Article

Synthetic fibers in atmospheric fallout: A source of microplastics in the environment?

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Abstract

Sources, pathways and reservoirs of microplastics, plastic particles smaller than 5 mm, remain poorly documented in an urban context. While some studies pointed out wastewater treatment plants as a potential pathway of microplastics, none have focused on the atmospheric compartment. In this work, the atmospheric fallout of microplastics was investigated in two different urban and sub-urban sites. Microplastics were collected continuously with a stainless steel funnel. Samples were then filtered and observed with a stereomicroscope. Fibers accounted for almost all the microplastics collected. An atmospheric fallout between 2 and 355 particles/m2/day was highlighted. Registered fluxes were systematically higher at the urban than at the sub-urban site. Chemical characterization allowed to estimate at 29% the proportion of these fibers being all synthetic (made with petrochemicals), or a mixture of natural and synthetic material. Extrapolation using weight and volume estimates of the collected fibers, allowed a rough estimation showing that between 3 and 10 tons of fibers are deposited by atmospheric fallout at the scale of the Parisian agglomeration every year (2500 km²). These results could serve the scientific community working on the different sources of microplastic in both continental and marine environments.

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... The presence of MPs in atmospheric fallout was reported in 2015, and fibrous microplastics (FMPs) represented the primary type of MP present in the air [13,14]. According to the European Chemical Agency (ECHA), fibrous microplastics are defined as MPs with lengths between 0.3 µm and 15 mm, and a length-to-diameter ratio of greater than three [1]. ...
... FMPs released into the atmosphere during the lifetime of synthetic and blended textiles (production, use, and disposal) significantly contribute to the overall issue of MP pollution. For instance, airborne FMPs can reach terrestrial and aquatic environments through wind transport, deposition on the surface of cities or agrosystems, and runoff [13,14]. In 2017, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) estimated that FMPs released from textiles during industrial and household laundry accounted for 35% of the annual MP emission sources into the oceans [15]. ...
... Considering that 3-10 t of microfibers are deposited by atmospheric fallout every year in Paris, 29% of which constituted by FMPs (i.e., 2.38-7.95 kg of FMPs/day) [2,14], the present approach significantly allows the same amount of FMPs falling in Paris per day to be recovered before reaching and polluting the environment. ...
Article
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Microplastic (MP) contamination is an urgent environmental issue to address. Fibrous microplastics (FMPs) are the principal MP type in the air and have already been found in human stool and lung tissues. FMPs are generated from the lifecycle of synthetic and blended textiles and are expected to increase due to fast fashion. Among textile processes, the finishing of fabrics is estimated to generate 5000 t/year of textile waste fibers in Italy, including FMPs. To limit FMPs spread, this paper suggests, for the first time, the direct collection of blended finishing textile waste microfibers and reuse in designing thermal-insulating and mechanical-performing fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (FRCs). The microfibers were thoroughly characterized (size, morphology, composition, and density), and their use in FRCs was additionally evaluated by considering water absorption and release capacity. Untreated, water-saturated, and NaOH-treated microfibers were considered in FRCs up to 4 wt%. Up to a +320% maximum bending load, +715% toughness, −80% linear shrinkage, and double-insulating power of Portland cement were observed by increasing microfiber contents. NaOH-treated and water-saturated microfibers better enhanced toughness and linear shrinkage reduction. Therefore, green and performant composite construction materials were obtained, allowing for the mitigation of more than 4 kg FMPs per ton of cement paste. This is a great result considering the FMP contamination (i.e., 2–8 kg/day fallout in Paris), and that FRCs are promising and shortly-widely used construction materials.
... Since last decade, the research in the field of MPs has gained momentum. Mostly the studies are conducted for the availability of MPs in the water and rarely for the air medium (Dris et al. 2016). Few studies have documented the existence of MPs in both the indoor and outdoor air (Abbasi et al. 2019;Akhbarizadeh et al. 2021;Cai et al. 2017;Dris et al. 2016;Enyoh et al. 2019;Liu et al. 2019). ...
... Mostly the studies are conducted for the availability of MPs in the water and rarely for the air medium (Dris et al. 2016). Few studies have documented the existence of MPs in both the indoor and outdoor air (Abbasi et al. 2019;Akhbarizadeh et al. 2021;Cai et al. 2017;Dris et al. 2016;Enyoh et al. 2019;Liu et al. 2019). Synthetic fabrics, abrasion from synthetic rubber tires, erosion, and dust from city and household areas are the most common sources of MPs in the air (Prata 2018;Sol et al. 2022). ...
... According to estimates, a single item of clothing might release up to 2000 fibers per wash (Browne et al. 2011). Other major sources of airborne MPs may include construction and waste incineration site, road dust, landfilling area and industrial outflow, particle resuspension, synthetic particles such as polystyrene (PS) peat (used in horticultural soils), sewage sludge (used as a fertilizer), and exhaust from tumble dryer (Dris et al. 2016;Prata 2018). Anthropogenic activities always influence the abundance of MPs in air (Abbasi et al. 2019). ...
Article
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Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in our environment. Its presence in air, water, and soil makes it a serious threat to living organisms and has become a critical challenge across ecosystems. Present study aimed to assess the abundance of MPs in aerosols and street dust in Varanasi, a typical urban city in Northern India. Airborne particulates and street dust samples were collected from various sampling sites around Varanasi City. The physical identification of MPs was conducted by binocular microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while elemental analysis was made by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). Finally, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for chemical characterization of MPs. Presence of MPs in both aerosols and street dust from all selected sampling sites was confirmed, however with varying magnitude. MPs of different colors having the shape of fragments, films, spherules, and fibers were recorded in the study while fragments (42%) in street dust and fibers (44%) dominated in aerosols. Majority of the MPs were < 1 mm in size and were primarily polypropylene, polystyrene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyester, and polyvinyl chloride types. The EDX spectra showed the presence of toxic inorganic contaminants like metallic elements on MPs, especially elements like aluminum, cadmium, magnesium, sodium, and silicon found to adsorb on the MPs. Presence of MPs in the airborne particulates and street dust in Varanasi is reported for the first time, thus initiating further research and call for a source-specific management plan to reduce its impact on human health and environment.
... These pieces of evidence show that atmospheric microplastic pollution is widespread, among which, urban areas are the most affectedcompared with other regions. For example, both Paris and Ho Chi Minh urban areas have significantly higher microplastic concentrations than suburban areas (Dris et al., 2016;Truong et al., 2021). In addition, the atmosphere is more mobile, compared to water bodies and soil, so that microplastics in the atmosphere can be transported even thousands of kilometers. ...
... Microplastics in the atmosphere are predominantly fiber (Cai et al., 2017;Dris et al., 2016). The fiber accounts for 80.12% of dry deposition, while only 69.02% of wet deposition. ...
... Rainfall is another important factor influencing the deposition flux (Dris et al., 2016), playing an important role in expediting the deposition of atmospheric microplastics. The mechanisms by which rainfall expedites the deposition of microplastics can be summarized in two ways. ...
Article
Urban areas are the hardest hit by microplastic pollution, and deposition is an important part of microplastic migration and transport in the atmosphere, therefore, the study of microplastics in an urban atmospheric deposition is of great significance. This study aims to investigate the deposition characteristics of atmospheric microplastics in megapolis, to clarify the influence of meteorological and anthropogenic factors, and to analyze the sources of atmospheric microplastics. Six sampling sites in Shanghai were selected to collect atmospheric deposition samples during the rainy season. The mean deposition flux of microplastics was 3261.22 ± 2847.99 P·m−2·d−1 (median: 2559.70 P·m−2·d−1), and the types were mainly polyamide (PA, 27.79 %), polyethylene terephthalate (PET, 27.29 %), polypropylene (PP, 16.95 %), and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, 12.88 %). The microplastic with the particle size of <1000 μm accounted for 88.23 %, and the shape was mainly fiber (73.55 %). The results of correlation analysis and variance analysis of microplastic characteristics with meteorological and anthropogenic factors (land-use, atmospheric pollutants, and urban indicators) showed that wind and precipitation had effects on deposition flux, size and shape, and were more significant at small scales (individual cities), while at large scales, the population was the main influence of microplastics. Atmospheric microplastics in Shanghai may be dominated by exogenous sources, through a combination of microplastic characteristics, wind and backward trajectories. This study further reveals the fate of urban atmospheric microplastics, which has implications for the study of global microplastic pollution.
... Recent studies have reported on atmospheric microplastics, where these traits are particularly important. Studies have collected atmospheric microplastics directly from the atmosphere (suspended), and from atmospheric fallout (deposition), in urban areas (Amato-Lourenço et al., 2022;Cai et al., 2017;Dris et al., 2016;Ida et al., 2022;Klein and Fischer, 2019;Truong et al., 2021;Wright et al., 2020), and in remote locations, including the periphery of Western Europe (Roblin et al., 2020), protected areas of the Western United States (Brahney et al., 2020), mountainous regions (Abbasi and Turner, 2021;Allen et al., 2019;Cabrera et al., 2022;Zhang et al., 2021), in sea spray (Allen et al., 2020), thousands of kilometres from land in isolated areas of the ocean (Liu et al., 2020b;Trainic et al., 2020), and in Antarctic snow (Aves et al., 2022). Such atmospheric microplastics are diverse in both their morphology (for example, spherical beads, angular fragments, thin films and microfibres), and in ☆ This paper has been recommended for acceptance by Prof. Pavlos Kassomenos. ...
... A growing number of studies have reported that microfibres are the dominant atmospheric microplastic morphology (Brahney et al., 2020;Cai et al., 2017;Dris et al., 2017Dris et al., , 2016Habibi et al., 2022;Huang et al., 2021;Liu et al., 2019a;Wang et al., 2020;Welsh et al., 2022;Wright et al., 2020). However, these atmospheric synthetic (i.e., plastic) microfibres are often just a fraction of the total number of microfibres found during sampling, with other, non-synthetic, cellulosic microfibres frequently being reported Liu et al., 2019b;Wright et al., 2020). ...
... It was Dris et al. (2015)'s seminal work which introduced the concept of environmental atmospheric microplastics after observing atmospheric fallout in Paris, France. Their subsequent work was particularly influential and led to a number of research initiatives to examine atmospheric microplastics and anthropogenic microfibres in different regions (Dris et al., 2016). We have collated all of the existing literature (using a conservative 2014 starting date) that was returned from a Scopus search using the keywords "atmospheric" OR "atmosphere" AND "microplastics", within the Article Title, Abstract & Keywords. ...
Article
Atmospheric microplastics have been widely reported in studies around the world. Microfibres are often the dominant morphology found by researchers, although synthetic (i.e., plastic) microfibres are typically just a fraction of the total number of microfibres, with other, non-synthetic, cellulosic microfibres frequently being reported. This study set out to review existing literature to determine the relative proportion of cellulosic and synthetic atmospheric anthropogenic (man-made) microfibres, discuss trends in the microfibre abundances, and outline proposed best-practices for future studies. We conducted a systematic review of the existing literature and identified 33 peer-reviewed articles from Scopus and Google Scholar searches that examined cellulosic microfibres and synthetic microfibres in the atmosphere. Multiple analyses indicate that cellulosic microfibres are considerably more common than synthetic microfibres. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy data obtained from 24 studies, showed that 57% of microfibres were cellulosic and 23% were synthetic. The remaining were either inorganic, or not determined. In total, 20 studies identified more cellulosic microfibres, compared to 11 studies which identified more synthetic microfibres. The data show that cellulosic microfibres are 2.5 times more abundant between 2016 and 2022, however, the proportion of cellulosic microfibres appear to be decreasing, while synthetic microfibres are increasing. We expect a crossover to happen by 2030, where synthetic microfibres will be dominant in the atmosphere. We propose that future studies on atmospheric anthropogenic microfibres should include information on natural and regenerated cellulosic microfibres, and design studies which are inclusive of cellulosic microfibres during analysis and reporting. This will allow researchers to monitor trends in the composition of atmospheric microfibers and will help address the frequent underestimation of cellulosic microfibre abundance in the atmosphere.
... The next study in Hamburg, Germany, reported an average concentration of 275 n/m 2 /day with a size range of 63-5000 μm (Klein and Fischer, 2019). There can be various sources of MPs and NPs in the atmosphere including, synthetic textiles, flock industry (Atis et al., 2005;Prata, 2018), vinyl chloride (VC), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industries are major sources of atmospheric microplastics (Dris et al., 2017;Dris et al., 2016;Xu et al., 2004), release from solid waste dumping sites, and intensive agricultures (Cai et al., 2017). Further, sea breeze and sea spray can also be an important source of MPs' nearer to coastal areas. ...
... Atmospheric transportation of MPs can be affected by many environmental conditions such as wind speed, initial concentration, and wind direction impact MP transportation. The MPs on the air and particulate matter were mostly polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and other fibers with a size range of 10-8000 μm (Dris et al., 2016;C. Liu et al., 2019;K. ...
Article
Microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) are emerging environmental pollutants, having a major ecotoxico-logical concern to humans and many other biotas, especially aquatic animals. The physical and chemical compositions of MPs majorly determine their ecotoxicological risks. However, comprehensive knowledge about the exposure routes and toxic effects of MPs/NPs on animals and human health is not fully known. Here this review focuses on the potential exposure routes, human health impacts, and toxicity response of MPs/NPs on human health, through reviewing the literature on studies conducted in different in vitro and in vivo experiments on organisms, human cells, and the human experimental exposure models. The current literature review has highlighted ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contacts as major exposure routes of MPs/NPs. Further, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, DNA damage, inflammation, immune response, neurotoxicity, metabolic disruption, and ultimately affecting digestive systems, immunology, respiratory systems, reproductive systems, and nervous systems, as serious health consequences.
... Microplastics have been recently recognized as a ubiquitous environmental contaminant in marine and fresh waters, sediments, and organisms (Karlsson et al., 2017;Rochman, 2018). However, the sources, pathways, and reservoirs of microplastics in terrestrial systems are still hardly known (Dris et al., 2016). ...
... Microplastics could be introduced into soil via (1) air transport of non-managed plastic wastes, littering, and street runoff (Dris et al., 2016;Bläsing and Amelung, 2018), (2) disintegration of agriculture plastics such as mulch films, tarpaulins, tunnels, and pipes (Lambert et al., 2014), or (3) application of sewage sludge and reclaimed wastewater containing plastic microbeads or fibers (Bläsing and Amelung, 2018;Zubris and Richards, 2005). In this respect, the presence of plastic fragments has become an important parameter to describe urban soils and Technosols (Rillig, 2012;Nizzetto et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
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The use of agricultural plastic covers has become common practice for its agronomic benefits such as improving yields and crop quality, managing harvest times better, and increasing pesticide and water use efficiency. However, plastic covers are suspected of partially breaking down into smaller debris and thereby contributing to soil pollution with microplastics. A better understanding of the sources and fate of plastic debris in terrestrial systems has so far been hindered by the lack of adequate analytical techniques for the mass-based and polymer-selective quantification of plastic debris in soil. The aim of this dissertation was thus to assess, develop, and validate thermoanalytical methods for the mass-based quantification of relevant polymers in and around agricultural fields previously covered with fleeces, perforated foils, and plastic mulches. Thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TGA/MS) enabled direct plastic analyses of 50 mg of soil without any sample preparation. With polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a preliminary model, the method limit of detection (LOD) was 0.7 g kg−1. But the missing chromatographic separation complicated the quantification of polymer mixtures. Therefore, a pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) method was developed that additionally exploited the selective solubility of polymers in specific solvents prior to analysis. By dissolving polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS) in a mixture of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and p-xylene after density separation, up to 50 g soil became amenable to routine plastic analysis. Method LODs were 0.7–3.3 mg kg−1, and the recovery of 20 mg kg−1 PE, PP, and PS from a reference loamy sand was 86–105%. In the reference silty clay, however, poor PS recoveries, potentially induced by the additional separation step, suggested a qualitative evaluation of PS. Yet, the new solvent-based Py-GC/MS method enabled a first exploratory screening of plastic-covered soil. It revealed PE, PP, and PS contents above LOD in six of eight fields (6% of all samples). In three fields, PE levels of 3–35 mg kg−1 were associated with the use of 40 μm thin perforated foils. By contrast, 50 μm PE films were not shown to induce plastic levels above LOD. PP and PS contents of 5–19 mg kg−1 were restricted to single observations in four fields and potentially originated from littering. The results suggest that the short-term use of thicker and more durable plastic covers should be preferred to limit plastic emissions and accumulation in soil. By providing mass-based information on the distribution of the three most common plastics in agricultural soil, this work may facilitate comparisons with modeling and effect data and thus contribute to a better risk assessment and regulation of plastics. However, the fate of plastic debris in the terrestrial environment remains incompletely understood and needs to be scrutinized in future, more systematic research. This should include the study of aging processes, the interaction of plastics with other organic and inorganic compounds, and the environmental impact of biodegradable plastics and nanoplastics.
... This can include an accumulation in the snowpack that is released in the spring during snowmelt events. Previous research has identified that atmospheric transport is an important source of microplastics, especially in urban areas (Dris et al., 2016;Cai et al., 2017;Dehghani et al., 2017) with fibers a major component of atmospheric microplastics (Dris et al., 2016(Dris et al., , 2017Gasperi et al., 2018). Furthermore, it represents the need to advance research on the contribution of microfibres (synthetic and anthropogenically modified) to microplastic pollution, especially in understudied compartments and geographical regions (Athey and Erdle, 2021). ...
... This can include an accumulation in the snowpack that is released in the spring during snowmelt events. Previous research has identified that atmospheric transport is an important source of microplastics, especially in urban areas (Dris et al., 2016;Cai et al., 2017;Dehghani et al., 2017) with fibers a major component of atmospheric microplastics (Dris et al., 2016(Dris et al., , 2017Gasperi et al., 2018). Furthermore, it represents the need to advance research on the contribution of microfibres (synthetic and anthropogenically modified) to microplastic pollution, especially in understudied compartments and geographical regions (Athey and Erdle, 2021). ...
Article
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Changes in microplastic concentrations were examined during various temporal events including heavy rain and snowmelt in a river and an urban stream receiving stormwater. Additionally, microplastic concentrations were measured in an urban river during an active combined sewage overflow event. Microplastic concentrations downstream of a combined sewage outfall were observed to increase seven times compared to ambient conditions. During heavy rainfall an increase of 50 times the microplastic concentration was observed in the urban creek with microplastic concentrations doubling in the urban river. However, the largest increase in microplastic concentration at both locations was observed during the primary snowmelt of spring, with microplastic concentrations increasing 114 times in the urban creek and 11 times in the urban river. These results suggest that more research is required to further establish the influence of both combined sewage overflows and snowmelt as a major temporal conduit of microplastics to freshwater environments.
... Macroplastics (≥ 5 mm) and microplastics (< 5 mm) in terrestrial and soil ecosystems have now gained public attention (Alimi et al., 2018;Rochman and Hoellein, 2020). Research has found that the abundance of macro-and/or microplastics in soil ecosystems was closely related to long-term inputs to agricultural production, which included: the use of plastic film mulch, the application of organic fertilizer and sewage sludge, the use of irrigation water, atmospheric sedimentation, and among others (Dris et al., 2016;Mintenig et al., 2017;Piehl et al., 2018;Sanchez, 2020). ...
... Atmospheric sedimentation is also one of the ways macro-and/or microplastics enter the soil environment. Plastic atmospheric fallout in Paris ranged from 2 to 355 particles/m 2 /day, with particle sizes above 1, 000 μm accounting for 50% (Dris et al., 2016). In Binhai City, China, macro-and/or microplastics were also found in the atmosphere, with microplastics accounting for more than 50% . ...
Article
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Pollution caused by macro- and microplastics has become a global concern that is ubiquitous throughout the environment. The reported impacts of macro-and/or microplastics in soil were mixed without uniform conclusions. Here, we quantitatively analyzed the effects of macro-and microplastics on crop growth and soil health using a global meta-analysis, based on 2,226 paired field/ laboratory measurements from 141 papers published in the literature. The results show that the unabated accumulation of macro-and/or microplastics negatively impacts crop growth and soil health. Overall, there were no significant effects on crop-soil properties of macroplastics between 30 and 240 kg/ha excluding soil water infiltration rate, but the crop-soil properties were negatively impacted with time and macroplastics over 240 kg/ha excluding soil olsen-potassium. There were no significant effect on crop-soil animal properties of microplastics between 0.01 and 100 mg/kg excluding weight, but the crop-soil animal properties impacts were negative with time and microplastics over 10,000 mg/kg excluding plant chlorophyll. Using a random forest model (RF) trained with crop/ animal and macro-and/or microplastics factors, we found that the response of crop growth and soil health to macro-and/or microplastics was related to plastic content, plastic type, plastic size and crop/ animal type variables. Altogether, our findings of macro-and microplastics impacts on crop growth and soil health are crucial to policy-making related to agricultural sustainable development under global change.
... Airborne microplastics have been identified in atmospheric fallout in a range of urban (Dris et al., 2015(Dris et al., , 2016Cai et al., 2017;Klein and Fischer, 2019;Knobloch et al., 2021) and remote regions worldwide (Allen et al., 2019;Bergmann et al., 2019;Brahney et al., 2020). It is now understood that microplastics transition between marine environments, terrestrial environments and the atmosphere via the plastic cycle (Horton and Dixon, 2018;Brahney et al., 2021). ...
... Fibres were the most abundant morphotype (60 %) followed by fragments (39 %) and films (1 %, Fig. 4). These findings are consistent with previous studies whereby fibres were also the dominant morphotype of airborne microplastics due to their relatively low density and physical characteristics (Liu et al., 2019a;Dris et al., 2016;Bullard et al., 2021). Analysis of seawater samples in the surrounding Ross Sea identified fragments as the predominant morphotype (72 %) (Cincinelli et al., 2017), in contrast to our results. ...
Article
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In recent years, airborne microplastics have been identified in a range of remote environments. However, data throughout the Southern Hemisphere, in particular Antarctica, are largely absent to date. We collected snow samples from 19 sites across the Ross Island region of Antarctica. Suspected microplastic particles were isolated and their composition confirmed using micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (µFTIR). We identified microplastics in all Antarctic snow samples at an average concentration of 29 particles L−1, with fibres the most common morphotype and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) the most common polymer. To investigate sources, backward air mass trajectories were run from the time of sampling. These indicate potential long-range transportation of up to 6000 km, assuming a residence time of 6.5 d. Local sources were also identified as potential inputs into the environment as the polymers identified were consistent with those used in clothing and equipment from nearby research stations. This study adds to the growing body of literature regarding microplastics as a ubiquitous airborne pollutant and establishes their presence in Antarctica.
... For example, large quantities of MPs have been found in lakes far from human activity, such as in mountainous terrains, that are thought to have been transported by wind prior to their deposition (Free et al., 2014;Pastorino et al., 2021;Zhang et al., 2016). It has been estimated that between three and ten tons of fibers are atmospherically deposited annually in Paris where they enter urban, agricultural, and aquatic ecosystems (Dris et al., 2016). Similarly, there are many towns and villages located upwind from Lake Ulansuhai. ...
Article
Microplastics (MPs) in aquatic environments are hard to degrade, easy to transport, and potentially hazardous to biota. Previous studies of MPs in lakes have shown that their deposition is a significant process controlling both their lateral dispersal from a source, and their concentration within the water column. However, the lakebed depositional rates of MPs have predominantly been determined using laboratory experiments and/or through model simulations that may not fully reflect field conditions. In this paper, lacustrine depositional rates in Lake Ulansuhai were documented using an MP trap that allowed for the assessment and quantification of the depositional rates of MPs of differing size, density, and shape at three sampling sites over five different time periods. The results showed that the downward flux for all types of MPs near the lakebed was correlated with wind speed. Higher wind speeds led to the resuspension of greater amounts of MPs in the lakebed sediments and the transport of greater amounts of MPs from the lake inlet to the lake interior and outlet along the hydrologic flow directions. Consequently, higher wind speeds increased the abundance of MPs at the sediment-water interface and intensified the vertical mixing of MPs in the lake water, resulting in a higher depositional flux of MPs. Particles of differing size, shape, and density exhibited different depositional rates. In general, fragmentary, larger size, and higher density MPs were more likely to be deposited. Thus, size and shape have a strong effect on the migration and deposition of HDMPs in Lake Ulansuhai.
... Microplastic is now universally acknowledged as plastic particles smaller than 5 mm (Wright et al., 2013). Since then, microplastic pollution has become an emerging environmental concern and the occurrence of microplastics in marine water (Jambeck et al., 2015), fresh-water (Frei et al., 2019), deep-sea sediments (Courtene-Jones et al., 2020), soil (Rillig, 2012), atmosphere (Dris et al., 2016) and even polar glaciers (Peeken et al., 2018) has been studied. ...
Article
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Microplastics in agricultural soils have become the research hotspot in recent years, however, the quantitative methods based on the traditional visual inspection may have a high false detection rate. Here we combined the laser direct infrared (LDIR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) methods to investigate the microplastics in farmland with long-term agricultural activities. The results showed that the total abundance of microplastics reached 1.98 ± 0.41 × 105, 1.57 ± 0.28 × 105, 1.78 ± 0.27 × 105, and 3.20 ± 0.41 × 105 particles/kg soil in cotton fields with film mulching of 5, 10, 20, and >30 years, respectively. LDIR results indicated that microplastics ranging from 10 to 500 μm accounted for 96.5-99.9 % of the total microplastic amounts in the soils. Additionally, a total of 26 polymer types of microplastics were detected, among which polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyamide (PA), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were dominantly observed. For the microplastics detected by FTIR (500 μm-5 mm), PE polymer was majorly observed (88.0-98.9 %). Most microplastics were films (88.2 %), while fibers and pellets were also found. The reclaimed water from sewage treatment plants, the drip irrigation utilities, and the residual plastic film are the potential sources of microplastics in the farmland soils. By using the automated quantitative and identifiable approaches, this study suggested that the commonly used visual counting method may underestimate the microplastic contamination in agricultural soils.
... MPs and NPs are typically divided into primary and secondary according to their sources. Primary MPs and NPs are released into the environment as nurdles, pellets and granules, biobeads, fibers either accidently or intentionally (Vandermeersch et al., 2015;Gasperi et al., 2018;Dris et al., 2016;Zhang et al., 2020). These plastics are produced as intended products, wastes from manufacturing processes, or derivatives from the erosion and tearing in the use of large plastic products such as tires, wheels and boards. ...
Article
Plastic is one of the most ubiquitous sources of both contamination and pollution of the Anthropocene, and accumulates virtually everywhere on the planet. As such, plastic threatens the environment, the economy and human well-being globally. The related potential threats have been identified as a major global conservation issue and a key research priority. As a consequence, plastic pollution has become one of the most prolific fields of research in research areas including chemistry, physics, oceanography, biology, ecology, ecotoxicology, molecular biology, sociology, economy, conservation, management, and even politics. In this context, one may legitimately expect plastic pollution research to be highly interdisciplinary. However, using the emerging topic of microplastic and nanoplastic leachate (i.e., the desorption of molecules that are adsorbed onto the surface of a polymer and/or absorbed into the polymer matrix in the absence of plastic ingestion) in the ocean as a case study, we argue that this is still far from being the case. Instead, we highlight that plastic pollution research rather seems to remain structured in mostly isolated monodisciplinary studies. A plethora of analytical methods are now available to qualify and quantify plastic monomers, polymers and the related additives. We nevertheless show though a survey of the literature that most studies addressing the effects of leachates on marine organisms essentially still lack of a quantitative assessment of the chemical nature and content of both plastic items and their leachates. In the context of the ever-increasing research effort devoted to assess the biological and ecological effects of plastic waste, we subsequently argue that the lack of a true interdisciplinary approach is likely to hamper the development of this research field. We finally introduce a roadmap for future research which has to evolve through the development of a sound and systematic ability to chemically define what we biologically compare.
... Their small size makes them susceptible to long-range atmospheric transport and mobilization within hydrological systems. As such, microplastics have been found in all environmental systems sampled to date (Allen et al., 2019; Dris et al., 2016;Haixin et al., 2022;Jiang et al., 2019;Nelms et al., 2018). Previous studies have investigated microplastics within sea ice (Geilfus et al., 2019;Kanhai et al., 2020;Kelly et al., 2020;Obbard et al., 2014;Peeken et al., 2018), but only recent studies have started to look at the presence of microplastics in terrestrial glacier systems (Ambrosini et al., 2019;Ásmundsdóttir and Scholz, 2020;Cabrera et al., 2020;Napper et al., 2020;Stefánsson et al., 2021). ...
Article
Historically, glaciers have been seen as pristine environments. However, recent research has shown that glaciers can accumulate and store contaminants over long timescales, through processes such as atmospheric deposition, sedimentation, glacial hydrology and mass movements. Studies have identified numerous anthropogenically derived contaminants within the global cryosphere, including the six we focus on here: fallout radionuclides; microplastics; persistent organic pollutants; potentially toxic elements; black carbon and nitrate-based contaminants. These contaminants are relatively well-studied in other environments; however, their dynamics and role in glaciated systems is still poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to assess and quantify contaminant levels within the cryosphere, so that current and future threats can be fully understood and mitigated. In this first progress report ( Part I: Inputs and accumulation), we review the current state of knowledge of six of the most common anthropogenic contaminants found in the cryosphere, and consider their sources, transportation, accumulation and concentration within glacial systems. A second progress report ( Part II: Release and downstream consequences) will outline how these contaminants leave glacial systems and the consequences that this release can have for communities and ecosystems reliant on glacial meltwater.
... The atmospheric flux recorded for the urban areas was double the average of the suburban areas. The observed depositions were also impacted with the amount of rainfall (Dris et al., 2016). A study conducted by Dris et al., 2017 to examine MP levels in outdoor & indoor setups of an office, in 2 private apartments revealed that concentration was between 1 and 60 fibres/m 3 in indoor samples whereas it was between 0.3 and 1.5 fibres/m 3 for outdoor samples indicating indoor samples had greater values when compared to outdoor samples. ...
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In the contemporary world, the menace of plastic pollution dovetailed with the current pandemic scenario is a globally rising concern which is affecting every life form on Earth. Plastics hold several properties like ductility that permit the material to be casted and given numerous shapes and forms for various commercial uses. When summed up, it has benefited mankind by becoming an indispensable part of our lives. But the negative impacts associated with it lurks behind silently. Most of the plastic polymers manufactured today are highly resistant to degradation, and the accumulation of these complex and persistent materials are not only causing serious damage to the environment, but also to human health. Additives are added during the manufacturing process to improve the life of these synthetic polymers. The excessive usage of plastic products has resulted in accumulation of the hazardous chemicals, associated with plastic polymers in human body about which this chapter discusses further.
... dominant MP morphology reported (Brahney et al., 2020;Cai et al., 2017;Dris et al., 2016Dris et al., , 2017Huang et al., 2021;Liu et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2020;Wright et al., 2020). However, MP fibres are often just a fraction of the total number of fibres found during sampling, with other, non-plastic, atmospheric anthropogenic microfibres (At-AMFs) being reported, including cellulose and rayon (regenerated cellulose) fibres which are thought to come from clothing and other textiles (Dris et al., 2017). ...
Article
Recent studies have reported on the widespread abundance of atmospheric microplastics (At-MPs) and atmospheric anthropogenic microfibres (At-AMFs) in urban and remote locations. This study sought to test whether there were differences in the quantity of deposited At-AMFs collected when comparing three different surface sampler areas (small: 0.0113 m2 (Φ = 120 mm), medium: 0.0254 m2 (Φ = 180 mm) and large: 0.0346 m2 (Φ = 210 mm)). The analysis revealed no statistically significant variation in the number of At-AMFs recorded, when data was presented in At-AMFs per m2 day-1. However, our findings indicate that for any given individual sampling event, the amount of deposition can range by ∼ 150 to 200 At-AMFs m2 d-1 even if samplers are kept relatively close together. To account for this, we would recommend that future studies collect data in duplicate or triplicate. Our results suggest that data can be compared across different sites and geographical regions-at least if comparing the overall mean and standard deviation of all samples collected. These findings are important because currently there is no standard sampler size for passive collection of At-AMFs and At-MPs.
... As of 2017, approximately 8300 million metric tons (Mt) of virgin plastic chemicals had been produced, and as of 2015, 6300 million Mt of plastic waste generated [5]. While some of the plastic waste is recycled or incinerated [5], the majority accumulates in landfills or in the environment [5], as macroplastic debris in the oceans [6][7][8], as microparticles in air [9][10][11] and micro-or nanoparticles in soils [12][13][14] and in water supplies [15][16][17][18]. ...
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Background Global plastic production has increased exponentially since the 1960s, with more than 6300 million metric tons of plastic waste generated to date. Studies have found a range of human health outcomes associated with exposure to plastic chemicals. However, only a fraction of plastic chemicals used have been studied in vivo, and then often in animals, for acute toxicological effects. With many questions still unanswered about how long-term exposure to plastic impacts human health, there is an urgent need to map human in vivo research conducted to date, casting a broad net by searching terms for a comprehensive suite of plastic chemical exposures and the widest range of health domains. Methods This protocol describes a scoping review that will follow the recommended framework outlined in the 2017 Guidance for the Conduct of Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Scoping Reviews, to be reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) Checklist. A literature search of primary clinical studies in English from 1960 onwards will be conducted in MEDLINE (Ovid) and EMBASE (Ovid) databases. References eligible for inclusion will be identified through a quality-controlled, multi-level screening process. Extracted data will be presented in diagrammatic and tabular form, with a narrative summary addressing the review questions. Discussion This scoping review will comprehensively map the primary research undertaken to date on plastic exposure and human health. Secondary outputs will include extensive databases on plastic chemicals and human health outcomes/impacts. Systematic review registration Open Science Framework (OSF)-Standard Pre-Data Collection Registration, https://archive.org/details/osf-registrations-gbxps-v1, https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/GBXPS
... Across various altitudes of atmospheres, the highest concentration of microplastics was reported at 1.7 m above the ground (Qiu et al., 2020). Dris et al. (2015) and Dris et al. (2016), in their study using the rain sampling method, observed a greater number of microplastics in urban areas compared to suburban areas with less population density. Similarly, Liu et al. (2019aLiu et al. ( , 2019bLiu et al. ( , 2019c observed the higher concertation of microplastics in land-based sampling to sea air due to the dilution effect of sea air and human activity. ...
Chapter
Microplastics in the environment pose a significant threat to the entire ecosystem. Household activity, industrial activity, tyre wear and tear, construction, incineration, plastic litter, landfill, and agricultural activities are the major sources of microplastics in the environment. Microplastics can freely float and adapt between different environmental mediums in the ecosystem due to their lightweight and low-density characteristics. Eventually, microplastics entering the ocean from different pathways result in accumulation and widespread distribution in the marine environment. The frequent interaction between microplastic and aquatic environments accumulates the microplastics in live organisms. The microplastic accumulation and exposure to animals and humans will also affect the ecosystem. This chapter seeks to understand the sources, pathways, and abundance of microplastics in a different environment. The study also highlights the future research prospects for mitigation of plastic towards environment protection.
... During the dry season, when river discharge is reduced, microplastics are deposited in sediments and riverbanks; however, during the rainy season, when rainfall is abundant, the deposited and deposited microplastics are reactivated, leading to a high abundance of microplastic in the river (Hurley et al., 2018). According to multiple studies, microplastics can also originate from land-atmosphere interactions (Cai et al., 2017;Dris et al., 2016;Enyoh et al., 2019;Purwiyanto et al., 2022;Wright et al., 2020), and have a positive correlation with precipitation (Allen et al., 2019;Ganguly and Ariya, 2019;Purwiyanto et al., 2022). This allows microplastics in rivers to also originate from airborne microplastics. ...
Article
To reduce microplastic contamination in the environment, we need to better understand its sources and transit, especially from land to sea. This study examines microplastic contamination in Jakarta's nine river outlets. Microplastics were found in all sampling intervals and areas, ranging from 4.29 to 23.49 particles m⁻³. The trend of microplastic contamination tends to increase as the anthropogenic activity towards Jakarta Bay from the eastern side of the bay. Our study found a link between rainfall and the abundance of microplastic particles in all river outlets studied. This investigation found polyethylene, polystyrene, and polypropylene in large proportion due to their widespread use in normal daily life and industrial applications. Our research observed an increase in microplastic fibers made of polypropylene over time. We suspect a relationship between COVID-19 PPE waste and microplastic shift in our study area. More research is needed to establish how and where microplastics enter rivers.
... This indicate that rivers could be an important transport vector, at least for PS NP. NPs, including PS and PET, have also have been measured in alpine snow (Materić et al., 2021(Materić et al., , 2020, and atmospheric transport of ultrafine microplastics has been found, too (Allen et al., 2019;Bergmann et al., 2019;Brahney et al., 2020;Dris et al., 2016;Ross et al., 2021). In fact, aeolian deposition of MP in the sea was estimated to account for 10 Mt yr -1 (Liss, 2020), which is similar to earlier estimates of plastic waste inputs from land to sea, that do not consider atmospheric deposition (Jambeck et al., 2015). ...
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Plastic pollution in the marine environment has been identified as a global problem; different polymer types and fragment sizes have been detected across all marine regions, from sea ice to the equator and the surface to the deep sea. However, quantification of marine plastics debris in the size range of nanoplastics (<1 μm) and ultrafine microplastics (<10 μm) is not constrained, because such minuscule particles are challenging to measure. In this work, we applied a novel analytical assay using Thermal Desorption – Proton Transfer Reaction – Mass Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), which is suitable to detect and identify plastics in the nanogram range. From two stations in the Wadden Sea (the Netherlands), we measured nanoplastics directly from seawater aliquots, and from filters with different mesh sizes. Our results show the presence of Polystyrene (PS) and Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanopalstics as well as ultrafine microplastics in the Wadden Sea water column. The mass concentration of PS nanoplastics was 4.2 μg/L on average, indicating a substantial contribution of nanoplastics to the Wadden Sea's total plastic budget.
... These results add to the growing consciousness that food is frequently contaminated with MPs (Dessì et al., 2021;Fadare et al., 2020;Karami et al., 2018;Kedzierski et al., 2020). Rather than gradually biomagnifying through trophic levels, edible muscle tissue is more likely contaminated by simply being present in our human environment, through airborne fallout from clothes, packaging, processing and household dust (Catarino et al., 2018;Dris et al., 2017;Dris et al., 2016;Gasperi et al., 2018;Habib et al., 2022). This is a troubling hypothesis and requires significant further study to encapsulate this exposure route. ...
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Seafood accounts for more than 17% of the global consumption of animal protein, with an excess of 335000 t consumed in Australia throughout 2019-2020. Recently, the presence of microplastics (MPs) within commercial seafood and the potential vectorisation of MPs to human consumers has become a significant concern for the public and the scientific community. Here, four commonly harvested wild-caught marine organisms were assessed for MP presence. These species comprise a significant proportion of the Queensland seafood industry, as well as being highly desirable to Australian consumers. The edible muscle tissue and discarded digestive tissue (GIT) of barramundi (Lates calcifer), coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus), blue leg king prawns (Melicertus latisulcatus), and Ballot's saucer scallops (Ylistrum balloti), were analysed discretely to determine the extent to which these species may be contaminated in the wild (GIT tissue), and the extent to which they themselves may act as a vector for human exposure (edible muscle tissue). Wild-caught seafood was predominantly free of MPs, with digestive tissues from two of ten coral trout containing only two fibres each. All wild-caught muscle tissue samples were free of MPs, as was the GIT of scallops, prawns, and barramundi. On the other hand, fresh, skinless barramundi muscle tissues, purchased from various commercial suppliers, were examined and found to be significantly contaminated with MPs (0.02 - 0.19 MP g⁻¹). Overall, these results highlight the growing consensus that food can become contaminated simply by being prepared in the human environment, and the focus must shift to determining the extent of MP proliferation within the processing and point-of-sale environment.
... Zhang et al. [34] investigated the MPs in the farmland soil of Dianchi Lake in Yunnan and found that the proportion of fibers was the highest (92%). Dris et al. [41] estimated that the annual atmospheric deposition of fibrous MPs in the populated areas of Paris equaled about 3-10 tons. The fibers were also the dominant shape found in soil samples from Washington, DC, and Nanjing and Wuxi, which were likely closely related to the increasing production of synthetic fibers. ...
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The different types of microplastics (MPs), including debris, fibers, particles, foams, films and others, have become a global environmental problem. However, there is still a lack of research and understanding of the pollution characteristics and main causes of MPs in the arid region of Xinjiang, China. In this survey, we focused on the occurrence and distribution of MPs in urban, farmland and desert areas along a highway in the survey area. Our results showed that the main types of MPs were polypropylene (PP) flakes, polyethylene (PE) films and both PE and PP fragments and fibers. The abundance levels of MPs in street dust of Korla, Alar and Hotan districts equaled 804, 307 and 1526 particles kg−1, respectively, and were positively correlated with the urban population. In farmland areas, there were only two types of MPs (films and fibers), of which the film particles dominated and accounted for 91% of the total on the average. The highest abundance rate of MPs reached 7292 particles kg−1 in the desert area along the highway. The minimum microplastic particle sizes were 51.8 ± 2.2 μm in urban street dust samples, 54.2 ± 5.3 μm in farmland soil samples and 67.8 ± 8.4 μm in samples from along the desert highway. Particle sizes < 500 μm were most common and accounted for 48–91% of the total in our survey. The abundance and shape distribution of the MPs were closely related to the different types of human activities.
... MP contamination from the atmospheric deposition of the airborne MPs (Allen et al. 2019), mechanical breakage of the plastic material during the manufacturing process (Cooper 2007), and airborne microfibre from the clothes of the industrial workers (Prata 2018) are other potential sources of contamination in salts. The MPs may also end in salt from the industrial equipment or material (Dris et al. 2016), the release of wear particles from conveyor belts (Andrejiova et al. 2016;Bindzár 2002), furniture inside the industries, or from the tear and wear of synthetic tyres from vehicles (Prata 2018). Automobile seats are the reservoir of textile fibres (Roux and Margot 1997), and these textile fibres can travel through the air during wind (Horton et al. 2017). ...
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The omnipresence of microplastics (MPs) in marine and terrestrial environments as a pollutant of concern is well established and widely discussed in the literature. However, studies on MP contamination in commercial food sources like salts from the terrestrial environment are scarce. Thus, this is the first study to investigate various varieties of Australian commercial salts (both terrestrial and marine salts) as a source of MPs in the human diet, and the first to detect MPs in black salt. Using Nile red dye, the MPs were detected and counted under light microscopy, further characterised using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDS). Of all the 90 suspected particles, 78.8% were identified as MPs with a size ranging between 23.2 µm and 3.9 mm. The fibres and fragments constituted 75.78% and 24.22% respectively. Among the tested samples, Himalayan pink salt (coarse) from terrestrial sources was found to have the highest MP load, i.e. 174.04 ± 25.05 (SD) particle/kg, followed by black salt at 157.41 ± 23.13 particle/kg. The average concentration of detected MPs in Australian commercial salts is 85.19 ± 63.04 (SD) per kg. Polyamide (33.8%) and polyurethane (30.98%) were the dominant MP types. Considering the maximum recommended (World Health Organization) salt uptake by adults daily at 5 g, we interpret that an average person living in Australia may be ingesting approximately 155.47 MPs/year from salt uptake. Overall, MP contamination was higher in terrestrial salts (such as black and Himalayan salt) than the marine salt. In conclusion, we highlight those commercial salts used in our daily lives serve as sources of MPs in the diet, with unknown effects on human health.
... Secondary MPs are the most common source of pollution, formed when the fragmentation of larger plastic particles is fragmented by natural forces such as photodegradation, biodegradation, thermooxidative degradation, mechanical degradation, and physical stress (Andrady, 2011). They mainly arise from waste incineration and landfills (Dris et al., 2016). ...
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Widespread use of plastics and mishandling has resulted in severe environmental issues affecting seed germination and seedling growth. This study investigates the effect of polyethylene microplastics (740–4990 nm PEMPs) on lentil (Lens culinaris) seed germination and seedling growth using Biospeckle Optical Coherence Tomography (bOCT), a technique that we successfully demonstrated earlier in visualizing the internal activity of plants. Lentil seeds were exposed to PEMPs bioassay for seven days with 10, 50, and 100 mg L⁻¹ concentrations. The average speckle contrast was calculated after 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h of exposure, and statistically significant differences were observed just after 6 h of exposure under all the treatments. However, with conventional parameters, germination viability, germination rate, root and shoot lengths, fresh and dry seedling weights, and antioxidative enzymes, no significant effect was observed until 2 d of exposure. The results revealed that the presence of PEMPs significantly reduced the internal activity at the initial stages that could be visualized only by the use of bOCT, which has never been observed till now. Our results demonstrated for the first time the effect that microplastics indeed could hinder the internal activity during germination of the seeds, possibly resulting from the physical blockage of pores leading to stunted growth at later stages.
... Il est aujourd'hui démontré que les MP sont ubiquistes dans l'environnement. Ils ont été caractérisés dans diverses matrices : eaux de mer [IVAR DO SUL et COSTA, 2014], eaux superficielles [FREE et al., 2014] et karstiques [PANNO et al., 2019], eaux usées [LESLIE et al., 2017], sédiments [SU et al., 2016], air [DRIS et al., 2016], biote [ROCHMAN et al., 2014], eaux embouteillées et eaux du robinet [KOSUTH et al., 2018]. ...
... Assuming that 5% (w/w) of microplastic ingredients in the toothpastes were used, then 74, 000 kg of plastic particles are entered into the sinks by Mechanical processes and UV-radiations from sunlight breakup these large plastic litters into tiny pieces (Andrady 2011;Magnusson et al. 2016;Webb et al. 2013). In addition to these two sources of micro-plastics, microplastic fibers found in the marine and aquatic environment also originate from clothes (Browne et al. 2011;Dris et al. 2016). Accumulation of these persistent plastic particles in the oceans over long period of time and their ubiquitous presence would entail great risk of encountering by marine organisms. ...
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Biodegradable plant-based plastics are made and used as a substitute for plastics made from petrochemicals. However, the negative impacts of plant-based plastics are not well studied. This study addressed the question as to whether or not corn-based microplastic beads affect the lifehistory traits of the harlequin fly Chironomus riparius, a species of non-biting midge. The effects of microplastic beads made from corn (polylactic acid: PLA) on the life history traits of chironomid larvae were compared against the effects of microplastic beads made from petrochemical (polystyrene: PS) and a control (without microplastic beads), by exposing them to artificial sediment spiked with PLA and PS for 10 days and 28 days exposures. The endpoints used in this research to determine performances of chironomid larvae were survival and development time. Results showed that there were no differences in survival between treatments after 10 days of exposure. However after 28 days of exposure chironomid larvae exposed to PS and PLA showed a trend for a significantly lower survival compared to the control without microplastics(P = 0.059). Development time of Day 28 exposure did not differ between any of the treatments: PS, PLA and control. Female chironomid larvae did however show a significantly longer development time but this was not affected by treatment. In summary, there were no differences between polylactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) based microplastics in terms of survival and development time.
... In fact, it is known that shipping activities inside the lagoon, by both fishermen and visiting tourists, are much more important during these temporal periods (Yahyaoui 2018). This may also be the consequence of increased MP inputs through atmospheric transmission and precipitation during the rainy season, as pointed out by Abbasi et al. (2019) and Dris et al. (2016). Within this context, it is worth noting that atmospheric transport of MPs was reported by various authors to be one of the major modes of transport and delivery of plastic particles to very distant aquatic environments, including deep-sea areas (Zhang et al. 2020). ...
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In this paper, we investigated seasonal variations in concentrations of microplastics (MPs) in surface sediments of a lagoon heavily impacted by human activities, located in northern Tunisia (the Bizerte lagoon, southern Mediterranean Sea). Analyses of 112 sediment samples collected from 28 stations between May 2019 and February 2020 revealed significant seasonal variation in concentrations of total MPs, with the highest levels recorded in August 2019 (109.6 ± 59.8 items kg−1 DS (dry sediment)) and the lowest in February 2020 (33.2 ± 22.0 items kg−1 DS). In terms of polymer types, polyethylene particles were the most abundant throughout the year, followed by polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, and polyethylene terephthalate. Spatial variations in total MP concentrations were found to depend on several environmental factors, including proximity to the coastline, level of anthropogenic pressure, location inside the lagoon, and presence/absence of vegetation. The upper 5-cm surface sediment layer of the lagoon was found to contain ~ 9.96 × 1010 MP particles, equal to ~ 248.97 t of plastic. Similar patterns of microplastic composition and structure were found throughout the year, revealing the same plastic pollution hotspots during all seasons. This indicates that sources of plastic pollution are land-based and originate from coastal urban, industrial, and agricultural areas, as well as from major freshwater streams. The findings of the present work can help to develop an efficient environmental management plan aiming to reduce and/or stop the spread of plastic pollution and its impacts on the socially and economically important ecosystem of the Bizerte lagoon.
... Potential sources for synthetic fibers in the Gulf are industrial and laundry sewage (Sarafraz et al., 2016;Naji et al., 2019Naji et al., , 2021) and domestic waste waters (Browne et al., 2011;Cesa et al., 2017;Naji et al., 2021), and fishing lines and nets (Abayomi et al., 2017;Akhbarizadeh et al., 2017;Naji et al., 2017a), while atmospheric fallout as a source of fibers of various origin (e.g. landfills, waste incineration, clothes, degradation of macroplastic) cannot be ruled out (Dris et al., 2016). Mintenig et al. (2014) have shown in Germany that after leaving sewage treatment plants, cleaned wastewater may still contain fibers. ...
Article
Two beaches from Kish Island were compared with respect to their microplastics (MPs) load, by combining well established sedimentological methods with microplastic (MP) extraction by an oxidative procedure and subsequent density separation using ZnCl 2 solution. One beach (Site A) is located upwind experiencing low tourist pressure, while the other one (Site B) is a highly frequented tourist beach which is located downwind. Generally, the concentrations vary from 530.00 ± 14.14 to 580.00 ± 84.85 particles/kg, and thus are in the range of values reported from elsewhere, but on the higher side. The quantity of MPs was not substantially different between the two areas; particle sizes are larger upwind. Overall the extracted MPs are secondary particles (65.5%), dominated by fragments, followed in abundance by fibers (23.5%). Granules (6%) and films (5%) were less commonly observed. This distribution is in contrary to reports of beaches elsewhere where fibers are by far dominant. The present study points to dominant sources of MPs outside the island, being transported to Kish Island by marine pathways, where further wind-driven transport leads to an absence of small synthetic fibers in the windward setting (Site A). The present study provides an initial evaluation of MP pollution in beach sediments of Kish Island, and in the region of the eastern Gulf.
... In addition to earthworms, other animals such as digging mammals, mites and collembola can carry and redistribute MPs within soil profile (Zhu et al., 2018). Dris et al. (2016) and Gong and Xie (2020) stated that MPs and particularly microfibres that situated on the soil surface might translate to the air when the wind blows and remain in the atmosphere for a period and precipitate later on other lands or water bodies. Several human activities such as tilling and ridging may facilitate the distribution of MPs within soils. ...
Article
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The pollution of the Earth-system by microplastics (MPs) has attracted the scientific community's attention during the last decade due to the ability of MPs to alter the soil and agronomic lands properties and affect the soil flora and fauna, and thus via food chain may harm human health. The current review attempted to survey several previous studies to demonstrate the possible sources of MPs in soil characterised as primary and secondary sources depending on the way MPs are generated. Most of MPs released from these sources ended into the soil and can emigrate within soil profile, which negatively affects several physiochemical soil properties, soil biota, and plants that may alter biodiversity and agronomic land productivity. The bioremediation of MPs-polluted terrestrial environment using some microorganisms is an optimum economic and eco-friendly technology. This review is a first step to help researchers identify the main sources and effects of MPs pollution in Libyan farmlands to stand up on the current levels of these substances in soil and suggest future strategies to avoid possible harm impacts of MPs pollution over our country.
... Microplastics can also lead harm to human beings through inhalation of suspended microplastics from the surrounding atmosphere. Previous study shows that the human lungs are daily exposed to 26-130 items of air microplastics (Prata 2018), which are mostly fibrous with the size range of 200-400 μm (Dris et al. 2016). In addition, microplastics can accumulate via food chain (Naidu et al. 2018) and eventually stay in the human body and cause harm. ...
Article
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Microplastics pollution is becoming a major environmental issue, and exposure to microplastics has been associated with numerous adverse results to both the ecological system and humans. This work summarized the state-of-the-art developments in the breakdown of microplastics, including natural weathering, catalysts-assisted breakdown and biodegradation. Characterization techniques for microplastic breakdown involve scanning electron microscopy, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, etc. Bioavailability and adsorption capacity of microplastics may change after they are broken down, therefore leading to variety in microplastics toxicity. Further prospectives for should be focused on the determination and toxicity evaluation of microplastics breakdown products, as well as unraveling uncultivable microplastics degraders via cultivation-independent approaches. This work benefits researchers interested in environmental studies, particularly the removal of microplastics from environmental matrix.
... This was likely because most of the microfibers, which could have been released due to repeated mechanical forces, detaching during initial wear, and the amount of microfibers generated thereafter was relatively small. The amount of microfiber release from the wearing process was assessed in two conditions (waterborne and airborne) based on research showing that synthetic fibers are the main source of microplastic released in the air (Dris et al., 2016). The airborne microfibers floating in the air during the wearing simulation process were compared and evaluated to the waterborne microfibers found during the washing process after the wearing exercise. ...
Article
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To prepare measures for washing synthetic fibers, which cause proliferation of microplastics in the marine ecosystem, a fundamental analysis is required. Therefore, this study established an efficient method for quantitatively analyzing microfibers using artificial neural networks, comparing the amounts of microfibers generated in the manufacturing, wearing, and washing processes of clothing. The proportion of microfiber emitted during the manufacturing process was the largest (49%), followed by that emitted during the washing (28%) and wearing (23%) processes. This suggests that minimizing the amount of microfiber emitted during the manufacturing process is key to solving microfiber issues in the fashion industry. Additionally, during the wearing process, the amount of waterborne microfiber detected in washing was slightly larger than the amount of airborne microfiber. In the washing process, the washing temperature did not significantly affect microfiber emissions. However, when reducing the amount of water used or increasing the number of washings, microfiber emissions increased noticeably due to the greater friction applied to clothes. A common result of all experiments was that the largest proportion of microfibers was released during the first five washing cycles. Therefore, before wearing new items, consumers can minimize microfiber release by pre-washing using a laundry bag that filters microfibers. Furthermore, the most effective way to minimize microfibers is to eliminate them from the manufacturing process before they are distributed to consumers.
... In accordance with our results,Piehl et al. (2018) identified PP, PS, and PE as the most abundant MP particles (>1 mm) in a conventionally managed field that had not been amended with organic fertilizers or sewage sludges, and where no plastic mulches had been applied. Since the input of MP via the latter sources can be excluded in our study, the recovered MP presumably entered the soil by littering and atmospheric deposition(Allen et al., 2019;Dris et al., 2016;Kernchen et al., 2022;Scheurer & Bigalke, 2018). The relatively high number of extracted varnish particles (Figure 5) suggest that abrasion of protective coatings from agricultural machinery could be an important source of MP in arable soils ( ...
Article
Microplastics (MP, plastic particles <5 mm) are ubiquitous in arable soils due to significant inputs via organic fertilizers, sewage sludges, and plastic mulches. However, knowledge of typical MP loadings, their fate, and ecological impacts on arable soils is limited. We studied (1) MP background concentrations, (2) the fate of added conventional and biodegradable MP, and (3) effects of MP in combination with organic fertilizers on microbial abundance and activity associated with carbon (C) cycling, and crop yields in an arable soil. On a conventionally managed soil (Luvisol, silt loam), we arranged plots in a randomized complete block design with the following MP treatments (none, low‐density polyethylene [LDPE], a blend of poly(lactic acid) and poly(butylene adipate‐co‐terephthalate) [PLA/PBAT]) and organic fertilizers (none, compost, digestate). We added 20 kg MP ha–1 and 10 t organic fertilizers ha–1. We measured concentrations of MP in the soil, microbiological indicators of C cycling (microbial biomass and enzyme activities), and crop yields over 1.5 years. Background concentration of MP in the top 10 cm was 296 ± 110 (mean ± standard error) particles <0.5 mm per kg soil, with polypropylene, polystyrene, and polyethylene as the main polymers. Added LDPE and PLA/PBAT particles showed no changes in number and particle size over time. MP did not affect the soil microbiological indicators of C cycling or crop yields. Numerous MP occur in arable soils, suggesting diffuse MP entry into soils. In addition to conventional MP, biodegradable MP may persist under field conditions. However, MP at current concentrations are not expected to affect C turnover and crop yield.
... Other sources of airborne MNPLs include plastics from clothes and household furniture. Of note are synthetic textiles, which may be responsible for human exposure in both internal and external environments [16]. ...
Article
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Nowadays, a large amount and variety of plastic is being produced and consumed by human beings on an enormous scale. Microplastics and nanoplastics (MNPLs) have become ubiquitous since they can be found in many ecosystem components. Plastic particles can be found in soil, water, and air. The routes of human exposure are numerous, mainly involving ingestion and inhalation. Once ingested, these particles interact with the gastrointestinal tract and digestive fluids. They can adsorb substances such as additives, heavy metals, proteins, or even microorganisms on their surface, which can cause toxicity. During inhalation, they can be inhaled according to their respective sizes. Studies have reported that exposure to MNPLs can cause damage to the respiratory tract, creating problems such as bronchitis, asthma, fibrosis, and pneumothorax. The reports of boards and committees indicate that there is little data published and available on the toxicity of MNPLs as well as the exposure levels in humans. Despite the well-established concept of MNPLs, their characteristics, and presence in the environment, little is known about their real effects on human health and the environment.
Chapter
The ever-growing demand and consumption of plastic has created irrevocable havoc on earth. The exponential increase in the production of plastic is expected to create 2,134 million tons of waste by 2050, which surpasses the fish mass in the oceans. With no proper reuse or recycling policies and gruesome exploitation of this persistent pollutant, plastic has started accumulating and overflowing beyond control. The prevalence and the undefined harm from micro and nano plastic pollution calls for a vigilant screening and periodic upgradation of analytical methodology for efficient and standard reporting. This chapter aims to provide a summary of currently available extraction protocols and instrumental methodologies for microplastics analysis in various environmental samples to fully understand the implications it possesses.
Article
Microplastics (MPs) pollution in Tangxun Lake, the largest urban lake in China, was investigated. The average MPs pollution in sediment (1.81 ± 1.75 × 10⁴ items kg⁻¹) is at a high level, while the MPs in lakeshore water (917.77 ± 742.17 items m⁻³) is in the middle to low level compared with existing studies, which is related to the government's protection. Fragments and fibers are the most common shapes in sediment and water, respectively. MPs size <1 mm dominates in the sediment, while the MPs in water has a larger size. The distribution of MPs in the inner lake shows that pellets tend to “hidden” in sediments. Suspected MPs are randomly selected for polymer detection by Micro-Raman microscopy. Polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are the most common polymer types in water, sediment and atmospheric deposition MPs samples. The input of wastewater, fishery and surrounding human activities are the main sources of MPs in sediment. Atmospheric deposition has a great impact on the distribution of MPs, while the contribution of surface runoff to lake MPs is not remarkable. In addition, MPs in sediments have exceeded the environmental carrying capacity. More attention should be focused on the sediment, where huge amounts of MPs are “hidden”.
Thesis
Ces travaux s’inscrivent dans le cadre du développement d’une nouvelle pièce ostréicole en plastique. Leur objectif est de proposer une méthodologie, spécifiquement développée pour l’écoconception des matériaux plastiques utilisés en ostréiculture, en vue de garantir : 1 – Leur innocuité vis-à-vis des huîtres, des consommateurs d’huîtres et des écosystèmes marins, 2 - Leur durabilité, ou maintien de leur intégrité physique dans le temps, afin d’optimiser leur durée d’utilisation et ralentir leur dégradation dans le milieu, 3 - Leur recyclabilité post utilisation, en vue d’assurer leur intégration dans une économie circulaire. Le développement de cette méthodologie s’est organisée autour d’un cadre général de gestion des risques, comprenant 5 étapes au niveau desquelles les données scientifiques, toxicologiques et écotoxicologiques, ainsi que les méthodes et outils d’aide à la décision identifiés comme étant les plus pertinents ont été utilisés, adaptés ou développés, pour identifier, évaluer et maîtriser les dangers potentiels. Pour faciliter son intégration dans une démarche d’écoconception, les attentes technico-économiques et le rôle de chaque acteur de la chaîne de valeur du matériau ont été pris en compte. La mise en œuvre de cette méthodologie a permis la sélection de 2 matrices polymères et de 2 formulations. Les 3 matériaux expérimentaux obtenus ont été testés in situ, dans le cadre d’un cycle de culture expérimentant le prototype du système de production en développement. Les premiers résultats obtenus suggèrent que la recyclabilité, la durabilité et les niveaux d’émission de substances dans le milieu peuvent être maîtrisés. Développé pour l’ostréiculture, cette méthodologie reposant sur l’établissement de scénarios de devenir, d’exposition et d’effets des composants des polymères, devrait être adaptable à d’autres usages
Chapter
It is unavoidable that microplastics (MPs; <5 mm in diameter) are becoming widespread in agroecosystem. However, these changes act upon the agroecosystem with far-reaching but poorly understood consequences on ecosystem functions and subsequent plant-soil health. MPs could change a broad of essential soil biogeochemical processes by effecting soil properties, forming specific microbial hotspots, inducing diversed influences on microbial functions. The physical damage or chemical toxicity on soil organisms and plants caused by MPs may influence plant health. Due to the C contained in MPs, it contributes to the accumulation of soil organic matter as well dissolved organic matter. This further stimulates microbial activity and consequently CO2 and N2O emissions. Enhanced soluble C released from the decomposition of bioplastics increases microbial nutrient immobilizatization and thus causes competition between plants and microbes. Although MPs may confer some benefits in agroecosystems, it is thought that these will be far outweighed by the potential disbenefits.
Article
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Urban freshwaters, their sediments and resident biota are often highly susceptible to microplastic contamination from catchment-specific sources. Water velocity and spatiotemporal dynamics within the system can impact microplastic loads, while biological features may additionally impact levels within freshwater biota. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal variations in microplastic loads collected from sediment, macroinvertebrate and fish samples from an urban watercourse (Bourne Stream) in Dorset, southwest England. Sediment particles were mostly fragments of colours (especially orange and purple) whereas microplastics in both macroinvertebrates and fishes were blue/green and fibres. Across all sample types, the dominant particle size class was ≤100 μm. Median (M) and range (R) of microplastic loads within each sample type were sediment: M = 0.06, R = 0–0.36 particles g⁻¹; macroinvertebrates: M = 0, R = 0–4 particles per batch; and fishes: M = 1, R = 0–6 particles per individual. Sediment loads varied spatially, with the highest load in the most upstream site, whereas biotic loads did not vary across space and time. Macroinvertebrate batch loadings varied between taxa and feeding guild, with counts significantly higher in annelids but lower in herbivores. Fish counts were higher in species with true, differentiated stomachs, but with the effects of species, feeding guild and body size being non-significant. Within sites, mean microplastic loads did not correlate between sediment, macroinvertebrate and fish samples. These results suggest that sediment freshwater microplastic loadings may vary spatially but that these trends are not reflected by, or correlated to, those in the biota where ingestion varies with biological traits. Assessments of freshwater microplastic contamination must therefore consider sampling spatiotemporally and across different biotic communities to fully understand the scale of contamination, and to subsequently undertake effective mitigation steps.
Article
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Frogs are on the verge of extinction due to various biotic and abiotic stressors. Rivers, lakes, ponds, wetlands, and ditches that make up their habitats are exposed to different anthropogenic pollutants. Today, plastics stand out among these pollutants due to their widespread use; however, the information on microplastic (MP) accumulation in frogs is insufficient. In the present study, adult frog samples were collected from 19 different stations in Türkiye, including marsh frogs (Pelophylax ridibundus) from 18 stations and levantine frogs (Pelophylax bedriagae) from 1 station. MP was found in 147 (82.4%) of the 176 frogs that were analyzed. MP abundance in frogs varied between 0.20 and 18.93 MP individual-1. The characterization of MPs was determined predominantly as follows; PET (70.1%) in polymer type, fiber (92.2%) in shape, navy blue/blue (76.1%) in color, and >90% were smaller than 300 m. No significant relationship with frog's weight (correlation Coefficient=0.01, P=0.812) or length (correlation Coefficient=0.06, P=0.473) and MP abundance was detected. The outcomes of this survey might be a baseline to assess the ecological risks posed by MPs and to guide future experimental research.
Article
Due to the increasing evidence of widespread plastic pollution in the air, the impact on plants of airborne particles of polycarbonate (PC), polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) was tested by administering pristine and aged airborne micro-nanoplastics (MNPs) to Tillandsia usneoides for two weeks. Here we showed that exposure to pristine MNPs, significantly reduced plant growth with respect to controls. Particularly, PVC almost halved plant development at the end of the treatment, while the other plastics exerted negative effects on growth only at the beginning of the exposure, with final stages comparable to those of controls. Plants exposed to aged MNPs showed significantly decreased growth at early stages with PC, later in the growth with PE, and even later with PET. Aged PVC did not exert a toxic effect on plants. When present, the plastic-mediated reduction in plant growth was coupled with a decrease in photosynthetic activity and alterations in the plant concentration of macro- and micronutrients. The plastic particles were showed to adhere to the plant surface and, preferentially, on the trichome wings. Our results reported, for the first time, evidence of negative effects of airborne plastic pollution on plant health, thus raising concerns for related environmental risks.
Article
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Background The environmental pollution by microplastics is a global problem arising from the extensive production and use of plastics. Small particles of different plastics, measured less than 5 mm in diameter, are found in water, air, soil, and various living organisms around the globe. Humans constantly inhale and ingest these particles. The associated health risks raise major concerns and require dedicated evaluation. Objectives In this review we systematize and summarize the effects of microplastics on the health of different animals. The article would be of interest to ecologists, experimental biologists, environmental physicians, and all those concerned with anthropogenic environmental changes. Methodology We searched PubMed and Scopus from the period of 01/2010 to 09/2021 for peer-reviewed scientific publications focused on (1) environmental pollution with microplastics; (2) uptake of microplastics by humans; and (3) the impact of microplastics on animal health. Results The number of published studies considering the effects of microplastic particles on aquatic organisms is considerable. In aquatic invertebrates, microplastics cause a decline in feeding behavior and fertility, slow down larval growth and development, increase oxygen consumption, and stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species. In fish, the microplastics may cause structural damage to the intestine, liver, gills, and brain, while affecting metabolic balance, behavior, and fertility; the degree of these harmful effects depends on the particle sizes and doses, as well as the exposure parameters. The corresponding data for terrestrial mammals are less abundant: only 30 papers found in PubMed and Scopus deal with the effects of microplastics in laboratory mice and rats; remarkably, about half of these papers were published in 2021, indicating the growing interest of the scientific community in this issue. The studies demonstrate that in mice and rats microplastics may also cause biochemical and structural damage with noticeable dysfunctions of the intestine, liver, and excretory and reproductive systems. Conclusions Microplastics pollute the seas and negatively affect the health of aquatic organisms. The data obtained in laboratory mice and rats suggest a profound negative influence of microplastics on human health. However, given significant variation in plastic types, particle sizes, doses, models, and modes of administration, the available experimental data are still fragmentary and controversial.
Article
Micro/nanoplastics (MNPs) have received global concern due to their widespread contamination, ingestion in organisms, and the ability to cross the biological barrier. Although MNPs have been detected in a variety of ecosystems, the identification of single MNPs remains an unsolved challenge. Herein, for the first time, scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), which combined the advantages of ultrahigh spatial resolution of SEM and structural fingerprint of Raman spectroscopy, was proposed to identify MNPs at single-particle level. Under the optimum conditions, the polystyrene (PS) MNPs with sizes of 500 nm and 1 μm were identified by the image of SEM and fingerprint peaks of Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the applicability of the method in different sample matrices and for other types of MNPs such as poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) with the sizes of 300 nm, 1 μm were validated. This method is simple, rapid and effective and is likely to provide an essential tool to identify other micro/nanoparticles in addition to MNPs.
Conference Paper
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The three-dimensional (3D) culture of cancer cells has emerged as a better model resembling the in vivo tumor microenvironment due to the preservation of cellular morphology and interactions within the mass. Encapsulation of living cells in calcium alginate beads provides a biocompatible environment that holds the cells within the matrix. The main purpose of the current study was to develop alginate beads culture environment of HepG2 cells with controllable size and voltage. The effect of uniformity and size of beads was investigated based on the applied voltage to the nozzle in the electrospray setup. Cytotoxicity study of thymoquinone (TQ) in both settings was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the novel 3D model in screening therapeutic agents. The alginate beads demonstrated the highest percentage of HepG2 cancer viability at the voltage of 3 kV where more than 80% of the cells were viable with bead diameter approximately 2.6 mm. the developed alginate beads culture of HepG2 cells had also shown more resistance to TQ treatment; the cells were inhibited by 50% at the concentrations of 916 µg∙mL–1 compared to 384 µg∙mL–1 in the traditional culture technique. This model provides a promising tool that is more accurate than the traditional culture setup in investigating the therapeutic properties of different agents in solid human tumors and may reduce the number of animals used in the preclinical in vivo screening
Article
This international scale study measured the prevalence of indoor microplastics (MPs) in deposited dust over a 1-month period in 108 homes from 29 countries. Dust borne MPs shape, colour, and length were determined using microscopy and the composition measured using μFTIR. Human health exposure and risk was assessed along with residential factors associated with MPs via a participant questionnaire. Samples were categorised according to each country's gross national income (GNI). Synthetic polymers dominated in low income (LI) (39%) and high income (HI) (46%) while natural fibres were the most prevalent in medium income (MI) (43%) countries. Composition and correlation analysis indicated that main sources of MPs and dust were predominantly from indoor sources. Across all GNI countries, greater vacuuming frequency was associated with lower MPs loading. High income country samples returned higher proportions of polyamides and polyester fibres, whereas in LI countries polyurethane was the most prominent MPs fibre. Exposure modelling shows infants (0–2 years) were exposed to the highest MPs dose through inhalation (4.5 × 10⁻⁵ ± 3 × 10⁻⁵) and ingestion (3.24 × 10⁻² ± 3.14 × 10⁻²) mg/kg-Bw/day. Health risk analysis of constituent monomers of polymers indicates cancer incidence is estimated at 4.1–8.7 per million persons across age groups. This study's analysis showed socio-economic factors and age were dominant variables in determining dose and associated health outcomes of MPs in household dust.
Preprint
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Airborne microplastic (MP) is an emerging pollutant, still under-characterised and insufficiently understood. Detailed description of MP air pollution is crucial as it has been identified in human lungs and remote locations, highlighting atmosphere as medium of MP dispersion and transportation. The lack of standardization of methods for measuring and further monitoring of the MP pollution is an obstacle towards the assessment of health risks. Since the first recognition of MP presence in the atmosphere of Krakow in 2019, this research was conducted to further characterise and develop the methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis of airborne MP (ATR-FTIR, Pyr-GC-MS, SEM-EDS) and pre-treatment of samples.The data was gathered in seven cycles, from June 2019 to February 2020. Methods used in the study allowed the identification and analysis of the changing ratio of the different types of synthetic polymers identified in the atmospheric fallout (LDPE, Nyl-66, PE, PET, PP, PUR). Observations of interactions between MP particles and environment were made with analyses of surface changes due to the degradation. Mineral phases attached to the MPs’ surfaces, with some of the inorganic contaminants transported on these surfaces, determined to also be of anthropogenic origin.Methodology proposed in this study, allows further characterisation of MP from multiple locations to provide highly comparable data, leading to the identification of the sources of this phenomenon, as well as seasonal changes.
Thesis
D’après la littérature scientifique, les plastiques présents en mer libèrent des micro et nano-plastiques ainsi des substances chimiques, potentiellement transférées ou bioaccumulées dans les organismes marins, ce qui constitue une source potentielle de préoccupation. Par ailleurs, l’aquaculture marine utilise de nombreux équipements en plastique, devant être recyclés en fin de vie (cf. Directive (UE) 2019/904). Dans ce contexte, tout nouvel équipement en plastique conçu pour l’aquaculture doit être éco-conçu et s’inscrire dans une économie circulaire. Le présent travail propose une méthodologie d’éco-conception, systémique et pilotée par l’usage, développée pour maîtriser l’innocuité, la durabilité et la recyclabilité des matériaux polymères utilisés en aquaculture, et comprenant 4 étapes : 1- une évaluation scientifique des risques liés à l’usage du matériau, 2- l’identification des points de contrôle de ces risques, 3- le développement d’actions préventives, 4- la définition de procédures de vérification de leur maîtrise, incluant la réalisation d’analyses biométriques et chimiques dans le cadre d’une expérimentation in situ.
Article
Microplastics (MPs) defined as ‘small’ pieces of plastic < 5 mm have been found in almost every marine habitat around the world, and studies have shown that we can find them in the ocean surface, the water column, the seafloor, the shoreline, in biota and in the atmosphere-ocean interface. This study aimed to assess both marine and freshwater environments of Cocos Island, Costa Rica, in the Pacific Ocean, by sampling sediments and biota to determine the presence and abundance of this pollutant. Sediment samples were superficial and weighed one kilogram each. For the sampling of freshwater fish and shrimps, nonselective capture with small nets was made in rivers with access by land, while fishing rods were used for the marine fish sampling, and cage and scuba diving for lobsters. Plastics were found in all types of samples: 93% of marine sediments, 32% of freshwater sediments, 20% of freshwater fish, 15% of freshwater shrimps, 27% of marine fish, and 51% of marine lobsters. Like many reports around the world, it was expected to find MPs at marine samples, and it was concluded that ocean currents, tourism activities, and discarded fishing gear from illegal fishing activities could be the sources of marine pollutants. In contrast, the amount of MPs found in freshwater environments was not expected. Their possible sources are unclear at this moment.
Article
Although the contamination of microplastics (MPs) in groundwater has been anticipated, their occurrence, distribution, and composition require further understanding. In this study, the occurrence and distributions of MPs were investigated in shallow groundwater from an important water source district in Tianjin city of northern China. The abundance, the physical morphology, the chemical composition, and the potential correlations of the determined MPs with human activities were thoroughly characterized. MPs were determined from all ten sampling sites with the abundance ranged between 17.0 ± 2.16 to 44.0 ± 1.63 n/L, revealing the ubiquitous existed MPs contamination. Based on the physical categorization, fiber (44.74%) was the most abundant shape, while blue (31.02%) and transparent (26.09%) were the most prevalent colors. The dominant size of MPs was smaller than 200 μm which accounted for 73.10%. A total of seven types of MPs were determined with polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene as the main types, of which, polypropylene showed strong positive correlations with polystyrene, indicating the possible similar sources of them. Besides, the determined MPs in groundwater were greater in areas with the high population density and strong population activity, indicating their high correlation with human activity. The study highlighted the presence of MPs in groundwater of drinking water source in northern China and provided useful information for evaluating the potential ecological effects on water quality safety and human health brought by MPs.
Article
In this review study, the effect of microplastic pollution, which is considered as one of the serious environmental problems today and in the future, on marine and marine ecosystems is discussed in a holistic way. In the literature search, primary and secondary microplastics has been observed which are mixed with the marine environment by wastewater treatment plant discharge and river transport, therefore, many marine organism are ingested microplastics and negatively affect living things due to reproductive disorders, fake satiety and injury. In addition, depending on the raw material from which the plastics are obtained, it is possible to transport different toxic compounds to the marine environment. In the extensive literature research, it has been understood that primary and secondary microplastics, which are mixed with the marine environment by wastewater treatment plant discharge and river transport, can be swallowed by living things and negatively affect living things due to reproductive disorders, false satiety and injury. In addition, depending on the raw material from which the plastics are obtained, it is possible to transport different toxic compounds to the marine environment. The results of the study showed that in parallel with the particles detected in the seas, microplastics with similar properties were found in all living groups living in these environments. Particles detected in different structures and organs of other creatures, including protected corals and mammals, revealed that microplastics have spread throughout the entire marine ecosystem. The most common types of microplastics in the examinations are polypropylene and polyethylene polymers and fiber-shaped particles. In addition to the most common blue colored plastic particles, it was concluded that microplastics, which are evaluated as light-colored in the color scale such as white, transparent, and cream, are also quite common in the aquatic environment.
Article
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Environmental context Microplastics in freshwater ecosystems are an increasingly important environmental issue, with the few available studies suggesting high contamination worldwide. Reliable data on concentrations, fluxes and polymer types in continental aquatic environments, including urban water systems, are needed. High environmental and ecological risk polymers and associated or adsorbed chemicals have to be identified, as well as their effects on both organisms and ecosystems. Abstract Massive accumulation of plastic particles has been reported for marine ecosystems around the world, posing a risk to the biota. Freshwater ecosystems have received less attention despite most plastic litter being produced onshore and introduced into marine environments by rivers. Some studies not only report the presence of microplastics in freshwater ecosystems, but show that contamination is as severe as in the oceans. In continental waters, microplastics have been observed in both sediments (predominantly lake shores but also riverbanks) and water samples (predominantly surface water of lakes and rivers). This review highlights recent findings and discusses open questions, focussing on the methodology of assessing this contaminant in freshwater ecosystems. In this context, method harmonisation is needed in order to obtain comparable data from different environmental compartments and sites. This includes sampling strategies (at spatial and temporal scales), sample treatment (taking into consideration high levels of organic matter and suspended solids) and reliable analytical methods to identify microplastics.
Article
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There have been numerous anthropogenic-driven changes to our planet in the last half-century. One of the most evident changes is the ubiquity and abundance of litter in the marine environment. The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) establishes a framework within which EU Member States shall take action to achieve or maintain good environmental status (GES) of their marine waters by 2020. GES is based on 11 qualitative descriptors as listed in Annex I of the MSFD. Descriptor 10 (D 10) concerns marine litter. As a follow-up to the related Commission Decision on criteria and methodological standards (2010/477/EU) in which 56 indicators for the achievement of GES are proposed, the EC Directorate-General for the Environment, on the request of the European Marine Directors, established a Technical Subgroup on Marine Litter (TSG ML) under the Working Group on GES. The role of TSG ML is to support Member States through providing scientific and technical background for the implementation of MSFD requirements with regard to D 10. Started in 2011, TSG ML provides technical recommendations for the implementation of the MSFD requirements for marine litter. It summarizes the available information on monitoring approaches and considers how GES and environmental targets could be defined with the aim of preventing further inputs of litter to, and reducing its total amount in, the marine environment. It also identifies research needs, priorities and strategies in support of the implementation of D 10. The work of TSG ML also focuses on the specification of monitoring methods through the development of monitoring protocols for litter in the different marine compartments, and for microplastics and litter in biota. Further consideration is being given to monitoring strategies in general and associated costs. Other priorities include the identification of sources of marine litter and a better understanding of the harm caused by marine litter.
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Background: While the use of plastic materials has generated huge societal benefits, the ‘plastic age’ comes with downsides: One issue of emerging concern is the accumulation of plastics in the aquatic environment. Here, so-called microplastics (MP), fragments smaller than 5 mm, are of special concern because they can be ingested throughout the food web more readily than larger particles. Focusing on freshwater MP, we briefly review the state of the science to identify gaps of knowledge and deduce research needs. State of the science: Environmental scientists started investigating marine (micro)plastics in the early 2000s. Today, a wealth of studies demonstrates that MP have ubiquitously permeated the marine ecosystem, including the polar regions and the deep sea. MP ingestion has been documented for an increasing number of marine species. However, to date, only few studies investigate their biological effects. The majority of marine plastics are considered to originate from land-based sources, including surface waters. Although they may be important transport pathways of MP, data from freshwater ecosystems is scarce. So far, only few studies provide evidence for the presence of MP in rivers and lakes. Data on MP uptake by freshwater invertebrates and fish is very limited. Knowledge gaps: While the research on marine MP is more advanced, there are immense gaps of knowledge regarding freshwater MP. Data on their abundance is fragmentary for large and absent for small surface waters. Likewise, relevant sources and the environmental fate remain to be investigated. Data on the biological effects of MP in freshwater species is completely lacking. The accumulation of other freshwater contaminants on MP is of special interest because ingestion might increase the chemical exposure. Again, data is unavailable on this important issue. Conclusions: MP represent freshwater contaminants of emerging concern. However, to assess the environmental risk associated with MP, comprehensive data on their abundance, fate, sources, and biological effects in freshwater ecosystems are needed. Establishing such data critically depends on a collaborative effort by environmental scientists from diverse disciplines (chemistry, hydrology, ecotoxicology, etc.) and, unsurprisingly, on the allocation of sufficient public funding
Article
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Background: While the use of plastic materials has generated huge societal benefits, the ‘plastic age’ comes with downsides: One issue of emerging concern is the accumulation of plastics in the aquatic environment. Here, so-called microplastics (MP), fragments smaller than 5 mm, are of special concern because they can be ingested throughout the food web more readily than larger particles. Focusing on freshwater MP, we briefly review the state of the science to identify gaps of knowledge and deduce research needs. State of the science: Environmental scientists started investigating marine (micro)plastics in the early 2000s. Today, a wealth of studies demonstrates that MP have ubiquitously permeated the marine ecosystem, including the polar regions and the deep sea. MP ingestion has been documented for an increasing number of marine species. However, to date, only few studies investigate their biological effects. The majority of marine plastics are considered to originate from land-based sources, including surface waters. Although they may be important transport pathways of MP, data from freshwater ecosystems is scarce. So far, only few studies provide evidence for the presence of MP in rivers and lakes. Data on MP uptake by freshwater invertebrates and fish is very limited. Knowledge gaps: While the research on marine MP is more advanced, there are immense gaps of knowledge regarding freshwater MP. Data on their abundance is fragmentary for large and absent for small surface waters.Likewise, relevant sources and the environmental fate remain to be investigated. Data on the biological effects of MP in freshwater species is completely lacking. The accumulation of other freshwater contaminants on MP is of special interest because ingestion might increase the chemical exposure. Again, data is unavailable on this important issue. Conclusions: MP represent freshwater contaminants of emerging concern. However, to assess the environmental risk associated with MP, comprehensive data on their abundance, fate, sources, and biological effects in freshwater ecosystems are needed. Establishing such data critically depends on a collaborative effort by environmental scientists from diverse disciplines (chemistry, hydrology, ecotoxicology, etc.) and, unsurprisingly, on the allocation of sufficient public funding.
Article
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Marine ecosystem contamination by microplastics is extensively documented. However few data is available on the contamination of continental water bodies and associated fauna. The aim of this study was to address the occurrence of microplastics in digestive tract of gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers. These investigations confirm that continental fish ingested microplastics while 12% of collected fish are contaminated by these small particles. Further works are needed to evaluate the occurence of this contamination.
Article
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Debris has been recognized as a global environmental problem including within deep habitats. From 26 fish species (1504 specimens) caught in the Eastern Ionian Sea during deep-water long-line surveys, plastic debris was found in 24 individuals of Galeus melastomus (3.2%) and single individuals of Pteroplatytrygon violacea, Squalus blainville, Etmopterus spinax, and Pagellus bogaraveo. The occurrence of debris among their food was infrequent. Ingested debris included primarily plastics (86.5%) and to a lesser extent pieces of metal and wood. Among ingested plastics, fragments of hard plastic material constituted the highest proportion (56.0%), followed by plastic bag fragments (22.0%), fragments of fishing gears (19.0%) and textile fibers (3.0%). Among the species with ingested debris, G. melastomus swallowed all debris categories; P. violacea and S. blainville ingested plastic bag fragments, whereas pieces of hard plastics were found in E. spinax and P. bogaraveo.
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This review discusses the mechanisms of generation and potential impacts of microplastics in the ocean environment. Weathering degradation of plastics on the beaches results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that are carried into water by wind or wave action. Unlike inorganic fines present in sea water, microplastics concentrate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by partition. The relevant distribution coefficients for common POPs are several orders of magnitude in favour of the plastic medium. Consequently, the microparticles laden with high levels of POPs can be ingested by marine biota. Bioavailability and the efficiency of transfer of the ingested POPs across trophic levels are not known and the potential damage posed by these to the marine ecosystem has yet to be quantified and modelled. Given the increasing levels of plastic pollution of the oceans it is important to better understand the impact of microplastics in the ocean food web.
Article
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This review of 68 studies compares the methodologies used for the identification and quantification of microplastics from the marine environment. Three main sampling strategies were identified: selective, volume-reduced, and bulk sampling. Most sediment samples came from sandy beaches at the high tide line, and most seawater samples were taken at the sea surface using neuston nets. Four steps were distinguished during sample processing: density separation, filtration, sieving, and visual sorting of microplastics. Visual sorting was one of the most commonly used methods for the identification of microplastics (using type, shape, degradation stage, and color as criteria). Chemical and physical characteristics (e.g., specific density) were also used. The most reliable method to identify the chemical composition of microplastics is by infrared spectroscopy. Most studies reported that plastic fragments were polyethylene and polypropylene polymers. Units commonly used for abundance estimates are "items per m(2)" for sediment and sea surface studies and "items per m(3)" for water column studies. Mesh size of sieves and filters used during sampling or sample processing influence abundance estimates. Most studies reported two main size ranges of microplastics: (i) 500 μm-5 mm, which are retained by a 500 μm sieve/net, and (ii) 1-500 μm, or fractions thereof that are retained on filters. We recommend that future programs of monitoring continue to distinguish these size fractions, but we suggest standardized sampling procedures which allow the spatiotemporal comparison of microplastic abundance across marine environments.
Article
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Since the mass production of plastics began in the 1940s, microplastic contamination of the marine environment has been a growing problem. Here, a review of the literature has been conducted with the following objectives: (1) to summarise the properties, nomenclature and sources of microplastics; (2) to discuss the routes by which microplastics enter the marine environment; (3) to evaluate the methods by which microplastics are detected in the marine environment; (4) to assess spatial and temporal trends of microplastic abundance; and (5) to discuss the environmental impact of microplastics. Microplastics are both abundant and widespread within the marine environment, found in their highest concentrations along coastlines and within mid-ocean gyres. Ingestion of microplastics has been demonstrated in a range of marine organisms, a process which may facilitate the transfer of chemical additives or hydrophobic waterborne pollutants to biota. We conclude by highlighting key future research areas for scientists and policymakers.
Article
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Millions of metric tons of plastic are produced annually. Countless large items of plastic debris are accumulating in marine habitats worldwide and may persist for centuries ([ 1 ][1]–[ 4 ][2]). Here we show that microscopic plastic fragments and fibers ([Fig. 1A][3]) are also widespread in the
Article
Environmental context Plastics production has increased considerably in recent years, leading to pollution by plastics, including microplastics (comprising particles smaller than 5mm). This work addresses the issue of microplastics from urban sources and in receiving waters in Greater Paris. Microplastics were found in all urban compartments investigated, namely atmospheric fallout, waste- and treated water, and surface water. Abstract This study investigates the microplastic contamination of both urban compartments (wastewater and total atmospheric fallout) and surface water in a continental environment. These first investigations on an urban environment confirm the presence of microplastics in sewage, fresh water and total atmospheric fallout and provide knowledge on the type and size distribution of microplastics in the 100-5000-μm range. For the first time, the presence of microplastics, mostly fibres, is highlighted in total atmospheric fallout (29-280particlesm-2day-1). High levels of fibres were found in wastewater (260-320×103particlesm-3). In treated effluent, the contamination significantly decreased to 14-50×103particlesm-3. In the River Seine, two sampling devices were used to collect both large and small microplastic particles: (i) a plankton net (80-μm mesh), and (ii) a manta trawl (330-μm mesh). Sampling with the plankton net showed a predominance of fibres, with concentrations ranging from 3 to 108particlesm-3. A greater diversity of both microplastic shapes and types was found during manta trawl sampling but at much lower concentrations (0.28-0.47particlesm-3). This combined approach could be relevant and implemented in future studies to provide an accurate overview of microplastic distribution in freshwater.
Conference Paper
Presentation on material subsequently expanded and published in article linked here: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7774992_Synthetic_fibers_as_an_indicator_of_land_application_of_sludge
Article
Microplastics are present in marine habitats worldwide and laboratory studies show this material can be ingested, yet data on abundance in natural populations is limited. This study documents microplastics in 10 species of fish from the English Channel. 504 Fish were examined and plastics found in the gastroin-testinal tracts of 36.5%. All five pelagic species and all five demersal species had ingested plastic. Of the 184 fish that had ingested plastic the average number of pieces per fish was 1.90 ± 0.10. A total of 351 pieces of plastic were identified using FT-IR Spectroscopy; polyamide (35.6%) and the semi-synthetic cel-lulosic material, rayon (57.8%) were most common. There was no significant difference between the abundance of plastic ingested by pelagic and demersal fish. Hence, microplastic ingestion appears to be common, in relatively small quantities, across a range of fish species irrespective of feeding habitat. Further work is needed to establish the potential consequences.
Article
Because of concerns regarding health, safety, and aesthetics, a test that identifies the presence of sewage sludge or its products (biosolids) in commercial materials such as soil conditioners and composts would be useful. This test could also trace the effluent plume from a sewage treatment plant. We have discovered that synthetic fibers serve as such an indicator. Synthetic fibers are abundant in sludge, sludge products, and sewage treatment plant effluents. The fibers evidently are introduced from clothes-washing machines and survive the sewage treatment process. Synthetic fibers were identified using polarized light microscopy, which provided a simple, rapid method for determining the presence or absence of municipal sewage sludge or its products. False positives or false negatives have not occurred with any of the materials examined so far. We also monitored synthetic fibers in surface sediments of Huntington Harbor, Long Island, NY, a harbor receiving the effluent from a trickling filter sewage treatment plant. Fibers generally decrease in size and abundance with distance from the source. In Oyster Bay Harbor, Long Island, an advanced sewage treatment plant is operated with a final microfiltration step. Synthetic fibers are less abundant in the sediments of this harbor.
Article
Plastic debris <1 mm (defined here as microplastic) is accumulating in marine habitats. Ingestion of microplastic provides a potential pathway for the transfer of pollutants, monomers, and plastic-additives to organisms with uncertain consequences for their health. Here, we show that microplastic contaminates the shorelines at 18 sites worldwide representing six continents from the poles to the equator, with more material in densely populated areas, but no clear relationship between the abundance of miocroplastics and the mean size-distribution of natural particulates. An important source of microplastic appears to be through sewage contaminated by fibers from washing clothes. Forensic evaluation of microplastic from sediments showed that the proportions of polyester and acrylic fibers used in clothing resembled those found in habitats that receive sewage-discharges and sewage-effluent itself. Experiments sampling wastewater from domestic washing machines demonstrated that a single garment can produce >1900 fibers per wash. This suggests that a large proportion of microplastic fibers found in the marine environment may be derived from sewage as a consequence of washing of clothes. As the human population grows and people use more synthetic textiles, contamination of habitats and animals by microplastic is likely to increase.
Article
This review discusses the mechanisms of generation and potential impacts of microplastics in the ocean environment. Weathering degradation of plastics on the beaches results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that are carried into water by wind or wave action. Unlike inorganic fines present in sea water, microplastics concentrate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by partition. The relevant distribution coefficients for common POPs are several orders of magnitude in favour of the plastic medium. Consequently, the microparticles laden with high levels of POPs can be ingested by marine biota. Bioavailability and the efficiency of transfer of the ingested POPs across trophic levels are not known and the potential damage posed by these to the marine ecosystem has yet to be quantified and modelled. Given the increasing levels of plastic pollution of the oceans it is important to better understand the impact of microplastics in the ocean food web.
Article
Synthetic fabric fibers have been proposed as indicators of past spreading of wastewater sludge. Synthetic fiber detectability was examined in sludges (dewatered, pelletized, composted, alkaline-stabilized) and in soils from experimental columns and field sites applied with those sludge products. Fibers (isolated by water extraction and examined using polarized light microscopy) were detectable in sludge products and in soil columns over 5 years after application, retaining characteristics observed in the applied sludge. Concentrations mirrored (within a factor of 2) predictions based on soil dilution. Fibers were detectable in field site soils up to 15 years after application, again retaining the characteristics seen in sludge products. Concentrations correlated with residual sludge metal concentration gradients in a well-characterized field site. Fibers found along preferential flow paths and/or in horizons largely below the mixed layer suggest some potential for translocation. Synthetic fibers were shown to be rapid and semi-quantitative indicators of past sludge application.
Effects and Fate of Microplastic Marine Debris
  • C Arthur
  • J Baker
  • H Bamford
Arthur, C., Baker, J., Bamford, H., 2008. Proceedings of the International Research. Presented at the Worshop on the Occurence, Effects and Fate of Microplastic Marine Debris. Sept 9-11 2008. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS-OR&R-30.