New Inclinometer Device for Monitoring of Underground Displacements and Landslide Activity

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The paper illustrates the theoretical basis of a new device called MUMS - Modular Underground Monitoring System - and one of its applications. MUMS has been designed for monitoring of underground displacements through a continuous and automated data acquisition system. MUMS instrumentation can be used to monitor the deformation of natural and artificial slopes as well as geotechnical structures. The device consists of a series of nodes located at known distances along a connecting rope and is installed within a vertical borehole. Each node measures its local rotation relative to the vertical axis by means of a 3D micro electro-mechanical acceleration sensor (MEMS). The direction cosines of each node are calculated in order to determine the 3D shape and deformation of the entire borehole. The paper illustrates an interesting application of MUMS in natural slopes and points out the benefits of the system.

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... Each of the physical principles has its advantages and its use depends on the application. Sucesfull innovation of underground displacement monitoring based on MEMS sensors inclinometers were developed in Italy [2,3]. Inertial measurement unit is an essential part of devices used for the Global navigation satellite system, aerial photogrammetry, laser altimetry, remote sensing technologies, unmanned aerial vehicles, but it is also the main component of unmanned ground and marine vehicles. ...
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The inertial measurement unit is an electronic device built-in practically in any controlled or autonomous technology used for land mapping. It is based on a combination of accelerometers and gyroscopes and sometimes magnetometers used for relative orientation and navigation. The paper is focused on functions and trends of an inertial measurement unit, which is a part of inertial navigation indicator of position and velocity of moving devices on the ground, above and below ground in real-time.
... It is also essential to control possible effect of impacts, such as cracks in nearby buildings. For this purpose, specialized reports on nearby structures are often carried out prior to starting with the project [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. ...
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Constant development carried out in town centres causes that many problems related to earthworks and tunnelling must be resolved. Investors are required to ensure respective number of parking bays, which in turn demands 2-3 storeys of underground car parks. This paper presents interesting case studies of deep excavations in Wrocław, Poland. As the geotechnical works in the old city centres may bring some risks to the surrounding area, proper strutting or anchoring systems must be provided. Apart from solving engineering problems, one needs to meet very stringent requirements of heritage conservator supervision. In order to ensure the stability of the excavation walls, it is necessary to examine the foundations of neighbouring structures, and if necessary, to strengthen them for the process of installing the excavation protection walls, progressing the excavations and constructing basement storeys. Another problem refers to constructing underground storeys below the level of groundwater. This requires efficient cutting-off or long-term lowering of water table inside the excavation with a possibly limited intervention in hydrological regime beyond the project in progress. In the typical case of old cities in river valleys such "hoarding off' the excavation and cutting off groundwater leads to temporary or permanent disturbances of groundwater flow and possible local swellings. Contemporary technologies make it possible to protect vertical fault and simultaneously cut-off groundwater inflow by means of steel sheet pilings, diaphragm walls or secant pile walls.
... Recent developments can be found in works of Drusa [9], Bednarski [10] and Muszyński [11], where the suitability of terrestrial laser scanning for the control of deep excavation support was examined. Recommendations concerning inclinometric measurements of soil mass displacements (slope stability) can be found in references given by Segalini [12] and Drusa [13]. ...
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Deep excavation and tunnelling works in city centres always bring some risks to surrounding structures, especially in the case of old town centres, where the technical condition and structural stiffness of historical buildings is rather doubtful. When the new desired excavation depth goes deeper than the foundation of the surrounding buildings or when tunnelling works are conducted directly under them, the existing objects are subject to stress, vibrations and displacements imposed at almost every stage of building the new construction. The presented paper outlines, on the basis of the authors’ experience, the typical damages appearing during the supporting wall construction (sheet pile driving, piling and formation of diaphragm walls) and tunnelling works. Other damages appear due to soil mass unloading (caused by excavation stages) and horizontal loading during pre-stressing of struts or ground anchors. The selected case studies of steel sheet pile wall installation is given with regard to typical failures caused by an unplanned excavation and its impact on neighbouring structures.
... The important role at evaluation of influence on structural elements is proper evaluation of properties of geological environment in contact with structure, especially time depended changes on rock and soil properties, [9]. Evaluation of these properties can be done in vertical and horizontal accelerometers but also by other monitoring tools like optical sensors, new measurement devices, and very precise sensors, [10,11]. ...
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... Within the complex, based on lithological similarities material earmarks landslide colluvium; -Is a complex fluvial valley fill consisting of clay, clays and pebble sediments with the occurrence of organic soils in the Holocene clayey sediments; -Proluvial complex consists of clays, pebble and detrital sediments occurrence proluvial sediments in the area unique. Important part of motorway construction preparation takes during execution of EG survey works geotechnical monitoring, which is provided at places of possible slope deformation [6], and at places of high pore pressure [10], where can be a problem with foundations and piles design, [11,12]. ...
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Verification of the design of the reinforced earth retaining structures is usually based on the global and internal stability check. Beside the analytical solutions, numerical modelling can simulate the real behaviour of the structure including mutual interaction of the particular elements. Additionally, stress-strain relation is involved in the final verification together with the required stability of the system. Parameters such as reinforcement stiffness or interaction ability with the soil allow to calculate more realistic axial forces acting in the reinforcing elements. Analytical solutions don’t take into account the influence of the deformation of the soil mass on the overall and internal stability. Finite Element Method can describe both of these mechanisms which take place simultaneously. Estimation of the interaction parameters is crucial to determine the forces with sufficient accuracy, especially when 2 nd limit state is critical for the structure design. The paper is aimed at the laboratory testing and numerical modelling of the interaction of the geosynthetic reinforcement and the soil during the sliding described by the interaction coefficient. A direct shear test was adopted to investigate the actual value of the interaction coefficient which is related to the certain displacement of the reinforcement in the soil. There is a recommendation not to use the interface element at the soil-reinforcement contact when the grid shaped reinforcing elements such as geogrids are used for the numerical simulations. This approach was approved by the study presented in this paper. Reinforcement with the grid structure and rigid joints provides higher level of interaction with the soil environment so reduction of the shear strength at this contact is unrealistic.
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This paper describes the analysis of the effectiveness and reliability of a new type of inclinometric chain, which is still under development by the authors, and is intended to be applied in the underground slope monitoring field. In the first part, the paper describes the new instrumentation which should allow for a deeper and detailed understanding of the type, location and origin of slope movements that should, in turn, help in understanding the triggering causes and the evolution mechanisms of landslides, and provide an innovative and substantial contribution to their stability analysis and control. The second portion of the paper is dedicated to a comparison between the classic instruments and the new MUMS device, demonstrating the advantages of measurement automation and economy in the use of the proposed device, which could also be equipped with other electronic instruments that would allow the measurement of other interesting physical quantities (such as pore pressure, temperature, stresses, etc.) together with displacement components.
Conference Paper
Recent design methods of reinforced retaining walls are based on several approaches at the earth pressure determination. Newer methods are developed to bring the design model closer to real conditions. The monitoring of the structures reinforced with the geosynthetics but shows some anomalies at wall displacements and reinforcement loads. A series of real structure monitoring and numerical modelling was involved to verify the recent design methods. This paper represents the results of these analyses aimed at the earth pressure due to the backfill of the wall and at the stress distributions along the reinforcements.
The paper describes the application of the Modular Underground Monitoring System (further referred as MUMS) (Segalini et al. 2013) in two active landslides located in the Northern Italian Apennines. In particular, the aim of the paper is to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the system and to examine the advantages of an automated semi-continuous monitoring for the comprehension of the mechanical behavior of landslides, the definition of their triggering factors and the correct evaluation of their short term velocity. The mechanical behavior of slow moving landslides is generally evaluated on the basis of traditional surveys which are carried out at long time interval and therefore are lacking of detailed information about the links between triggering causes and mechanical effects. The main advantage of an automated monitoring system resides in the observation frequency and in the simultaneous recording of several physical entities such as deformation, precipitation, pore pressure and so on. This large amount of data can be used for the numerical evaluation of the landslide behavior and for the definition of the most significant triggering cause(s). The obtained knowledge is of fundamental importance when there is a need of establishing an hazard threshold for the particular landslide and, when this assumption is made, the automated monitoring system can immediately become a real time control and alarm triggering device. For this purpose, it is important that the lifespan of the instrumentation is as long as possible, in relation with the expected displacements, in order to maintain the real time monitoring effective and economical as well as to build a reliable database for statistical analysis. .
The paper illustrates the efficiency of a novel inclinometer device system - based on MEMS technology - by comparing results obtained from a couple of installed prototypes and those derived from classic inclinometers. The new device, called MUMS (Modular Underground Monitoring System) is intended to be applied for natural and artificial slope deformation monitoring and landslides dynamics control, assessment and forecasting. In its initial part, the paper briefly describes the new instrumentation which should allow for a better understanding of the type, location and origin of unstable slope movement. The MUMS instrumentation was born from the idea of replacing the standard measurement procedure by locating nodes at known distances from each other along a connecting cable placed within a vertical borehole. Each node is able to measure its local orientation from the vertical (gravitational acceleration) by means of a micromechanical 3D digital linear acceleration sensor (MEMS). This will allow us to determine the direction cosines of the borehole axis in each node and, by means of linear geometry and trigonometry, calculate its 3D shape and deformation along the whole borehole. The basic hypotheses to be considered for this procedure are: a) the lower node must be located in a stable portion of the soil/rock and must be accurately cemented to it and b) the distance between two subsequent nodes along the pipe must not vary. This configuration - with 3D inclinometers only - would require that all of the nodes must be originally aligned along a single diametric plane of the cable. This mechanical condition could be achieved using a connecting pipe which would, however, generate installation problems and a possible incorrect assembly of the nodes; this inconvenience could degrade the evaluation of the displacement heading and therefore compromise their final measurement integration from the bottom up along the borehole. To avoid it, a 3D digital MEMS magnetic sensor was added to each 3D digital linear acceleration sensor, enabling us to determine the heading (azimuth) of each node related to the magnetic North. This added MEMS element eliminates the uncertainties and any errors due to spiraling or to system assembly imprecisions. Following, the paper deals with a series of significant errors like biases, drift and noises that are affecting the final output of MEMS sensor and illustrates how to achieve valuable and reliable outputs which allow the use of these sensors in the landslide monitoring field. Finally, a couple of example application are presented where prototypes of this system are installed on well documented and traditionally monitored slow moving active landslides. In these examples the MUMS results are compared with those obtained by traditional systems evidencing the new system potentials and effectiveness in terms of sensitivity, precision, reliability and automation.
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