ArticlePDF Available

THE IMPACT OF THE IMAGES OF THE POLITICAL LEADER ON PARTY IMAGE AND VOTER PREFERENCES DURING THE PROCESS OF POLITICAL MARKETING- ISTANBUL PROVINCE SAMPLE

Authors:
JEL CODE: D7- D72- M31
THE IMPACT OF THE IMAGES OF THE POLITICAL LEADER ON THE
PARTY IMAGE AND VOTER PREFERENCES DURING THE PROCESS OF
POLITICAL MARKETING- ISTANBUL PROVINCE SAMPLE
Abstract: Today, politics has become one of the areas in which marketing practices have been widely utilized in
democratic societies. The study which examines the impact of political party leaders on party images and voter
preferences during political marketing included a field research that was conducted on 1175 voters who reside in
İstanbul. Survey method with convenience sampling was utilized for the study and the analyses were done with
SPSS 21 statistics package program. The scale of the survey had questions compiled from other researches
examining similar subjects. According to the results of the study, the voters indicated that they were influenced
by the ideology and the past practices of the party rather than the leader himself/herself during the voting
process. On the other hand, the results also supported the ideas that the leader has a great impact on the
representation of the political parties molding public opinion and that the leader communes with the party and
that the negative and incompetent qualities of a leader can break voters’ ties with a party.
Key Words: Political Marketing, Leader, Political Leader, Political Party, Voter Behaviors
1. INTRODUCTION
Politics, which means “to put people in
order and manage things” in Turkish
language (Daver, 1993:3), is shaped by the
universally accepted moral and rationalist
principles being in the first place, the
cultural elements belonging to the history
of a nation, the standards of judgement and
the written and unwritten canons. Both the
determiners and executives of politics that
comprises services for people are the
people themselves. People implement this
via political institutions. Political parties
are the primary political institutions in
modern and democratic regimes. Political
parties who can get governing authority in
proportion to their authority to represent
people play an important role in
determining the politics for that society.
Although political parties are composed of
people who come together for a certain
program and a collective conscience, they
have a leader who keeps the party on its
feet like cement. Political leaders take on
an important task in terms of representing
their parties in public with their visions,
decisions and practices.
Political parties’ tendencies for shifting to
center from their ideological bases in order
to increase their votes have led to the
development of political marketing
applications. The effects of political
leaders, one of the elements of political
marketing, on parties’ image and voters’
preferences are investigated in this study.
2. POLITICAL MARKETING
Political marketing is one of the first issues
which comes to mind with reference to the
marketing of ideas, considering both the
amount of the budget set and the size of the
population influenced by the results of the
activity. Political marketing is the
marketing of the characteristics, ideas,
principles and policies of certain parties
and candidates in order to shape the
preferences of the voters for elections
(Butler&Collins, 1994:19). In other words,
it is the techniques used as a whole to
make a political party or a candidate to
look suitable for the potential voters, thus
reaching the maximum number of voters
and emphasizing the difference between
their party and the others to win the
elections at the smallest expense
(Bongrand, 1992; 17). Although the
conceptualization of political marketing
and addressing it as a theory is a relatively
new field, its practical implementations
date back to very old times. Political
marketing practices whose ultimate goal
focuses on power can be said to have
existed long before the emergence of the
notion of the state. The replacement of the
states governed by one person with
republics and institutional authorities as a
consequence of the development of nation-
state concept and modernization has
contributed to the theoretical development
of political marketing practices as a
separate discipline.
The development of political marketing in
modern times as a discipline dates back to
the beginning of the 20th century in the
U.S.A. The election campaign of Franklin
D. Roosevelt in 1936 is considered to be a
milestone for the birth of political
communication in a modern sense. In the
presidential election of 1952, the
Republicans entered into an agreement for
the execution of their political campaign
for the first time. The presidential
candidate of the party was Dwight
Eisenhower who was known as “Ike”. The
communication professionals who took the
responsibility for the campaign often used
the catch line “I like Ike” while the
Democratic Party, the competitor of the
Republicans, did not lean towards those
advertising practices and stated that is
inappropriate to beat the drum for the
candidates just like a detergent
advertisement. In the end, the winner of
the elections was the Republicans and thus
Eisenhower (Polat, Gürbüz&İnal, 2004:
17,25). When political marketing is
considered with respect to the elements of
the marketing mix, the biggest difference
between trade marketing and political
marketing seems to be that the tangible or
physical goods are replaced by ideas,
leaders and candidates, parties and part
programs. If the main goal of political
marketing is to get a candidate elected by
affecting the voters’ preferences, then the
product should be proper and need-based
and more importantly should have the
potential to make the voters believe that.
The most important task to do so falls on
the shoulders of the leader and the party
who play a part in this political product
package.
3. POLITICAL LEADER AND
LEADER IMAGE
The concept of leadership that emerged
with the beginning of collective life style
goes a long way back although it appeared
in the literature in the 14th century.
Leadership can be defined as the total
knowledge and abilities that influence a
group of people to make them gather
around certain purposes and realize them
in the most general sense (Zel, 2001:90). A
leader is a person who influences instead
of being influenced by others and who
manages a common quest (Mango,
2005:218) while a political leader is a
person who can pull crowds and affect
their decisions with his/her special skills
and abilities
(http://www.yerelsiyaset.com/pdf/ocak200
8/10.pdf; 22.06.2012). One of the most
important indicators of political leadership
is the ability to influence the crowds and
manage the process of realization of the
ideas. The effect and guidance are the main
differences between a politician and a
leader. The realization of both certainly
depends on the interaction between the
emotional processes of the voters and the
political leader (Eroğlu Yalın, 2012:85).
The image of the offered products
determines the attitudes of the consumers
for trade marketing and the voters for
political marketing. The consistency
between the image of a political leader,
who is an important element of the
political marketing mix, as a product in the
eyes of the voters and the image that the
voters create in their minds directly affects
the success of the political party (Shama,
1973:799). Image is an artificial product
whose design consists of false actions that
are performed in the public eye (Meyer,
2002:82). As Robins (1999:32) states:
“Image is like a photograph; the smallest
disharmony in contrast or anything that is
either missing or redundant can turn a
portrait that has the potential to be
masterpiece into an ordinary headshot…”
Image is used as a weapon by political
leaders to register on people. The leaders
who achieve to design a more suitable
image for their intended populations are
more preferable than the others. For that
reason, the candidates must be careful
about their personal images. Physical
appearance, personality, temperament,
posture, education and way of dressing and
walking are some of the important factors
to be considered while creating an image
(Ünal Erzen, 2008:66). Creating images
and using these images for communication
activities have become an obligation for
the politicians in the modern world
because the success is achieved in politics
by the ones who can adopt a more
centralistic system rather than the marginal
ideologies. The politics that shifts to a
more central point can put forward the
discrepancies of their main actors via the
images they attribute to themselves.
Based on the previous research on the
subject, the characteristics that a political
leader should have can be summarized as
follows (Okumuş, 2007:167; Eroğlu Yalın,
2012:85; Akat et al. 1994:213; Arklan,
2006:54; Polat et al.,
2004:105;http://www.siyasaliletisim.org/in
dex.php/haber-ve-yorumarsivi/makale/747-
siyasi-lidermajlargercekliin-%20yeniden-
ueretilmesi.html; 05.08.2015);
-A political leader should be able to
influence and lead crowds.
-S/he should go before both the
people and the party members with
achievable targets.
-S/he should be creative, stable, and
open to change and quick in thinking and
doing things in addition to the necessary
communication and adaptive skills. S/he
must be able to redress the balance
between the element of stability and
change.
-S/he should be able to gain people’s
trust and have wide knowledge of politics
while making the right decisions under
hard conditions.
4. THE AIM AND THE METHOD
OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to measure the
effects of leader and leader image as the
products of political marketing on party
image and voter preferences in the light of
the literature in the field. Convenience
sampling and survey method were utilized
for the voters in İstanbul. The number of
the voters was taken as (9.387. 327) (2011
general parliamentary election reports by
supreme Election board) for the
determination of the sample size and 384
participants at %95 security level with 0.05
margin of error were thought to represent
the universe of the study (Gegez,
2007:261)
The analyses were conducted on 1175
survey forms. The questions on the survey
form were taken from the questions and
statements used in various studies and
research (Güllüpunar et al., 2013:19;
Alnıaçık, 2003:88; Tan, 2002:48; Özsoy,
2002: 118) in the field and turned into a
questionnaire by the researcher as there
was no instrument to directly measure the
effects of the characteristics of political
leaders on a party’s image and voter
preferences.
4.1.
4.2. INTERPRETATION OF THE
FINDINGS
Table 1: Demographic Features of the
Participants
Age Frequency Percentage %
18-30 568
31-45 365
46-65 183 15,6
65 and older 59 5,0
Gender
Male 542 46,1
Female 633 53,9
Marital Status
Single 570 48,5
Married 605 51,5
Occupation
Government employee 186 15,8
Worker 257 21,9
Self-employed 104 8,9
Student 329 28,0
Housewife 136 11,6
Pensioner 119 10,1
Unemployed 44 3,7
Educational Background
Literate and primary education 207 17,6
High-school 498 42,4
Graduate 388 33,0
Postgraduate (Master-Doctorate) 82 7,0
Income Status
Minimum wage and below 384 32,7
850-2000 tl. 402 34,2
2000-4000 tl. 278 23,7
4000-6000 tl. 71 6,0
6000 and above 40 3,4
TOTAL 1175 100
Table: 2 Self-expressions of the
Participants with Respect to Their
Political Views
Political Views Frequency Percentage %
Conservative 317 27,0
Nationalist 309 26,3
Social democrat 378 32,2
Liberalist 81 6,9
Others 90 7,7
Total 1175 100,0
Table:3 The Motives of the
Participants for Their Political Party
Preferences
Statements Frequency Minimum
value
Maximum
value
Party’s ideology 1175 1 5
Party’s leader 1175 1 5
Party’s previous activities 1175 1 5
Party’s commitment to basic
values
1175 1 5
The opinions of my family and
inner circle
1175 1 5
The political marketing and
advertising activities of the party
1175 1 5
Likert Scale:1=Strongly disagree; 5= Strongly agree
According
to the descriptive
statistics
presented in
Table 3, The
factors “Party’s
ideology” and
“Party’s
commitment to
basic values”
have the highest
scores (4.26 and
4.21). These
factors are the
main motives of
the participants
for their
preferences while
“the leader” as a
factor ranked
number 4.
However, when
the leader’s
representation of
the party is
examined, the
leader seems to
have a strong
influence based
on the findings
shown in Table 4.
Table: 4 The Effect of the Leader
on the Representation of the Political
Party from the Viewpoint of the
Participants
Statements Frequency Minimum
value
Maximum
value
Average (mean)
S/he does have a strong influence
because the leader of a party
integrates with the party in the
eyes of the voters and an elector
will not vote for a party whose
not believe in.
1175 1 5 4,36
S/he is quite influential but what
really matters for the voters is the
party’s identity independent of
1175 1 5 3,17
S/he had little, if any, influence
and the voters will elect the party
whose ideology is the most
1175 1 5 2,83
Likert Scale:1=Strongly disagree; 5= Strongly agree
According to
Table 4, most of
the participants
seem to believe
that the leaders
have a strong
influence because
the leader of a
party integrates
with the party in
the eyes of the
voters and an
elector will not
vote for a party
whose leader s/he
does not believe
in with the
highest score,
4.36.
Table 5: The Likelihood of
Withdrawing from the Party in Case of
the Leader’s Breaking Away
Withdrawal Frequency Percentage %
Yes 263 22,4
No 547 46,6
Not Sure 365 31,0
Total 1175 100
Table 6: The Likelihood of Voting
for the Same Party in Case That a Party
Leader Takes the Lead of a Party They
Will not Vote for
Increase in the
Affinity
Frequency Percentage %
Yes 218 18,6
No 564 48,0
Not Sure 393 33,4
Total 1175 100
The participants
seem to have
answered this
question in line
with the previous
question. %48 of
the participants
stated that they
will not for a
party that they do
not feel to vote
for even if a
leader they
appreciate
becomes the head
of that party
while only %18.6
of the participants
implied that they
will follow the
leader they
appreciate by
saying “yes”. On
the other hand,
the number of the
participants who
said “not sure”
being relatively
high with %33.4
is also worth
considering.
Table 7: The Effect of the
Features That the Voters Wish to See in
the Leader of the Party They will Vote
for but Which the Leader Does not Have
on the Voters’ Election Decisions
How the Participants
are Affected
Frequency Percentage%
Yes, they affect my
decision 491 41,8
No, it does not affect my
decision 469 39,9
Not Sure 215 18,3
Total 1175 100
When we
evaluate the
participants’
responses, % 41,8
of the participants
stated that those
characteristics
that the leader
lack will
influence their
preferences while
for %39,9 of the
participants this
will not change
their choice. On
the other hand,
%18,3 of the
participants said
they are uncertain
about it. The
majority
emphasizes the
importance of the
leader by
indicating that the
absence of certain
characteristics in
the leader will
change their
political
decisions by a
narrow margin.
Table 8: Factor Analysis of the “The
Characteristics That a Political Leader
Must Have” Scale
The Characteristics
of the Leader
1 2 3 4
Factor 1: Power
Stable and Consistent ,776
Articulate ,765
Sincere ,755
Respectable ,722
Experienced ,548
Well-educated ,481
Cronbach’s Alpha
Value
,812
Explained Variance 20,128
Factor 2: Virtue
Honest ,810
Hardworking ,785
A Common Man ,625
Democratic ,623
Cronbach’s Alpha
Value
,740
Explained Variance 14,928
Factor 3: Nationalist-
Conservative
Religious ,816
Shares the same ,680
Cronbach’s Alpha ,551
Explained Variance 11,558
Factor 4: Image
Young and energetic ,821
Charismatic ,762
Cronbach’s Alpha ,576
Explained Variance 9,960
Factor 5:
Nationalistic Values
Kemalist ,898
Nationalist ,611
Cronbach’s Alpha ,606
Explained Variance 9,247
Total Scale
Cronbach’s Alpha ,795
The sixteen
leadership
features in Table
11 are divided
into 5 factors that
explain %65,521
of the total
variance. The
features that the
participants wish
to see in a
political leader
are listed as
power, virtue,
nationalist-
conservative,
image and
Nationalistic
Values.
According to the
analysis results,
maximum and
minimum loading
levels are 0,898
and 0,481,
respectively. In
order for a 0,50
factor load to be
meaningful, the
number of the
observations
must be 120 and
more (Alpar,
2011:283).
According to this,
the feature,
“well-educated”
was accepted as
meaningful as its
value was close
to 0,50 and the
sample size was
1175. When the
scale as a whole
is taken into
consideration,
Cronbach’s Alpha
value is 0,795
and this shows
that the scale is
reliable.
Table 9: Factor Means of the
“The Characteristics That a Political
Leader Must Have” Scale
Factors The Number of the
Participants
Mean
Power 1175 4,53
Virtue 1175 4,65
Nationalist-
Conservative
1175 3,23
Image 1175 3,65
Nationalistic Values 1175 3,95
Likert Scale:1=Strongly disagree; 5= Strongly agree
When we analyse
the factor means
of the scale, most
of the participants
seem to care most
about the
“Virtue” factor.
Therefore, the
features that the
participants as
voters would like
to see in a
political leader
most are honesty,
diligence, being a
commoner and a
democratic
person which are
grouped under
the virtue factor.
The factors
“power”,
“Nationalistic
Values”, “image”
and “nationalist-
conservative”
follow the
“virtue” factor
respectively.
Mann-Whitney U
and Kruskal
Wallis
nonparametric
tests were utilized
to see whether
the characteristics
that the
participants wish
to see in a
political party
leader differ by
their
demographic
information and
political attitudes.
Table 10: Whitney U Test Results for
“The Characteristics That a Political
Leader Must Have” Scale by the Gender
of the Participants
Power Virtue Nationalist-
Conservative
Image Nationalisti
c Values
162280,5 167586,0 151489,5 142646,5 150205,0
309433,5 314739,0 352150,5 343307,5 297358,0
-1,637 -,733 -3,486 -5,048 -3,781
,102 ,464 ,000 ,000 ,000
Gender N Mean Rank Sum of
Ranks
Male 542 570,91 309433,5
Female 633 602,63 381466,5
Total 1175
Male 542 580,70 314739,0
Female 633 594,25 376161,0
Total 1175
Nationalist-Conservative Male 542 625,00 338749,5
Female 633 556,32
Total 1175
Image Male 542 641,31
Female 633 542,35
Total 1175
Nationalistic Values Male 542 548,63
Female 633 621,71
Total 1175
While the
features that the
male participants
wish to see in a
political leader
are higher in
Nationalist-
Conservative and
Image factors
compared to the
female
participants, the
leadership
features in
Nationalistic
Values seem to be
of more
importance for
the female
participants.
Table 11: Whitney U Test Results for
“The Characteristics That a Political
Leader Must Have” Scale by the Marital
Status of the Participants
Power Virtue Nationalist-
Conservative
Mann-
Whitney U
164275,5 169376,0
Wilcoxon W 347590,5 352691,0
Z -1,436 -,563
Asymp. Sig.
(2-tailed)
,151 ,573
Marital
Status
Power Single
Married 605
Total 1175
Virtue Single 570
Married 605
Total 1175
Nationalist-Conservative Single 570
Married 605
Total 1175
Image Single 570
Married 605
Total 1175
Nationalistic Values Single 570
Married 605
Total 1175
According to
Table 11, there
seems to be a
difference
between the
single and
married
participants in
“Nationalist-
Conservative”
and “Image”
factors whose sig.
value is lower
than 0.05. So, it
can be said that
the married
participants think
that the features
in “Nationalist-
Conservative”
and “Image”
factors are more
important.
Table 12: Kruskal Wallis Test Results
for “The Characteristics That a Political
Leader Must Have” Scale by the
Participants’ Occupation
Power Virtue Nationalist-
Conservative
Image Nationalistic
Values
10,556 10,255 55,598 29,247 6,370
Df 6 6 6 6
Asymp. Sig. ,103 ,114 ,000 ,000
Occupation N Mean Rank
Power Government
employee
186
Worker 257
Self-
employed
104
Student 329
Housewife 136
Pensioner 119
Unemployed 44
Total 1175
Virtue Government
employee
186
Worker 257
Self-
employed
104
Student 329
Housewife 136
Pensioner 119
Unemployed 44
Total 1175
Nationalist-
Conservativ
Government
employee
186
Worker 257
Self-
employed
104
Student 329
Housewife 136
Pensioner 119
Unemployed 44
Total 1175
Government
employee
186 635,19
Worker 257 581,02
Self-
employed
104 646,85
Student 329 530,36
Housewife 136 543,66
Pensioner 119 685,60
Unemployed 44 594,32
Total 1175
Government
employee
186 596,60
Worker 257 588,58
Self-
employed
104 586,22
Student 329 611,60
Housewife 136 573,81
Pensioner 119 525,15
Unemployed 44 589,88
Total 1175
Especially the
pensioners and
housewives seem
to favor the
features that fall
into the
“Nationalist-
Conservative”
factor, which
makes a
significant
difference
compared to the
other
occupational
groups. The
occupational
groups who
attach importance
to the “Image”
factor are
pensioners, self-
employed people,
government
employees,
unemployed
people, workers,
housewives and
students,
respectively.
Table 13: Kruskal Wallis Test Results
for “The Characteristics That a Political
Leader Must Have” Scale by the
Participants’ Age
Power Virtue Nationalist-
Conservative
Image
Chi-Square 5,818 2,502 33,544 18,148
Df 3 3 3 3
Asymp. Sig. ,121 ,475 ,000 ,000
Age N Mean Rank
Power 18-30 568
31-45 365
46-65 183
66 and
older
59
Total 1175
Virtue 18-30 568
31-45 365
46-65 183
66 and
older
59
Total 1175
Nationalist-
Conservati
ve
18-30 568
31-45 365
46-65 183
66 and
older
59
Total 1175
Image 18-30 568
31-45 365
46-65 183
66 and
older
59
Total 1175
Nationalisti 18-30 568
31-45 365
46-65 183 565,15
66 and
older
59 491,24
Total 1175
According to
Table 13, the
participants who
are 66 or older
value the
leadership
features of
“Nationalist-
Conservative”
factor compared
to the other
groups. Also, the
participation in
the “Nationalist-
Conservative”
factor seems to
decrease by age.
A similar result is
also notable for
the “Image”
factor. The
participation in
the “Image”
factor increases
by age.
Therefore, it can
be said that the
spiritual and
conjectural
reality become
more important
for people as they
grow older while
the participants
seem to have an
increasing
tendency to
consider real and
secular features
as the age range
decreases.
Table 14: Kruskal Wallis Test Results
for “The Characteristics That a Political
Leader Must Have” Scale by the
Participants’ Educational Background
Power Virtue Nationalist-
Conservative
Image Nationali
stic
Values
6,421 3,253 92,935 1,372 7,156
3 3 3 3
,093 ,354 ,000 ,712 ,067
Education
al
Backgroun
N Mean Rank
d
Power Literate and
primary
education
207
High-school 498
Graduate 388
Postgraduate
(Master-
Doctorate)
82
Total 1175
Virtue Literate and
primary
education
207
High-school 498
Graduate 388
Postgraduate
(Master-
Doctorate)
82
Total 1175
Nationalist-
Conservati
ve
Literate and
primary
education
207
High-school 498
Graduate 388
Postgraduate
(Master-
Doctorate)
82
Total 1175
Image Literate and
primary
education
207
High-school 498
Graduate 388
Postgraduate
(Master-
Doctorate)
82
Total 1175
Nationalisti Literate and
primary
207
education
High-school 498 615,65
Graduate 388 578,89
Postgraduate
(Master-
Doctorate)
82 559,46
Total 1175
According to the
Kruskal-Wallis
test results based
on the
educational
background of
the participants,
there was a
significant
difference
observed only in
the “Nationalist-
Conservative”
factor. As the
level of education
increases, the
participation in
the leadership
values of the
“Nationalist-
Conservative”
factor gradually
decreases.
Table 15: Kruskal Wallis Test Results
for “The Characteristics That a Political
Leader Must Have” Scale by the
Participants’ Income
Power Virtue Nationalist-
Conservative
Image Nationali
stic
Values
1,412 3,671 9,643 15,008 5,516
4 4 4 4
,842 ,452 ,047 ,005 ,238
Income
Status
N Mean Rank
Minimum
wage and
below
384 604,00
850-2000 tl. 402 581,15
2000-4000 tl. 278 581,73
4000-6000 tl. 71
6000 and
above
40
Total 1175
Virtue Minimum
wage and
below
384
850-2000 tl. 402
2000-4000 tl. 278
4000-6000 tl. 71
6000 and
above
40
Total 1175
Nationalist-
Conservati
ve
Minimum
wage and
below
384
850-2000 tl. 402
2000-4000 tl. 278
4000-6000 tl. 71
6000 and
above
40
Total 1175
Image Minimum
wage and
below
384
850-2000 tl. 402
2000-4000 tl. 278
4000-6000 tl. 71
6000 and
above
40
Total 1175
Nationalisti
c Values
Minimum
wage and
below
384
850-2000 tl. 402
2000-4000 tl. 278
4000-6000 tl. 71 545,01
6000 and
above
40 499,93
Total 1175
When we analyse
the descriptive
distributions, the
participants who
earn a minimum
wage or below
seem to care
much more about
the “Nationalist-
Conservative”
leadership
features than any
other groups. It is
followed by the
participants
whose incomes
are between 850
TL and 2000TL
while the income
bracket who cares
least about the
“Nationalist-
Conservative”
leadership
features are the
participants
whose incomes
are between
4000TL and
6000TL. The
emphasis put on
the “Image”
factor by the
participants is in
direct proportion
to the level of
income.
Accordingly, the
group who put
the highest
importance on the
“Image” factor
include
participants
whose income is
6000 TL and
above. It is
followed by
4000-6000 TL.,
2000-4000 TL.,
850-2000 TL. and
minimum wage
and below
income brackets,
respectively.
Table 16: Kruskal Wallis Test Results
for “The Characteristics That a Political
Leader Must Have” Scale by the
Participants’ Political Opinions
Power Virtue Nationalist-
Conservative
Image Nationali
stic
Chi-Square 24,286 14,324 231,889 11,139
Df 4 4 4 4
Asymp. Sig. ,000 ,006 ,000 ,025
Political
Views
N Mean Rank
Power Conservati
ve
317
Nationalist 309
Social
Democrat
378
Liberalist 81
Others 90
Total 1175
Virtue Conservati
ve
317
Nationalist 309
Social
Democrat
378
Liberalist 81
Others 90
Total 1175
Nationalist-
Conservati
ve
Conservati
ve
317
Nationalist 309
Social
Democrat
378
Liberalist 81
Others 90
Total 1175
Image Conservati
ve
317
Nationalist 309
Social
Democrat
378
Liberalist 81 564,19
Others 90 598,29
Total 1175
Conservati
ve
317 484,66
Nationalist 309 748,06
Social
Democrat
378 616,52
Liberalist 81 428,45
Others 90 426,27
Total 1175
According to the
Kruskal-Wallis
test results,
diverse views are
observed in all 5
factors among the
participants with
different political
views in terms of
the features that a
political party
leader must have.
Furthermore,
most of the
participation in
the “Power”
factor comes
from the
conservative
participants. The
number of the
conservatives is
followed by
nationalists,
social democrats,
others and
liberalists,
respectively. The
“Virtue” factor is
also reported to
be important
mostly by the
conservatives and
they are
succeeded by the
social democrats,
others,
nationalists and
liberalist,
respectively. Not
surprisingly, the
“Nationalist-
Conservative”
factor was the
most popular
factor among
conservative
participants and it
was followed by
nationalists,
liberalists, social
democrats and
the others,
respectively.
Similarly, the
participants who
thought that the
“Image” factor is
quite important
were
conservatives,
too, followed by
nationalists,
others, social
democrats and
liberalists,
respectively.
Unlike the other
factors, the
leadership
features placed
under the
“Nationalistic
Values” are
thought to be the
most important
ones by the
nationalists
followed by
social democrats,
conservatives,
liberalists and the
others,
respectively.
Conclusion and
Recommendatio
ns
The aim of this
study is to
measure the
effects of the
leader and leader
image on the
party image and
voter preferences
during the
process of
political
marketing. The
study was
conducted in
İstanbul, the
biggest
metropolis in
Turkey with
highest
population
density, which
was thought to
reflect the
cosmopolitan
structure of the
Turkish voters
best with a
survey method.
The sample group
of the study was
made up of the
voters living in
İstanbul who
differ in their
motives for their
political party
decisions, the
level of
importance they
attach to the
leader during
elections, their
opinions about
the relationship
between political
party elections
and leadership
features and their
political and
socio-
demographic
characteristics
and issues, such
as the
participants’
expectations of
the party and
their devotion to
the party leader
they support were
probed.
In Turkish
politics where the
parties are called
with their leaders’
names, most of
the participants
stated that the
party ideology is
the most
important factor
to influence their
political party
preferences
according to the
answers they
gave in 5 point
Likert scale. On
the other hand,
“the leader of the
party” ranked
fourth. As shown
in election
results, when the
present political
atmosphere is
compared to the
past, it can be
claimed that the
loyalty to the
ideologies has
been replaced by
individualization
and that the
political parties
have built their
programs on the
halfway splitting
the differences
rather than
focusing on the
center left or
center right.
Moreover, the
political parties
do their
marketing
activities based
on the party
leader even for
the local
elections.
Various
conclusions can
be drawn from
the answers given
to the questions
which aim at
measuring the
importance of the
party leader for
the political
parties. For
instance, while
the participants’
response rates for
the statements
like “the political
leader has an
important effect
on the
representation of
the party in
public”, “the
party leader
communes with
the party” and
“the voters will
not vote for a
party whose
leader they do not
believe in” are
quite high, they
also showed a
relatively high
participation in
the contrary
statements.
Another
contradiction is
that although
most of the
participants
indicated that the
features and
characteristics
which they wish
to see but which
are absent in a
political leader
will “affect” their
voting decisions,
the %46. 6 of the
participants said
“no” to the
question, “Is your
affinity to a
certain party
likely to change
if the leader of
the political party
breaks away?”
with only %22,4
saying “yes”.
When the
participants were
asked whether
they will vote for
the party to
which the leader
they think to vote
for transfer, %48
of them said “no”
while %18,6 of
them said “yes”.
In a nutshell,
what matters
most for the
participants in the
last two questions
seems to be the
party rather than
the leader.
However, the
participants also
stated that their
political
decisions will be
affected if they
find the
leadership
features of the
party leader that
they intend to
vote for lacking,
which is quite
contradictory to
the emphasis put
on the party
itself.
In order to
investigate the
features which a
political party
leader must have,
16 different
leadership
features were
presented for the
participants to
respond in 5
point Likert
scale. Then, the
16 leadership
features were
divided into 5
factors using
factor analysis.
These factors
were described as
“power, virtue,
nationalist-
conservative,
image and
nationalistic
values”. The
highest
participation was
observed in the
“Virtue” factor
which includes
being honest,
hard-working and
a common man
as personal traits.
Further to this,
the participants
with different
features put
emphasis on
different factors
with regard to
their socio-
demographic
backgrounds and
political attitudes.
When it comes to
the gender of the
participants, there
was no
significant
difference found
in Virtue and
Power factors.
On the other
hand, the male
participants
tended to favor
the Nationalist-
Conservative and
Image factors
more while the
female
participants
thought that the
leadership
features in
Nationalistic
Values factor are
more important.
In terms of
marital status,
there were
significant
differences found
only in the two
factors. Based on
this finding, the
married
participants can
be said to care
about the
leadership
features of
Nationalist-
Conservative and
Image factors
more compared
to the single
participants. With
regard to the age
of the
participants, the
responses given
to the Nationalist-
Conservative and
Image factors
differed
significantly.
According to the
results, the
importance given
to the leadership
features in those
factors seems to
increase with age.
In addition, the
evaluation made
referring to the
occupational
groups yielded
parallel results.
There were some
differences found
in Nationalist-
Conservative and
Image factors and
the pensioners
were observed to
participate in
these factors
much more than
the other
occupational
groups. There
was a meaningful
difference
observed only in
Nationalist-
Conservative
factor related to
the educational
background of
the participants
indicating that the
participation in
this factor
decreases as the
level of education
gets higher. When
the results are
evaluated based
on the income
level, there were
meaningful
differences found
in Nationalist-
Conservative and
Image factors.
The participants
in the minimum
wage and below
group showed a
greater interest in
the leadership
features of
Nationalist-
Conservative
factor while the
participants
whose incomes
are 6000 TL and
more considered
the leadership
features of the
Image factor to
be more
important.
Whether the
leadership
features that the
participants like
differ by their
political attitudes
and behaviors
was also tested.
The participants
who expressed
themselves
differently in
terms of politics
were observed to
draw apart from
each other
significantly.
Based on these
findings, the
participants who
identified
themselves as
conservatives put
greater emphasis
on the Power,
Virtue,
Nationalist-
Conservative and
Image factors
while the
participants who
thought
themselves as
nationalist
attached more
importance to the
leadership
features of
Nationalistic
Values factor.
The conclusions
drawn from this
study can
contribute to the
related literature.
The following
recommendations
can be made for
the political
channels and the
political parties in
particular:
Even if
the voters declare
their loyalty to a
certain ideology,
they can change
their minds if a
political leader
who they do not
desire accedes to
the party
leadership.
Therefore, the
leader to be
elected is highly
important.
Being
honest, hard-
working, a
common man,
democratic,
stable, articulate,
experienced,
well-educated,
respectable and
sincere at the
same time are the
most important
leadership
characteristics
according to the
voters. So, a
leader must have
all those traits or
look as if s/he
had all those
traits. For
instance, almost
all the political
leaders in our
country where
more than half of
the population
live on the
hunger and
poverty threshold
emphasize that
they are common
people. Although
some leaders’ life
styles prove the
opposite, they
can still persuade
the voters that
they are ordinary
people.
First and
above all, it
should not be
forgotten that the
Turkish nation
began its
democratization
process in less
than a century
ago. Turkish
nation was ruled
by monarchy and
parliamentary
monarchy, which
was established
disputatiously
with the
proclamation of
constitutional
monarchy, that
are based on “one
man”. Although
the Republican
regime helped the
democratization
process, it was
not a civil
commotion as in
European
countries. It was
built by an
intellectual
minority clique
with Mustafa
Kemâl
ATATÜRK being
in the first place.
To sum up, the
importance that
Turkish nation
put on a leader is
a manifestation of
its political and
social history.
Regarding an
individual or a
leader as the
symbol of power
has penetrated
into the genetic
codes of Turkish
people making it
a conventional
conscience.
Thus, the
political parties
should remember
that and create a
powerful leader
profile in the eyes
of the voters.
REFERENCES
AKAT, İ., et.al.
(1994).İşl
etme
Yönetimi,
Beta
Basım
Yayım,
İstanbul.
ALNIAÇIK, Ü.
(2003).
Siyasi
Parti
Liderlerini
n Kişilik
Özellikleri
nin
Seçmen
Tercihleri
Üzerindek
i Etkisi.
Kocaeli
Üniversite
si Sosyal
Bilimler
Enstitüsü
İşletme
Bölümü
Yayımlan
mamış
Yüksek
Lisans
Tezi.
Kocaeli.
ALPAR, R.,
(2011).
Uygulama
Çok
Değişkenl
i İstatistik
Teknikleri
. Detay
Yayıncılık
, İstanbul.
ARKLAN, Ü.,
(2006).
Siyasal
Liderlikte
Karizma
Olgusu:
Recep
Tayyip
Erdoğan
Örneğinde
Teorik ve
Uygulama
Bir
Çalışma.
Selçuk
Üniversite
si Sosyal
Bilimler
Enstitüsü
Dergisi
16: 54.
BONGRAND,
M.
(1992).Pol
itikada
Pazarlama
, İletişim
Yayınları,
İstanbul.
BUTLER, P.,
COLLIN
S, N.
(1994).Pol
itical
Marketing
Structure
And
Process.
European
Journal Of
Marketing
28(1):19.
DAVER, B.
(1993).Siy
aset
Bilimine
Giriş.
Yargı
Yayınevi,
Ankara.
EROĞLU
YALIN,
B. (2012).
Siyasal
Liderliği
Duygusal
Düşünme
k; Siyasal
Parti
Liderlerini
n
Üniversite
Gençliği
Üzerindek
i
Duygusal
Zekâ
Algısı.
Karadeniz
Araştırmal
arı Dergisi
35:159.
GEGEZ, A.E.,
(2007.)Pa
zarlama
Araştırmal
arı, Beta
Yayınları,
İstanbul.
GÜLLÜPUNAR,
H., et.al.,
(2013).
Oy Verme
Yaklaşıml
arı
Bağlamın
da Aday
Merkezli
Seçmen
Tercihi
Üzerine
Deneysel
Bir
Araştırma,
Akademik
Bakış
Dergisi,
35:19.
MANGO, A.,
(2005).
Atatürk/
Modern
Türkiye’ni
n
Kurucusu.
Remzi
Kitabevi,
İstanbul.
MEYER, T.,
(2002).Me
dya
Demokras
isi
(Medya
Siyaseti
Nasıl
Sömürgel
eştirir), İş
Bankası
Kültür
Yayınları,
İstanbul.
OKUMUŞ, A.,
(2007).
Pazarlama
Anlayışın
da Siyasal
Pazarlama
nın Yeri
ve Pazar
Konumlar
ına Göre
Siyasi
Partilerin
Stratejik
Analizi.
Dumlupın
ar
Üniversite
si Sosyal
Bilimler
Dergisi
17: 158-
167.
ÖZSOY, O.,
(2002).
rkiye’de
Seçmen
Davranışl
arı ve
Etkin
Propagand
a, Alfa
Yayıncılık
, İstanbul.
POLAT, C., et.al.
(2004).He
def
Seçmen
Siyasal
Pazarlama
Yaklaşımı.
Nobel
Yayın
Dağıtım,
Ankara.
ROBINS K.,
(1999).İm
aj. Ayrıntı
Yayınları,
İstanbul.
SHAMA, A.,
(1973).
Applicatio
ns of
Marketing
Concepts
to
Candidate
Marketing
,
Proceedin
gs of
the4th
Conferenc
e of the
Associatio
n for
Consumer
Research.
TAN, A.,
(2002).İlk
e ve
Uygulama
larıyla
Politik
Pazarlama
, Papatya
Yayıncılık
, İstanbul.
ÜNAL ERZEN,
M.,
(2008).Siy
asi Lider
İmajlarını
n
Seçimlerd
e Etkisi.
İstanbul
Üniversite
si
İletişimFa
kültesi
Dergisi
31: 66.
ZEL, U., (2001).
Kişilik ve
Liderlik.S
eçkin
Yayıncılık
, Ankara.
Giriş: Kelime kökeni bakımından da “bir
kavmi düzene koymak ve işleri idare
etmek” (Daver, 1993:3) anlamına gelen
siyaset; başta evrensel boyutta kabul gören
ahlaki ve akılcı ilkeler olmak üzere,
toplumların geçmişlerine ait kültürel
öğelerinin, değer yargılarının, yazılı ve
yazısız kurallarının etkisiyle
şekillenmektedir. Topluma, dolayısıyla da
insana yönelik hizmeti içine alan siyasetin,
belirleyicileri ve uygulayıcıları da
insanlardır. İnsanlar bunu siyasi kurumlar
aracılığı ile gerçekleştirirler. Modern ve
demokratik yönetim şekillerinde siyasi
kurumların başında siyasi partiler
gelmektedir. Siyasi partilerin ideolojik
tabanlarından ziyade merkeze kayma
eğilimleri ve bu sayede oylarını arttırma
çabaları, beraberinde siyasal pazarlama
uygulamalarının gelişmesini sağlamıştır.
Bu çalışmada, siyasal pazarlama sürecinde,
karma elemanlarından biri olan siyasi
liderin, parti imajına ve seçmen
tercihlerine etkisi incelenmiştir. Siyaset,
günümüz dünyasının demokratik
toplumlarında, pazarlama
uygulamalarından etkinlikle faydalanılan
alanlarından biri haline gelmiştir. Siyasal
pazarlama sürecinde, siyasi liderin parti
imajına ve seçmen tercihlerine etkisinin
incelendiği çalışmada, İstanbul ilinde
ikâmet eden 1175 seçmen üzerinde bir alan
araştırmasına yer verilmiştir. Anket
yöntemiyle gerçekleştirilen araştırmada,
kolayda örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmış ve
analizler SPSS 21 istatistik paket
programıyla çözümlenmiştir. Anketin
ölçeği, benzer konulu çalışmalarda
kullanılmış sorulardan derlenerek
oluşturulmuştur. Araştırma sonucunda;
seçmenler, oy verme kararlarında liderden
çok, parti ideolojisinin ve partinin geçmiş
icraatlarının belirleyici olduğunu ifade
etmişlerdir. Buna karşın, siyasi partilerin
kamuoyunda temsilinde liderin etkisinin
yüksek olduğu, seçmenin gözünde liderin
partisiyle bütünleştiği, liderin olumsuz ve
yetersiz özelliklerinin seçmenin partiye
olan bağını azaltabileceği yönünde
sonuçlar elde edilmiştir. Amaç: Bu
araştırmanın amacı, çalışmanın konuyla
ilgili literatür taramasından elde edilen
bilgiler ışığında, siyasal pazarlamanın
ürünlerinden biri olarak ele alınan liderin
ve lider imajının, parti imajına ve seçmen
tercihleri üzerine etkilerini ölçümlemektir.
Araştırma İstanbul ili seçmenleri üzerinde
yapılan anket çalışmasıyla
gerçekleştirilmiş, yapılan anket
çalışmasında kolayda örnekleme yöntemi
kulanılmıştır. İsimleriyle anıldığı Türk
siyasetinde, katılımcılara yöneltilen “siyasi
parti tercihinizde etkili olan faktör nedir?”
sorusuna verilen yanıtlar incelendiğinde,
5’li Likert ölçeğine göre en yüksek
katılımın “parti ideolojisi” olduğu göze
çarpmaktadır. Buna karşın “partinin lideri”
cevabına katılım dördüncü sıradadır. Ancak
seçim sonuçlarından da anlaşılmaktadır ki,
içinde bulunulan siyasi ortam yakın
geçmişle mukayese edildiğinde, seçmen
tercihlerinde ideolojilere bağlılığın yerini
bireyselleşmenin aldığı; bununla birlikte,
siyasi partilerin parti programlarını merkez
sol ve sağdan ziyade “ortada” buluşma
üzerine kurguladıkları görülmektedir.
Ayrıca siyasi partiler yerel seçimlerde dahi
pazarlama faaliyetlerini parti lideri
üzerinden gerçekleştirmektedirler. Sonuç:
Çalışmada siyasi partiler için parti liderinin
önemini ölçmeye yönelik diğer sorulara
istinaden farklı sonuçlar alınmıştır.
Örneğin katılımcılar; partinin kamuoyuna
temsilinde siyasi liderin etkisinin yüksek
olduğunu, parti liderinin partisiyle
bütünleştiğini ve seçmenin liderine
inanmadığı bir partiye oy vermeyeceği
ifadesine, tersi ifadelere oranla yüksek bir
katılım göstermişlerdir. Bununla birlikte oy
vermeyi düşündükleri partinin liderinde,
görmek istedikleri ancak göremedikleri
özelliklerin oy kararlarını etkileyip
etkilemeyeceği sorusuna yüksek oranlı
katılım, bu durumun katılımcıların oy
kararlarını “etkileyeceği” yönünde
olduğudur. Ancak benzer görüşleri ölçmek
amacıyla farklı bir yaklaşımla yöneltilen;
katılımcıların oy vermeyi düşündükleri
partinin liderinin, partiden ayrılması
durumunda, partiye yakınlıklarının azalıp
azalmayacağı sorulduğunda, %46. 6’ sının
“hayır” cevabı verdiği, yalnızca %22. 4’
ünün “evet” cevabı verdiği görülmektedir.
Katılımcılara, beğendikleri bir kişinin oy
vermeyi düşünmedikleri bir partinin başına
geçmesi durumunda o partiye oy verip
vermeyecekleri sorulduğundaysa;
katılımcıların %48’ i “hayır” cevabını,
ancak %18. 6’ “evet” cevabını
vermişlerdir. Özetle bahsedilen son iki
soruda katılımcılar için önemli olan unsur
liderden ziyade “parti”dir. Ancak
katılımcılar bu görüşlerine tezat
oluşturacak şekilde, oy vermeyi
düşündükleri partinin liderinin liderlik
özelliklerini eksik bulduklarında, bu
durumun o partiye oy verme kararlarını
etkileyeceğini belirtmişlerdir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Siyasal Pazarlama,
Lider, Siyasi Lider, Siyasi Parti, Seçmen
Davranışları
... In the political marketing, when associated with this study, the Post-voting behaviour is assumed will determine whether voters will continue to vote for the same party/candidate or they will leave and choose the others. Figure 2. In the political marketing context, according to several previous literature (Kaleli & Eroglu, 2016;John, 2015;Halim & Ishak, 2014), voter's response (post-voting behavior) is an important aspect that has not been given sufficient focus in the current literature on the voters' perspective. However, from supporting point of view there are a small number of empirical studies on public organizations that have generated innovations in the exit, voice, and loyalty (EVL) framework that have not seen in other parts of the Hirschman universe (John, 2015). ...
... In the field of political marketing, candidate image is important factor and main concept in political marketing field (Davies & Mian, 2010;Kaleli & Eroglu, 2016). Nimmo & Savage (1976) identified candidate image is the "best single predictor of voting behavior". ...
Article
Full-text available
The post-purchasing behavior and customer behavior have received a great attention in marketing research since a long time ago, whereas academic literature in the political marketing and voting behavior is still sparse, particularly factors that affecting on post-voting behavior. Therefore, this paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the relationship between candidate image and post-voting behavior (exit, voice, and loyalty). It also seeks to reviews the mediation role of voters' satisfaction in primary relationship to address the inconsistent findings in the previous studies.
... Di sisi lain, hasil penelitian juga mendukung gagasan bahwa pemimpin yang memiliki pengaruh besar berdampak pada keterwakilan partai politik, dan membentuk opini publik. Pemimpin dengan dukungan lemah dari partai, kualitas negatif dan tidak kompeten dapat memutuskan hubungan pemilih dengan partai (KALELİ dan KALELİ, 2016). ...
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.