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Tagetes (Tagetes minuta) Oils

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Tagetes minuta has a wide range of bioactivity, thus presenting itself as an excellent preventive measure agent and as a food preservative for a wide range of foodstuffs and beverages. The presence of antifungal acetylinic thiophenes from T. minuta, presents the plant as a potential on-farm biopesticide agent in arable farming systems. The wide range of microbicidal activity of the essential oil of T. minuta against virus, bacteria, fungi, arboviruses, protozoa, and helminths presents the oil as a potentially agent to relief food poisoning. The essential oil of T. minuta has the potential to be developed as a weedicide and anthelminthic to help increasing productivity in arable farming systems thereby increasing food productivity as the plant is grown to suppress a wide range of perennial weeds and to protect crops against nematodes and slugs. Tagetes minuta is a potential food storage agent and an environmentally friendly and nontoxic acaricide. There is a need for validation of traditionally claimed usages and applications of the essential oil of T. minuta in the food industry.
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From Cornelius, W.W., Wycliffe, W., 2016. Tagetes (Tagetes minuta) Oils. In: Preedy, V.R.
(Ed.), Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety. Academic Press, 791–802.
ISBN: 9780124166417
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Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety, First Edition, 2016, 791-802
Chapter 90
Tagetes (Tagetes minuta) Oils
Wanjala W. Cornelius1, Wanzala Wycliffe2
1South Eastern Kenya University, Department of Physical Sciences, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kitui, Kenya; 2South Eastern Kenya
University, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kitui, Kenya
List of Abbreviations
$ Dollar of the United States of America
£ Sterlling Pound of the United Kingdom
BBT 5-(3-Buten-1-ynyl)-2,2-bithienyl
BBTOAc 5-(4-Acetoxy-1-butynyl)-2,2-bithienyl
CaRSV Carnation ring spot viruses
CAS Chemical Abstract Service
CaVMV Carnation vein mottle viruses
CBI Center for the Promotion of Imports from developing countries
E/Z trans/cis
EPAUS Environmental Protection Agency of the United States
GC Gas chromatography
GC-MS Gas chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
GFDL GNU Free Documentation License
ITC International Trade Center
IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Kg Kilograms
M+ Molecular mass
NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service
PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acids
R South African Rand
UK United Kingdom
UNCOMTRADE The United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database
UNCTAD The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
USA United States of America
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
w/w Weight per weight
INTRODUCTION
The plant Tagetes minuta L. is a worldwide species popularly known as wild marigold, a common English name prehis-
torically derived from “Mary’s gold.” It belongs to the sunflower family, Asteraceae, which comprises the largest family
of vascular plants with more than 23,000 species. It is naturalized in a wide range of climatic conditions worldwide but
is well known to be native to North and South America. It is now a naturalized species in Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia,
New Zealand, United States, and Madagascar following its introduction during the Spanish colonization of South America
(Babu and Kaul, 2007).
Tagetes minuta has a long history of human use as food, perfumes, medicines, ornamentals, and in ritual and sociocul-
tural ethnopractices, depending on geographical location and ethnic background (Hamayun et al., 2006). For instance, in
Chile and Argentina, the plant is popularly known for its traditional culinary use in stews as a highly prized flavoring agent.
While in many parts of the world, T. minuta is commonly used to make a hot and cold refreshing beverage as well as herbal
tea, a characteristic that has given it the potential to become a new crop for many of the drug-growing areas of the world
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(Chalchat et al., 1995). The essential oil of T. minuta is used in many ways, predominantly as flavoring and seasoning agent,
and/or imparting aroma in a wide range of foodstuffs and beverages, depending on the essential oil’s main constituents
(Hamayun et al., 2006).
BOTANICAL ASPECTS OF TAGETES MINUTA L.
Morphology
Tagetes minuta is an erect, terrestrial, herbaceous annual and perennial plant, growing up to a height of 4.5 m (Figure 1)
(Holm et al., 1997). The leaves are slightly glossy green and are pinnately dissected into four to six pairs of pinnae, while
the leaf margins are finely serrate. The inflorescence heads on the plant are numerous, usually flat-topped cymes, 8–12 mm
high, apex three to five toothed, ray florets usually three per head, rays 1–2 mm long, disk florets usually three to five per
head, and corollas approxiamtely 2.5 mm long. The dark brown achenes of the plant are flattened, 6–8 mm long, and pappus
scales 2–3 mm long (Wan and Chen, 2006). The under surface of the leaves bears a number of small, punctate, multicellular
glands, orangish in color, which exude a licorice-like aroma when ruptured. Glands may also be found on the stems and
involucre bracts. Four or five fused involucre bracts surround each head. The seeds have an unpleasant odor and can reduce
the value of grain harvests when they are mixed and stored together (Wanzala et al., 2012).
The genus Tagetes consist of 56 species, 27 of which are annuals while 29 are perennials but mostly herbaceous plants
(Soule, 1996). A considerable proportion of the species are commercially grown in respective agro-ecological regions
worldwide as a multipurpose new crop. Of these species, T. minuta, Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, and Tagetes tenuifolia
are most common with T. minuta being the most studied and widely grown species in several countries due to yielding high
grade oil used in food, nutraceutical, perfumery, ornamental, pharmaceutical, agarbattis, and agricultural industries (Chalchat
et al., 1995; Singh et al., 2003).
Ecology
Tagetes minuta is native to the temperate grasslands of southern South America (Holm et al., 1997). In the nonnative regions
of this plant, it naturally grows in the wild and in the arable farming systems as a noxious weed (Holm et al., 1997). The high
demand of the essential oil of this plant resulted into depletion of the wild resources, thus necessitating its systematic cultiva-
tion in subtropical and temperate agroclimatic zones worldwide, predominantly in the Indian subcontinent (Singh et al., 2003).
(A) (B)
FIGURE 1 (A) A plant of Tagetes minuta L., 1753 in an arable farming system as a weed left in the farm after harvesting corn. (B) Theaerial parts of
T. minuta that are harvested for extraction of essential oil. Picture courtesy of Dr Wycliffe Wanzala.
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Tagetes minuta is now a widespread weed in Africa, South Europe, South Asia, Madagascar, and Australia (Chalchat et al.,
1995). Tagetes minuta is rich at both high and low altitudes and in either high or low rainfall environments (Holm et al., 1997)
and is often found growing in disturbed areas during early plant successional stages. The seeds cling to the hair of animals and
human clothes once in contact and are therefore dispersed by humans, domesticated by wild animals. Toward the end of its
growing season, the aerial parts of T. minuta dry up and may easily be destroyed by fire, but new colonies are formed rapidly
in the following season from seeds deposited in the soil. Tagetes minuta tolerates a soil pH between 4.3 and 7.0. In South
Africa, the marigold is a useful pioneer plant in the reclamation of disturbed land, while in many other countries, the plant is
found spread on forested roadside, adjacent to forest margin and dominating arable land, particularly after crop harvest as the
commonest weed (Figure 1(A)) (Wan and Chen, 2006).
USAGE AND APPLICATIONS OF TAGETES OIL IN FOOD SCIENCE
The usage and applications of the essential oil of T. minuta are deeply rooted in the diversity of useful secondary metabo-
lites found in appropriately desired proportions, thus manifesting in a variety of biological properties (Table 1) (Sadia et al.,
2013; Wanzala and Ogoma, 2013). Even from a traditional point of view, however, the nature of chemotypes and their com-
position affects the quantity and quality of oil, thereby impacting on the usage and applications of the oil, and thus the plant
as a whole (Wanzala et al., 2012). Traditionally, the plant has a long history of interaction with humanity and henceforth,
its applications to the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries, more particularly the preparation of teas and popular
potato dish called ocopa in South America (Soule, 1996). Infusions, tinctures, and juice from aerial parts of Tagetes spp.
have been used as traditional food additives worldwide. This traditional claim provided leads into research to help explain
the underlying science and as a result. For example, an orange–yellow carotenoid lutein substance found in the florets of
T. erecta and many other marigolds (T. minuta included) has been identified, isolated, and approved by the European Union
(INS-Number E161b) for use as a food color and flavor in various foodstuffs, at a usage level in condiments and relishes
such as pasta, vegetable oil, margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressing, baked goods, confectionery, dairy products, ice cream,
yogurt, citrus juice, and mustard (Timberlake and Henry, 1986). Additionally, the orange pigment extracted from the petals
of marigold is in great demand for poultry feed in food production systems, while, on the other hand, the plant is grown in
arable farming systems to keep the nematode population in soil under control, hence often grown alongside valued food
crops such as tomato, eggplant, chili pepper, tobacco, and potato plants to boost their production, thus ensuring food secu-
rity. Tagetes oil is therefore a potential agent for protecting food crops on the farm and in storage, thereby increasing food
security, particularly in undernourished communities of the world. The oil also provides an opportunity for developing
an environmentally friendly and a nontoxic acaricide to enhance increased production of milk, beef, and hides/skin in the
livestock industry (Wanzala, 2009; Nchu et al., 2012).
Chemotypes of the Essential Oil of Tagetes minuta L.
Tagetes minuta essential oil has a strong, sweet, wild, fruity, and slight citrus-like aroma. It has a yellow to reddish–amber
coloration with an intermediate viscosity, which may well turn thick and even gel-like upon exposure to air at length (Figure 2)
due to easy polymerization. The oil is rich in secondary metabolites, including acyclic, monocyclic and bicyclic monoterpenes,
sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, carotenoids, and thiophenes (Wanzala and Ogoma, 2013).
The usage and applications of the essential oils of Tagetes spp. are rooted in the composition of secondary metabolites
in the oil. Previous reports have shown significant differences in their compositions, thus having different biological proper-
ties and impacting on the nature of their usage and applications (Wanzala, 2009). Furthermore, the Tagetes species can be
unambiguously differentiated taxonomically by the chemical composition of their essential oils (Singh et al., 2003). Gas
chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of T. minuta oils indicated that the
geographical location of plants (Chalchat et al., 1995; Singh et al., 2003), stage of growth of harvested plants, plant parts
harvested (Chalchat et al., 1995), soil type and its nutrient status (Singh et al., 2003), nature of chemotypes (Gil et al.,
2000), plant parts, climate, sunlight, methods of plant harvesting, and oil extraction method (Wanzala, 2009) equally affects
the quantity and quality of oil.
In Argentina, dihydrotagetone, α-phellandrene, limonene, o-cymene, as well as the isomers of β-ocimene, tagetone, and
tagetenone were the major constituents of T. minuta essential oil (Gil et al., 2000). In Saudi Arabia, GC and GC-MS analy-
sis confirmed the presence of tagetone (11.52%), 5-octyn-4-one,2,7-dimethyl (11.52%), propanedinitrile, dicyclohexyl-
(10.45%), and 2-pinen-4-one (8.03%) to be the main components with lesser amounts of 1-acetoxy-p-menth-3-one (0.17%)
and 9-octacenamide(Z) (0.48%) (EL-Deeb et al., 2004). In India, the freshly distilled T. minuta oil contained ocimene
54.97%, and dihydrotegetone 32.58% as major constituents (Singh et al., 2003), while in other studies (Z)-tagetone,
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TABLE 1 Some of the Major Chemical Components Evaluated in the Essential Oil of Tagetes minuta (Sample Plants were Collected from the Southern Slopes of Mount
Elgon in Western Kenya) and Some of Their Corresponding Industrial Applications in Food and Agriculture
Chemical Name IUPAC Name Chemical Structure
Molecular
Formula
Molecular
Mass
(g/mol)
Density
(g/cm3)
CAS
Number Uses
Tagetes minuta
essential oil
Tagetes oil Not applicable Not
applicable
Not
applicable
Variable
(0.850–0.922)
91770-75-1
(Replacing
8016-84-0)
Multipurpose
(in food,
agriculture and
perfumery/
fragrance
industries)
cis-Ocimene 3,7-Dimethyl-1,3,
7-octatriene
C10H16 136.24 0.800 3338-55-4 Agriculture
(insecticides)/
perfumery
Dihydrotagetone 2,6-Dimethyloct-
7-en-4-one
O
C10H18O 154.25 0.826 1879-00-1 Flavory in food
industry/
perfumery
Piperitenone 2-Methyl-6-propan-
2-ylidenecyclohex-
2-en-1-one
O
C10H14O 150.22 0.977 491-09-8 Fragrance
and flavor
concentrates
of all types.
trans-Tagetone (5E)-2,6-
Dimethylocta-5,
7-dien-4-one
C10H16O 152.23 0.847 6752-80-3 Livestock tick
repellant/
perfumery
3,9-Epoxy-
p-mentha-
1,8(10)-diene
3,6-Dimethylidene-
4,5,7,7a-tetrahydro-
3aH-1- benzofuran
O
C10H14O 150.22 0.967 494-90-6 Peppermint oil
formulations
β-Ocimene (3E)-3,7-
Dimethylocta-1,3,
6-triene
C10H16 136.23 0.776 3779-61-1 Perfumery
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cis-Tagetone (Z)-2,6-
Dimethylocta-5,
7-dien-4-one
O
C10H16O 152.23 0.847 3588-18-9 Treatment of
wounds, skin
infections, bee
stings, warts,
cancer, mos-
quito repellant
(trans)-β-
Caryophyllene
4,11,11-Trimethyl-
8-methylene-
bicyclo[7.2.0]
undec-4-ene
H
H
C15H24 204.36 0.905 87-44-5 Antileishmanial
Bicycloger-
macrene
(1R, 4E,8E,
10S)-4,8,11,11-
Tetramethyl-
bicyclo[8.1.0]
undeca-4,8-diene
C15H24 204.35 0.861 67650-90-2 Terpene with
no recorded
uses
Ar-Turmerone (6S)-2-Methyl-6-(4-
methylphenyl)hept-
2-en-4-one
O
C15H20O 216.32 0.945 532-65-0 Insecticidal
activity/Fungi-
cidal activity/
Antidermato-
phytic property/
antiphenom
activity
Lemonene 1-Methyl-4-(1-
methylethenyl)-
cyclohexene
C10H16 136.24 0.841 5889-27-5 Agriculture
(insecticides)/
Cosmetic
products
α-Terpinolene Cyclohexene,1-
methyl-4-(1-methy-
lethylidene
C10H16 136.24 0.861 586-62-9 Flavors and
fragrance
(Z)-Ocimenone 2,5,7-Octa-
trien-4-one,
2,6-dimethyl-
O
C10H14O 150.22 0.847 33746-71-3 Flavors and
fragrance
Continued
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TABLE 1 Some of the Major Chemical Components Evaluated in the Essential Oil of Tagetes minuta (Sample Plants were Collected from the Southern Slopes of Mount
Elgon in Western Kenya) and Some of Their Corresponding Industrial Applications in Food and Agriculture—cont’d
Piperitone 6-Isopropyl-3-
methyl-1- cyclohex-
2-enone
O
C10H16O 152.23 0.933 89-81-6 Production
of synthetic
menthol and
thymol for
pharmaceuti
cals
BBT 5-(3-Buten-1-ynyl)-
2,2-bithienyl
SS
C12H8S2216. Antifungal,
nematocidal,
antibacterial
α-Terthienyl
(α-terthiophene)
2,5-Di(thiophen-
2-yl)thiophene
SS
S
C12H8S3248.38 1081-34-1 Antifungal,
nematocidal,
antibacterial
BBTOAc 5-(4-Acetoxy-
1-butynyl)-2,2-
bithienyl
S
S
O
O
C14H13S2O2276 Antifungal,
nematocidal,
antibacterial
Quercetagetin-
7-arabinosyl-
galactoside
O
O
OH
OH
HO
RO
OH
OH
R=arabinose-galactose
C26H31O17 616 Antimicrobial
activity
Lutein (3R,3R,6R)-β,ε-
Carotene-3,3-diol
HO
OH
C40H56O2568.88 127-40-2 Food colorant
IUPAC, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry; CAS, Chemical Abstract Service.
Chemical Name IUPAC Name Chemical Structure
Molecular
Formula
Molecular
Mass
(g/mol)
Density
(g/cm3)
CAS
Number Uses
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(Z)-β-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, (Z)- and (E)-ocimenone were found as major constituents (Chalchat et al., 1995). In
Egypt, the main components of the T. minuta essential oil were monoterpenes of which trans- and cis-tagetone were present
in 52.3–64.2% (Mohamed et al., 2002). In Iran, GC and GC-MS analysis revealed the main components to be α-terpineol
(20.8%), (Z)-β-ocimene (17.7%), dihydrotagetone (13.7%), (E)-ocimenone (13.3%), (Z)-tagetone (8.4%), and (Z)-ocimenone
(6.1%) (Moghaddam et al., 2007). In Madagascar, the main components in the essential oil of T. minuta were limonene
(3.6–11%), (Z)-β-ocimene (1.0–17.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (0.5–14.6%), p-cymene (0.3–20.4%), β-caryophyllene (1.1–
12.7%), (Z)-tagetenone (26.7%), (E)-tagetenone (31.3%), α-muurolene (36.5%), and verbenone (1.4–15.4%) (Wanzala
and Ogoma, 2013). In Kenya, characterization of the essential oil showed that T. minuta oil comprised mainly cis-ocimene
(43.78%), dihydrotagetone (16.71%), piperitenone (10.15%), trans-tagetone (8.67%), 3,9-epoxy-p-metha-1,8(10) diene
(6.47%), β-ocimene (3.25%), and cis-tagetone (1.95%) (Wanzala and Ogoma, 2013). In other studies, out of 104 chemical
components, the major constituents of T. minuta essential oil were tagetone, E/Z-ocimenone, E/Z-ocimene, germacrene,
limonene, trans-anethole, and dihydrotegetone. Some of the major chemical components in the essential oil of T. minuta
and their applications in industry are listed in Table 1.
General Biological Properties of Tagetes minuta L. and Its Essential Oil
Validation of some of the folkloric claims about T. minuta through evaluation of its essential oil has shown the plant to
contain compounds and/or blends that have a wide range of bioactive and therapeutic properties (particularly in aromather-
apy) such as antihelminthic, carminative, arthropod repellency, sedative, weedicidal, antiseptic, diaphoretic, spasmolytic,
germicides, stomachic, antispasmodic, antiprotozoal, bactericidal, emmenagogue, nematocidal, insecticidal, fungicidal,
antiviral, and other microbicidal properties (Sadia et al., 2013). Also, the essential oil of T. minuta has been shown to pos-
sess bronchodilatory, tranquilizing, hypotensive, and antiinflammatory bioactivities (Singh et al., 2003). There is empirical
evidence that the secondary compounds in Tagetes species are effective deterrents of numerous organisms, including fungi
(Chan et al., 1975), pathogens, bacteria (Grover and Rao, 1978), trematodes, nematodes (Graham et al., 1980), and numer-
ous insect pests through several different mechanisms (Maradufu et al., 1978). It has been reported that Z-β-ocimene and
dihydrotagetone, which are constituent compounds of the essential oil of T. minuta, were found to be antiviral, active against
carnation ring spot and carnation vein mottle viruses. The essential oil of T. minuta generally affects a variety of microbial
organisms (Senatore et al., 2004). Allelopathic activities of Tagetes spp., particularly those against nematodes, have been
reviewed (Sadia et al., 2013). Nematocidal activity of T. minuta roots is attributed to thienyls, which provide inhibitory
effects to parasitic root nematodes and other microbes affecting roots of plants in arable farming systems (Soule, 1996) while
the biocidal effects of the essential oil from T. minuta flowers and leaves are generally due to a wide range of terpenoids (Singh
et al., 2003). Dihydrotagetone and Z-β-ocimene isolated from T. minuta oil showed strong nematicidal activity against eggs
and juveniles of a root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919) with dihydrotagetone showing a
higher level of toxicity than Z-β-ocimene (Adekunle et al., 2007).
FIGURE 2 Samples of the color of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L., 1753 (reddish–amber–light yellowish fluid liquid (A) and yellowish (B)). The
color of the essential oil produced on industrial large-scale form for commercial use (A) and the color of the essential oil produced in the laboratory on
small-scale for studies (B). When sample (B) is left exposed to air for some time, its color changes to that of sample (A) due to oil oxidation.
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Ethnobotanic Usage and Applications of T. minuta L. in Food Science
Tagetes minuta has a long history of human interest and is used as beverage, condiment, ornamental, medicinal decoction,
and in ritual/religious practices (Soule, 1996). In southern South America where the plant is native, its leaves, stems, and
flowers are used as a culinary herb in Peru, Ecuador, and parts of Chile and Bolivia, where it is called by the Incan term,
huacatay. The huacatay paste is used to make the popular potato dish called ocopa. In Peru, since the ancient Inca civiliza-
tion, T. minuta is made into puree and seasoning that give local dishes a unique herbal flavor which is thought to taste like
a mixture of mint, coriander, and basil oils. The plant is also popular in making ethnomedicinal teas in some areas (Soule,
1996). Farmers, who do not practice industrialized agriculture leave plants of T. minuta in their arable farming fields. This
second crop is beneficial in several ways such as the rapid growth of T. minuta quickly shades out other plant species that
may be of less use to the farmer and it can be harvested for personal use or for sale in city markets; as well, it has been
reported to aid in the retention of humidity in the arable farming fields (Jimenez-Osornio, 1991). In Nepal, marigold gar-
lands are used almost in every household especially during the Tihar festival and in Portugal, as well as in India, the plants
are used for daily worships and rituals particularly in the Day of the Dead celebrations as the plant was regarded as the
flower of the dead in prehispanic Mexico. In Ukraine, related plants of marigold, traditionally known as Chornobryvtsi
are regarded as one of the national symbols and are often mentioned in songs, poems, and tales. There has been increasing
interest in the use of T. minuta by indigenous people in India due to increased demand of the essential oil, which is widely
used in daily lives while the plant’s flowers are used to decorate Hindu temples (Anjaria, 1989). More importantly, an
orange pigment extracted from petals of marigold is in great demand for poultry feed in food production systems, while, on
the other hand, the plant is grown in arable farming systems to keep the nematode population in soil under control, is often
grown alongside valued food crops such as tomato, eggplant, chili pepper, tobacco, and potato plants to boost their produc-
tion (Wanzala and Ogoma, 2013). Due to the plant’s antinematicidal activity, it is used as an intercrop in rotation arable
farming systems to protect crops from damage (Singh et al., 2003). In addition, marigold produces antibacterial thiophenes
as exudates by the roots in the arable farming soils thereby reducing risks of arable farmers contracting infections while in
contact with affected and infected soils (Soule, 1996). This therefore implies that the tagetes (marigold oil) producing plants
should not be planted near any nitrogen-fixing leguminous plants whose bacterial activity increases soil fertility, otherwise
arable farming productivity and food security for thiophenes may kill the useful bacteria. Dried leaf powder of T. minuta
was used as a mulch to suppress the growth of two rice paddy weeds, Echinochloa crus-galli and Cyperus rotundus, thus
increasing rice yield and enhancing food security (Singh et al., 2003).
In many regions of the world, the plant is popularly used as anthelmintic, diuretic, antispasmodic, and to treat stomach
and intestinal diseases and relief stomach upsets following a meal. The plant’s decoction and/or tea preparations may be
consumed either warm or cooled and may be sweetened to individual’s taste. Tagetes minuta is popularly used in rice dishes
and as flavoring agent in stews in Chile and Argentina since antiquity. For instance, in northern Chile, suico (a tradition
preparation of T. minuta that enhances flavor of food) is so highly prized that many people have made a traditional habit of
collecting wild plants to dry a sufficient supply to last the winter season in their respective homesteads (Soule, 1996). Leaf
infusions and extracts from Tagetes spp. have been used in folk medicines to treat intestinal and stomach diseases, which
have been also suspected of causing food poisoning and some of them have been found to have bioactivity against Gram-
positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Tereschuk et al., 1997).
In Kenya, an infusion of T. minuta is used for the treatment of snake bites in the Luo and Kamba communities and aerial
parts of the plant used for protection against mosquito bites in the tribes of western Kenya and its scent (essential oil) used
as antitick agent in the livestock industry (Wanzala, 2009).
Value Addition Usage and Applications of T. minuta L. in Food Science
Identification of essential oil of Tagetes minuta with a wide range of biological activity such as anthelminthic, carmi-
native, repellent property, weedicidal, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, germicides, stomachic, antispasmodic, antiprotozoal,
bactericidal, emmenagogue, nematocidal, insecticidal, fungicidal, antiviral, and other microbicidal activity (Tereschuk
et al., 1997), and its application in food science became inevitable (Chatchal et al., 1995; Saha et al., 2012). For a long
time in the history of humanity, infusions, tinctures, and juice from aerial parts of Tagetes spp. have been used as tradi-
tional food additives worldwide. This provided leads into research for underlying science and as a result, for instance, an
orange–yellow, carotenoid lutein substance in the florets of T. erecta and many other marigolds (T. minuta included) has
been identified and approved by the European Union (INS-Number E161b) for use as a food color and flavor in various
foodstuffs, at a usage level in condiments and relishes such as pasta, vegetable oil, margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressing,
baked goods, confectionery, dairy products, ice cream, yogurt, citrus juice and mustard (Timberlake and Henry, 1986).
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In such applications, the European Union approved a maximum level of 0.05% of the essential oil of T. minuta in cos-
metic products and a level in the consumer product not exceeding 0.01%. In the United States, however, the powders
and extracts from marigolds are only approved as colorants in poultry feed. In Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, where
a variety of insects at various stages of their developments, are used for food and feed security, marigolds have been
recorded as a potential food plant for some of these insects such as Lepidoptera caterpillars including the dot moth and
as a nectar source for butterflies (Soule, 1996). Conversely, dried leaves of Mexican marigold are used in cooking to
give an apple-like aroma to foodstuffs such as soup, meat dishes, and vegetables. In addition to marigold’s use in food
additives as coloring and flavoring agent, it is innovatively used as fodder in animal food, principally the dried flowers
meal and extract used as supplement for poultry feed (Saha et al., 2012). In South America, India and many parts of
Asia, essential oil of T. minuta is used for flavoring milk, cheese, bakery products, jams, confectionery, and soft drinks
(Mohamed et al., 2002) and for spraying in food stores, green houses, and tissue culture laboratories to stop fungal
growth and other destructive microbial agents. In parts of Peru, T. minuta is used as a vegetable called huacatay, which
is among the vegetables with the highest levels of vitamin C (Holm et al., 1997). Huacatay paste is used to make the
popular Peruvian potato dish called ocopa (a traditional dish of Arequipa, Peru).
Usage and Applications of Essential Oil of Tagetes minuta in Agriculture
Arable Farming System: Plants
In arable farming system, wild marigold is sometimes an alternative host for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ((Lib.) de Bary,
1884), a fungal pathogen that can infect a variety of crops (Soule, 1996), thus showing its agricultural economic importance
in arable farming systems used for food production worldwide. The essential oil of T. minuta has been found to be effective
against three species of common grain pests of fungus, namely, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797), Rhyzopertha domi-
nica (Fabricius, 1792), Callosobruchus analis (Fabricius, 1781)(Wanzala, 2009) thus can be used to protect grains in stor-
age. While working on a biopesticides registration action document for tagetes oil (PC Code: 176,602), the United States
Environmental Protection Agency found this oil to be useful as an insecticide/acaricide for the control of mites, whiteflies,
aphids, thrips, mealybugs, scales, and pyslla on a variety of food crops. The essential oil is thus a potential agent for pro-
tecting food crops on farm and in storage, thereby increasing food security, particularly in undernourished communities of
the world.
Livestock Farming System
Tagetes minuta essential oil has over 95% efficacy against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1888), Rhipi-
cephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806), Amblyomma cajennense(Fabricius, 1787), and Argas miniatus (Koch, 1844) at a
concentration of 20%. The oil has the potential to control Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Neumann, 1901), Amblyomma
spp. etc. (Wanzala, 2009) and other livestock tick species (such as Hyalomma rufipes(Koch, 1844)) (Nchu et al., 2012) that
cause socioeconomic losses to farmers. The essential oil therefore provides an opportunity for developing an environmen-
tally friendly and a nontoxic acaricide to milk, beef, and hides/skin production in livestock industry. The oil also has repellent
effect against blowflies and effectively used for blowfly dressing in livestock industry (Jacobson, 1983).
Production and Market Value of Essential Oil of Tagetes minuta L.
The essential oil of T. minuta is isolated from the aerial parts of the plant picked when the seeds are just starting to form.
Worldwide, production of the essential oil of T. minuta was around 1.5 tonnes per annum in 1984 (Lawrence, 1985) and
is currently estimated at between 8 and 15 tonnes per annum and priced at $50 per kg on an upward trend. However, for
unknown reasons, world records of production and market value of the essential oil of T. minuta are not easy to access in the
literature (Table 2). Nevertheless, some organizations such as Floracopeia Aromatic Treasures in India price their essential oil
at US $1.07 per mL while Mountain Rose Herbs company in the USA that rates South Africa and France as the largest pro-
ducing countries in the world, sell ½ oz T. minuta essential oil at US $11.75. Hermitage soil, a leading supplier of specialist
oils in the United Kingdom since 1979, sells T. minuta essential oil at £8.20. The International Trade Center (ITC) identifies
Egypt and Zimbabwe as the major world producers of T. minuta essential oil. Other countries contributing to the interna-
tional production and marketing of the T. minuta essential oil include: Nepal, India, Brazil, Madagascar, Australia, Ukraine,
Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Paraguay, Morocco, Kenya, China, United States of America, Argentina, and Madagascar
(Craveiro et al., 1988) (Table 2). In 1996, T. minuta was on the list of aromatic plants cultivated on a large-scale rating for
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industrial processing in Asia, with Nepal taking the lead, just a head of South Africa, which was producing 6000–7000 kg
per annum as per 2003 international records of evaluation of market value of essential oil industry at a price ranging from
R400 to R1000 per kg. However, this market value is determined by sustainable supply of considerably sufficient volumes
and a high quality of the oil. In turn, the quality is determined by the composition and, for instance, oils containing 40–55%
cis-β-ocimene are highly rated and valued at the international market by the consumers while the biocidal activity is deter-
mined by the presence of tagetenone in the composition.
The rate of isolation of the essential oil from T. minuta by steam distillation is normally 0.1–0.4 w/w (Wanzala and
Ogoma, 2013). However, at a farm level, the production of essential oil from T. minuta ranges from 12.5 to 75 kg per
hectare (Panda, 2004). Nevertheless, in European countries the market value of T. minuta essential oil is potentially
increasing as food manufacturers are increasingly preferring to use this oil in a wide range of foodstuffs (such as frozen
deserts) and beverages (such as alcoholic beverages and soft drinks) because of its complex and unique flavors such
as that of an apple, banana and mixture of sweet basil, tarragon, mint, and citrus. Further, the oil also has preservative
properties.
TABLE 2 Annual Global Production of Tagetes minuta Essential Oil in Some Countries and/or Regions
Country and/or
Region
Quantity Produced
(tonnes) Quality Rating Level of Production
Source Government Agencies,
Institutions, and/or Trading
Companies Transacting the
Essential Oil Business
bSouth Africa 6.5 High quality Large-scale farming CBI market information database.
www.cbi.eu
India 4.0 Low quality Large-scale farming CBI market information database.
www.cbi.eu
bZimbabwe 2.0 High quality Small-scale wild col-
lections
CBI market information database.
www.cbi.eu
International Trade Center (ITC)
Europe aNegligible High quality Small-scale farming CBI market information database.
www.cbi.eu
bMadagascar –
(Price: US $155/kg)
High quality with
42–47% cis-β-
ocimene
Both large-/small-
scale farming and
wild collections
International Trade Center (ITC)
Biolandes
http://www.biolandes.com/
ouverturepdf.php?file=
F2959.pdf&lg=en
Natural Extracts Limited
http://www.naturalextracts.com/
ne/price_sheet.php
China Low quality Large-scale farming CBI market information database.
www.cbi.eu
bEgypt 100–250 kg High quality Both large-/small-
scale farming
Cairo Aromatic Limited
www.cairoaromatic.com
aFrance 183.3–458.2 kg
(Approximated from
related existing
figures)
High quality International Trade Center (ITC)
UNCTAD COMTRADE database,
United Nations Statistics Division,
2002
Morocco 63.9–159.7 kg
(Approximated from
related existing
figures)
High quality Both large- and
small-scale farming
UNCTAD COMTRADE database,
United Nations Statistics Division,
2002
Note: Exact information was not available and/or difficult to access in literature; CBI, Center for the Promotion of Imports from developing countries;
UNCTAD, The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development; COMTRADE, The United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database.
aEuropean countries are mainly importers of the Tagetes minuta essential oil.
bLeading countries in the production of Tagetes minuta essential oil, worldwide.
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SUMMARY POINTS
l Tagetes minuta has a wide range of bioactivity, thus presenting itself as an excellent preventive measure agent and as a food
preservative for a wide range of foodstuffs and beverages.
l The presence of antifungal acetylinic thiophenes from T. minuta, presents the plant as a potential on-farm biopesticide
agent in arable farming systems.
l The wide range of microbicidal activity of the essential oil of T. minuta against virus, bacteria, fungi, arboviruses, protozoa,
and helminths presents the oil as a potentially agent to relief food poisoning.
l The essential oil of T. minuta has the potential to be developed as a weedicide and anthelminthic to help increasing pro-
ductivity in arable farming systems thereby increasing food productivity as the plant is grown to suppress a wide range of
perennial weeds and to protect crops against nematodes and slugs.
l Tagetes minuta is a potential food storage agent and an environmentally friendly and nontoxic acaricide.
l There is a need for validation of traditionally claimed usages and applications of the essential oil of T. minuta in the food
industry.
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... En la práctica culinaria se utilizan diferentes especias aromáticas, entre ellas el huacatay (Tagetes minuta), cuyos aromas y sabor conferidos por sus aceites esenciales lo convierten en una usual especia para la preparación de diversas comidas típicas en diferentes países de América del Sur, especialmente en Perú, muy usado para la preparación del típico plato conocido como ocopa [1], entre otros, así como su uso como preservante de carnes envasadas al vacío [2]. ...
... Se han reportado diversos beneficios del huacatay sobre la salud. Por ejemplo, la actividad broncodilatadora, tranquilizante, hipotensiva y antiinflamatoria atribuida a su aceite esencial [1,3,4]. Además, es amplia la evidencia respecto a su actividad antioxidante [4][5][6], considerando la creciente demanda actual por este tipo de alimentos que contribuyan a la prevención de enfermedades relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo [7], gracias a su contenido de compuestos flavonoides como quercetagetina y sus derivados glucosídicos y galactosídicos, patuletina, patuletina-7-glucósido, isoramnetina, entre otros [8,9]. ...
... Otros beneficios mostrados por el huacatay incluyen su actividad antimicrobiana, de especial interés frente a los patógenos Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans, entre otros [1,5,9,10], atribuible a los flavonoides quercetagetina y derivados glucosídicos y galactosídicos, patuletina, patuletina-7-glucósido o isoramnetina [8], y a su aceite esencial compuesto mayoritariamente por dihidrotagetona, ocimeno y derivados, tagetona, limoneno, y otros compuestos menores como αpineno, carvacrol, timol, isoeugenol, etc. [5,11]. ...
... Wild marigold is a member of the Asteraceae family, the most prominent family among vascular plants (Cornelius and Wycliffe, 2016). Wild marigold is suitable for cultivation as monocrop or intercrop in both hills and plain areas (Singh et al., 2003). ...
... Wild marigold occurs in a broad range of climates worldwide and is native to North and South America (Cornelius and Wycliffe, 2016). It occurs naturally throughout the globe, including Europe, Asia, and Africa (Babu and Kaul, 2007). ...
... Himachal Pradesh is the number one producer state of wild marigold essential oil in India. The current estimate of its essential oil production in the world is 8-15 tons per annum (Cornelius and Wycliffe, 2016). The essential oil is traded internationally under HS Code 3301. ...
Article
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Wild marigold has a growing demand for its essential oil in the flavor and fragrance industries. It can be grown over a broad range of climates, but the changing climatic conditions lead to abiotic stresses, thus restricting its productivity. Abiotic stresses at elevated levels result in the reduction of germination, growth, and essential oil quality of wild marigold leading to heterogeneous and inferior grades of "Tagetes oil." Drought, salinity, and heavy metal stress at elevated levels have common effects in terms of ROS formation, which are the major cause of growth deterioration in wild marigold. Temperatures above 35 • C inhibit seed germination. Irradiance stress reduces the biomass and essential oil yield. Waterlogging adversely affects the survival of wild marigold in high rainfall regions. The application of plant nutrients (fertilizers) modulates the biomass and essential oil yield. Wild marigold employs multiple tolerance mechanisms to cope up with the adverse effects of abiotic stresses such as the increased activity of antioxidants to maintain cellular redox homeostasis, enhanced lipid peroxidation in the cell membrane to maintain cell wall architecture, production of secondary metabolites, and accumulation of osmolytes. In this review, we tried to understand how abiotic stresses affect wild marigold. Understanding the physiological changes and biochemical characteristics of stress tolerance will contribute to the development of stress-tolerant lines of wild marigold.
... EO with higher percentage of Z-β-ocimene (35-50%) has high rate in international market. During 2016, its EO has world annual production of about 15 tons (Cornelius and Wycliffe, 2016) and its EO market is expected to reach 11.8 USD million by 2025 with a CAGR of 7.0% from 2020 to 2025 (as per EO market report 2020). ...
... In this experiment, percentage of major components of Tagetes, EO was altered by the fertilizer application but in terms of quality at 120 kg N ha −1 and 60 kg S ha −1 were best. The relative percentage of major compound Z-β-ocimene (35-50%) is important in determining the quality of T. minuta EO at the international market (Cornelius and Wycliffe, 2016). Significant differences were observed in EO composition of T. minuta with different N and S doses. ...
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Fertilization plays an irreplaceable role in raising crop yields; however, there are issues with unnecessary and blind use of chemical fertilizers, which raise the risk of contamination in the atmosphere. It is hypothesized that fertilization of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) will together improve the essential oil (EO) yield and composition of Tagetes minuta L. Thus, 2 years field experiment were carried out to evaluate the outcomes of N (0, 60, 90, and 120 kg ha −1) and S levels (0, 20, 40, and 60 kg ha −1) on T. minuta during 2018 and 2019. The growth, biomass, EO content and composition were influenced (P = 0.05) by N and S fertilization. N at 120 kg ha −1 and S at 60 kg ha −1 registered higher biomass (183.89 and 178.90 q ha −1 , respectively) and EO yield (102.09 and 88.60 kg ha −1 , respectively), than control. Stomatal density reduced significantly with increase of N and S levels, however, density of oil glands substantially increased with S at 40 and 60 kg ha −1. The major component of EO (Z-β-ocimene) significantly increased with 120 kg N ha −1 (42.59%) and 60 kg S ha −1 (42.35%), respectively. Available nutrients in soil and plant tissues substantially increased with N and S fertilization upto 120 and 60 kg ha −1 , respectively. The highest nutrient use efficiency traits were recorded at 60 kg N ha −1 and 20 kg S ha −1. It was concluded that 120 kg N ha −1 and 40 kg S ha −1 can be proposed for T. minuta as a result of agronomic responses, which serves as a sustainable means of cropping.
... Essential oil with higher percentage of Z-β-ocimene (35-50 %) has high rate in international market. During 2016, its EO has world annual production of about 15 tonnes (Cornelius and Wycliffe, 2016) and its EO market is expected to reach 11.8 USD million by 2025 with a CAGR of 7.0 % from 2020 to 2025 (as per EO market report 2020) Weeds pose one of the most serious threats to tagetes growth and reduce yield considerably if not managed timely. While adopting this plant for the first time, farmers of western Himalayas have reported a huge problem of weeds during the initial period of growth due to high rainfall area, as this crop is sown in the month of May-June and harvested during October-November in autumn (Rathore et al., 2018). ...
... In this experiment, percentage of major components of tagetes EO were altered by the entire weed control treatments but in terms of quality P + HW, I, and I + HW were best. The relative percentage of major compound Z-β-ocimene (35-50 %) is important in determining the quality of T. minuta EO at the international market (Cornelius and Wycliffe, 2016). Due to the application of different herbicides changes in percentage of major constituents were detailed in some plant such as mint (M. ...
Article
Weed management system plays an important role in reducing the yield losses brought by uncontrolled weeds in the agricultural production system. Moreover, the weed management studies on aromatic crops, particularly Tagetes minuta L. are not well documented. Thus a study was carried out at CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bio-resource Technology Palampur, India, during 2018 and 2019. Nine treatments of herbicides viz., pendimethalin at 1.50 kg a.i./ha (P), imazethapyr at 0.10 kg a.i./ha (I), carfentrazone-ethyl at 0.02 kg a.i./ha (C), P + HW, I + HW, C + HW (integration of all herbicide treatments with hand weeding) and hand weeding alone (HW). Lowest weed density (16.69 and 15.61 m − 2), weed biomass (9.10 and 10.09 g m − 2) at 75 and 105 days after sowing (DAS), respectively, and the highest total above ground biomass (17925 kg ha-1), essential oil (EO) yield (103.11 kg ha-1) was recorded in imazethapyr + hand weeding (I + HW) amongst all weed control treatments. Herbicide integrated with hand weeding lead to the reduction of the number and dry weight of weeds, with a significant increase in T. minuta total aboveground biomass and EO yield. Essential oil analysis found Z-β-ocimene, dihy-drotagetone, tagetone, and ocimenone as the main constituents which were differently influenced by different weed control treatments. Treatment I + HW may therefore be recommended as weed control method for aromatic plant growers, especially in T. minuta production.
... T. minuta EO is obtained from the aerial part of plants at the beginning of the seed formation. World annual production of wild marigold EO was 15 tonnes during 2016 and is now increasing with an upward trend 10 . There is a potential increase in the market value of T. minuta oil due to its increasing demand and recently at the United States cost of T. minuta EO has been quoted around $177.78 11 . ...
... For example, (Z)-ocimene concentration in the oil of T. minuta reported by Singh et al., 5 varied from 41.4 % to 54.9 %, whereas (Z)-ocimene concentration reported by Kumar et al. 4 varied from 35.0 % to 45.0 %. (Z)-Ocimene concentration in this study was also comparable to literature reports from other countries 3,6 . Overall, the concentration of (Z)-ocimene in tagetes oils is expected to be above 40% for high market price 10 . ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of drying processing was investigated in wild marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) in the western Himalayas. Experiment on three drying methods (shade, sun, and oven) and seven post-harvest drying time (0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h) were studied under a completely randomized design. The essential oil (EO) was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The moisture content of tagetes herbage was lower, while essential oil yield (g/kg dry matter) was significantly higher in sun drying for 72 h. The total area percentages of identified compounds of T. minuta essential oil were 90.5 to 94.5 % for drying method and 85.9-96.7 % for drying time. Drying methods and drying time had no significant impact on the number of EO components, as 9 chemical constituents were identified in every drying treatment. The major components were (Z)-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, (E) & (Z)-tagetone, and (E) & (Z)-tagetenone. The EO amount and the area percentage of its two main components (Z)-ocimene and dihydrotagetone were significantly influenced by the different drying methods and time. Higher proportions of (Z)-ocimene and lower proportion of dihydrotagetone in the EO of sun-dried tagetes herbage for 60 h were more pronounced. Further increase in drying time caused a greater loss in the percentage of (Z)-ocimene.
... World annual production of its essential oil was around 15 tonnes during 2016 which is now increasing with an upward trend. Many producing countries of T. minuta essential oil are South Africa, India, Zimbabwe, Egypt, France, and Argentina (Cornelius and Wycliffe, 2016). ...
... The major constituents are Z-β-ocimene, limonene, dihydrotagetone, tagetones (E & Z) and ocimenones (E & Z) (Singh et al., 2016). Quality of oil is estimated by its composition, oils with high percentage of Z-β-ocimene (40-55 %) having higher value at the international market, and, however, for biocidal activity tagetenone is essential (Cornelius and Wycliffe, 2016). There are several biological activities in its essential oils such as antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-cancerous, acaricidal, nematicidal, insecticidal and allelopathic activities (Gakuubi et al., 2016a). ...
Article
Tagetes minuta L. is an annual herb used in flavoring, perfumery, food and pharmacological industry. In the recent past, bioactivities and therapeutic properties of T. minuta against a wide range of plant, human and animal pathogens remain the focus of considerable scientific studies. So in this study chemical and antimicrobial activity profiles of T. minuta grown in 16 altitudinal locations of three states in India were explored. Fresh plant material was subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oil content ranged from 0.37 to 0.79% (v/w). Nine volatile compounds were identified by GC and GC–MS analysis. Range of major compounds in sixteen locations were Z-β-ocimene (56.34−39.32%), dihydrotagetone (28.07−7.66%), E-ocimenone (25.06−0.00%) and Z-tagetone (14.46−5.29%). Comparison of the relative concentrations of essential oil compounds showed a significant altitudinal impact with higher Z-β-ocimene from high altitudes; while reverse was seen in case of dihydrotagetone. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EOs) was investigated against two Gram-positive bacteria viz. Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus, and two gram-negative bacteria viz. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar well-diffusion and microdilution methods. The agar well diffusion method demonstrated better activity of T. minuta EOs in gram positive bacteria as compared to gram negative bacteria. Best activity was demonstrated against S. aureus with zone of inhibition above 9 mm. Best potential EOs (three locations of HP and one location of Manipur) demonstrated an MIC of 25–30% (v/v). Based on the current study, EOs of T. minuta from Indian Himalayas may be regarded as potential antibacterial agents against S. aureus and selected EOs may have potential application as bactericidal agents.
... One of the main constituents of tagetes EO is (Z)-β-ocimene, a wellknown monoterpene of industrial significance (Cornelius and Wycliffe, 2016). (Z)-β-ocimene content was recorded higher in all cropping patterns than tagetes sole cropping. ...
Article
Intercropping is a sustainable strategy for increasing yield with better land use over time by proper utilization of resources. This work aims to study the effects of Zea mays L. (maize)/Tagetes minuta L. (tagetes/wild marigold) cropping systems with two spacings on yield, essential oil (EO) quality, and land equivalent ratio. A factorial randomized complete block design was used to perform the analysis with five cropping pattern of maize and wild marigold in ratio 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 and two spacing viz., 60 and 90 cm. The findings showed that the single cropping pattern (14,291 kg ha⁻¹) produced the maximum biomass yield of T. minuta, followed by 25:75 intercropping ratio of maize: tagetes (10,353 kg ha⁻¹). The highest EO yield (37.57 kg ha⁻¹) and equivalent yield (48.83 kg ha⁻¹) of tagetes were obtained in the intercropping ratio of maize and tagetes of 25:75 and 50:50, respectively, with 60 cm spacing. Furthermore, the quality of EO increased dramatically in intercropping treatments, with the highest amounts of (Z)-β-ocimene found in the maize and tagetes ratio of 25:75 (43.66 %). The highest value of the land equivalent ratio (LER) was obtained in maize: tagetes (50:50) intercropping pattern with 90 cm spacing (1.22). According to our findings, intercropping wild marigold with maize will increase the quality of T. minuta EO while retaining tagetes yield with minimal efforts; thus, this approach can be regarded as a long-term sustainable management strategy.
... cavities, ducts, and glandular trichomes) in roots, stems, leaves, phyllaries, and flowers (Van Thiegem 1872, Del Fueyo 1986, Poli et al. 1995, Simon et al. 2002; the essential oils of many Tagetes species have been extensively studied for their medicinal, nutritional, cosmetical, and bioactive properties (e.g. Cestari et al. 2004, Babu & Kaul 2007, Serrato-Cruz et al. 2008, Camarillo de la Rosa et al. 2009, López et al. 2009, Díaz-Cedillo & Serrato-Cruz 2011, Dixit et al. 2013, Cornelius & Wycliffe 2015, Mendoza-García et al. 2015, Singh et al. 2015, Gakuubi et al. 2016). ...
Article
During the revision of the genus Tagetes, we detected the need for typifications and taxonomical rearrangements in North and Central American taxa. We analyzed type and non-type specimens, morphological traits, geographical distributions, protologues, and biographies of authors and collectors. As a result, we designated 12 lectotypes and one epitype for the following plant names: T. clandestina, T. florida, T. lemmonii, T. lucida, T. macroglossa, T. micrantha, T. nelsonii, T. oligocephala, T. schiedeana, T. signata, T. signata var. pumila and T. triradiata. In addition, we placed T. oligocephala in synonymy within T. foetidissima and clarified type localities of T. oligocephala and T. schiedeana.
... The T. minuta essential oil with a high content of (Z)-β-ocimene has a high value at the international market, however, for biocidal activity, the high content of tagetone is valuable (Cornelius and Abbreviations: APX, ascorbate peroxidase; CAT, catalase; EL, electrolyte leakage; FC, field capacity; GPX, guaiacol peroxidase; MDA, malondialdehyde; PPO, polyphenol oxidase; ROS, reactive oxygen species; RWC, relative water content. Wycliffe, 2016). ...
Article
Drought stress is an important environmental limiting factor that affects the physiological and biochemical response of medicinal plants and changes the process of plant secondary metabolism. In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the morphological, physiological, and phytochemical response of Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) to drought stress (100 %, 75 %, 50 %, and 25 % Field Capacity) with three replications based on a completely randomized design. After prolonged water deficit, growth responses, oxidative stress indicators, and phytochemical variations in unstressed and stressed plants were recorded. Decreasing of water availability had a negative effect on T. minuta growth. The photosynthesis pigments and relative water content of stressed plants were decreased, but the accumulation of malondialdehyde, osmolyte compounds, and total phenol content were increased with increasing water limitation. The activity of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase in stressed T. minuta plants was also increased in response to drought stress. Although water limitation did not show a considerable effect on the essential oil content of T. minuta, the essential oil composition was significantly influenced by drought stress and dihydrotagetone was the main constituent in all essential oil samples. Drought stress changed the relative proportions of essential oil constituents and induced synthesis of new constituents included 1,8-cineole and germacrene D. Taken together, our findings suggested that the 75 % FC treatment can be introduced as an acceptable drought level that T. minuta showed sufficient resistance.
Article
Wild marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) is a highly demanded aromatic plant, having great industrial value. Recently farmers are more interested in its cultivation and are opting it in their cropping system. Major constituents of its essential oil are β-ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetone, tagete-none, and limonene. The Current market demand for tagetes oil is increasing at a faster rate due to its large use in flavor and perfumery industry. Its oil and plant extract has potential bioactive and therapeutic properties. The Integration of this species in agricultural production systems still relies on thorough information and agronomic potential of this plant. Understanding its biology, chemistry, biological activity and agrotechnology will allow better utilization of this crop. Therefore, the published literature on research and development of tagetes crop for improvement in its yield and quality is compiled in this chapter which will fulfill the demand of various industries and improves the rural economy. ARTICLE HISTORY
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Ethnopharmacologically, Tagetes minuta has a lot of applications in the history of human life. The study aimed at characterizing the essential oil from fresh aerial parts of T. minuta and evaluating its repellent effect on the host-seeking female Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes, the vector of African malaria. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compounds were identified by comparison of their mass spectra with those in Wiley NBS and NIST databases and GC retention times to those of authentic samples. The repellent effect of the essential oil was evaluated using a human-bait technique to simulate field situation. The percentage yield of the essential oil of T. minuta was 0.00029 % w/w with a specific gravity of 0.8953 mg/ml. The oil showed a complex composition of about 119 hydrocarbon compounds and may be richer in monoterpenes (47.90 %) than in any other type of compounds. The main principal constituents of the essential oil of T. minuta included: ocimene, dihydrotagetone, tagetones, ocimenones, piperitenone, 3,9-epoxy-p-metha-1,8(10) diene, βcaryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene and AR-turmerone. Some of these constituents reported in literature have shown insecticidal, acaricidal, pesticidal and/or repellent properties. Although not manifesting a clear general trend, the essential oil however showed a significant dose-response effect of repellency (p < 0.05). More mosquitoes significantly landed and bit the control arm treated with vaseline pure petroleum jelly than the arm treated with the essential oil of T. minuta (p < 0.05), thus showing repellency properties of the oil against An. Arabiensis mosquitoes. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism of repellency remains unknown. However, the oil may represent a potentially new, most practical and economic way and readily available and applicable malaria vector control tool for incorporation into integrated vector management strategies and contribute to the provision of prophylactic measures, particularly at an individual level.
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Plants are widely used in the medicine industry of modern era, and are the sources of raw material and essential ingredients for medicines. These plant extracts and active constituents are used to make different formulations. Tagetes minuta, an annual ornamental plant, has been identified as potential medicinal plant as it contains allelochemicals and essential oils that have multidimensional uses and applications such as weedicides, germicides, nematocides, insecticides, fungicides etc. Moreover, different medicines also have the fractions of these compounds. This plant is also used for beautification and landscaping i.e. as an ornamental one. However, sometimes it appears to be a weed in lawns, parks and crop fields. In such case, it should be managed by mechanical, cultural and by chemical control methods. A comprehensive research is needed to explore more qualities and uses of this beneficial plant in future. Tagetes minuta L., a widely distributed plant in northern Pakistan, has immense and diverse utilities. The objective of the paper is to target this plant for exploitation and change its status from weed to underutilized minor crop.
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Present study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic effect of Cyperus rotundus and Echinochloa crus-galli on seed germination and plumule and radicle growth of maize. The experiment was layout out in completely randomized design. The data indicated that aqueous extracts of Cyperus rotundus and Echinochloa crus-galli greatly inhibited the seed germination and plumule and radicle growth of maize. Echinochloa crus-galli was found to be more allelopathic to maize than Cyperus rotundus. Further studied are suggested to find tune our findings.
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Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae), a herb native to southern South America, has recently become naturalized in central Taiwan. This study gives the taxonomic description and illustration. Photographs are also provided for identification.
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Four weeds (Acorus calamus, Artemisia triden-tata, Heliopsis longipes, and Tagetes minuta) and three cultivated plants (Azadirachta indica, Mam-mea americana, and Ocimum basilicum) are poten-tial candidates for crop development and commer-cialization for sources of insect attractants, repel-lants, or toxicants. Although all could be commer-cially viable, the neem tree (A. indica) is by far the most likely to succeed. Its development in the Southern United States and Central and South America is highly recommended. The plant kingdom is a vast storehouse of chem-ical substances manufactured and used by plants as defenses against insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses, The American Indians and native tribes in Central and South America, Asia, and Africa have used and, in some places, still use decoctions from many plants as medicines for a wide variety of ail-ments (30). The efficacy of these materials for reliev-ing pain and suffering is described by Ayensu (5) in the introduction to his "Plants for Medicinal Uses With Special Reference to Arid Zones." Dioscorides (A.D. 40-90) divided poisons into three classes: animal, plant, and mineral. He listed opium, black and white Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Conium, elaterin, aconite, and the juices of Euphor-bia species as plant poisons. He was also aware of colchicum's medicinal properties. The Remans used Veratrum album and V. nigrum as medicines, constituents of "rat and mice powders, " and insec-ticides. From the time of the early Remans to the 20th century, only three efficient insecticides were discovered: nicotine, pyrethrum, and hellebore. The discovery of rotenone and several other plant-derived insecticides followed in rapid succession. Today, a wide variety of plants has been shown to be effective not only as insect toxicants but also as repellents, feeding deterrents, attractants, inhibi-tors of growth and development, and sterilants. Useful general references on the subject of plant-derived physiologically active materials for insects are those by Jacobson and Crosby (24), Feeny (11), Kubo and Nakanishi (31), Finch (12), Jacobson (20,22), and Smith and Secoy (50). Although arid/semiarid land plants do not pro-duce compounds that are more biologically active against insects than other plants, they lend them-selves more readily to mass cultivation than plants requiring fertile soil for growth and development. Since promising pesticidal plants are too numer-ous to mention here, only the seven with the most commercial potential are discussed. The scientific name, common name (if known), and family of each plant are given, followed by a discussion under the following headings: description, native range, pres-ent and potential uses, active compounds, extrac-tion, cultivation, and constraints to development.
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The chemical composition of the essential oils produced from Tagetes minuta which was harvested in Rwanda and France at various locations and growth stages, and isolated from different plant parts (flowers, leaves, seeds), was studied. The samples analyzed fell into four categories. Generally, (Z)-β-ocimene predominated in oil from flowers, and dihydrotagetone predominated in that from leaves. Tagetones and tagetenones occurred together or separately in large or small amounts. French oils differened from other oils by its preponderance of (Z)-tagetenone.
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The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation from Tagetes minuta L. cultivated in Iran. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main components were α-terpineol (20.8%), (Z)-β-ocimene (17.7%), dihydrotagetone (13.7%), (E)-ocimenone (13.3%), (Z)-tagetone (8.4%) and (Z)-ocimenone (6.1%).