Article

Coming Back to Work in the Morning: Psychological Detachment and Reattachment as Predictors of Work Engagement

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Abstract

Research has shown that recovery processes in general and psychological detachment in particular are important for work engagement. We argue that work engagement additionally benefits from reattachment to work in the morning (i.e., mentally reconnecting to work before actually starting to work) and that the gains derived from psychological detachment and reattachment are stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. We tested our hypotheses in a daily diary study with a sample of 167 employees who completed 2 surveys per day over the period of 2 workweeks. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that work engagement was higher in the morning than in the afternoon. Evening psychological detachment and morning reattachment positively predicted work engagement throughout the day. The association between reattachment and work engagement was stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. This study demonstrates that not only psychological detachment from work during leisure time, but also reattachment to work when coming back to work are crucial for daily engagement at work. (PsycINFO Database Record

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... Examples of job reattachment include mental preparations for and anticipatory deliberation of upcoming work tasks. Notably, job reattachment shows great promise as a means to help employees readjust to work after lockdowns and quarantines, as it has been consistently related to greater levels of job engagement (Sonnentag et al., 2020;Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). In this study, we draw from this emergent line of research and extend it to the context of employees returning to work in the current pandemic. ...
... In their work, Sonnentag and Kühnel (2016) drew upon role transitions in the daily context (Ashforth et al., 2000) and investigated job reattachment as an antecedent of engagement. Central to the idea of job reattachment is the notion that as employees physically transition back to the workplace, they need to mentally reconnect with their upcoming work. ...
... Throughout such anticipatory efforts, job reattachment "mobilizes one's energy, directs one's attention back toward work and allocates resources" (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016, p. 381), which ultimately enhances the availability of psychological resources and promotes job engagement. In research supporting its important role, job reattachment before the start of the workday was associated with higher levels of job engagement during the day across two daily studies (Sonnentag et al., 2020;Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). As employees returning to work in trying times may have difficulty readjusting to the work environment (North et al., 2010), mental reconnection with one's work becomes even more important. ...
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With many employees returning to work after lockdowns and quarantines in the current COVID-19 pandemic, research that seeks to identify effective ways to help them regain focus at work is warranted. However, the small body of applied psychology literature on large-scale disruptive events has paid insufficient attention to this important topic. Further, different from acute events (e.g., disasters), the ongoing pandemic poses an additional challenge for organizations as they seek to effectively protect employees' job engagement from health and safety threats in the workplace. To address these gaps, we drew from job reattachment research and investigated it as an important antecedent of job engagement for employees returning to work. Moreover, we incorporated leader safety commitment as a moderator that can strengthen the effectiveness of job reattachment in enhancing job engagement. We further linked engagement to work withdrawal, use of personal protective equipment (e.g., wearing a mask), and task performance to underscore the downstream implications of job reattachment. To test our research model, we collected multiwave, multisource data from the original epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic-Wuhan, China-where many employees were returning to work. The results provide strong support for our model. In addition to extending research on large-scale disruptive events, the current study has important implications for organizations and employees in the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... In line with the idea that mornings are particularly important for setting the tone for the day (Rothbard & Wilk, 2011), Sonnentag and Kühnel (2016) have argued that when employees actively reattach to work in the morning, they are more engaged during the day at work. Reattachment refers to rebuilding a mental connection to work, for instance, by thinking about specific tasks or by mentally simulating the workday before actually starting work. ...
... In order to advance theory building on reattachment and to better explain how the transition from nonwork life into the workday unfolds, we examine mediators of the relationship between reattachment and work engagement. Building on the emergent literature on reattachment to work that has suggested redirection of attention to work, energy mobilization, and allocation of job resources as the core purposes of reattachment (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016), we examine anticipated task focus, activated positive affect, and job resources as mediators. These specific mediators are not only important in linking reattachment to work engagement but also crucial on-the-job experiences in themselves. ...
... Building on earlier research (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016), we argue that reattachment to work in the morning predicts work engagement during the day. Work engagement refers to "the relationship between people and their work" (Schneider et al., 2018: 464) and has been conceptualized in various ways Rothbard, 2001;Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). ...
Article
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Reattachment to work (i.e., rebuilding a mental connection to work) before actually starting work is important for work engagement during the day. Building on motivated action theory, this study examines anticipated task focus, positive affect, and job resources (job control and social support) as mediators that translate reattachment in the morning into work engagement during the day. We collected daily-survey data from 151 employees (total of 620 days) and analyzed these data with a multilevel path model. We found that day-level reattachment to work in the morning predicted anticipated task focus, positive affect, social support, and job control through goal activation and that anticipated task focus, positive affect, social support, and job control predicted work engagement during the day. This study points to the important role of reattachment to work in employee experiences and behaviors throughout the workday and specifically highlights the benefits of such initial mental boundary crossing between life domains for employee engagement at work.
... The popular press routinely claims that productive employees develop good morning work habits (e.g., Liu, 2016;Purbasari Horton, 2019;Vetter, 2018). And, research suggests that people have their greatest capacity and intrinsic motivation for the first task on their list (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016;Stone et al., 2006). Yet, people do not always get right down to work each day. ...
... After developing arguments about why the speed of engagement is an important contributor to explaining variance in daily productivity, we model a set of antecedents that help to explain differences in an employee's speed of engagement from one day to the next. Ashforth et al.'s (2000) role exit process is reflected in psychological detachment from home, a temporary state of mental separation from one's family/nonwork role; likewise, we capture the role entry process in morning work reattachment, the process of rebuilding a mental connection with one's work (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016;Sonnentag et al., 2020). We test our predictions and model across two studies. ...
... Aside from having more time to accomplish work, there are several other reasons why this might be the case. Because engagement generally decreases over the workday (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016), quickly becoming engaged in the morning can help take advantage of time when stronger investments of personal resources that contribute to goal accomplishment are naturally made (e.g., Kouchaki & Smith, 2014;Stone et al., 2006). Moreover, work patterns established at the beginning of the workday may provide a behavioral prime (e.g., Rothbard & Wilk, 2011), and set the stage for deeper engagement throughout the day. ...
Article
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People often drag their feet getting started at work each morning, with a rather unclear sense of the implications on their daily productivity. Drawing on boundary transitions theory as a conceptual lens, we introduce and investigate the concept of the speed of engagement-the quickness with which an employee becomes focused and energized upon beginning work. We explore the productivity implications of this phenomenon, as well as the psychological processes people use to capitalize on a quick transition to work. Two experience sampling field studies-one of which featured a within-person field experiment testing the efficacy of two interventions we designed for use on employees' smartphones-support our theorizing. Our findings highlight the importance of the speed of engagement-over and above the level of engagement-for daily productivity levels. They also reveal that simple proactive steps to psychologically disengage from home or reattach to work increase the speed of engagement and lead to more productive days at work. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Moreover, we examine how being the recipient of venting from healthcarerelated partners in the family realm makes it difficult for employees to reattach to their work upon returning for the subsequent day or session. Sonnentag and K€ uhnel (2016) published the first empirical proof that morning mental reattachment to work predicts work engagement during the day. However, it is still unknown what precedes reattachment to work. ...
... However, it is still unknown what precedes reattachment to work. According to Sonnentag and K€ uhnel (2016), reattachment is the process whereby an employee, after a break, mentally reengages with work to ensure that they meet their goals for the upcoming day or shift. Contrary to other day-to-day experiences that demonstrate an employee's connection to their work (e.g. ...
... Receipt of venting and reattachment to work Reattachment refers to reestablishing a mental connection to work by thinking about a particular task or mentally simulating the workday before actually beginning it (Sonnentag and K€ uhnel, 2016). By reattaching to work, employees reduce the cognitive availability of offtask cognitions and psychologically cross the border between non-work and work domains (Fritz and Taylor, 2019). ...
Article
Purpose This study investigates how healthcare workers' venting - an emotion-focused form of coping during non-working hours - has unintended costs via its effect on spouses' reattachment to work if life partners are dual-earners. Research also examined anxiety as a causal mechanism that connects the receipt of venting with failure in reattachment to work. Lastly, our theory suggests that not everyone has the same experience with venting; the effect varies at different levels of emotional intelligence. Design/methodology/approach Multilevel path analysis using MPlus 8.3 was conducted to examine the daily survey data obtained from 101 spouses of healthcare workers over four consecutive workdays using the experience sampling technique. Findings The results suggested that receipt of venting increases anxiety and adversely influences reattachment to work through increased anxiety. The findings supported the suggested model's predictions, indicating that anxiety mediated the link between the receipt of venting and reattachment to work, and the mediation was partial. Further, emotional intelligence buffers the positive effect of receipt of venting on anxiety and the negative on reattachment to work. Lastly, the findings indicate that moderated mediation exists: the indirect effect of receipt of venting on reattachment to work is not as strong at higher levels of emotional intelligence. Originality/value This study is the first attempt that identified the receipt of venting as a predictor of reattachment to work. Moreover, up till now, no study has examined the mediating role of anxiety in the relationship between receipt of venting and reattachment to work. Finally, this is the preliminary effort that validated the moderating role of emotional intelligence on the above-mentioned links.
... There are two competing perspectives that explain why transitions are associated with work-family conflict. Boundary theory suggests the process of transitioning between roles is taxing, as it requires physical and psychological disengagement from the exited role, and the initiation of physical and psychological engagement in the entered role (Ashforth et al., 2000;Hall & Richter, 1988; see also Clark, 2000;Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). Individuals regulate their time and attention by shutting off thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from one role in an effort to engage in those appropriate for the alternative role (Ashforth et al., 2000;Smit et al., 2016). ...
... Individuals regulate their time and attention by shutting off thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from one role in an effort to engage in those appropriate for the alternative role (Ashforth et al., 2000;Smit et al., 2016). Failure to do so results in potential for work-family conflict due to (mis)allocation of resources to the previous role (Ashforth et al., 2000;Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985;Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). For example, when starting the workday, lingering thoughts from family chores that morning might bleed into the work domain, creating an EFIW. ...
... Hall and Richter (1988) discussed "planned" transitions that occur when individuals move to and from work at the start and end of the work day, contrasting them with unplanned "interposed" transitions. Start and end of day transitions are similarly discussed in the recovery literature as points in time when individuals must detach from one domain and re-attach to another (Sonnentag et al., 2020;Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). Thus, planned start and end of day transition times likely require multiple types of boundary crossing (i.e., temporal and spatial). ...
Article
The present research examines diurnal patterns of work-family conflict episodes in a sample of 106 working adults collected every two hours over three days. Using boundary theory, we explore the timing of work-family conflict throughout the day and examine daily and weekly transitions as predictors of work-family conflict occurrence. We contrast two theoretical perspectives which suggest that transitions are a point for potential spillover and regulation failure (Ashforth et al., 2000), and that transitions necessarily shift resources, creating conflict attributions (Matthews et al., 2014). Results show work-family conflict occurs at all times of the day, and that family-to-work conflict has a distinct diurnal pattern. The timing of work-family conflict can be predicted by temporal and spatial transitions, the start and end of scheduled work times, and standard evening transition times. Both spillover and attributional perspectives were supported for self-reported transitions, but only spillover rationale was supported for scheduled transitions. Follow-up analyses suggest temporal transitions and rapid transitions are particularly strong correlates of work-family conflict episodes. In addition, role flexibility and permeability did not modify the relationship between transition occurrence and work-family conflict occurrence. This study yields novel theoretical and practical insight into the timing of work-family conflict episodes, and rigorously tests boundary theory.
... For example, job reattachment helps workers mentally prepare and anticipate their upcoming work assignments. It also helps employees readjust their jobs after prolonged lockdown periods, which require significant psychological resources to enter the workforce (Sonnentag and Kühnel, 2016). By focusing on job reattachment, we extend the current study to the context of seafarers returning to work in the current pandemic situation. ...
... For example, an employee can get a ride from unwanted thoughts if they prepare their mind to stimulate the upcoming task, and this is about the job that needs to be performed in the coming days. Reattachment can also refer to some deliberated thoughts processes while ignoring the ruminative thoughts about the traumatic (Sonnentag and Kühnel, 2016). ...
... In other words, reattachment is the process of mentally crossing the boundary between the nonwork and work domains. It reconnects the two poles such as the nonwork and work domain and works before the start of the actual work process (Sonnentag and Kühnel, 2016). ...
Article
Covid-19 has disrupted the lives of employees all over the world. After experiencing a prolonged yet ongoing destructive event (i.e. Covid-19), finding an effective and non-invasive way to get employees back and engage in work is a huge challenge for scholars. Few studies have focused on returning to work after a traumatic event (limited time), but the post-pandemic psychological stress caused by the Covid-19 (PAPIST19) has not received much attention. Current research addresses this gap and uses a comprehensive model drawn from the transactional model of stress and the Kahn psychological framework to advance the work of predicting PAPIST19. Specifically, the current research investigates how PAPIST19 is related to job engagement, and emotional exhaustion and how job reattachment mediates the relationship. In addition, we use health support climate (HSC) as a boundary condition in our model, which can weaken the impact of PAPIST19 and enhance the effectiveness of job reattachment in reducing emotional exhaustion and increasing job engagement. To test our model, we collected data in multiple waves from Chinese seaports, where seafarers came to work after the restrictions were lifted in China. The current research is one of the earliest scholarly contributions. It paved the way for the research to solve the problem of workers returning to work after large-scale destructive events, and discussed important implications.
... In particular, we investigate general negative events at work, e.g., interpersonal conflicts, negative feedback and discrimination (see Appendix A) as drivers of (relative) subjective age variability. In line with other daily diary studies (e.g., Sonnentag & Kuehnel, 2016) and the approach of Armenta et al. (2018), we differentiate between-and within-person drivers of relative subjective age testing our hypotheses (also see Ohly, Sonnentag, Niessen, & Zapf, 2010). Our assumption is that negative work events can be a driver of between-person differences, as employees, who constantly experience negative events, should feel older than employees with less negative experience. ...
... To test this assumption, we ran T-tests between the participants who participated three times (N3: minimal inclusion criteria) and those who participated five times (N5: maximal participation option). We did not find any significant differences for chronological age ( Additionally, in alignment with other daily-diary studies (e.g., Sonnentag & Kuehnel, 2016), we tested if the time of survey completion (participants had 13 hours to complete the survey) had an influence on the results. Therefore, we ran a regression analysis for the Monday survey data, indicating that time of completion did not affect the dependent variable (daily relative subjective age; B = 1.03; n.s.; 95% CI [.00; .00]). ...
Article
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Most Western societies face the challenge of steadily ageing workforces. In recent decades, research on ageing has intensively focused on the subjective age concept to understand the challenges and risks of increasingly ageing workforces. Nevertheless, the subjective age construct is subject to several conceptual uncertainties, namely, regarding its stability and potential work-specific drivers of subjective age. We address these limitations by a) investigating the stability of subjective age in a worker sample, and b) identifying work-specific drivers (e.g., negative work events, positive work events, work stress) of subjective age perceptions. Building on social identity and lifespan theories, we test our conceptual assumptions with an online sample of 168 U.S. employees, applying growth curve modelling in a daily diary study over one workweek. Results indicate that subjective age is a mutable construct and varies between- and within-person in the course of a workweek. We identify positive work events and work stress as between-person drivers and negative work events as a within-person driver of subjective age. We discuss theoretical implications of these findings as well as consequences for practitioners.
... İş ve örgüt psikolojisi alanında yapılan bir araştırma ise zaman yönetiminin iş yerindeki birtakım davranışlar ve görev performansı ilişkisini kuvvetlendirdiğini ortaya koymuştur (Rapp, Bachrach ve Rapp, 2013). Örgütsel davranış yazını da iş bütünleşmesi yaşayan kişilerin aslında özel yaşamı ve iş yaşamını ayırabildiklerini, işteyken kendilerini tamamen işe verdiklerini ve özel yaşamlarında da işle ile ilgili sorunlar ya da konular ile zihinleri meşgul etmediklerini göstermektedir (Sonnentag ve Jana, 2016).Bu araştırmalar her ne kadar zaman yönetimini doğrudan araştırmalara dâhil etmese de işle bütünleşme yaşayan kişilerin zamanı iyi yönetebilme becerisine sahip oldukları yönünde ipucu vermektedirler. Bu araştırma belirgin olarak akademik bütünleşme ve GNO'ya odaklandığı için zaman yönetimi yüksek öğrencilerin, diğer bir deyişle güne başlamadan önce günü planlayan, yapmak zorunda olduğu işlerin listesini yapan öğrencilerin, öz yeterlik ve akademik bütünleşme arasındaki olumlu ilişkiyi daha güçlü yaşadıklarını ortaya koymuştur. ...
... The work and organizational psychology literature provides indirect support to this claim. Highly engaged employees can focus their work effectively and do not let non-work related thoughts and problems disrupt their mind (Sonnentag & Jana, 2016). These studies did not include time management directly to their model however, it can be inferred that engaged employees would also have good time management skills because of the detachment between work and non-work domains. ...
Article
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Bu araştırmanın amacı üniversite öğrencilerinin genel not ortalamasını (GNO) yordayan faktörleri incelemektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, öğrencilerin öz yeterlik, akademik bütünleşme ve zaman yönetimi becerileri üzerine odaklanılmış; bu faktörlerin GNO ile ilişkileri incelenmiştir. Araştırmaya bir üniversitenin farklı bölümlerinde eğitim görmekte olan 304 öğrenci dâhil edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları akademik bütünleşmenin öğrencilerin öz yeterlik inançları ve not ortalamaları arasındaki ilişkide tam aracılık rolüne sahip olduğunu, zaman yönetiminin ise öz yeterlik ile akademik bütünleşme ilişkisi üzerinde düzenleyici rol aldığını göstermiştir. Son olarak sınanan düzenlenmiş aracılık modeli de anlamlı sonuç vermiştir; akademik bütünleşmenin aracılık ettiği öz yeterlik ve GNO ilişkisi yalnızca yüksek zaman yönetimi koşulunda anlamlı bulunmuştur. Bulgular, önemi giderek artan GNO’ya etki eden faktörler ve bunların etkileşiminin anlaşılmasına sağladığı katkı çerçevesinde tartışılmıştır.
... Starting the workday with an excessively detached mindset may require employees to exhibit substantial self-regulation to be able to switch into a work role mindset. Such reattachment to work, a process of reestablishing a mental connection with work, likely involves reflective thoughts about, or deliberate planning of, the upcoming workday (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). The sudden transition from low activation to concentrated effort, as is necessary to direct attention to work, focus on job tasks, and intentionally return to working mode, requires substantial personal resources, which may impair low-activated positive affect. ...
... It is intriguing that too much detachment from work during the evening does not help employees. On the basis of previous research (e.g., Bennett et al., 2016;Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016), we propose and find that when employees mentally distance themselves too much from thoughts of work in the evening, employees are more likely to experience difficulty transitioning from a detached mindset back to working mode when returning to work the next day, thereby weakening next-morning low-activated positive affect. We thus extend research on psychological detachment that shows detachment is beneficial (e.g., Sonnentag et al., 2008;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007). ...
Article
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Drawing on conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989) and the model of proactive motivation (Parker, Bindl, & Strauss, 2010), this research employs experience sampling methods to examine how employees' off-job experiences during the evening relate to their proactive behavior at work the next day. A multilevel path analysis of data from 183 employees across 10 workdays indicated that various types of off-job experiences in the evening had differential effects on daily proactive behavior during the subsequent workday, and the psychological mechanisms underlying these varied relationships were distinct. Specifically, off-job mastery in the evening related positively to next-morning high-activated positive affect and role breadth self-efficacy, off-job agency in the evening related positively to next-morning role breadth self-efficacy and desire for control, and off-job hassles in the evening related negatively to next-morning high-activated positive affect; next-morning high-activated positive affect, role breadth self-efficacy, and desire for control, in turn, predicted next-day proactive behavior. Off-job relaxation in the evening related positively to next-morning low-activated positive affect, and off-job detachment in the evening had a decreasingly positive curvilinear relationship with next-morning low-activated positive affect. However, as expected, these two types of off-job experiences and lowactivated positive affect did not relate to next-day proactive behavior.
... In line with this reasoning, having specific goals was associated with more energy expended when working on a task (Earley, Wojnaroski, & Prest, 1987). Moreover, planning one's next workday might facilitate reattachment to work in the morning (Sonnentag & K€ uhnel, 2016). Reattaching to one's work in the morning was associated with higher work engagement throughout the workday (Sonnentag & K€ uhnel, 2016). ...
... Moreover, planning one's next workday might facilitate reattachment to work in the morning (Sonnentag & K€ uhnel, 2016). Reattaching to one's work in the morning was associated with higher work engagement throughout the workday (Sonnentag & K€ uhnel, 2016). In line with our reasoning, planning interventions in which participants learn to make specific plans to reach goals increased well-being (MacLeod, Coates, & Hetherton, 2008) and planning techniques were associated with higher work engagement at the day level (Parke, Weinhardt, Brodsky, Tangirala, & DeVoe, 2017). ...
Article
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In this diary study, we focused on the anticipatory phase of the stress process. We investigated how work‐related worry and planning during the evening relate to next‐morning exhaustion and vigour, respectively. Moreover, we examined how afternoon workload anticipation is related to next‐morning exhaustion versus next‐morning vigour, depending on worry and planning in the evening. A sample of 112 employees took part in a daily diary study with three daily measurement occasions over two consecutive workweeks. Results of multilevel regression analyses showed that work‐related worry during the evening was positively related to next‐morning exhaustion. Moreover, worry interacted with workload anticipation in predicting next‐morning exhaustion: On days when worry was high, workload anticipation was positively related to next‐morning exhaustion. Work‐related planning was not related to next‐morning vigour and did not interact with workload anticipation in predicting next‐morning vigour. Our study suggests that work‐related worry is an important factor in the anticipatory phase of the stress process. On days when employees worry about their next workday during the evening, high workload may already be associated with employees’ well‐being even before employees are facing it. Worry about one’s next workday is associated with lower well‐being in the next morning, while planning one’s next workday is not associated with next‐morning well‐being. In anticipation of high workload, employees should refrain from worry about work during leisure time, for instance by engaging in absorbing leisure activities.
... Before concluding the study, we administered a questionnaire that included three validated instruments: 1) the System Usability Scale (SUS) [5] to measure Mercury's usability, 2) a 5-point reattachment questionnaire for measuring participants' ability to mentally reengage with the task [52], and 3) a 5-point PANAS-inspired scale to measure how productive, engaged, and relaxed the participant felt while they were away [62,63]. ...
Conference Paper
There has been considerable research on how software can enhance programmers' productivity within their workspace. In this paper, we instead explore how software might help programmers make productive use of their time while away from their workspace. We interviewed 10 software engineers and surveyed 78 others and found that while programmers often do work while mobile, their existing mobile work practices are primarily exploratory (e.g., capturing thoughts or performing online research). In contrast, they want to be doing work that is more grounded in their existing code (e.g., code review or bug triage). Based on these findings, we introduce Mercury, a system that guides programmers in making progress on-the-go with auto-generated microtasks derived from their source code's current state. A study of Mercury with 20 programmers revealed that they could make meaningful progress with Mercury while mobile with little effort or attention. Our findings suggest an opportunity exists to support the continuation of programming tasks across devices and help programmers resume coding upon returning to their workspace.
... Although the process of disengaging from work has received more attention (Sonnentag, Unger, & Rothe, 2016), the commute may serve to facilitate transitions in both directions. In a recent diary study by Sonnentag and Kühnel (2016), morning reattachment (i.e., mentally reconnecting to work before actually starting work) positively predicted work engagement throughout the day. ...
Article
Commuting time is the duration of the transition between the work and private (typically family) domains. The status of commuting in theories dealing with work–family issues or boundary management is not very clear. We discuss commuting taking a different perspective from the literature (e.g., as a demand, source of time‐based work–family conflict, impediment to the flexibility and permeability of the work–home boundary, and as a resource for work–family boundary management), concluding that the demand aspects of commuting are dominant. From this perspective, we analyzed the association between the commuting time as a work‐related demand at baseline and work–family conflict (WFC), affective commitment (AC), and intention to quit (ITQ) 1 year later (N = 838). We assessed commuting time objectively by using Google Maps to estimate travel time based on postal codes of home and workplace. As expected, longer commuting predicted all three outcomes. Furthermore, autonomy—manifested in flexible work arrangements—moderated these effects for two out of three outcome variables: Temporospatial autonomy reduced the positive associations between commuting time and WFC and ITQ. The effect sizes were small; however, effects were adjusted for baseline levels of the relevant outcome, demographic variables, and several work and private stressors.
... In their study, aggregated HRV assessed on Thursday and Friday of the previous week (including work, leisure, and sleep time) positively related to work engagement in the next week. Likewise, Sonnentag and Kühnel (2016) provided evidence in line with this reversed causal pattern. Their study results suggest that replenished employees (here: who detach from work while at home) report greater work engagement on the subsequent day. ...
Article
Based on the conservation of resources theory, we argue that work engagement involves resource investment, and therefore physiologically depletes resources. On this basis, we propose that work engagement accompanies high sympathetic arousal at the within- and the between-person levels, i.e. a negative objective health effect contrary to previous findings of beneficial effects on subjective psychological outcomes. To test our hypotheses, we examined heart rate variability via ambulatory assessment of 118 public office employees across five workdays. We measured daily work engagement at the end of each workday and calculated low frequency normalised and low to high frequency ratio (indicators of sympathetic activation) for work, leisure, and sleeping times of each day. As assumed, multilevel analyses showed a positive relationship between work engagement and sympathetic activation at work, during leisure, and sleeping time at the between-person level. Our hypotheses concerning the within-person associations were not supported. Thus, elevated work engagement over one workweek is associated with higher sympathetic activation, which is discussed to be a health risk.
... It is widely accepted that psychologically detaching from work-that is, switching off mentally from work-is crucial for fostering health and wellbeing (Wendsche and Lohmann-Haislah, 2017). Psychologically detaching from work has also been associated with greater productivity, engagement and creativity when employees return to work (Binnewies et al., 2010;Sonnentag and Kühnel, 2016;Vahle-Hinz et al., 2017). Switching off psychologically from work demands can been understood in terms of a continuum. ...
Article
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Work-related rumination has been associated with a number of health complaints, however, little is known about the underlying factors associated with rumination. Previous work using proxy measures of executive function showed work-related rumination to be negatively associated with executive function. In this paper, we report two studies that examined the association between work-related rumination and executive function utilizing an ecological valid measure of executive function: the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-A, Roth et al., 2005). In study 1 (N = 63), high, relative to low work-related ruminators, were found to demonstrate lower executive function skills, in eight of the nine subscales of the BRIEF. The aim of study 2 (N = 237) was to identify, the key executive function subscale/s associated with work-related rumination. Controlling for known factors associated with work-related rumination (fatigue and sleep), regression analysis identified the behavioral regulation subscale “shift” as the key predictor within the model. Shift relates to our ability to switch attention, to think about different solutions, and dealing with and accepting change. It was concluded that these findings lend support for future research to develop interventions for enhancing shift ability, as an aid to reduce work-related ruminative thinking.
... It forms part of the conservation of resources (COR) theory and the effort-recovery (E-R) model that emphasise that employees need to recover to restore lost resources (Hülsheger 2016;Sonnentag & Fritz 2007). Previous studies have been in agreement that it is important for employees' well-being to psychologically detach from work during non-work time as it helps employees to restore energetic and affective resources (Sonnentag & Fritz 2015;Sonnentag & Kühnel 2016;Zijlstra, Cropley & Rydstedt 2014). ...
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Background: Organisations are investing time and resources in implementing play at work. However, the possible effect of play at work as an organisational intervention is largely unknown. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of a play-at-work intervention on psychological detachment, work enjoyment, employee performance, and workplace boredom of work teams. Setting: The sample consisted of 26 telemarketing employees in the Northwest Province, South Africa. Methods: A longitudinal, three-wave intervention study design was followed. The sample consisted of two work teams from a telesales company divided into the experimental group (n = 9) and the control group (n = 17). A play-atwork intervention consisting of different single-player and multi-player games was developed. Surveys were used to collect data prior to introducing the intervention, after one week of play, and again after the second week of the intervention. Results: The results indicated that the play-at-work intervention positively influenced employees’ psychological detachment during their lunch break. Team performance also increased when the play-at-work intervention was introduced. Conclusion: Employees who participates in play during their breaks will be more likely to psychologically detach compared to other employees. Also, organisations who implement play will have higher team performance compared to others.
... Proper work engagement can revitalise existing employees, so that newness and strength facilitate in attaining the organisation's goals. Usually, individuals with high work engagement attain positive experiences in their jobs; they will feel more attached to the organisation (Sonnentag et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Malaysian government linked companies (GLCs) are expected to not only sustain their performance but also to contribute more on the long term business and societal value. Thus, in moving towards this direction, organization needs employees that are energetic and have strong positive connection to their job. The aims of this study are to determine job and individual related factors that influence an individual work engagement. Specifically, this study aims at determining the (1) relationship between job crafting and work engagement; (2) relationship between psychological capital and work engagement. Data were collected from 201 executives level employees of a high performance GLC in Malaysia. The findings revealed that employees need to have self efficacy and optimism in order to be engaged in their work. Additionally, social job resources such as feedback and support is also found to be crucial to create high work engagement workforce. This study is significant to the top management, human resource practitioners, managers and supervisors in understanding job and individual factors that would lead to work engagement. This input is also beneficial in designing jobs and creating programs that would lead to high work engagement among employees
... Scholars studying recovery experiences-and feelings of recovery broadly (e.g., Sonnentag & Natter, 2004;Sonnentag, Binnewies, & Mojza, 2008;Sonnentag, Mojza, Demerouti, & Bakker, 2012)-have largely focused on the extent to which employees engage in psychological detachment (i.e., mentally disconnecting from work-related thoughts after work; , with this experience being framed as a central indicator of well-being (Lanaj, Foulk, & Erez, 2018). Work has also found that psychological detachment increases engagement and vigor (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016;ten Brummelhuis & Bakker, 2012), increases positive mood, and reduces fatigue (Sonnentag & Bayer, 2005) over time. ...
... Finally, actively valuing employees efforts to fully engage with their home domain, for example through supporting employee leisure crafting, can have additional benefits for employee work engagement through supporting effective recovery from work (e.g., Sonnentag et al., 2008) which is facilitated through effective disengagement. Moreover, by fully valuing employee engagement with their home domain it is easier for managers to invoke reciprocity and thus to invite employees to switch mental gears for effective re-engagement with work at the beginning of their workday which has beneficial effects for employee work engagement (Sonnentag and Kühnel, 2016). ...
Article
Conventional studies have widely demonstrated that individuals’ engagement at work depends on their personal resources, which are affected by environmental influences, especially those derived from the workplace and home domains. In this study, we examine whether a change in work engagement may be based on individuals’ decisions in managing their personal resources. We use the conservation of resources (COR) theory to explain how personal resources and personal demands at home can influence work engagement through personal resources and personal demands at work. We conducted a daily diary study involving a group of 97 Chinese employees (N = 97) from a range of different service settings for 2 consecutive weeks (N = 1358) and evaluated their daily work engagement using manager ratings. The findings support the hypothesized mediating effects of personal resources and personal demands at work on personal resources and personal demands at home and work engagement.
... Indeed, stability does not mean that profiles are insensitive to management interventions (Kam et al., 2016) but rather indicates that, without intervention, these profiles tend to reflect stable interindividual differences. In line with recent studies (e.g., Sheng, Wang, Hong, Zhu, & Zhang, 2018;Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016), it would be interesting for further research to disentangle which components of work engagement present the greatest levels of stability or change over time. More importantly, future longitudinal research is needed to address explanations for, and limits to, profile stability while considering longer time periods, different career stages, and employees' possible changes in their personal and professional lives in order to more carefully locate determinants of these changes. ...
Article
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This study illustrates complementary variable- and person-centred approaches to the investigation of the underlying dimensionality of the work engagement construct. A sample of 730 participants completed a questionnaire twice across a four-month period. The results showed that employees’ ratings of their work engagement simultaneously reflected a global overarching work engagement construct, which co-existed with three specific dimensions (vigour, dedication, and absorption). Relying on factor scores from this initial measurement model, the present study examined latent profiles of employees defined based on their global (work engagement) and specific (vigour, dedication, and absorption) levels of work engagement. The results revealed five distinct work engagement profiles, which proved to be fully identical, and highly stable, across the two time points. These profiles characterized disengaged-vigorous, normative, totally disengaged, vigorously absorbed, and engaged yet distanced employees. These profiles were also showed to be meaningfully related to employees’ levels of stress, intentions to leave the organization, health, and job satisfaction.
... This finding suggests that the recovery activities at work can potentially help employees reduce the experience of | 17 CUSTOMER MISTREATMENT PROMOTES IMPULSE desire-goal conflict or better cope with the conflict to buffer the effect of customer mistreatment on consuming employees' self-regulatory resources, pointing out the importance of providing employees opportunities to engage in recovery activities at work. This finding also extends previous studies on recovery that mainly focus on how workplace stressors (e.g., customer mistreatment) affect employee recovery after work (e.g., Park & Kim, 2018) or how recovery after work might affect employees' next day behaviours at work (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016), and demonstrate the potential buffering role of recovery activities at work in attenuating the effect of workplace stressor (e.g., customer mistreatment) on self-control capacity impairment. ...
... This, in turn, may make it more likely to see positive aspects of their work in the next morning, such as potential benefits and successes they may have at work and thus appraise their workday as more challenging. In line with this reasoning, psychological detachment from work is associated with more positive mood (Sonnentag & Bayer, 2005) and work engagement on the next day (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). For instance, if an employee is facing a complicated issue at work and refrained from (negative) work-related thoughts during the evening, they may see the potential benefits associated with solving the issue such as experiencing mastery when working on the issue and the prospect of feeling proud when successfully solving it, thus experiencing higher challenge appraisal in the morning. ...
... Our research thus demonstrated that leisure thoughts are different from more general off-task thoughts (i.e., thoughts of other things), and that different types of off-task thoughts have different time trends. Moreover, the time trend for leisure thoughts provided additional evidence for psychological reattachment (Sonnentag et al., 2019;Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016) and detachment (Sonnentag & Bayer, 2005;Sonnentag & Kruel, 2006), as we investigated thoughts that may relate to these two processes. On the one hand, employees had more leisure thoughts at the beginning of the working day, which indicates their need to reattach to work. ...
Preprint
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During the working day, employees do not only think of their work but also occasionally of their upcoming leisure time. Accordingly, we introduce two constructs, namely thoughts of leisure time (ToLT) and thoughts of a planned leisure activity (ToPLA). We assumed that employees report more ToLT/ToPLA at the beginning and the end of the working day. We further hypothesized that employees with higher pleasant anticipation of a planned leisure activity generate more ToPLA. As leisure thoughts distract attention from work, we expected a negative relationship between ToLT/ToPLA and work engagement within one hour and across the working day. Regarding the subsequent hour, we assumed that when the leisure plan is positive/negative, the relationship between ToPLA and work engagement is positive/negative. We conducted an hourly online-survey across one working day (N = 89 employees, 438 measurement points). Our results revealed the expected time trend for ToLT/ToPLA and a positive relationship between pleasant anticipation and ToPLA. We further found negative relationships between ToPLA and work engagement (within one hour) and between ToLT and work engagement (across the day). Contrary to our expectations, for positive leisure plans, the relationship between ToPLA and work engagement in the subsequent hour was negative.
... not thinking about work) during nonwork time (Sonnentag et al., 2010). Whereas mentally detaching from work allows for depleted energy resources to be replenished, poor psychological detachment drains energy resources and inhibits their restoration (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015;Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). ...
Article
In this study, we draw on conservation of resources theory to suggest that transformational leaders’ encouragement of extra effort in followers might reduce or increase followers’ emotional exhaustion depending on their ability to replenish energy reserves. Specifically, we argue that the indirect relationship between transformational leadership (TFL) and followers’ emotional exhaustion via extra effort varies depending on followers’ levels of psychological detachment from work. We tested the hypothesised conditional indirect effect model using three-wave data from 214 employees working in various industries. Regression analyses showed that psychological detachment moderated the indirect relationship between TFL and emotional exhaustion through extra effort such that the indirect relationship was negative with high psychological detachment and positive with low psychological detachment. The findings of this study indicate the importance of recognising that the beneficial effects of TFL in reducing emotional exhaustion may not hold for all followers but are contingent on followers’ levels of psychological detachment. Returning to one of the original premises of the TFL model, i.e. that transformational leaders bring about extra effort from followers, contributes to further understanding that TFL might have a dark side for employee well-being.
... Real-time perceived fatigue level will be measured by using single-item (van Hoof, Geurts, Kompier, & Taris, 2007) visual analog score consisting of 10cm horizontal line extending from no fatigue to extremely fatigue. Work engagement level will be measured by using 8-items 7-points scale adopted from Utretch Work Engagement Scale (UWES) containing three subscales, namely vigor, dedication and absorption (de Bruin & Henn, 2013;Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006;Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). Scheduled and actual on-call duration will be measured by directly asking their scheduled and actual time they start and finish their on-call duty, followed by calculation of both duration. ...
Article
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Background: Doctors are exposed to various psychosocial hazards such as high task demands and demanding work schedule, which may influence fatigue, recovery, stress, job satisfaction, wellbeing, and work-family interface. This research generally aims to examine the interrelationship between work-home domain variables with outcomes of fatigue, its recovery, and others related outcomes such as work-to-family conflict, general wellbeing, and perceived stress level among doctors working at public hospital at general and day-level on-call duty. Methods: This is a multicenter analytical mix cross sectional (general) and longitudinal (day-level) research among proposed 390 randomly-sampled post-call doctors working at seven core clinical disciplines from seven public tertiary hospitals in Malaysia. Data will be collected three times: (a) any days after obtaining informed consent (cross sectional), (b) at the end of on-call duty (first wave longitudinal), and (c) at the beginning of subsequent work period (second wave longitudinal). Data will be modelled by covariance-based structural equation modelling (SEM). Discussion: This research is well justifiable in view of limited available research on complex interrelationship of work domain, home domain and work-home boundary control with fatigue, recovery and other psychological health consequences (e.g., stress, wellbeing, work-home conflict) among doctors, particularly in Asia and developed countries, including Malaysia. This research is expected to provide strong evidence to policy makers in developing prevention and management policy related to fatigue, recovery and other psychological health consequences among doctors.
... Nevertheless, it has been noted that employees should be able to recover from work by psychologically detaching from work and being 'reattached' / engaged to the work during work hours to replenish drained energy and resources that has an influence on next days' work engagement (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). ...
Article
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Based on the Conservation of Resources (Hobfoll, 1989) and Effort-Recovery (Meijman & Mulder, 1998) theories the aim of this study is to examine how psychological detachment from work and off-job activities are related to daily (state) work engagement. Two hundred eighty seven Latvian workers filled out Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003), State Work Engagement Questionnaire (Breevaart, Bakker, Demerouti, & Hetland, 2012), Psychological detachment from work scale (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007), and reported time spent on various off-job activities. Psychological detachment and off-job activities were not associated with following day state work engagement. However, engaging in physical activities for more than one hour, and engaging in smaller number of various off-job activities was associated with higher psychological detachment from work in the evening.
... This finding suggests that the recovery activities at work can potentially help employees reduce the experience of | 17 CUSTOMER MISTREATMENT PROMOTES IMPULSE desire-goal conflict or better cope with the conflict to buffer the effect of customer mistreatment on consuming employees' self-regulatory resources, pointing out the importance of providing employees opportunities to engage in recovery activities at work. This finding also extends previous studies on recovery that mainly focus on how workplace stressors (e.g., customer mistreatment) affect employee recovery after work (e.g., Park & Kim, 2018) or how recovery after work might affect employees' next day behaviours at work (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016), and demonstrate the potential buffering role of recovery activities at work in attenuating the effect of workplace stressor (e.g., customer mistreatment) on self-control capacity impairment. ...
Article
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Drawing on self‐regulation theories, the current study examined the effect of daily experience of customer mistreatment at work on three types of maladaptive behaviors after work (impulsive buying, overeating behaviors, and mobile phone overuse) through self‐control capacity impairment. Further, we investigated the moderating roles of two recovery activities at work (taking some time for relaxation and learning something new at work) on the relationship between customer mistreatment and employee self‐control capacity impairment. With daily diary data collected from 57 fulltime service employees across 5 working days, our results revealed that daily experience of customer mistreatment at work was positively related to employees’ impulsive buying and mobile phone overuse after work (but not overeating behaviors) via self‐control capacity impairment after controlling for the mediating effect of negative affect. Besides, relaxation, but not learning, buffered the positive relationship between customer mistreatment and self‐control capacity impairment. These findings shed light on further understanding the underlying mechanisms between customer mistreatment and employee maladaptive behaviors after work and strategies at work that might mitigate the negative effects of customer mistreatment.
... Thus, our results are not entirely in line with the assumptions based on the salience of resource loss (Hobfoll et al., 2018), as we do not find consistently lower levels of well-being for employees in the increasing unstable trajectory 1 on Friday evening, and even better well-being on Monday, even though members experienced a marked increase of time pressure during the working week. Moreover, the positive effect of increasing unstable in contrast to high unstable and medium unstable time pressure on well-being at the start of the week is in line with the concept of reattachment to work, which describes the mental reconnection with one's work after a nonwork period (e.g., during the weekend; Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). According to the authors, reattaching includes mentally preparing oneself for work and the upcoming tasks that need to be accomplished. ...
Article
This study extends previous research on time pressure and well-being by investigating the relevance of distinct time pressure trajectories for indicators of well-being at the end of the working week and start of the next week. Drawing on the Effort-Recovery Model and Conservation of Resources theory, we applied latent class growth analyses and a manual stepwise Bolck-Croon-Hagenaar approach to examine (a) which latent classes of time pressure trajectories occur for employees and (b) how these classes differ from each other regarding indicators of well-being at the end of the working week and the following Monday. Using data on 254 employees in a daily diary study across five consecutive workdays, the findings revealed a four-class solution characterized by qualitatively different time pressure trajectories: a low stable time pressure trajectory and three trajectories with changing time pressure levels (high unstable, medium unstable, and increasing unstable time pressure). Further, the trajectories exhibited class-specific differences in Friday evening and Monday morning positive valence, calmness, and energetic arousal, in addition to Friday night sleep quality. The results indicated that not only did the level of time pressure matter regarding well-being but also the temporal pattern of change across one working week. The present article provides a first step towards understanding different temporal dynamics of time pressure and their relationship to well-being. Additionally, the findings are discussed from the perspective of resource loss and gain, providing practical recommendations for job design, leadership behavior, as well as individual coping with job demands. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Finally, seeking to establish relations with related constructs we started by focusing on a set of constructs that are theoretically most closely related to work prospection (e.g., psychological detachment, work-related rumination). However, other constructs are also likely to be related to work prospection, such as positive and negative work reflection (Fritz & Sonnentag, 2005), reattachment to work (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016), or leisure anticipation (Seibel et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Findings from adjacent literatures suggest that thinking about the future may have implications for employee health, especially when such thoughts are affectively toned. However, existing constructs targeting work-related thinking are predominantly time-unspecific, possibly overlooking a substantial portion of work-related cognitions that occur on a daily basis. We therefore develop a comprehensive, multidimensional conceptualization of work prospection, as well as an instrument (Work Prospection Scale; WPS) that allows the measurement of three types of work prospection (cognitive, positive affective, and negative affective). We place work prospection in its wider nomological network and evaluate its validity across three cross-sectional studies (total N = 825) and a 5-day diary study (N = 199). Psychometric properties of the scale were supported across studies, and the WPS was related to, yet empirically distinct from related constructs. Criterion-related results showed that positive affective work prospection during the evening was associated with less fatigue and more recovery in the next morning. Conversely, negative affective work prospection was related to more evening fatigue, as well as less next morning recovery. Cognitive work prospection had no significant relationship with recovery indicators. Additionally, our findings show that targeting future-oriented cognitions adds to the prediction of employee recovery beyond time-unspecific measures.
... Drawing from the E-R model and existing evidence, this study believes that if employees do not distance themselves from job-related activities or ruminations during nonworking hours, they continue to draw on the same resource reservoir needed for work engagement during regular working hours (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). Therefore, the following hypothesis is put forth: ...
Article
This study examined employees’ after-hours work-related social media communication through the lens of their consumption, contribution, creation, and conversation, and it explored in great depth the paradoxes inherent in how employees use public social media for professional purposes outside of normal working hours. Specifically, this study investigated the effect of work-related social media use (WRSMU) outside regular work hours on various employee outcomes. An online survey was conducted with 815 employees in the U.S. The findings revealed two opposing mechanisms through which after-hours WRSMU affected employees’ work engagement. On the one hand, WRSMU was positively related to organizational identification, which in turn positively affected work engagement. On the other hand, after-hours WRSMU also led to more work-family conflict, which in turn decreased work engagement.
... The morning diary, to which the mentioned invitation link leads, complements the energy measurement with questions about sleep, including e.g. the Insomnia Severity Index (Bastien, 2001) and the day so far, e.g. morning reattachment (Sonnentag and Kühnel, 2016), and items for planning and goal setting of the German version of the revised self-leadership questionnaire (Andreßen and Konradt, 2007). The run waits 90 minutes for the participant to click the invitation link and complete this diary entry and skips it in case the participant doesn't click the link. ...
Conference Paper
While the current pandemic amplifies the trend of highly self-responsible and flexible work, many employees still struggle addressing the resulting self-management challenges like balancing strain and recovery. Maintaining health of employees is a major concern of organizations to remain competitive, but in the context of highly individual work, this can hardly be supported with classical occupational health initiatives. Thus, it is crucial to develop tools that provide individuals with personal insights on their everyday work and help them determine applicable health behaviors. Towards this goal, we report on our design and implementation of diary studies with personalized feedback about persons’ energetic wellbeing. Whereas such studies enable to research phenomena at the collective level, they can additionally act as intervention at the individual level. This is especially relevant to 1) provide a motivational incentive for continued participation and 2) raise awareness about recent topics in occupational health and promote healthy behaviors, while advancing research concerns. We provide insights from several studies regarding the generated feedback, the perception of the participants and IT-related improvement potentials. Hopefully, this will inspire further research that takes advantage of the win-win situation conducting studies, which simultaneously provide participants with individual insights.
... In other words, such behaviors are unlikely to stimulate a sense of efficacy on the subsequent day incrementally to the PWD behaviors of that next day. Moreover, other factors in-between measurement points may represent more important determinants of need satisfaction and work engagement such as daily job conditions (Wang et al., 2020), detachment from work during the evening (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016), as well as morning home demands (Dettmers et al., 2020). Thus, the findings may position personal psychological resources and work engagement as short-term as opposed to delayed consequences of PWD. ...
Article
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Drawing on self-determination and play theories, we develop a process model that proposes that daily playful work design (PWD; designing fun, designing competition) positively relates to employees' daily work engagement through basic psychological need satisfaction. A total of 162 Dutch employees filled out short surveys at the end of each workday for 2–5 days (603 observations). As hypothesized, employees were more engaged on the days they designed their work to be more playful, which was explained by the satisfaction of their needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Moreover, as expected, designing fun and designing competition differed in how and why they related to work engagement. In addition, we found that daily PWD was related to same-day, but not next-day need satisfaction and work engagement. Most path coefficients were statistically invariant across levels of analysis (between- vs. within-person levels), suggesting their meaning and function is equivalent across levels. However, additional analyses revealed synergetic effects between overall use of designing fun and designing competition. These findings expand self-determination and play theories by revealing how and why a proactive and playful approach to work activities and relationships fosters work engagement.
... This, in turn, may make it more likely to see positive aspects of their work in the next morning, such as potential benefits and successes they may have at work and thus appraise their workday as more challenging. In line with this reasoning, psychological detachment from work is associated with more positive mood (Sonnentag & Bayer, 2005) and work engagement on the next day (Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). For instance, if an employee is facing a complicated issue at work and refrained from (negative) work-related thoughts during the evening, they may see the potential benefits associated with solving the issue. ...
Article
We examined the role of daily recovery for morning cognitive appraisal of work demands in a daily diary study. We predicted that psychological detachment from work during the evening would be associated with changes in cognitive appraisal from afternoon to the next morning. Additionally, we predicted that these associations are mediated by state of being recovered in the morning. We collected data from 183 employees with 3 daily measurement occasions over 2 consecutive workweeks. We analyzed the data using multilevel path modeling with latent variance decomposition into within- and between-person variance parts. Results showed that psychological detachment predicted a decrease in hindrance and threat appraisal but no change in challenge appraisal from afternoon to morning. State of being recovered mediated the relationship between psychological detachment and threat appraisal but not hindrance appraisal. Psychological detachment was indirectly related to an increase in challenge appraisal via state of being recovered in the morning. Our results provide insights on predictors of cognitive appraisal and the role of recovery for the cognitive processes in the stress process.
... To be specific such activities can include (but are not limited to) pursuits such as exercise, sport, reading, or hobbies that the individual derives pleasure from, and finds revitalizing. This is reminiscent of Sonnentag and colleagues' (e.g., Sonnentag & Kruel, 2006;Sonnentag & Kuhnel, 2016) ongoing research with workers in many occupations, that nonwork activities can serve a restorative function and enrich people's relationship with work. However, Sonnentag and Bayer (2005, p. 393) noted that such activities must allow people to completely "switch off" from their work, i.e., achieve "psychological detachment" (see also, Norcross & VandenBos, 2018). ...
Article
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Chaplains often express a sense of satisfaction in helping others. But their work renders them vulnerable to secondary traumatic stress and burnout. We investigated mindful self-care, comparing the experiences of chaplains and other workers. Measures used included mindful selfcare, social support, and professional quality of life. We found self-care practices did not predict the professional quality of life. Lack of supportive structures and mindful awareness predicted burnout. Compassion satisfaction might arise from other sources.
... Interestingly, however, recent research has revealed instability in work engagement, suggesting that the level of engagement varies substantially between work tasks (Sonnentag, 2017) and workdays (Sonnentag et al., 2010;Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016; also . ...
Preprint
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This study provides new insights into the work-related well-being of teachers, defined here as engagement and burnout, by investigating their associations with the teachers’ sense of efficacy and interprofessional collaboration in schools. Using a person-oriented approach and latent profile analysis, a sample of Finnish comprehensive school teachers (N = 355) were classified based on their work engagement and burnout. Three profiles were identified: engaged, engaged-exhausted, and burned-out. Teachers with distinct profiles differed from each other in terms of their sense of efficacy and experiences of interprofessional collaboration, suggesting that both might have an important role in enhancing work engagement and preventing burnout.
... For example, it is possible that very high detachment-especially during breaks-may be detrimental to performance. After successfully detaching from work, reattachment (i.e., rebuilding a mental connection to work) is needed when continuing to work and may take some effort Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016). So far, reattachment has been studied in the context of starting the working day, but the same idea could also be applied to within-workday breaks such as lunch breaks. ...
Article
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The present study focused on within‐workday recovery, which has received less scholarly attention than has recovery outside work. We examined six break recovery experiences (detachment, relaxation, autonomy, mastery, meaning and affiliation) as possible mediators between daily emotional job demands, positive and negative affect both in the afternoon and in the evening. We conducted a one‐work week diary study (N = 107) among Finnish schoolteachers with three daily measurements per workday. Most participants (88%) were women, and the average age was 50 years. The data were analyzed with multilevel path modelling. Regarding daily afternoon affect, both low break detachment and low break meaning mediated the relationship between high daily emotional demands and low afternoon positive affect and high afternoon negative affect. Regarding daily evening affect, only low break meaning mediated the relationship between high daily emotional demands and low evening positive affect. In addition, afternoon positive and negative affect did mediate the relationships between break detachment and meaning and positive and negative evening affect. Our findings offer new insights into the interplay of daily job demands, break recovery experiences and affective well‐being. Despite detachment, meaning, which has received limited research attention as a recovery experience, seems to play an important role in within‐workday recovery. Our study also suggests that successful break recovery can benefit employees’ affective well‐being in the evening. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... a result, 94 documents were coded (i.e.,*Airila et al., 2014;*Alarcon & Lyons, 2011;*Alessandri et al., 2015;*Altunel et al., 2015;*Barkhuizen et al., 2014;*Bass et al., 2016;*Bickerton et al., 2015;Biggs et al., 2014aBiggs et al., , 2014b*Birkeland & Buch, 2015;*Bledow et al., 2011;*Breevaart et al., 2014a;*Byrne et al., 2016;*Caesens et al., 2016;*Chaudhary, 2014;*Chaudhary et al., 2012;*Chen & Chen, 2012;*Chin et al., 2017;*Collins, 2011;*Demerouti et al., 2015;*Extremera et al., 2012; *Ferrer & Morris, 2013; *Field & Buitendach, 2011, 2012; *Fong & Ng, 2012; *Freeborough, 2013; *Gan & Gan, 2014; *Garczynski et al., 2013; *Gillet et al., 2013; *Gkorezis et al., 2016; *Høigaard et al., 2012; *Hopkins & Gardner, 2012; *Hu et al., 2016; *Huynh et al., 2012; *Idris et al., 2015; *Idris & Dollard, 2011; *Inoue et al., 2013; *Ivey et al., 2015; *Kanste, 2011; *Kataria et al., 2013; *Kendrick, 2014; *Kim, 2015; *Klassen et al., 2012; *Kuba & Scheibe, 2017; *Kubota et al., 2011; *Kühnel et al., 2012; *Li & Mao, 2014; *Littman-Ovadia & Balducci, 2013; *Lorente et al., 2014; *Lovakov et al., 2017; *Macdonald & Levy, 2016; *Mache et al., 2016; *Martinussen et al., 2012;*Matthews et al., 2014;*Miller et al., 2014;*Mills et al., 2012;*Nishi et al., 2016;*Ocampo Bustos et al., 2015;*Panthee et al., 2014;*Petrou et al., 2017;*Petrović et al., 2017;*Poortvliet et al., 2015;*Reina-Tamayo et al., 2017;*Rofcanin et al., 2017;*Rudolph & Baltes, 2017;*Sakuraya et al., 2017;*Schaufeli et al., 2019;*Searle & Lee, 2015;*Shuck et al., 2015;*Sibiya et al., 2014;*Simbula et al., 2013;*Simons & Buitendach, 2013;*Sliter et al., 2014;*Sonnentag et al., 2012;*Sonnentag & Kühnel, 2016;*Taqatqa, 2017;*Taylor, 2015;*Thomas, 2011;*Timms et al., 2012;*Tims et al., 2013;*Trépanier et al., 2015;*Vahle-Hinz, 2016;*Vander Elst et al., 2013;*Vecina et al., 2012 *Vecina et al., , 2013*Ventura et al., 2015;*Viljevac et al., 2012;*Vîrgȃ et al., 2015;*Wang et al., 2015;*Wang & Hsieh, 2013;*Wefald et al., 2012; ...
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Although the construct of work engagement has been extensively explored, a systematic meta-analysis based on a consistent categorization of engagement antecedents, outcomes, and well-being correlates is still lacking. The results of prior research reporting 533 correlations from 113 independent samples (k = 94, n = 119,420) were coded using a meta-analytic approach. The effect size for development resources (r = .45) and personal resources (r = .48) was higher than for social resources (r = .36) and for job resources (r = .37). Among the outcomes and well-being correlates explored, the effect size was highest for job satisfaction (r = .60) and commitment (r = .63). Furthermore, moderation analysis showed that (a) concerning the occupational role, work engagement finds a low association with turnover intention among civil servants, volunteer workers, and educators; (b) collectivist cultural environments reported a greater association of feedback with engagement than individualistic environments; (c) the relationship between personal resources and engagement was stronger among workers with university degrees than workers with high school diplomas. Furthermore , the absorption dimension showed a lower effect with all variables under investigation than vigor and dedication.
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Recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery, and control; Sonnentag and Fritz (Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 204–221, 2007)) are thought to enhance both work and health outcomes, though the mechanisms are not well understood. We propose and test an integrated theoretical model in which work engagement and exhaustion fully mediate the effects of recovery experiences on job performance and health complaints, respectively. Meta-analytic associations (k = 316; independent samples; N = 99,329 participants) show that relaxation and mastery experiences positively predict job outcomes (work engagement, job performance, citizenship behavior, creativity, job satisfaction) and personal outcomes (positive affect, life satisfaction, well-being), whereas psychological detachment reduces negative personal outcomes (negative affect, exhaustion, work-family conflict), but does not seem to benefit job outcomes (work engagement, job performance, citizenship behavior, creativity). Control experiences exhibit negligible incremental effects. Path analysis largely supports the theoretical model specifying separate pathways by which recovery experiences predict job and health outcomes. Methodologically, diary and post-respite studies tend to exhibit smaller effects than do cross-sectional studies. Finally, within-person correlations of recovery experiences with outcomes tend to be in the same direction, but smaller than corresponding between-person correlations. Implications for recovery experiences theory and research are discussed.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between supervisor bottom-line mentality (BLM) and employee work-to-family conflict (WFC) through employee psychological detachment, and the moderating role of employee trait optimism. Design/methodology/approach The research model was empirically tested using a sample of 225 two-wave data gathered from five Chinese companies. Findings The results revealed that employee psychological detachment mediated the impact of supervisor BLM on employee WFC. Moreover, employee trait optimism buffered the negative relationship between supervisor BLM and employee psychological detachment and the indirect effect of supervisor BLM on employee WFC through employee psychological detachment. Practical implications Supervisors should pay more attention to the spillover effect of supervisor BLM on employees’ family life and take some training measures to help employees effectively psychological detach from supervisor BLM. Originality/value The findings, therefore, provide a more comprehensive understanding of the adverse effects of supervisor BLM beyond the work domain and the buffering role of employee trait optimism on work–family intervention.
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ObjectivesThis is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (intervention). The objectives are as follows: To compare the effectiveness of different individual interventions in recovery from work.
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This study aims to examine the role of psychological empowerment as a moderator variable between time pressure and work engagement. JD-R theory stated that job demands and job resources could predict work engagement. Work engagement is an essential thing that employees should have in every company because work engagement has a positive impact on employee performance, commitment to the organization, as well as the intention to survive in the workplace. The participants of this study were 208 salespeople working in IT companies in Jakarta that were obtained by accidental sampling technique. The research data is analyzed with non-linear regression and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results showed that time pressure did not predict work engagement. In contrast, psychological empowerment directly predicted work engagement and significantly moderating time pressure and work engagement. In conditions of high psychological empowerment, the higher or lower the time pressure, the work engagement of employees tends to decrease. However, when time pressure is moderate, work engagement tends to increase. On the contrary, in a condition of low psychological empowerment, the higher time pressure, the work engagement of employees tends to decrease, and the lower the time pressure, the work engagement of employees will be higher.
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Successfully reattaching to work (i.e., mentally reconnecting) after a nonwork period can set the tone for the workday. This study examines anticipated task focus and activated positive affect as mechanisms linking leaders’ reattachment to work in the morning to leader experiences and behaviors throughout the workday. Based on daily-survey data from 416 leaders (2646 total morning/evening survey completions), we conducted multilevel structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. Results indicate that day-level reattachment to work in the morning was associated with anticipated task focus and activated positive affect, which in turn were both associated with leader workplace vitality and transformational leadership behavior. Hypotheses regarding leader task accomplishment were not supported. Supplementary analyses indicated that reattachment was indirectly related to perceived task accomplishment through a two-stage mediation – i.e., via anticipated task focus in the morning and actual task focus throughout the workday. Findings point to the important role of reattachment to work in leader experiences and behaviors throughout the workday. Results also indicate the relevance of reattachment to work as an experience and potential strategy that helps leaders successfully move from nonwork to work domains creating positive outcomes for themselves and their followers throughout the workday.
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Past research often relegates the management of the ideal worker’s overworking body to the nonwork environment. Reflecting a segmentation approach to managing the boundary between work and nonwork, the nonwork setting is treated as a context for recuperation. Yet, segmentation may, ironically, support the ideal worker image and reinforce the persistence of overwork. Drawing on two-year-long ethnographic studies of yoga teacher training, this paper considers how individuals shift how they manage the boundaries around their bodies. In doing so, we challenge the notion that segmentation of nonwork from work is an ideal boundary management strategy for addressing the negative impacts of overwork. Rather, we suggest that an integration strategy developed in a nonwork community may be productive for breaking the cycle of overwork and recuperation promoted by the ideal worker image and creating a virtuous cycle of activation and release. We bring forward the bodily basis to overwork and conceptualize somatic engagement as a form of engagement through which actors come to connect reflexively with their bodily experience across domains. Relatedly, in revealing how individuals come to connect reflexively with their bodily experience, we elaborate our understanding of the relational phenomena that enhance individuals’ somatic experiences across boundaries.
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Introducción: durante el entrenamiento quirúrgico los residentes invierten grandes esfuerzos para alcanzar un desempeño óptimo. Sin embargo, como resultado de las altas demandas y pobres recursos en el trabajo, experimentan variables grados de desgaste profesional, estrés y escaso bienestar. Las estrategias de recuperación del trabajo representan una promisoria área de desarrollo para modificar estos resultados negativos. Nuestro objetivo es sintetizar la evidencia disponible sobre las estrategias de recuperación del trabajo en residentes de cirugía. Métodos: basados en el marco teórico de la psicología organizacional positiva, en esta revisión narrativa sintetizamos la evidencia proveniente de estudios originales publicados entre 2010-2019, respecto a cuatro estrategias de recuperación: 1. El distanciamiento psicológico del trabajo; 2. La relajación: 3. Control del tiempo libre; y 4. Búsqueda de retos fuera del trabajo. Resultados: un total de 18 estudios fueron incluidos. La mayoría de las intervenciones se fundamentan en el mindfulness (atención plena) como estrategia de relajación, pero su efectividad en la reducción de los niveles de estrés de los residentes de cirugía es pobre. La literatura es limitada para concluir sobre la efectividad de los otros grupos de estrategias de recuperación. Conclusión: las estrategias más utilizadas para la recuperación del trabajo en residentes de cirugía, están en fase de desarrollo inicial. Su efectividad es limitada para la reducción del estrés y el desgaste profesional. Estos resultados ofrecen oportunidades de investigación futura.
Article
Purpose This study examines the link between vacations, parental leave and voluntary turnover among Canadian organizations in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector. Design/methodology/approach The empirical analysis is carried out using firm-level data sourced from a survey that was completed by HR managers of 125 ICT firms operating in the province of Quebec (Canada).The organizational voluntary turnover rate was used and was obtained by dividing the number of employees who voluntarily quit an organization within the last year by the total number of its employees. Based on ordinary least squared estimates, results were generated by regressing voluntary turnover rate on vacation and parental leave. Findings Vacation, operationalized as the average number of annual vacation days, is negatively and significantly associated with the voluntary turnover rate of the ICT organizations surveyed. Parental leave, operationalized as the percentage of salary reimbursed during parental leave, does not significantly reduce voluntary turnover in the ICT organizations surveyed. Practical implications In light of the results of this study, if organizations in the ICT sector, in Canada or abroad, desire to reduce voluntary turnover, compensating employees through the use of additional vacation days appears to be a viable approach. Originality/value This research constitutes an empirical test of the link between turnover and two compensation practices adopted by firms. To our knowledge, there is no prior scientific evidence on that subject in the Canadian ICT sector.
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Many employees think about their work during off-job time. Scholars have suggested that whether work-related thoughts during off-job time have detrimental or beneficial effects on employees’ well-being and performance depends on the nature of these thoughts. In this study with dual-earner couples we examined whether employees’ positive and negative work reflection during off-job time are associated with their own and with their partners’ work engagement and exhaustion. Furthermore, we investigated whether (a) living with children and (b) being work-linked (i.e. working in the same organisation and/or working in the same profession) moderated these relations. Both partners of 130 German heterosexual dual-earner couples responded to online questionnaires. We estimated multilevel analyses using the actor–partner interdependence model to analyse our dyadic data. We found positive associations between employees’ positive work reflection and both their own and their partners’ work engagement. Employees’ positive work reflection was also associated with their decreased exhaustion. Employees’ negative work reflection was negatively associated with their own work engagement and positively associated with their own exhaustion but unrelated to their partners’ outcomes. Moderator analyses revealed that living with children weakened the link between employees’ positive work reflection and their own work engagement and strengthened the link between their negative work reflection and exhaustion. The presence of couples’ work-linkage did not moderate any of these relations. This study builds on previous research by showing that employees’ positive work-related thinking is not only beneficial to themselves but also to their partners. Furthermore, the results suggest that living with children constitutes an additional demand that reduces the motivational effects of positive work reflection and amplifies the detrimental effects of employees’ negative work reflection.
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Previous studies demonstrated that psychological detachment from work can impact employees’ work and family lives. Based on conservation of resources theory and social role theory, the present study examined the process through which working parents’ psychological detachment from work influences their children’s perception of neglectful parenting (emotional warmth and rejection). Specifically, we examined the mediating role of parents’ fatigue and the moderating role of parent gender in this process. Data were collected from working parents (n = 371) and their children in junior high school (n = 371, 10‐13 years old) at two time points with a three‐month interval. Our results showed that working parents’ psychological detachment from work at Time 1 significantly predicted children’s perception of parent emotional warmth and rejection at Time 2, and parents’ fatigue at Time 2 mediated this relationship. Besides, parent gender moderated this mediated process such that the positive indirect effect of parent psychological detachment from work on emotional warmth via fatigue was stronger for working mothers than for working fathers. These findings contribute to the limited research on the effects of psychological detachment from work on family members and highlight the importance of parent gender in children’s perceptions of working parents’ behaviors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The theory of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) proposes that the " orchestrated " use of three distinct action regulation strategies (selection, optimization, and compensation) leads to positive employee outcomes. Previous research examined overall scores and additive models (i.e., main effects) of SOC strategies instead of interaction models in which SOC strategies mutually enhance each other's effects. Thus, a central assumption of SOC theory remains untested. In addition, most research on SOC strategies has been cross-sectional, assuming that employees' use of SOC strategies is stable over time. We conducted a quantitative diary study across nine work days (N = 77; 514 daily entries) to investigate interactive effects of daily SOC strategies on daily work engagement. Results showed that optimization and compensation, but not selection, had positive main effects on work engagement. Moreover, a significant three-way interaction effect indicated that the relationship between selection and work engagement was positive only when both optimization and compensation were high, whereas the relationship was negative when optimization was low and compensation was high. We discuss implications for future research and practice regarding the use of SOC strategies at work.
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This study examined the intraindividual relationships among workload and affective distress, cognitive, physical and emotional fatigue, and work-family conflict among school employees. Using a repeated-measure, within-person research design, the authors found that work demands and affective distress, as well as cognitive, emotional and physical fatigue were associated with experienced work-family conflict. However, the effects of work demands and affective distress on work-family conflict were mediated mostly by participant reports of emotional fatigue, when the three types of fatigue were considered together. Importantly, emotional fatigue was associated with both self-reported as well as spouse-reported work-family conflict. Overall, the results support a resource depletion framework for how workload and job distress in an educational setting can affect work-family conflict.
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Although previous studies have linked workplace incivility with various negative outcomes, they mainly focused on the long-term effects of chronic exposure to workplace incivility, whereas targets' short-term reactions to incivility episodes have been largely neglected. Using a daily diary design, the current study examined effects of daily workplace incivility on end-of-work negative affect and explored potential individual and organizational moderators. Data collected from 76 full-time employees across 10 consecutive working days revealed that daily workplace incivility positively predicted end-of-work negative affect while controlling for before-work negative affect. Further, the relationship was stronger for people with low emotional stability, high hostile attribution bias, external locus of control, and people experiencing low chronic workload and more chronic organizational constraints, as compared with people with high emotional stability, low hostile attribution bias, internal locus of control, and people experiencing high chronic workload and fewer chronic organizational constraints, respectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Organizational researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in self-regulatory strategies employees can use at work to sustain or improve their occupational well-being. A recent cross-sectional study on energy management strategies suggested that many work-related strategies (e.g., setting a new goal) are positively related to occupational well-being, whereas many micro-breaks (e.g., listening to music) are negatively related to occupational well-being. We used a diary study design to take a closer look at the effects of these energy management strategies on fatigue and vitality. Based on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesized that both types of energy management strategies negatively predict fatigue and positively predict vitality. Employees (N = 124) responded to a baseline survey and to hourly surveys across one work day (6.7 times on average). Consistent with previous research, between-person differences in the use of work-related strategies were positively associated with between-person differences in vitality. However, results of multilevel analyses of the hourly diary data showed that only micro-breaks negatively predicted fatigue and positively predicted vitality. These findings suggest that taking micro-breaks during the work day may have short-term effects on occupational well-being, whereas using work-related strategies may have long-term effects.
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The concept of ‘recovery’ (from work) has quickly gained in importance in the occupational health literature. However, we think that the conceptualization of ‘recovery’ needs some more attention. Although many authors acknowledge that ‘recovery’ refers to a ‘process’, the concept is often treated as a static construct. In this paper, we argue that recovery should be conceptualized as a dynamic construct related to changes in psychophysiological state of the person. We refer to two main theories that have provided a theoretical framework for research in this area: Meijman & Mulder's Effort-Recovery (E-R) model and Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources theory.In particular, the E-R model has been seminal in this area and stresses the element of changing psychophysiological states that has been used for reconceptualising ‘recovery’. Various biological rhythms influence these changing psychophysiological states, and thus the level of energy (or effort) a person can mobilize or wants to mobilize. A distinction is made between ‘physical fatigue’ and ‘mental fatigue’ and its consequences for recovery. The discrepancy between ‘actual state’ and ‘required state’ has been suggested as the basis for ‘recovery’. This emphasises that recovery is a dynamic and ongoing process, which also included motivational aspects, in particular as far as mental work is concerned.The capacity to maintain self-regulation of one's psychophysiological state is important in this respect. Thus, we propose that ‘recovery’ is the continuous process of harmonizing the ‘actual state’ with the state that is ‘required’ at that moment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This study examined the role of schools' psychosocial safety climate (PSC) in teachers' psychological outcomes. We proposed that PSC would moderate the effects of teachers' daily job demands on their fatigue and work engagement, and also the effects of teachers' daily recovery on fatigue and engagement. Sixty-one Australian school teachers completed a diary that was repeated three times over the course of approximately 8 months. Each diary ran for five consecutive days, measuring daily self-reports of job demands, recovery, fatigue, and engagement (N = 915 data points), while perceived PSC was measured once per diary. Multilevel analyses indicated that PSC moderated the relationships between job demands and fatigue, as well as job demands and engagement. This suggests that perceived PSC could act as a buffer against deleterious impacts of daily job demands. PSC also moderated the relationships between recovery and fatigue, and recovery and engagement. This indicates that higher levels of perceived PSC in schools could amplify the benefits of daily recovery for teachers. PSC also exerted a main effect on both fatigue and engagement. These results offer insight into the mechanisms by which PSC may act as a buffer to protect worker mental health, and highlight the importance for school management to promote PSC within their organization.Practitioner pointsPsychosocial safety climate in organizations may buffer workers from the negative psychological outcomes associated with job demands.Psychosocial safety climate in organizations may boost the psychological benefits that workers gain from achieving good daily recovery outside of work.
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This article examines variations of work-related flow both between and within days. On the basis of the effort-recovery model (Meijman & Mulder, 1998), we hypothesized that a person's relative day-specific state of being recovered (i.e., feeling refreshed) in the morning is positively related to subsequent day-level flow experiences during work. Taking into account research on circadian rhythms of human functioning, we further hypothesized that flow experiences follow a U-shaped pattern within the working day and that feeling recovered will affect this pattern. One hundred and twenty-one software professionals provided data on recovery at the start of the working day and on flow at 3 occasions during the day, for a period of 5 consecutive working days (resulting in 493 day-level and 1,340 occasion-level data points). Three-level multilevel models showed that relative day-level state of being recovered predicted day-level flow experiences in the hypothesized direction. The data did not support a general curvilinear, U-shaped main effect of flow experiences within the day. However, people in a relatively high state of being recovered in the morning experienced the predicted U-shaped pattern, whereas poorly recovered people experienced a gradual decrease in flow experiences over the course of the working day. This study emphasizes the importance of recovery during nonwork time for flow experiences within the entire working day, thereby extending research on task characteristics with personal resources when examining predictors of flow. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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In this diary study, we examined the associations between daily work-related smartphone use and daily psychological detachment and daily work-related exhaustion within a group of smartphone owners. In addition, we studied the role of the perceived segmentation norm at the workplace as a moderator of the link between work-related smartphone use and detachment. A total of 70 employees using smartphones on initiative of their employer completed a diary questionnaire on 4 successive workdays (N = 268 data points). We hypothesized that work-related smartphone use is negatively related to psychological detachment and that psychological detachment, in turn, is negatively related to work-related exhaustion. Finally, we expected that especially employees who perceive a high segmentation norm at their workplace have difficulties to psychologically detach from work on days that they use their smartphone more intensively. Overall, the results of multilevel analyses supported these hypotheses. The findings emphasize the importance of a clear organizational policy regarding work-related smartphone use outside of work hours. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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The main objective of this study was to investigate reciprocal effects between personal resources, job/study resources, engagement, and mental health. Building on the Conservation of Resources Theory and the JD-R model, we explored whether positive cycles evolve between all study variables over time. In two studies we surveyed 326 psychotherapists and 550 students in two and three waves respectively over a five-month time lag. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that all variables, job/study resources, personal resources, engagement, and mental health, show direct reciprocal relationships over time. Mediation analyses provided evidence for gain cycles, revealing that personal resources simultaneously serve as predictors, mediators, and outcomes on the motivational axis of JD-R. Finally, mental health emerges as a long-term outcome on the motivational axis. The findings suggest that a one-directional view of relationships falls short in explaining the underlying dynamics. They also provide evidence for gain cycles between personal resources, engagement, and mental health.
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The meaning of employee engagement is ambiguous among both academic researchers and among practitioners who use it in conversations with clients. We show that the term is used at different times to refer to psychological states, traits, and behaviors as well as their antecedents and outcomes. Drawing on diverse relevant literatures, we offer a series of propositions about (a) psychological state engagement; (b) behavioral engagement; and (c) trait engagement. In addition, we offer propositions regarding the effects of job attributes and leadership as main effects on state and behavioral engagement and as moderators of the relationships among the 3 facets of engagement. We conclude with thoughts about the measurement of the 3 facets of engagement and potential antecedents, especially measurement via employee surveys.
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In this diary study, we tested the recovery potential of exercise activities during leisure time and examined the psychological mechanisms underlying the relation between exercise activities and affect. We hypothesized that spending time on exercise activities after work will be related to subsequent affect in the evening, and that psychological detachment from work, sense of belonging, and physical self-perceptions explain why exercise activities are related to subsequent affect. One-hundred and twenty-six participants from diverse occupations completed a diary twice a day over five consecutive work days. Multilevel analyses showed that exercise activities after work were related to positive, but not to negative affect in the evening. As proposed, psychological detachment, sense of belonging, and physical self-perceptions mediated the relation between exercise activities after work and positive affect in the evening.
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Drawing from research on personal resources (e.g., Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998; Fredrickson, 1998) and the episodic nature of work (Beal, Weiss, Barros, & MacDermid, 2005), we examine research and theory relevant to the study of momentary recovery in the workplace. Specifically, we propose that the nature of within workday breaks influences the levels of psychological resources, which in turn influence various workplace outcomes. First, we discuss the momentary approach to studying workplace breaks and consequent resource levels. In doing so, we distinguish between two types of breaks, respites and chores; and we detail two types of psychological resources, regulatory and affective resources. Consequences of psychological resource levels on emotional exhaustion and performance are considered. We also explore possible moderators of the proposed relationships; we discuss job and individual characteristics, and motivation to perform. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a brief discussion on future research and possible applications of the momentary approach to work recovery in organizations.
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This article reports on the development of a short questionnaire to measure work engagement—a positive work-related state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Data were collected in 10 different countries (N = 14,521), and results indicated that the original 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) can be shortened to 9 items (UWES-9). The factorial validity of the UWES-9 was demonstrated using confirmatory factor analyses, and the three scale scores have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Furthermore, a two-factor model with a reduced Burnout factor (including exhaustion and cynicism) and an expanded Engagement factor (including vigor, dedication, absorption, and professional efficacy) fit best to the data. These results confirm that work engagement may be conceived as the positive antipode of burnout. It is concluded that the UWES-9 scores has acceptable psychometric properties and that the instrument can be used in studies on positive organizational behavior.
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The aim of this chapter is to provide a literature review on daily recovery during non-work time. Specifically, next to discussing theories that help us understand the process of recovery, we will clarify how recovery and its potential outcomes have been conceptualized so far. Consequently, we present empirical findings of diary studies addressing the activities that may facilitate or hinder daily recovery. We will pay special attention to potential mechanisms that may underlie the facilitating or hindering processes. Owing to the limited research on daily recovery, we will review empirical findings on predictors and outcomes of a related construct, namely need for recovery. We conclude with an overall framework from which daily recovery during non-work time can be understood. In this framework, we claim that daily recovery is an important moderator in the process through which job characteristics and their related strain may lead to unfavorable states on a daily basis.
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We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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Unemployment has serious negative effects on psychological health, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. According to the latent deprivation model, it is the lack of latent benefits of work associated with unemployment, which leads to psychological distress. In a four-wave study among employed persons, unemployed persons, and persons out of the labour force (OLF) (NT1= 1,026), this assumption was tested cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally. Multiple mediation analyses show the expected differences in distress between the employed, unemployed, and OLF persons and indicate that part of this difference can be explained by differential access to the latent benefits. Furthermore, cross-lagged structural equation modelling confirms that a deprivation of latent benefits leads to a decrease in psychological health 6 months later. Findings regarding the different quality of the latent benefits in relation to each other and over time when predicting psychological health are discussed.
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This diary study adds to research on the Job Demands-Resources model. We test main propositions of this model on the level of daily processes, namely, additive and interaction effects of day-specific job demands and day-specific job and personal resources on day-specific work engagement. One hundred and fourteen employees completed electronic questionnaires three times a day over the course of one working week. Hierarchical linear models indicated that day-specific resources (psychological climate, job control, and being recovered in the morning) promoted work engagement. As predicted, day-specific job control qualified the relationship between day-specific time pressure and work engagement: on days with higher job control, time pressure was beneficial for work engagement. On days with lower job control, time pressure was detrimental for work engagement. We discuss our findings and contextualize them in the current literature on dynamic and emergent job characteristics.
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Although studies on employee recovery accumulate at a stunning pace, the commonly used theory (Effort-Recovery model) that explains how recovery occurs has not been explicitly tested. We aimed to unravel the recovery process by examining whether off-job activities enhance next morning vigor to the extent that they enable employees to relax and detach from work. In addition, we investigated whether adequate recovery also helps employees to work with more enthusiasm and vigor on the next workday. On five consecutive days, a total of 74 employees (356 data points) reported the hours they spent on various off-job activities, their feelings of psychological detachment, and feelings of relaxation before going to sleep. Feelings of vigor were reported on the next morning, and day-levels of work engagement were reported after work. As predicted, leisure activities (social, low-effort, and physical activities) increased next morning vigor through enhanced psychological detachment and relaxation. High-duty off-job activities (work and household tasks) reduced vigor because these activities diminished psychological detachment and relaxation. Moreover, off-job activities significantly affected next day work engagement. Our results support the assumption that recovery occurs when employees engage in off-job activities that allow for relaxation and psychological detachment. The findings also underscore the significance of recovery after work: Adequate recovery not only enhances vigor in the morning, but also helps employees to stay engaged during the next workday. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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Abstract We report an experience sampling study examining the within-individual effects of workplace interpersonal interaction characteristics on affect at work and daily well-being. A sample of 60 full-time employees completed measures of interpersonal interaction characteristics and affective states during each of 10 workdays and a measure of job satisfaction at the end of each workday. Overall, the employees provided 380 day-level data points. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) results indicated that interpersonal interaction characteristics were associated with affective states and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the effects of workplace interpersonal interactions on job satisfaction were mediated by affective states. Finally, positive affect mitigated the detrimental association between negative affect and job satisfaction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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We focus on everyday role transitions involving home, work, and other places. Transitions are boundary-crossing activities, where one exits and enters roles by surmounting role boundaries. Roles can be arrayed on a continuum, spanning high segmentation to high integration. Segmentation decreases role blurring but increases the magnitude of change, rendering boundary crossing more difficult; crossing often is facilitated by rites of passage. Integration decreases the magnitude of change but increases blurring, rendering boundary creation and maintenance more difficult; this challenge often is surmounted by boundary work.
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Drawing on the emotional labor and work recovery literatures, we examined the relationship between workday break activities and emotional experiences and the role these variables play in the performance of positive affective displays in service interactions. In results based on data collected from 64 cheerleading instructors via experience sampling, break activities are related to emotional experiences and positive affective displays. Moreover, supporting regulatory resource theory, break activities' impact on positive affective displays goes beyond the effects of emotional experiences. Our findings suggest employees' use of workday breaks can have practical implications for how they feel and perform at work.
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In this paper, we examined the within-person relations between morning recovery level (i.e., feeling refreshed and replenished) and work engagement throughout the day, and between work engagement throughout the day and the subsequent recovery level at the end of the workday. We hypothesized that job stressors (situational constraints, job demands) moderate these relations. A diary study over 1 workweek with 2 measurement occasions per day (N = 111 persons) provided support for most of the hypotheses: Morning recovery level predicted work engagement, and work engagement predicted subsequent recovery level at the end of the workday after controlling for morning recovery level. As predicted, situational constraints attenuated these relations, but job demands did not. The results suggest that recovery translates into employee work engagement, and work engagement, in turn, prevents a loss in recovery level throughout the day, particularly when situational constraints are low. Situational constraints seem to interrupt the reciprocal processes between recovery level and work engagement.
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Many researchers have concerns about work engagement's distinction from other constructs and its theoretical merit. The goals of this study were to identify an agreed-upon definition of engagement, to investigate its uniqueness, and to clarify its nomological network of constructs. Using a conceptual framework based on Macey and Schneider (2008; Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3-30), we found that engagement exhibits discriminant validity from, and criterion related validity over, job attitudes. We also found that engagement is related to several key antecedents and consequences. Finally, we used meta-analytic path modeling to test the role of engagement as a mediator of the relation between distal antecedents and job performance, finding support for our conceptual framework. In sum, our results suggest that work engagement is a useful construct that deserves further attention. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Personnel Psychology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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Given that many employees use email for work communication on a daily basis, this study examined within-person relationships between day-level incivility via work email (cyber incivility) and employee outcomes. Using resource-based theories, the study examined two resources (i.e., job control, psychological detachment from work) that may alleviate the effects of cyber incivility on distress. Daily survey data collected over four consecutive workdays from 96 employees were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Results showed that on days when employees experienced cyber incivility, they reported higher affective and physical distress at the end of the workday which, in turn, was associated with higher distress the next morning. Job control attenuated the concurrent relationships between cyber incivility and both types of distress at work, while psychological detachment from work in the evening weakened the lagged relationships between end-of-workday distress and distress the following morning. These findings shed light on cyber incivility as a daily stressor and on the importance of resources both in the work and home domains that can help reduce the incivility-related stress process. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.
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The present study aims to uncover the way daily job crafting influences daily job performance (i.e., task performance, altruism, and counterproductive work behavior). Job crafting was conceptualized as "seeking resources," "seeking challenges," and "reducing demands" and viewed as strategies individuals use to optimize their job characteristics. We hypothesized that daily job crafting relates to daily job demands and resources (work pressure and autonomy), which consequently relate to daily work engagement and exhaustion and ultimately to job performance. A sample of 95 employees filled in a quantitative diary for 5 consecutive working days (n occasions = 475). We predicted and found that daily seeking resources was positively associated with daily task performance because daily autonomy and work engagement increased. In contrast, daily reducing demands was detrimental for daily task performance and altruism, because employees lower their daily workload and consequently their engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Only daily seeking challenges was positively (rather than negatively) associated with daily counterproductive behavior. We conclude that employee job crafting can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on job performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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This article presents an overview of the literature on daily fluctuations in work engagement. Daily work engagement is a state of vigor, dedication, and absorption that is predictive of important organizational outcomes, including job performance. After briefly discussing enduring work engagement, the advantages of diary research are discussed, as well as the concept and measurement of daily work engagement. The research evidence shows that fluctuations in work engagement are a function of the changes in daily job and personal resources. Particularly on the days that employees have access to many resources, they are able to cope well with their daily job demands ( e. g., work pressure, negative events), and likely interpret these demands as challenges. Furthermore, the literature review shows that on the days employees have sufficient levels of job control, they proactively try to optimize their work environment in order to stay engaged. This proactive behavior is called job crafting and predicts momentary and daily work engagement. An important additional finding is that daily engagement has a reciprocal relationship with daily recovery. On the days employees recover well, they feel more engaged; and engagement during the day is predictive of subsequent recovery. Finding the daily balance between engagement while at work and detachment while at home seems the key to enduring work engagement.
Article
In this research, we examined the role of mindfulness for recovery from work using a daily diary design (N = 121; 5 days; 3 measurement occasions per day). The first goal of the study was to investigate the relationship of mindfulness with sleep quality and the mediating role of psychological detachment from a day-level perspective. A second goal was to extend the process perspective in recovery research beyond the day level and consider systematic change trajectories in recovery variables over the course of the work week and the role of mindfulness in these trajectories. Results regarding day-level relationships confirmed that mindfulness experienced during work was related to subsequent sleep quality, and this relationship was mediated by psychological detachment from work in the evening. Furthermore, an investigation of the role of mindfulness in recovery change trajectories supported the idea that psychological detachment trajectories increase over the work week for individuals low on mindfulness while there was no systematic mean-level change for individuals high on mindfulness. In contrast, sleep quality followed a linear increase from Monday to Friday for all individuals, irrespective of their levels of trait mindfulness. Practical and theoretical implications for the mindfulness and the recovery literature are discussed in conclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
In this essay we argue for a more person-centric direction for research in industrial–organizational (I–O) psychology. We argue that the prevailing paradigm within I–O treats workers as objects and in so doing limits the ability to develop a deep and continued understanding of the important ways in which humans relate to work. In response, we think there is a need for a more coherent focus on the worker and on the subjective experience of working. After describing the current paradigm we suggest an alternative—a person-centric work psychology that takes the worker as its focus and worker experience as a topic of study.
Article
Purpose: The goals of this study were to determine whether, among older employees, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work-related factors were associated with poorer mental and physical health and whether high work engagement buffered the associations between unfavourable work-related factors and poorer health. Methods: A 1-year longitudinal study with employed persons aged 45-64 was conducted within the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (n = 8,837). Using an online questionnaire, work-related factors (physical: physical load; psychosocial: psychological job demands, autonomy, and support) and work engagement were measured at baseline and health at baseline and 1-year follow-up. General linear models were used to assess associations of work-related factors and work engagement with health. Tests of interaction terms assessed whether work engagement buffered the work-related factor-health associations. Results: Unfavourable psychosocial work-related factors at baseline were associated with poorer mental health at follow-up. Higher physical load, higher psychological job demands, and lower autonomy at baseline were associated with poorer physical health at follow-up. Higher work engagement at baseline was related to better physical and especially better mental health during the 1-year follow-up. Work engagement had a small effect on the associations between work-related factors and health. Conclusions: Among older employees, especially the promotion of a high work engagement and, to a lesser extent, favourable work-related factors can be beneficial for mental health in particular.