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The effect of sprint training on running performance and vertical jumping in pre-adolescent boys

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sprint training upon the running velocity of pre-pubescent boys. Fifteen boys (11.1±0.5yrs old) followed a specific sprint programme for ten weeks (SPR group) and another group of fifteen boys (10.9±0.7yrs old) followed the normal physical education programme and thus acted as the control group (CONT group). Running distances of 0-30m, 0-10m, 10-20m and 20-30m and squat jumps were selected as testing variables to evaluate the training programme. The sprint training programme consisted of short sprints from 5-30m with a resting interval of 3min between repetitions and 5min between sets. The total running distance was initially 150m and gradually increased to 300m. After the ten week sprint programme, the running velocity and the height of squat jumps in the SPR group increased significantly. This programme had a specific effect on the intermediary phases of the running performance; the velocity was increased for the distances 0-10m and 10-20m, but not for the distance 20-30m. The CONT group did not increase any of the tested parameters. These results indicate that the applied sprint training could increase the velocity of the acceleration phase, but not the phase of maximal velocity. The increased height observed in squat jumps in the SPR group could probably be attributed to the stretch-shortening cycle performance, which occurs during running and would have caused the appropriate adaptations to the muscle tendon unit.
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... Edición Web: 1988-2041 Ferrete, 2015; Sánchez-Sixto & Floría, 2016). En el caso del voleibol, ha sido reconocido como deporte de velocidad, explosivo, de alta precisión técnica (G Battaglia, A Paoli, M Bellafiore, A Bianco, 2014; Kotzamanidis, 2003;Martinez, Mira, & Cuestas, 2017), que requiere de entrenamientos que optimicen la función fisiológica para movimientos de alta potencia a diferentes velocidades (Pereira, Costa, Santos, Figueiredo, & João, 2015;Sánchez-Moreno et al., 2018), siendo varios los investigadores que han reportado estas características en jugadores de esta especialidad (Kabacinski et al., 2016;Kipp, Kiely, & Geiser, 2016;Vilela, G;Da Silva, 2017). ...
... Respecto al entrenamiento pliométrico en niño y jóvenes, siempre debe ser destacado es la importancia de conocer la madurez de jóvenes, ya que la misma puede representar un mejor rendimiento físico/fisiológico, ya que las condiciones hormonales y neuronales van interferir en esas respuestas(Beltran-Valls, Adelantado-Renau, Segura-Ayala, Toledo-Bonifás, & Moliner-Urdiales, 2019). Investigaciones ya aportan efectos positivos en la salud, postura y rendimiento, enfatizando en la responsabilidad y supervisión de la aplicación de estos programas en sujetos jóvenes (Anis Zribi, Mohamed Zouch, Hamada Chaari, Elyes Bouajina, Hela Ben Nasr, Monia Zaouali, 2014;Chaouachi et al., 2012;Johnson et al., 2011;Kotzamanidis, 2003). A pesar de ello, las investigaciones respecto a los efectos de este tipo de entrenamiento en jóvenes que practican voleibol son de escases en la literatura, más aún, aquellos que estudien los efectos a partir de la maduración biológica, por ello, el objetivo para los investigadores fue estudiar los efectos del entrenamiento pliométrico en la fuerza explosiva de niños en estado de desarrollo puberal. ...
... D) Teníamos 3 ayudantes más el investigador principal en un ratio serian 1/12 diferencias pre y post entrenamiento no sean significativas, contrario a lo reportado (Pereira et al., 2015;Sattler et al., 2018), en jugadoras de voleibol durante 8 y 12 semanas de entrenamiento pliométrico, concluyendo los investigadores que periodos de descanso podrían generar efectos significativos en las mejoras de la fuerza explosiva. En este sentido, el presente estudios pese a utilizar mismos intervalos no evidencia resultados similares, pudiendo ser condicionada por la edad y sexo, sin embargo, en otros estudios (Branislav, Milivoj, Abella, Deval, & Siniša, 2013;Kabacinski et al., 2016;Kotzamanidis, 2003;Marques, M.A.C.;Ganzález-Badillo, 2006;Poulos et al., 2018;Sattler et al., 2018), que comparan los efectos en función del sexo, se registraron efectos significativos para ambos grupos, concluyendo los investigadores que las adaptaciones al entrenamiento polimétrico no difieren entre hombres y mujeres (Martínez-rodríguez et al., 2017), además de poner en evidencia de planear las transferencias del entrenamiento pliométrico hasta la evaluación del salto vertical (Frayne, Zettel, Beach, & Brown, 2020;Moran et al., 2020). ...
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... περίπου (Babic et al., 2010;Chatzilazaridis et al., 2012b;Letzelter, 2006). Έχει επίσης παρατηρηθεί ότι η φάση της δευτερεύουσας επιτάχυνσης ολοκληρώνεται περίπου στα 20-30 μ. (Chatzilazaridis et al., 2012b;Dal Pupo et al., 2008;Kotzamanidis, 2003). ...
... Χρησιμοποιούνται δρόμοι σε απόσταση που αντιστοιχούν στη φάση της αρχικής μέγιστης ΔΤ, οι οποίοι εκτελούνται με μέγιστη ένταση και με διάλλειμα πλήρους αποκατάστασης (Grosser and Stariscka, 2000). Όμως, έχει φανεί ότι η υποβολή παιδιών σε προπονητικό πρόγραμμα που περιέχει μόνο δρομικές επιβαρύνσεις επέφερε βελτίωση της ΔΤ μόνο στη φάση επιτάχυνσης (Kotzamanidis, 2003) και όχι στη φάση της σταθερής μέγιστης ΔΤ (Rumpf et al., 2012). Έχει παρατηρηθεί επίσης ότι η εφαρμογή ενός προπονητικού προγράμματος δρομικών επιβαρύνσεων επιφέρει προσαρμογές μόνο ως προς τα ερεθίσματα που περιλαμβάνει, π.χ. ...
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The ability to move fast is a key strength and conditioning feature. Its most common manifestation is sprint running (SPR), namely, the ability to run and cover a certain distance in the shortest period of time. The most significant differences between adults and children in the developmental age, besides the lowest maximum values of SPR achieved by the children, is the duration and the distance of the acceleration phase (especially the secondary acceleration phase). The main reason for this differentiation is the restrictions observed in key factors that cause the augmentation of muscle power in children. Also, differences are observed in key biomechanical factors that determine the optimization of sprint running technique in the maximum velocity phase. For this reason, the learning of the sprint running technique is essential in relation to the development of SPR and its training during the developmental ages. A key point for the development of SPR during development is the period where the peak height velocity occurrs, as then SPR performance is significantly improved. After the maximum growth rate, boys are significantly faster than girls. Emphasis during training should be given to the elongation of the maximum velocity phase in addition to learning the ideal personalized combination of step length and frequency in this phase. SPR improvement is suggested to be more effective with combined plyometric training and sprint running loads, rather than with SPR training that is comprised only with sprint running stimuli. It is of importance to adapt training stimuli and means to the level of maturity, technical skill and physical condition of the developing child. In every case, SPR training during the developmental ages should be implemented within a pedagogical frame that contains a variety of playful activities, where the main goal is the correct execution of the sprint running technique.
... Like any research of a transversal character that aims to prove the relationships, impact, dependence between different anthropological characteristics, skills and conditions, even this research is based on proving the influence of one anthropological field with the other in order to increase the information in favor of identifying the factors that are of particular importance in increasing the motor skills of anaerobic character speed. [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. ...
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The knowledge of morphological development and their impact on motor skills in short-distance athletes should be one of the main concerns of athletics coaches, because any scientific research in the field of physical culture and sports is about proving the development and evaluation of anthropological characteristics which are responsible for achieving success in athletics. The purpose of this paper is to confirm the impact of some anthropometric characteristics in the execution of running speeds on short distances, specifically in running at 100, 200 and 400 meters to students aged 18 ± 6 years of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports in Prishtina. The sample of this research has included a total of 60 students aged 18 years of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports in Prishtina. The measurements were executed during September in the hall of the Faculty, while the 100, 200, and 400 meter runs in the stadium "Fadil Vokrri" Prishtina. The only condition that was used during the determination of the sample was: that the students are involved in regular physical education classes (and on the day of the measurement be healthy, without the flu, cold or other symptoms). The variables which are applied in this research have been 8 anthropometric variables and 3 motor-specific variables. The results obtained after their processing indicate that the impact of anthropometric variables is higher in running at 100, 200 and 400 meters. Short distance running and long distance running reduces the impact of anthropometric parameters whereas the influence of metabolic factors of energy production is increased. These results were also confirmed using regression analysis, so that groups of predictors of anthropometric characteristics, specific motor skills that statistically significantly influenced each variable of individual criteria. The world records below the 10-second limit, in the 100 m, near the 9-meter limit, show not only the high level of sports, but also the strong impact on the growth, especially of strength indicators, speed-strength, explosive force, as main and applied motor skills in sports and athlete’s everyday life.
... Maćkala et al. [11] state that some research studies have found SL as the most significant parameter for the development of maximal running speed, whereas other research studies state SF as the most significant factor. An application of vertical and horizontal types of jumping exercises could contribute to longer SL [11,59,60]. However,Čoh et al. [61] claim that CT is the most important kinematic parameter in sprint running that distinguishes better and weaker sprinters. ...
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In sports practice, motor tests are commonly used to predict success in specific segments of sprint running, as well as post-injury tests in rehabilitation. The purpose of this analytical cross-sectional study was to determine the prognostic validity of the unilateral horizontal cyclic jumps for a 20 m (UHCJ20m) test on sprint running success. A sample of 118 kinesiology students aged 20.5 ± 1.2 years with an average height of 179.7 ± 6.4 cm and a body mass of 75.6 ± 7.3 kg was used to determine the correlation between the results of the UHCJ20m test and the results of the 20 m sprint start run (MRLS20m), the 20 m sprint flying start run (MRFS20m), and the 100 m run (M100m). The results showed a moderate correlation in all tests (MRLS20m (R = 0.49), MRFS20m (R = 0.53), and M100m (R = 0.38)) with UHCJ20m. In addition to the final result, the multiple regression analysis showed a significant moderate correlation between the kinematic parameters of the UHCJ20m test and the results in the MRLS20m (R = 0.38), MRFS20m (R = 0.49), and M100m (R = 0.37) tests. The stride length (SL) and the contact time (CT) of the UHCJ20m test were statistically significant predictors for the 100 m sprint, the number of steps for MRLS20m, and the SL and the CT for MRFS20m sprint success. Unilateral horizontal cyclic jumps are a significant predictor of success in sprint running, especially for the maximal speed running segment.
... Our research strengthens the findings of previous studies. Kotzamanidis [26] in a study found that the 10-week sprint training program was successful in increasing vertical jump height significantly. Similar to our results, Kotzamanidou et al. [27] reported that vertical jumps increased after five weeks of training for sprinting. ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the 60-m sprint training program on the vertical jump height of female youth volleyball players. In this quasi-experimental study, a one-group pretest/posttest design was utilized. Participants were 10 female youth volleyball players (aged 12-15) who were registered in a 12-session sprint training program at a junior sports organization in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The training program was carried out on a 100-m flat track at the Athletic Field, Faculty of Sport Sciences of Yogyakarta State University. The stand and reach method was used to measure the vertical jump height. To compare the pretest and posttest scores, a paired samples t-test was used. The results indicated that there was a significant increase in vertical jump height from pretest to posttest with a high effect size. Thus, it can be concluded that a 4-week sprint training program can effectively increase the vertical jump height of young volleyball players. It is recommended that volleyball coaches and trainers implement a sprint training program as a step towards developing the vertical jump of their young athletes.
... Our findings are in accordance with much of the prior reported literature. Kotzamanidis et al. (2013) 33 and Venturelli et al. (2008) 34 examined pre-PHV subjects and observed a significant improvement in sprint performances (10, 20 and 30 m sprint time) following 12 weeks of linear sprint training. Two recent reviews 24,35 reported a significant improvement in sprint velocity (ES ¼ À0.71 to À0.92 and ES ¼ 0.43 to 1.59, respectively) with a moderate heterogeneity between maturity-groups. ...
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Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different sprint-training regimes on sprint and jump performances according to age in elite young male soccer players over the course of one soccer season. Methods Players were randomly assigned to two training groups. Group 1 performed systematic change-of-direction sprints (CODST, U19 [n = 9], U17 [n = 9], U15 [n = 10]) while group 2 conducted systematic linear sprints (LST, U19 [n = 9], U17 [n = 9], U15 [n = 9]). Training volumes were similar between groups (40 sprints per week x 30 weeks = 1200 sprints per season). Pre and post training, all players performed tests for the assessment of linear and slalom sprint speed (5-m and 10-m), countermovement jump, and maximal aerobic speed performance. Results For all physical fitness measures, the baseline-adjusted means data (ANCOVA) across the age groups showed no significant differences between LST and CODST at post (0.061 < p < 0.995; 0.0017 < d < 1.01). The analyses of baseline-adjusted means for all physical fitness measures for U15, U17, and U19 (LST vs. CODST) revealed no significant differences between LST and CODST for U15 (0.213 < p < 0.917; 0.001 < d < 0.087), U17 (0.132 < p < 0.976; 0.001 < d < 0.310), and U19 (0.300 < p < 0.999; 0.001 < d < 0.049) at post. Conclusions The results from this study showed that both, LST and CODST induced significant changes in the sprint, lower limbs power, and aerobic performances in young elite soccer players. Since no significant differences were observed between LST and CODST, the observed changes are most likely due to training and/or maturation. Therefore, more research is needed to elucidate whether CODST, LST or a combination of both is beneficial for youth soccer athletes’ performance development.
... Our findings are in accordance with much of the prior reported literature. Kotzamanidis et al. (2013) 33 and Venturelli et al. (2008) 34 examined pre-PHV subjects and observed a significant improvement in sprint performances (10, 20 and 30 m sprint time) following 12 weeks of linear sprint training. Two recent reviews 24,35 reported a significant improvement in sprint velocity (ES ¼ À0.71 to À0.92 and ES ¼ 0.43 to 1.59, respectively) with a moderate heterogeneity between maturity-groups. ...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different sprint-training regimes on sprint and jump performances according to age in elite young male soccer players over the course of one soccer season. Methods: Players were randomly assigned to two training groups. Group 1 performed systematic change-of-direction sprints (CODST, U19 [n=9], U17 [n=9], U15 [n=10]) while group 2 conducted systematic linear sprints (LST, U19 [n=9], U17 [n=9], U15 [n=9]). Training volumes were similar between groups (40 sprints per week x 30 weeks = 1200 sprints per season). Pre and post training, all players performed tests for the assessment of linear and slalom sprint speed (5-m and 10-m), countermovement jump, and maximal aerobic speed performance. Results: For all physical fitness measures, the baseline-adjusted means data (ANCOVA) across the age groups showed no significant differences between LST and CODST at post (0.061<p<0.995; 0.0017<d<1.01). The analyses of baseline-adjusted means for all physical fitness measures for U15, U17, and U19 (LST vs. CODST) revealed no significant differences between LST and CODST for U15 (0.213<p<0.917; 0.001<d<0.087), U17 (0.132<p<0.976; 0.001<d<0.310), and U19 (0.300<p<0.999; 0.001<d<0.049) at post. Conclusions: The results from this study showed that both, LST and CODST induced significant changes in the sprint, lower limbs power, and aerobic performances in young elite soccer players. Since no significant differences were observed between LST and CODST, the observed changes are most likely due to training and/or maturation. Therefore, more research is needed to elucidate whether CODST, LST or a combination of both is beneficial for youth soccer athletes’ performance development.
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This study attempted to assess and compare the amount of cocontraction present in thigh and leg muscles in three groups of children during treadmill walking and running. Thirty children, aged 7-8 (n = 10), 10-12 (n = 10) and 15-16 (n = 10) years, performed 4-min bouts of submaximal treadmill exercise at two walking and four running speeds, assigned in a randomized order. Three seconds of EMG data were collected during the final minute of each bout from the vastus lateralis (VL), hamstrings (H), tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (S). The processed linear envelopes of VL and H, and likewise of TA and S, were overlapped and a cocontraction index calculated (area of overlap divided by the number of data points) for thigh and leg segments, respectively. Cocontraction was highest for the youngest children and lowest for the oldest, for both thigh and leg, whether expressed in terms of absolute speed or as a percentage of each child's VO(2 max). Larger amounts of cocontraction may help to explain the higher metabolic cost of locomotion for younger children, when compared with adolescents and adults.
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The relationships between muscle fibre characteristics and the physical performance capacity of trained athletic boys (aged 11-13 years) were studied over 2 days. The subjects were divided into two groups according to muscle fibre distribution. The 'fast' group (FG) comprised 10 subjects (sprinters, weightlifters, tennis players) with more than 50% fast-twitch fibres (type II), and the 'slow' group (SG) comprised 8 subjects (endurance runners, tennis players, one weightlifter) with more than 50% slow-twitch fibres (type I) in their vastus lateralis muscle. The 'fast' group had 59.2 +/- 6.3% and the 'slow' group had 39.4 +/- 9.8% type II fibres. Other clear differences (P less than 0.05-0.01) between the groups were observed as regards reaction time, rate of force development and rise of the body's centre of gravity in the squatting jump. For these variables, the 'fast' group was superior to the 'slow' group. Muscle fibre distribution (% type II) correlated (P less than 0.05-0.01) negatively with reaction time. Muscle fibre area (% type II) correlated negatively with reaction time (P less than 0.05-0.001) and positively with chronological age (P less than 0.05) height (P less than 0.05), mass (P less than 0.001), serum testosterone (P less than 0.05), force production (P less than 0.05-0.01) and blood lactate (P less than 0.05) in the 60-s maximal anaerobic test. There were no significant correlations between muscle fibre characteristics and maximal oxygen uptake. The present study assumes that heredity partly affects the selection of sporting event. Growth, development and training are associated with muscle fibre area, which affects the physical performance capacity of the neuromuscular system in trained young boys.
Article
Possible changes in muscle size and function due to resistance training were examined in prepubertal boys. Thirteen boys (9-11 yr) volunteered for each of the training and control groups. Progressive resistance training was performed three times weekly for 20 wk. Measurements consisted of the following: 1 repetition maximum (RM) bench press and leg press; maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic elbow flexion and knee extension strength; evoked isometric contractile properties of the right elbow flexors and knee extensors; muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by computerized tomography at the mid-right upper arm and thigh; and motor unit activation (MUA) by the interpolated twitch procedure. Training significantly increased 1 RM bench press (35%) and leg press (22%), isometric elbow flexion (37%) and knee extension strength (25% and 13% at 90 degrees and 120 degrees, respectively), isokinetic elbow flexion (26%) and knee extension (21%) strength, and evoked twitch torque of the elbow flexors (30%) and knee extensors (30%). There were no significant effects of training on the time-related contractile properties (time to peak torque, half-relaxation time), CSA, or %MUA of the elbow flexors or knee extensors. There was, however, a trend toward increased MUA for the elbow flexors and knee extensors in the trained group. Strength gains were independent of changes in muscle CSA, and the increases in twitch torque suggest possible adaptations in muscle excitation-contraction coupling. Improved motor skill coordination (especially during the early phase of training), a tendency toward increased MUA, and other undetermined neurological adaptations, including better coordination of the involved muscle groups, are likely the major determinants of the strength gains in this study.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of knee torque at various joint velocities, body composition, flexibility, and age, height and weight in 30 meter sprint performance. Subjects were 14 male pubescents whose mean (±SD) age and percent fat were 11.8±.31 years and 20.6±4.9%, respectively. Maximum knee extension and knee flexion torque at 30°/sec-1 and 300°/sec-1 was assessed with a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer system. Joint torque variables were expressed as absolute and relative values (the latter as torque per kg bodyweight), ratios and percent loss of torque from the slow (30°/sec-1) to fast (300°/sec-1) velocity. Hydrostatic weighing was used to determine body composition. None of the variables were significantly related to 30 meter sprint time (p>.05). The highest correlation with sprint time was knee extension torque at 30°/sec-1·kg bodyweight (r = -.374). Stepwise forward multiple regression analysis produced an R of .992 and included 9 variables before R was significant. It was concluded that sprint ability in these pubescent boys is not highly related to knee torque at 30° and 300°/sec, body composition, height or weight.