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Compressibility and thickness recovery characteristics of carpets

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As indispensable home decoration textile materials, carpets should have high durability during usage. One of the performance tests that affect the usage life of the carpets are thickness recovery after static and dynamic loading. This paper deals with the structural properties, compressibility and thickness recovery properties of seven carpets produced from wool, acyclic, polypropylene fibers. The effects of raw material, yarn linear density, the number of loop per unit area were searched. It was found that, the increased yarn linear density and loop density affects thickness, pile mass and the recovery characteristics of the carpets positively. Wool carpets have higher pile mass than PAC carpets, and also due to the higher fiber density they have higher compressibility and recovery after dynamic loading and unloading. Thickness loss values of wool carpets are generally lower after long term static loading. The resistance to dynamic compression is higher for the carpets, which have higher number of loops per unit area and therefore recovery properties are better.
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TEKSTİL ve KONFEKSİYON 3/2012 203
(REFEREED RESEARCH)
COMPRESSIBILITY AND THICKNESS RECOVERY
CHARACTERISTICS OF CARPETS
HALILARDA SIKIŞTIRILABİLME VE GERİ DÖNEBİLME
ÖZELLİKLERİ
Nilgün ÖZDİL1, Faruk BOZDOĞAN1,
Gonca ÖZÇELİK KAYSERİ2, Gamze SÜPÜREN MENGÜÇ2
*
1Ege University, Textile Engineering Department, İzmir, Turkey
2Ege University, Emel Akın Vocational Training School, İzmir, Turkey
Received: 26.08.2011 Accepted: 10.04.2012
ABSTRACT
As indispensable home decoration textile materials, carpets should have high durability during usage. One of the performance tests
that affect the usage life of the carpets are thickness recovery after static and dynamic loading. This paper deals with the structural
properties, compressibility and thickness recovery properties of seven carpets produced from wool, acyclic, polypropylene fibers. The
effects of raw material, yarn linear density, the number of loop per unit area were searched. It was found that, the increased yarn linear
density and loop density affects thickness, pile mass and the recovery characteristics of the carpets positively. Wool carpets have higher
pile mass than PAC carpets, and also due to the higher fiber density they have higher compressibility and recovery after dynamic
loading and unloading. Thickness loss values of wool carpets are generally lower after long term static loading. The resistance to
dynamic compression is higher for the carpets, which have higher number of loops per unit area and therefore recovery properties are
better.
Key Words: Carpet, PP, Wo, PAC, Thickness loss, Compressibility, Loading-unloading.
ÖZET
Ev dekorasyonunun vazgeçilmez tekstil ürünlerinden olan halılar, kullanım esnasında yüksek dayanıklılığa sahip olmalıdır. Bir
halının kullanım ömrünü etkileyen performans testlerinden birisi de, statik ve dinamik yükleme sonrasında halıların, eski kalınlığına
geri dönebilme özelliğidir. Bu çalışmada, yün, akrilik ve polipropilen liflerinden üretilen 7 farklı halının yapısal özellikleri,
sıkıştırılabilme ve geri dönebilme özellikleri incelenmiştir. Hammadde, hav ipliğinin doğrusal yoğunluğu, birim alandaki ilmek sayısı
parametrelerinin etkileri araştırılmıştır. Hav iplik sıklığı ve doğrusal yoğunluğunun artması ile halı kalınlığı, hav ağırlığı ve geri
dönebilme özelliklerinin olumlu yönde etkilendiği tespit edilmiştir. Yün halılar, yüksek lif yoğunluğu nedeniyle PAC halılardan daha
yüksek hav ağırlığına sahip olup, dinamik yük uygulaması sonrasında daha iyi bastırılabilme ve geri dönebilme özelliği
göstermektedirler. Uzun süreli statik yükleme sonrası meydana gelen kalınlık kaybı değeri yün halılarda genellikle daha düşüktür. Birim
alandaki ilmek sayısı daha yüksek olan halıların dinamik yükleme esnasında sıkıştırma direncinin ve yük kaldırıldıktan sonra
kalınlıktaki geri dönebilme özelliğinin daha iyi olduğu tespit edilmiştir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Halı, PP, Wo, PAC, Kalınlık kaybı, Sıkıştırılabilirlik, Yük uygulama-kaldırma.
* Corresponding Author: Nilgün Özdil, nilgun.ozdil@ege.edu.tr Tel: +90 232 311 16 06 Fax: +90 232 339 92 22
1. INTRODUCTION
Carpets, since BC 5-6th centuries, have
been produced due to the demand for
a comfortable and warm floor and
have an important place in home
decoration. Because of the important
role of the carpets, today, their usage
extends to the outside home, such as
work places, offices, hotels, schools,
hospital locations.
Carpets and rugs are classified
basically in two main classes such as
hand-made carpets and machine
carpets, which were explained by
Erdoğan (2001). Hand made carpets
are defined as piled weavings having
piles at the same height or at different
heights and constructed by knotting a
204 TEKSTİL ve KONFEKSİYON 3/2012
pile yarn on warp yarns in different
ways by passing weft yarns inside
these yarns. The loops in machine
carpets are not as knots like in the
hand made carpets but are yarns in U
or V shaped tightened between weft
yarns. In case that the ends of loops
during tightening are not cut, curled
carpets are produced. Meanwhile, in
present, various machine carpets are
available produced with needling and
bonding techniques (1).
The production of machine carpets can
be classified mainly into four groups
such as woven carpets (including
wilton typed carpets), needle punched
carpets (tufting, raschel, non-woven),
bonded carpets, flock carpets (2).
Among the factors that affect the
appearance and usage life of the
carpets, along with the production
method, the fiber type also plays an
important role. Formerly, wool fiber
have been used in carpet production,
however with the usage of synthetic
fibers as pile materials, the knowledge
of how the fibers treat in different
conditions has gained importance in
determining user’s performance.
In the literature, several studies about
the physical, mechanical and structural
properties of the carpets exist. Kırtay
investigated various carpet quality
parameters such as the degree of
crushing and flexibility characteristics,
resistance against walking, burning
and static electricity, appearance
changing during mechanical impacts. It
was stated that thickness loss resulting
from short-term static loading is mostly
related to the surface pile density (3).
Wood, emphasized the importance of
the identification of the parameters
necessary to characterize the textural
properties of old and new carpets.
These parameters were classified as
the type of knot, pile brightness, textural
thickness, orientation, alignment,
smoothness of the loop size and bright
knot density (4).
Lamb et.al. evaluated the changes in
carpet appearance using a
photometry, depending on the intensity
of the reflected light. With this method,
intensity of the reflected light from the
surface of worn and unworn carpets
was determined. It was stated that
since the piles in unworn carpets were
smoother and positioned in parallel,
the light was not reflected to a large
extend, however, in the worn carpets,
as the piles were flattened the amount
of reflected light was higher compared
to the unworn carpets. It was
suggested that, by using this method,
carpet appearance could also be
evaluated (5).
Erkesim investigated some of the
important quality characteristics of the
carpets, such as wear resistance,
thickness loss, thickness recovery,
appearance changing under mechanical
impact, dimensional stability, snagging,
contamination, wire resistance and
static electricity. According to the
results, due to the high stretching
characteristic of wool fiber, the best
thickness recovery after static loading
was obtained in wool carpets and after
short term loading these carpets
recovery value was 90-95%
meanwhile it was 80-85% after long
term loading. It was stated that tufting
carpets have better snagging load
compared to wilton type carpets (6).
Berkalp investigated the structural
properties and behavioral
characteristics of the carpets against
mechanical impacts. Wear resistance,
appearance, snagging characteristics
of carpets produced from acrylic, wool
and polypropylene fibers in two
different pile height and loop density
were measured. It was found that weft
thread density, raw material and loop
height had statistically important effect
on wear resistance. Since the wear
resistance is evaluated according to
the number of revolutions that the
partial abrasion begins, wool carpets
have lower resistance, whereas in
synthetic carpets abrasion occurs over
the entire surface. It was stated that
with the increase in weft density and
loop height, abrasion period extended
especially in acyclic carpets due to the
increment in the amount of raw
material. The effect of higher loop
height was found statistically
significant on loop strength but the
influence of weft density was not
obvious (7).
Erdogan measured the important
performance properties, such as
thickness loss under mechanical
loading, thickness loss after short and
long term static loading, snagging load
and appearance changing, of 12
machine carpets produced with the
same production methods.
Statistically significant relationship
between the surface pile density and
thickness loss under mechanical
impacts was determined (1).
Tekin investigated the production
stages of wilton type woven carpets. In
the study, after short term static loading,
the thickness loss of acrylic carpets was
found higher compared to wool and
polypropylene carpets, however after
dynamic loading opposite results were
obtained. It was recommended that in
the places subjected to dynamic
loading, acyclic carpets and in the
places subjected to static loading, wool
carpets could be used. He also stated
that polypropylene carpets have similar
properties like the wool carpets and
they can be preferred because of the
economical reasons (8).
Radhakrishnaiah investigated twenty-
four well balanced carpet samples, half
of which represent nylon 6 and the
other half nylon 6.6 face yarns for their
texture retention and color fastness to
ozone. The differences in soil
repellency, oil repellency, water
repellency, color fastness to light, color
fastness to nitrous oxides, and
thickness recovery from prolonged
application of static load properties of
nylon 6 and 6.6 carpets were found
statistically insignificant (9).
Koç et al. evaluated the thickness loss
under static loading, deformation
resistance, and elasticity and resilience
properties of carpets. The thickness
loss of acrylic carpets after static
loading was found higher compared to
wool and polypropylene carpets (10).
Ulcay et al. relieved the image
techniques which eliminated
instrumental testing in carpet evaluation
in their study (11).
Korkmaz and Kocer searched the
effect of pile density and number of
loops per unit area on the short and
long term static loading. It was
reported that after short term loading
the length of carpet piles reached to
80-90% of its initial length and after
long term loading 74-89% of its initial
length (12).
Dalcı, investigated the effects of carpet
production parameters on carpet
performance by using 16 carpet
samples having acrylic and
polypropylene piles in two different pile
TEKSTİL ve KONFEKSİYON 3/2012 205
densities and four different pile heights.
Experiments of tuft withdrawal strength,
appearance, pilling, loss of thickness
under dynamic loading, loss of
thickness in short and long term under
static loading were done. According to
the results, after short and long term
static loading, polypropylene carpet
samples became thinner compared to
the acrylic carpet samples, but
polypropylene recovered to their first
thickness more quickly than acrylic
carpet samples, because of their good
resilience ability (13).
In this study, compressibility and
thickness recovery properties of seven
carpets produced with wool, acyclic,
polypropylene fibers were investigated.
The effects of raw material, yarn linear
density, number of loops per unit area
and pile height on these properties
were investigated.
2. MATERIAL AND METHOD
The carpet materials used in the study
were selected according to the most
commonly used fiber types in carpet
production, such as acyclic (PAC),
polypropylene (PP) and wool (Wo)
yarns. PP carpets were produced from
single plied yarns in the yarn twist of
αm=30 and PAC and Wo carpets were
produced by using 3 plied yarns in the
yarn twist of αm=90. Axminster
production method was used for all
types of carpets. Pile height values
were measured using a metric ruler
manually without any pressure. To
determine the thickness differences in
terms of pile properties, the backing
thickness values of the carpets were
kept constant for each compared
groups. The structural properties of the
carpets used in the study are given in
Table 1 (14).
The carpets used in the study were
conditioned on a flat surface in the test
conditions of 20 ± 2˚C and 65%±4%
relative humidity for 24 hours.
Determination of the number of loops
per unit area was carried out according
to TS 5285 standard. In the test
standard of TS 7576, while measuring
the pile weight, carpet samples were
cut such that the edges of the test
samples contain an exact pile course.
All the yarns forming the loops were
taken out and weighed.
The thickness, static and dynamic
loading tests of the carpets were
carried out by using Wira Digital
Thickness Gauge (Figure 1).
Thickness is measured by determining
the distance between the pressure foot
and the reference plate on where the
carpet sample is placed. In order to
determine thickness loss of the
carpets, the compression and recovery
after compression values were
measured during dynamic
loading/unloading test. Pressure
values of the weights are coded from A
to G, which indicate the total pressure
and these values are as follows:
Pressure of the foot without extra
weight: 2 kPa, A:5 kPa, B:10 kPa,
C:20 kPa, D:50 kPa, E:100 kPa, F:150
kPa, G:200 kPa (15). The
measurement starts by lowering the
pressure foot on the carpet and the
thickness is recorded in half a minute.
The test is continued by gently adding
weight A. After half a minute, the result
is read and the tests continue in this
manner, carefully by adding the
weights respectively.
Figure 1. Carpet thickness gauge
Table 1. Yarn and carpet structural properties
Fiber type of piles Polypropylene Polyacrylonitrile Wool
The codes of carpet samples PP1 PP2 PP3 PAC1 PAC2 PAC3 Wo
Yarn linear density (tex) 170 225 225 185 385 225 225
Number of loops per unit area (loops/m2) (x106) 18 18 15 20 20 28 28
Pile height (mm) 9.0 9.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 11.3 11.3
In order to determine the physical and structural properties of the carpets the following standards given in Table 2 were used.
Table 2. Carpet tests used in experimental
Measured Carpet Properties Standard
Loops per unit length and per unit area TS 5285 ISO 1763: Carpets-Determination of number of
tufts and/or loops per unit length and per unit area
Pile weight per unit area TS 7576 ISO 8543: Textile floor coverings - Methods for
determination of mass
Pile height TS 7125 ISO 1766: Textile floor coverings-Determination
of thickness of pile above the substrate
Physical and
Structural
Properties
Carpet thickness TS 3374 ISO 1765: Machine-made textile floor coverings
- Determination of thickness
Thickness loss under short term dynamic loading BS 4052:1987, ISO 2094-1986, Method for determination
of thickness loss of textile floor coverings under dynamic
loading
Performance
Properties
Thickness loss under long term static loading TS 7578, ISO 3416 Textile floor coverings-Determination
of thickness loss after prolonged heavy static loadings
206 TEKSTİL ve KONFEKSİYON 3/2012
Static loading/unloading test was carried
out according to TS 7578 standard in
which the loss of carpet thickness values
in long term under static loading was
measured. The load was applied to the
test samples during 24 hours. Pressure
foot and load were removed after this
period and the thickness of the carpet
was measured after 1 and 24 hours.
Bending length of the pile yarns was
measured by Shirley Stiffness Tester,
in order to determine stiffness of the
yarns used for carpet piles.
All tests were repeated for 5 times and
in order to determine whether the
effects of yarn linear density, material
type and pile density on carpet
thickness was statistically important,
independent sample-t test was carried
out according to α=0.05 significant
level and the related p values are
given.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Structural properties of the
carpets
The results of pile mass per unit area
values of the carpets are given in Figure
2. For PP and PAC carpets, when the
yarn gets thicker, pile mass per unit area
values increases, as expected. The wool
carpets have higher mass and pile mass
compared to the PAC carpets, due to the
higher fiber density (dPAC: 1.18 g/cm3;
dWo: 1.31 g/cm3) (15).
The carpet thickness values are given
in Table 3. It was found that, according
to the statistical analysis, the
difference in carpet thickness values
for each compared group was found
significant. For the PP and PAC
carpets, the carpet thickness increases
as the yarn linear density increase. In
PP carpets, as the pile yarn density
increases, carpet thickness increases
as well because the resistance to
pressure applied to each loops
increases for higher pile density.
Although PAC and wool carpets have
the same pile height and pile density,
the carpet thickness is higher for the
wool carpets, causing bulkier structure.
That is related with the bending rigidity
of the yarns, which influences the
bending properties of the piles under
the pressure foot of the thickness
gauge during measurement. Bending
lengths of the pile yarns were found
2.94 cm for wool yarn and 2.69 cm for
PAC yarn used in carpet, coded as
PAC3. Higher bending length of wool
yarn forms a stiffer structure of the
carpets that causes increased
pressure resistance. Therefore the
carpets produced from wool yarn have
higher thickness.
3.2 The results of dynamic loading-
unloading test
As the carpets are subjected to loading
and unloading during usage, the
thickness of the carpet change. In
order to determine the resistance to
compression and thickness recovery of
the carpets, loading and unloading test
was carried out by using the carpet
thickness gauge and thickness-
pressure curves for each carpet were
plotted as given in Figure 3.
The work of compression is the area
under the loading curve (A1), whereas
the work of recovery is the area under
the unloading curve (A2). Percentage
work recovery is calculated from the
ratio of recovery work to compression
work (16).
Percentage work recovery (%) =
[A2 / A1] x 100 (1)
The percentage work recovery values
of the carpets are given in Figure 4.
Lower work recovery means that
during dynamic loading-unloading
process, the compression energy is
stored by the carpet and consequently
causes permanent deformation.
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
170 tex 225 tex 185 tex 385 tex 225 tex 225 tex
PP PAC PAC Wo
g/m
2
Pile Mass per Unit Area
Figure 2. Pile mass values of the carpets
Table 3. Thickness values of the carpets
PP Carpets
(Linear Density
Comparison)
PAC Carpets
(Linear Density
Comparison)
PAC and Wo Carpets
(Material Type
Comparison)
PP Carpets
(Pile Density Comparison)
Carpet codes PP1 PP2 PAC1 PAC2 PAC3 Wo PP3 PP2
Carpet structural parameters 170 tex 225 tex 185 tex 385 tex PAC Wo 15x106
(pile/m2)
18x106
(pile/m2)
Carpet thickness (mm) 12.9 13.5 11.6 12.6 14.0 16.1 12.9 13.5
Statistical significance 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000*
*Statistically significant according to α=0.05.
TEKSTİL ve KONFEKSİYON 3/2012 207
Figure 3. Thickness-pressure curve of the carpet
61,1 61,5
69,1
61,1
63,7 66,8 62,5 66,7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
170 tex 225 tex 185 tex 385 tex 225 tex 225 tex 15.000.00018.000.000
PP PAC PAC Wo PP-Pile Dens ity
Percentage Work Recovery (%)
Figure 4. Percentage work recovery of the carpets
As another indication of the resistance
to compression of the carpets, the
percentage thickness loss values were
calculated by the equation (2) given
below, where h0 states the initial
thickness and (-ha) means the
recovered thickness (mm):
Thickness Loss (%)
=100
)-(
0
0x
h
hh a
(2)
The lower the thickness loss values
represent the higher resilience and
higher durability during the usage of
the carpets and the more durable a
carpet is the longer it keeps its original
properties. In Table 4, the calculated
thickness loss values of the carpets
are given.
Loading-unloading tests were repeated
5 times and the mean values of the
measurements were calculated.
Loading and unloading curves were
plotted by using the mean values.
The changing of PP carpet thickness
values during dynamic loading and
unloading test is given in Figure 5. PP
carpet produced from pile yarns,
having higher linear density, has also
higher thickness and thickness loss
value, when calculating only the initial
and the recovered thickness values
are considered. At the beginning of
loading, PP carpets produced from
thicker piles have higher thickness,
however under highest pressure the
thickness values of both carpets are
very close to each other. Since there is
not an obvious difference in yarn
counts, the similar percentage work
recovery values were obtained for PP1
and PP2 carpets as well (Figure 4).
In Figure 6, the changing of PAC carpet
thickness values during dynamic
loading and unloading test is given. The
yarn counts of piles are significantly
different from each other for PAC
carpets. Although the initial thickness
values of both PAC carpets are close
to each other, after total loading, the
compressed thickness of the carpet
produced from thicker yarn is higher,
due to the bulkier structure and lower
compressibility characteristic of the
carpet. The difference in the thickness
values of the carpets during loading
and unloading test is significant.
Therefore, the thickness loss value of
PAC carpets produced from thicker
yarn is lower (Figure 6) and the
percentage work recovery value is
higher as expected (Figure 4).
The effect of material type on the
compressibility and recovery after
dynamic loading and unloading
process can be seen from Figure 7.
The wool carpet is thicker than PAC
carpet at the beginning of loading
stage, due to the higher bending
rigidity of the wool yarns. Because of
the same reason, wool carpet has
lower percentage work recovery and
higher thickness loss. This result is
similar to the Tekin’s outcomes (8).
208 TEKSTİL ve KONFEKSİYON 3/2012
Table 4. Thickness loss values of the carpets
PP Carpets
(Lineer Density
Comparison)
PAC Carpets
(Lineer Density
Comparison)
PAC and Wo Carpets
(Material Type
Comparison)
PP Carpets
(Pile Density Comparison)
Carpet Structural
Parameters
170 tex 225 tex 185 tex 385 tex PAC Wo 15x106 (piles/m2) 18x106 (piles/m2)
Thickness Loss (%) 27.9 29.8 39.4 22.6 21.3 23.6 30.3 29.8
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
16,0
h0 +hA +hB +hC +hD +hE +hF +hG -hG -hF -hE -hD -hC -hB -hA
Loading/unloading
Thickness (mm)
170 tex 225 tex
Figure 5. Compressibility and recovery during dynamic loading and unloading for the PP carpets
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
h0 +hA +hB +hC +hD +hE +hF +hG -hG -hF -hE -hD -hC -hB -hA
Loading/unloading
Thickness (mm)
185 tex 385 tex
Figure 6. Compressibility and recovery after dynamic loading and unloading for the PAC carpets
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
16,0
18,0
h0 +hA +hB +hC +hD +hE +hF +hG -hG -hF -hE -hD -hC -hB -hA
Loading/unloading
Thickness (mm)
PAC Wo
Figure 7. Compressibility and recovery after dynamic loading and unloading for the PAC and Wo carpets
TEKSTİL ve KONFEKSİYON 3/2012 209
0,0
2,0
4,0
6,0
8,0
10,0
12,0
14,0
16,0
h0 +hA +hB +hC +hD +hE +hF +hG -hG -hF -he -hd -hc -hb -ha
Loa ding /un loadin g
Thickness (mm)
18000000 loops/ m2 15000000 loops/ m2
Figure 8. Effect of loops per unit area on the compressibility and recovery after dynamic loading and unloading for the PP carpets
Number of loops per unit area is a
significant structural parameter that
affects the physical properties of the
carpets. According to the Figure 8,
higher loops per unit area increase
both the thickness of the carpet and
resistance to compression during the
loading periods (under the
compressions of A, B, C, and D
weights). Although the thicknesses of
both carpets are the same under the
highest pressure (G weight, 200 kPa),
the recovered thickness of the denser
carpet is higher and the thickness loss
is lower than the other, due to the
tightly packed structure. The difference
between the percentage work recovery
values is significant for PP3 and PP2
carpets. The lower compressibility of
the denser pile carpet results in higher
compression work, therefore
percentage work recovery value is
lower for the denser carpets
3.3 The results of static loading and
unloading test
The thickness loss values used for
simulating the usage of the carpets in
static conditions were calculated in
each interval of loading/recovery period
by using the following equation (2):
Thickness Loss (%) = 100
0
10 x
t
tt
(2)
where t0 is the original thickness, t1 is
thickness in each interval.
In Figure 9 and Figure 10, carpet
thickness loss values of the PP and
PAC carpets produced from two
different yarn counts are given. For the
PP carpets, since the yarn linear
densities are close to each other, the
differences in thickness loss values
during static loading and unloading
test is not apparent, as it is in dynamic
loading and unloading test.
Due to the obvious yarn count
difference between PAC yarns (185
tex and 385 tex), the initial thickness
loss values of carpet produced from
185 tex yarn was found higher than
that of 385 tex yarn (Figure 10). Due
to the higher bending rigidity of thicker
yarns, the recovery behavior of the
carpet produced from thicker yarn is
considerably better. However, generally
both carpets have good thickness
recovery characteristics, as the thickness
loss values after 24 hours loading and
unloading are nearly 1.5 %.
Figure 11 illustrates carpet thickness
loss values of the PAC and Wo
carpets. Thickness loss values of wool
carpets are generally lower during the
whole test, as similar to the results of
Koç et al.’s studies (8). However, the
values are equalized at the end of test.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
T1min-To T24h-To T2min -To T1h-To T24h-To
Loading Unloading
Thickness Loss (%)
PP 170 tex PP 225 tex
Figure 9. Carpet thickness loss during after static loading and unloading for the PP carpets
210 TEKSTİL ve KONFEKSİYON 3/2012
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
T1min-To T24h-To T2min -To T1h-To T24h-To
Loading Unloading
Thickness Loss (%)
PAC 185 tex PAC 385 tex
Figure 10. Carpet thickness loss during static loading and unloading for the PAC carpets
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
T1min-To T 24h-To T 2min -To T 1h-To T 24h-To
Loading Unloading
Thickness Loss (%)
Wool PAC
Figure 11. Carpet thickness loss during static loading and unloading for the PAC and Wo carpets
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
T1min-To T24h-To T2min -To T1h-To T24h-To
Loading Unloading
Thickness Loss (%)
15000000 loops/ m2 18000000 loops/ m2
Figure 12. Carpet thickness loss during static loading and unloading for the PP carpets in different loops per unit area
TEKSTİL ve KONFEKSİYON 3/2012 211
The effect of number of loops per unit
area on carpet thickness loss values
are given in Figure 12. As it can be
seen, thickness loss values of denser
carpet are lower during the whole
loading and unloading periods, which
shows similarity with the results of
dynamic loading and unloading test.
4. CONCLUSION
In this study, the effect of material
type, yarn count, pile height and pile
density on structural characteristics
and the compressibility, thickness
recovery characteristics of the carpets
were investigated by dynamic and
static loading and unloading tests.
According to the results, the following
conclusions were obtained.
The structural properties of the carpets
change according to the material type
and pile properties such as;
¾ Wool carpets have higher pile
mass than PAC carpets, due to the
higher fiber density of wool fibers.
¾ The thickness and pile mass per
unit area values of the carpets
increase, for both PP and PAC
carpets, as the linear density of the
yarn increases.
¾ Material type and pile
characteristics also influence on
the compressibility and recovery
properties of the carpets.
¾ The thickness loss values change
according to yarn linear density.
The thickness loss values of PAC
carpets are lower in both static and
dynamic loading and unloading
tests for PAC carpets, where the
thicker pile yarn used.
¾ The thickness loss values change
according to material type for static
and dynamic conditions. Wool
carpets have higher
compressibility and lower recovery
percentage after dynamic loading
and unloading as compared to
PAC carpets. But after long term
static loading, opposite results
were obtained in terms of
thickness loss values.
¾ The number of the pile per unit
area also affects the
compressibility and recovery
properties of the carpets. The
resistance to dynamic
compression is higher for the
carpets, having higher number of
loops per unit area and recovery
properties are better. As a result of
that, thickness loss values are
lower after long term static loading.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors want to give their special
thanks to Bahariye Mensucat Sanayi
ve Ticaret A.Ş. for their support about
supplying the materials used in the
study.
This research was supported by Ege
University as a 09-TKAUM-007 coded
BAP project.
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Makine Halılarının Kalite Özellikleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma" İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Yüksek Lisans Tezi
  • M Erkesim
Erkesim, M, A., 1995, "Makine Halılarının Kalite Özellikleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma" İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul.
Physical Testing of Textiles
  • B P Savilla
Savilla B.P., 1999, "Physical Testing of Textiles", The Textile Institute, Manchester, England.
Yüz Yüze Halı Dokumacılığı
  • M Tekin
Tekin, M. 2002, "Yüz Yüze Halı Dokumacılığı", Çukurova Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Adana.