such traditional dispute resolution mechanisms can be integrated into the Western approach to dispute resolution in order to reduce litigation. The challenges facing such integration are also addressed. The article concludes that traditional methods of dispute resolution are already reducing the burden of too much litigation, but further research using statistical and empirical data should be undertaken to substantiate this.
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A review of the book, "The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide."
Article
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Recently scholars around the globe have given attention to conflict prevention, management and resolution. A considerable body of literature has been added to our academic libraries mostly by scholars from the Western societies. Conflicts in the developing areas by contrast are only minimally researched. For quite some time the assumption seems to have been made that the Western techniques of conflict prevention, management and resolution will also apply to Third World nations. Recently, however, some scholars in the developing countries began to think otherwise. Cultural diversities do not only shape our perception of conflicts but also determine techniques to be employed in handling them. The study of conflicts in the Sudan has significance for scholars in Africa, the Middle East and, indeed, around the globe. Sudan reflects the cultural heritage of Africa and the Middle East. Sudan has known a central authority that brought all its territory under effective control only since the beginning of the colonial era in 1898. Before that time local communities were largely left to administer themselves, inventing their own mechanisms for handling conflicts. Customary mediation is such an important mechanism which appears to have been effective up-to-now among tradition-bound communities. Over the course of time, and because of societal normal processes of change, government-sponsored mediations have been introduced, incorporating to a large extent indigenous practices. Lately, however, government intervention appears to be doing more harm than good, leading to the exacerbation of intergroup conflicts and the inadequacy of customary mediation to solve them. The article explores both phenomena, pinpointing what went wrong. It also argues that customary mediation, as a Sudanese practice, may have relevance for scholars in Sudan, Africa, the Middle East and indeed around the globe.
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This books contains basic tips for planning and managing conflict at communal level. It draws from lessons learned from Nigeria
Article
This text identifies contributions of traditional mechanisms for conflict management in Africa and elsewhere. With African conflicts eluding efforts to be controlled, this work is guided by the question: can traditional methods yield insights and approaches that might help end the violence?
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African Ethnicity; History, Conflict Management, Resolution and Prevention
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The processes of peacekeeping and Peace -Making in Pre-Colonial Nigeria
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Oguntomisin, G.O. (2004). The processes of peacekeeping and Peace -Making in Pre-Colonial Nigeria. Ibadan: John Archers, pg 10
Traditional Models of Bargaining and Conflict Resolution in Africa: Perspective on Peace and Conflict in Africa
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