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Effect of weighted rope jumping training performed by repetition method on the heart rate, anaerobic power, agility and reaction time of basketball players

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Total 40 male basketball players, who are competing in the level of junior teams and playing basketball for at least 3 years and whose ages varied between 16 and 19, have participated in this research that is made to examine effects of weighted rope jumping training performed by repetition method on the heart rate, anaerobic power, agility and reaction time of basketball players. Basketball players were separated into two groups randomly being experimental (n=20) and control (n=20) groups. After preparatory rope training for 1 week, training program including weighted rope jumping training by repetition method for 3 days in a week and for 8 weeks was implemented by the experimental group together with the technical training. For the control group, only technical training was applied for three days in a week over the course of 8 weeks. Age, basketball age, height, body weight, resting heart rate, heart rate immediately after the rope training, anaerobic peak and average power, hexagon agility test and right and left hand visual and auditory reaction times of experimental and control groups were measured. Statistical analyses of data obtained were realized in package program in the significance level of 0.05 by means of Paired Simple T-Test for data having normal distribution, and by Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests in dependent and independent groups for data that do not have a normal distribution. As a consequence, it can be stated that jumping training performed with weighted rope and by explosive tempo and repetition method has influenced the heart rate and anaerobic characteristics positively, and agility and reaction time negatively.
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Advances in Environmental Biology, 7(5): 945-951, 2013
ISSN 1995-0756
This is a refereed journal and all articles are professionally screened and reviewed ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Corresponding Author
Assistant Prof. Dr. Serdar Orhan, School of Physical Education and Sports, Firat University,
Turkey
E-mail: sorhan23@gmail.com, sorhan@firat.edu.tr
Effect of Weighted Rope Jumping Training Performed by Repetition Method on the
Heart Rate, Anaerobic Power, Agility and Reaction Time of Basketball Players
Serdar ORHAN
School of Physical Education and Sports, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey
Serdar ORHAN; Effect of Weighted Rope Jumping Training Performed by Repetition Method on the
Heart Rate, Anaerobic Power, Agility and Reaction Time of Basketball Players
ABSTRACT
Total 40 male basketball players, who are competing in the level of junior teams and playing basketball for
at least 3 years and whose ages varied between 16 and 19, have participated in this research that is made to
examine effects of weighted rope jumping training performed by repetition method on the heart rate, anaerobic
power, agility and reaction time of basketball players. Basketball players were separated into two groups
randomly being experimental (n=20) and control (n=20) groups. After preparatory rope training for 1 week,
training program including weighted rope jumping training by repetition method for 3 days in a week and for 8
weeks was implemented by the experimental group together with the technical training. For the control group,
only technical training was applied for three days in a week over the course of 8 weeks. Age, basketball age,
height, body weight, resting heart rate, heart rate immediately after the rope training, anaerobic peak and
average power, hexagon agility test and right and left hand visual and auditory reaction times of experimental
and control groups were measured. Statistical analyses of data obtained were realized in package program in the
significance level of 0.05 by means of Paired Simple T-Test for data having normal distribution, and by
Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests in dependent and independent groups for data that do not have a normal
distribution. As a consequence, it can be stated that jumping training performed with weighted rope and by
explosive tempo and repetition method has influenced the heart rate and anaerobic characteristics positively, and
agility and reaction time negatively.
Key words: Basketball, Rope Training, Weighted Rope, Anaerobic, Reaction.
Introduction
Rope jumping training practiced as a heating or
coordination method have an important place in the
development of body coordination, and strengthen
the general athletic position. Jumping with rope is an
activity that can be done everywhere and its
intensity, jumping number and type can be easily
changed; and seems as significant implementation to
develop and conserve the muscle strength and
cardiovascular system, and helps in the preparation
to sports branch and improves leg movements. Rope
jumping training has positive effects on cardiac-
circulation compatibility, muscle strength,
endurance, mobility, flexibility, balance,
coordination, vertical jumping, timing, rhythm and
speed, fat-free body mass, bone density, and skill
improvement [21]. In the literature, repetition
number varies between 25 and 250 for each practice
and between 500 and 2000 repetitions in the daily
training for the rope training implemented by
repetition method [12,13,27,30].
Weighted ropes are manufactured from rigid
plastic or latex ropes in which sand, shot metals, iron
filings, etc. are placed and they can be in different
weights. Sporters physically in good condition
should be selected. When it is combined with a
weight training program, it helps to improve the
upper body strength, and mainly exercises arm,
shoulder and pectoral muscles. Main purpose of the
jumping rope is to develop the hand-foot speed,
agility, skills, reaction time and cardiovascular
system. Weighted rope does not allow movements to
be realized at a speed sufficient to provide these
improvements since the time to continue jumping is
limited [28,13].
Weighted ropes are generally designed in two
different ways. In the first one weight is designed to
be in the handles and it is efficient on the foot
techniques by the basic jumping exercise; in the
second one weight is designed to be in the rope
section and this design increases the work load by
means of the centrifugal force. When the weighted
rope is utilized properly, it is efficient on the upper
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Adv. Environ. Biol., 7(5): 945-951, 2013
body, however if the sporter does not have the
required qualifications, centrifugal force may cause
disablement [28,13].
Studies reveal that 15% of the basketball game is
realized at high intensity and success in basketball is
dependent on development of anaerobic powers of
sporters instead of their aerobic powers [19,9]. It
became obligatory for the basketball players to have
better perception, decision-making and
implementation skills in today’s fast basketball
games. For this reason, due importance and place
should be given to coordination training that shall
increase conditional and technical-tactical skills of
the basketball players [26].
Although there are studies on rope jumping
exercises in the field of sports sciences, limited
number of studies on basketball players and rope
training program being different from the other
studies in terms of material and method, constitute
the basis of this study. Accordingly, the purpose of
this study is to examine effects of jumping training
with weighted rope on the heart rate, anaerobic
power, agility and reaction time of the basketball
players.
Materials and Methods
Study is realized with the voluntary participation
of total 40 male basketball players who are playing
basketball for at least 3 years and whose ages vary
between 16 and 19. Basketball players are randomly
separated into two groups being experimental (n=20)
and control (n=20) groups. After preparatory rope
training for 1 week, training program including
weighted rope jumping training by repetition method
for 3 days in a week and for 8 weeks was
implemented by the experimental group together
with the technical training. For the control group,
only technical training was applied for three days in a
week over the course of 8 weeks.
Weighted rope with trade mark Powerope (V-
3067) that has 260 cm length and 600 gr rope weight,
and 695 gr. total weight was used for the
experimental group in the study.
At first volunteers are informed about the
implementation of the test orally, and then
demonstrations are made practically. Measurements
were taken by the researcher in the morning hours
(09:00-10:00) and under the same environmental
conditions in the laboratory medium as pretest-
posttest.
Test Protocols:
Age and Basketball Age:
Ages of basketball players were found by
subtracting birth year from the current year and their
basketball age was found by subtracting the year he
started to play as a registered player from the current
year.
Measurement of Height and Body Weight:
Height measurement was found in cm with
barefoot by utilizing medical type of height
measuring device (sensitivity 0.01 cm, Holtain Ltd.,
UK), and body weight was measured by medical type
of platform balance (sensitivity 0.01 kg, Angel) after
sporters took off their clothes so that they have only
shorts and t-shirts [29].
Heart Rate:
Resting heart rate was measured in pulse/min. by
utilizing a digital heart rate monitor (Polar S720i
Heart Rate Monitor, Finland) after basketball players
stayed in laying position for 15 minutes, and heart
rate after exercises was measured immediately after
the rope training.
Anaerobic Power Measurement:
Anaerobic power was measured according to the
Wingate Test protocol by standard methods
suggested in bicycle ergometer adapted for this test
(Monark, 894 E, Peak Bike, Sweden). Detailed
information was given before starting the test, and a
standard heating was applied at 50 rpm for 5 min. in
order to provide physiological adaptation of
basketball players to the bicycle ergometer. A resting
period of 5 minutes was provided with the aim to
eliminate fatigue seen after heating. Saddle and
handlebar adjustments were made for each basketball
player before the test. Sitting level was adjusted so
that when basketball player is cycling in the position
sitting on the saddle, knee is fully in extension when
the pedal is in its lowest level, and his feet were fixed
to the pedal by means of clips. After the resting
period, test started by placing a weight corresponding
to 7.5% of body weight of each basketball player to
the pan of the bicycle as a load to be applied during
the test. It is requested from them to maintain the
highest maximal pedal speed possible for 30 sec.
with load after 3-4 sec at the beginning without any
load to reach the pedal speed determined (160-170
rpm). Basketball players were orally prompted
during the test. At the end of test maximum power
and average power of basketball players were
transferred to the computer medium by RS32
application, and were recorded in terms of W/kg
[11].
Hexagon Agility Measurement:
Test measures the ability of the basketball player
to move at maximum speed by maintaining his
balance. A hexagon with 120º corner angels and 60.5
cm side length was drawn to the ground. Basketball
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player took his place exactly in the center of this
hexagon, and he went out of the first side by jumping
on his both feet and returned to the center. He turned
both of his feet and face towards to the next side and
jumped to all of the sides. 1st tour was completed
when he jumped to all sides and returned back to the
center, and test was completed when 3 tours were
made. Chronometer was actuated together with the
first jumping basketball player made outwards from
the center and chronometer was stopped when the
last jumping of the 3rd tour is made towards to the
center. Result is recorded in terms of seconds [3].
Visual and Auditory Reaction Time:
In this study, visual and auditory reaction times
of basketball players were determined by means of
Newtest 1000 Device (precision 1/1000 sec.).
Attention was paid in the measurement of reaction
times that the place where the measurements were
made was noiseless and receiving light. 1 test for
both of the hands against audio and visual stimuli
were realized for each experimental subject and then
3 measurements were made. The best value among
the last 3 measurements is recorded in terms of
milliseconds as the score of the subjects [29].
Training Program:
Preparatory rope exercises conducted one week
before the training and warm-up, flexion and
contraction exercises conducted for 5 minutes before
each exercise.
Preparatory training program:
Aim: rope adaptation, Exercise method: repeat
method, Tempo: quick exercise, Duration: 50-60 rp.,
Break: 1:1, Serial: 2.
Exercises:
1.Sidewill left, 2.Side will right 3.Front
windmill, 4.Overhead windmill left, 5.Overhead
windmill right, 6.Figure eight left, 7.Figure eight
right, 8.Sidewill left skipping, 9.Sidewill right
skipping, 10.Front windmill skipping.
Rope jumping program for 8 weeks:
Duration of application: 8 weeks, Number of
training per week: 3, Total training number: 24,
Method: repeat method, Exercise tempo: with
explosive tempo, of the exercises in the program,
application duration : 50 - 80 rp, Duration of break:
1:1, Number of serial: 1 - 2 set, Break between
serials: full break, Tools and materials: jumping rope
Exercises:
1.Basic bounce step, 2.Bell jump, 3.Skier’s
jump, 4.Right foot skipping, 5.Left foot skipping,
6.Alternate foot step, 7.Boxer shuffle, 8.Side
straddle, 9.Scissors, 10.Bonus jump.
Statistical Analysis:
The analysis of the data obtained, a Two Related
Paired T-Test (Simple Paired T-Test) was done for
the data showing a normal distribution in the
statistical package program of the dependent and
independent groups, and Wilcoxon and Mann-
Whitney U tests were done for the data not showing
a normal distribution in the statistical package
program of the dependent and independent groups. P
<0.05 value was considered significant.
Results:
The effects of jumping training with weighted
rope and by repetition method on the heart rate,
anaerobic power, agility and reaction time are
examined in this study, and findings are expressed in
the form of tables.
Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of Experimental and Control Groups.
Variables
Experimental Group
(n=20)
P
Control Group
(n=20)
p
Between Groups
t p
Basketball Age (year) BT 6,75 ± 1,44 1 6,35 ± 1,42 1 ,265 ,657
AT 6,75 ± 1,44 6,35 ± 1,42 ,265 ,657
Age (year) BT 17,50 ± 1,08 1 17,50 ± 1,05 1 ,000 1
AT 17,50 ± 1,08 17,50 ± 1,05 ,000 1
Height (cm) BT 189,65 ± 8,32 ,000* 187,90 ± 8,02 ,002* ,677 ,502
AT 190,15 ± 8,13 188,45 ± 7,80 ,675 ,504
Weight (kg) BT 80,80 ± 9,80 ,055 81,75 ± 10,25 ,209 -,300 ,766
AT 80,20 ± 9,70 81,45 ± 10,17 -,398 ,693
* p<0.05 BE: Before Training AE: After Training
A significant difference is observed in the height
values of experimental and control groups before and
after the training (p<0.05); however no significant
difference is determined before and after the training
in the intergroup comparison (p>0.05).
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Tablo 2: Heart Rate, Anaerobic Power, Hexagon Test and Reaction Time Values of Experimental and Control Groups.
Variables
Experimental
Group (n=20)
P
Control Group
(n=20)
p
Between Groups
t p
Resting Heart Rate
(beats/min)
BT 80,45 ± 5,68 ,000* 78,15 ± 5,04 ,000* ,530 ,599
AT 74,95 ± 4,73 77,75 ± 4,91 -1,837 ,074
Heart Rate After Exercise
(beats/min)
BT 168,30 ± 13,70 ,000* 166,85 ± 11,27 ,116 ,366 ,717
AT 181,15 ± 11,50 169,65 ± 13,57 2,891 ,006*
Peak Power (watt/kg) BT 14,22 ± 2,35 ,000* 13,71 ± 1,78 ,008* ,780 ,440
AT 16,28 ± 2,78 14,13 ± 1,74 2,929 ,006*
Average Power (watt/kg) BT 7,07 ± 0,79 ,000* 7,23 ± 0,78 ,645 -,621 ,538
AT 8,08 ± 0,83 7,29 ± 0,74 3,190 ,003*
Hexagon Test
(sec)
BT 14,45 ± 1,15 ,012 14,05 ± 1,52 ,001* ,564 ,143
AT 13,73 ± 1,44 13,02 ± 1,27 2,676 ,034*
Left Hand Reaction Time to
Sound (sec )
BT 0,200 ± 0,03 ,012* 0,196 ± 0,02 ,126 ,439 ,663
AT 0,193 ± 0,02 0,192 ± 0,02 ,088 ,930
Right Hand Reaction Time
to Sound (sec )
BT 0,195 ± 0,03 ,006* 0,188 ± 0,02 ,003* ,829 ,412
AT 0,179 ± 0,02 0,182 ± 0,02 -,363 ,718
Left Hand Reaction Time to
Light ( sec )
BT 0,221 ± 0,03 ,420 0,212 ± 0,02 ,011* 1,138 ,262
AT 0,216 ± 0,01 0,205 ± 0,02 2,192 ,035*
Right Hand Reaction Time
to Light (sec)
BT 0,215 ± 0,02 ,017* 0,206 ± 0,02 ,013* 1,443 ,157
AT 0,201 ± 0,02 0,200 ± 0,02 ,233 ,817
* p<0.05 BE: Before Training AE: After Training
Significant difference is detected in the
experimental group values of resting heart rate and
heart rate after training, peak power, average power,
hexagon agility, audio reaction times of right and left
hands and light reaction time of the right hand
(p<0.05). Significant difference is found in the
control group values of resting heart rate, peak
power, audio reaction time of right hand and light
reaction times of right and left hands (p<0.05). In the
intergroup comparison, significant difference is
determined in the values of heart rate after
exercising, peak power, average power, hexagon test
and light reaction time of left hand before and after
the training (p<0.05), no important difference is
detected in the other values (p>0.05).
Discussion:
Effects of rope training on the heart rate,
anaerobic power, agility and reaction times of
basketball players are investigated in this study, and
it can be considered that volunteers in the
experimental and control groups have similar
phenotypes in terms of their physical characteristics
since no significant difference between the age,
basketball age, body weight and height values of
sporters in the experimental and control groups is
found.
In the literature, it is indicated that increase in
length in the last period of puberty between ages 18
and 20 which is the period increase in length stops, is
a natural consequence of individual differences [22].
Increase in the average length values of participant
basketball players in both of the groups after the
training may be associated with the continuation of
puberty on the contrary to the effects of rope
training. Literature information supports our study.
On the other hand, statistically insignificant decrease
in the body weight of the experimental group may
arise from the influence of weighted rope training
program applied.
It is informed in the literature that jumping with
rope has positive effects on cardiovascular system
[4]; and it is a significant implementation in
developing and maintaining the muscle strength and
cardiovascular system, and it improves foot
movements as a support for the preparation for sports
branch [25]. It is indicated that resting heart rate
values are expected to be lower in well-trained
sporters in comparison to the healthy but untrained
individuals [8], and in another research it is informed
that heart rate has decreased 4 to 9 pulses in one
minute by means of exercising. In the strength
training implemented by extensive interval method in
the basketball players between ages 13-14, it is
informed that resting heart rate has showed
significant difference before and after training being
respectively 84.67 ± 13.94 pulse/min. and 74.33 ±
11.24 pulse/min. [7]. At the end of the quick power
and plyometric trainings applied to basketball players
between ages 15-16, significant difference is
determined in the resting heart rate of quick power
group [23]. Even though significant decrease in
resting heart rate of both groups in comparison to the
value before training is thought-provoking, this
situation may arise from the metabolic adaptation of
basketball training that is applied routinely excluding
the rope training and that is similar contextually.
Literature supports our study.
In the research on aerobic and anaerobic
reactions of male and females to rope jumping, 6
male and 6 female objects were subjected to maximal
bicycle ergometer and rope jumping exercise where
120, 140 and 160 jumps were realized in one minute.
In the study, heart rates were determined respectively
as 185, 166, 168 and 178 pulse/min., and it is
indicated that requirement to both aerobic and
anaerobic sources during rope jumping exercises is
high [24]. In study examining effect of rope jumping
rate on the energy consumption in males and
females, rope jumping exercise was made by 19
males and 11 females for 5 minutes so that they
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Adv. Environ. Biol., 7(5): 945-951, 2013
would made 125, 135 and 146 jumps per minute. It is
informed that heart rates of total sample were
determined as 176, 177, and 177 pulse/min. and
females have significantly higher heart rate than
males [30]. In the therapy activity where 30 females
between ages 18 and 31 have done jumping training
one day with rope at the maximum difficulty level
and other day without rope, it is informed that heart
rate after jumping with rope is significantly higher
than the rate after jumping without rope [1]. Increase
in the heart rate of experimental group after
exercising being more significant than the rate of
control group may give rise to thought that weighted
rope training applied with explosive tempo is
efficient. Heart rate of experimental group increasing
proportionally to O2 intake and labor done may arise
from the effect of weighted rope. Our findings show
parallelism with the literature.
In the study where effect of weighted rope
jumping training on the development of anaerobic
capacity and explosive reaction power of college
students is examined as an alternative to plyometric
exercising; statistically significant improvement is
observed in the value of anaerobic peak power after a
training program of 10 weeks and 3 days in a week;
and weighted rope jumping is suggested as an
alternative that can be applied in highly efficient
plyometric exercises [17]. In another doctorate study,
it is indicated that benefits of rope jumping is not
only limited to skill of utilizing various energy
systems, but also it is fairly practical for the
development of explosive reaction power [16].
Importance of anaerobic explosive power feature in
terms of basketball branch is understood from the
differences observed in experimental and control
groups before and after training, and it can be stated
that characteristic of maintaining anaerobic power is
more significant for the experimental group and
weighted rope jumping training is highly effective in
improving this feature. Our findings support the
literature.
In a study realized on college students, hexagon
agility values were determined as 12.3 sec. in
competitor sporters, 12.3 sec. in recreational sporters
and 14.2 sec. in sedentary students [9]. In the
literature, the main targets of jumping rope are
identified as improving hand-foot speed, agility,
ability, reaction time and cardiovascular system; and
it is stated that since time to continue jumping with
weighted rope is limited, it does not permit
movements at a speed sufficient to provide these
benefits [14,28]. In the study, statistically significant
decreases are observed in the hexagon agility test
values of experimental and control groups in
comparison to the values before training; statistical
difference being more significant for the control
group may be indicating that weighted rope jumping
training is inefficient on agility and influences it in a
negative way.
In the study realized on biomechanics of sprint
races, it is stated that reaction of time successful
sporters is shorter than others; however difference is
not directly connected to their performance levels
[20]. It is indicated in the literature that reaction time
may be improved via regular training [2]. In another
study, it is reported that reaction time may be
shortened by physical training performed for a long
time [6]. In the study realized to determine the effect
of exercising and heat strain on the simple reaction
time university students, significant decrease is
reported in the both visual and auditory reaction
times before exercising [5]. In one study, it is
specified that individuals performing exercises at a
heart rate of 115 pulse/min. have a faster reaction
time [15]; and in another study, it is indicated that
reaction times of physically healthy individuals are
faster [31]. Even though statistically significant
decreases are observed in the visual and auditory
reaction times of experimental and control groups in
comparison to the values before training, it can be
stated that weighted rope jumping training is
inefficient on the reaction time, since there is no
significant difference between the groups; in fact
control group achieved better results. In other words,
it can be considered that there is similarity in the
visual and auditory reaction times of basketball
players in the experimental and control groups, and
this similarity arises from the necessity to respond
promptly to the rapid stimuli existing in the context
of basketball branch.
It is indicated in the literature that reactions
given to auditory stimuli are shorter than the
reactions given to visual stimuli [32]. It is also
specified that source of sound is not important for
faster auditory reaction times in both of the groups,
and it is sufficient only to hear the sound stimulus for
creation of the perception, on the other hand, visual
stimuli should be seen and thus reaction time may be
longer because of this reason.
Conclusion:
As a result, it can be said that weighted rope
jumping training done by basketball players with
explosive tempo and repetition method has positive
effects on heart rate and anaerobic characteristics,
and negative effects on reaction time.
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... In addition to Rope training, weighted rope training now also gains importance in terms of improving athletic performance. weighted rope exercise aims the development of the upper extremity in addition to improving lower extremity strength, coordination, reaction and anaerobic power performance (14). ...
... Although weighted rope jumping training is nowadays a popular jumping practice, it is not a thoroughly explored training method in terms of performance. The effects of weighted rope training have been investigated in a limited number of studies (10,13,14). In a similar study to our work, Orhan (14) reported that basketball players' weighted rope training improved both dominant and non-dominant reaction times in the upper extremity. ...
... The effects of weighted rope training have been investigated in a limited number of studies (10,13,14). In a similar study to our work, Orhan (14) reported that basketball players' weighted rope training improved both dominant and non-dominant reaction times in the upper extremity. The result of this study is similar to our research. ...
... Orhan (2008), basketbolcularda ip ve ağırlık ipi çalışmalarının vücut yağ oranı, yağ yüzdesi ve çevre ölçümlerine etkisini incelemiş bu çalışma sonucunda vücut yağ oranı ölçümlerinde düşüş gözlemlemiştir. Araştırmacı bu çalışmasında ip atlama egzersizlerinin vücut yağ oranını azalttığını bildirirken yapmış olduğu bir başka çalışmada ip atlama egzersizinin genç takımlar düzeyinde oynayan 40 basketbolcunun vücut ağırlığında anlamlı olmayan düşüşler gerçekleştiğini bildirmiştir (Orhan, 2013). Yapılan daha yakın tarihli bir çalışmada ip atlama egzersizinin yaşları 19-24 arasındaki erişkin hentbolcularda, kontrol ve deney grubunun ön test ve son test ölçümlerinde vücut ağırlığı üzerinde anlamlı bir farklılık gözlemlenmediği bildirilmiştir (Orhan, Yücel ve Orhan, 2019). ...
... Çocuklar üzerinde yapılan çalışmalarda vücut yağ oranlarında anlamlı düşüşler olduğunu bildirip, bulgularımızı destekler nitelikte beyanlarda bulunurken, belirli bir spor yaşına sahip erişkinlerde ise tam tersi yönünde fikir beyan etmişlerdir. Bu durum çalışma yapılan grupların yaşı, cinsiyeti, beslenme durumları, antrene olma düzeyleri ve spor yaşları gibi daha farklı etkenlerin vücut yağ oranında belirleyici olabileceğini düşündürmektedir (Eler ve Acar, 2018;Ağar, 2006;Orhan, 2013) Çalışmamızda 20 metre sürat test sonuçlarına göre ip atlama egzersizlerinin çalışma grubundaki çocukların sürat sürelerinde ön test ile son test arasında anlamlı düşüşlere neden olduğu gözlendi (p<0,05) Bununla ilgili olarak Endo ve arkadaşlarının yapmış oldukları çalışmada ip atlama egzersizinin 9-13 yaş grubu çocuklarda sprint performansını geliştirdiğini bildirmişlerdir (Endo, Tauchi, Kigoshi ve Ogata, 2007). Turgut ve arkadaşlarının yaptıkları çalışmada 25 adolesan kadın voleybol oyuncusunu ağılıklı ip atlama (n=8), standart ip atlama (n=9) ve kontrol grubu (n=8) olarak 3 gruba ayırmışlardır. ...
... Jump rope is an activity widely used in physical education and sport training to promote health and fitness [1]. Previous studies indicated that jump rope can be easily learned without training, and only a small space is needed [2,3]. Moreover, it is beneficial to cardiorespiratory [4], strength [5], agility [2], coordination [6], and bone health [7]. ...
... There are a considerable number of differences between being barefoot and wearing shoes; however, the functions of shoes can differ in relation to the differences in midsole characteristics, such as hardness, materials, and structure, which affect the sports performance and injury risk of the lower extremity musculoskeletal system [8][9][10]. Previous studies report that muscle activation adjusts the joint stiffness during the landing phase of repetitive impacts, such as jump rope [3][4][5][6], which was based on prior exercise experience and motor reflexes of muscles. Muscle activation is typically measured using electromyography (EMG), which reflects the changes in motor units in muscles, thereby showing the information regarding muscle function and activities [11]. ...
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This study investigated differences in lower extremity muscle activations and vertical stiffness during a 2.2 Hz jump rope exercise with different midsole hardnesses (45, 50, 55, and 60 Shores C). Twelve healthy male participants wore customized shoes with different hardness midsoles and performed jump rope exercises in a random order. A nine-camera motion analysis system (150 Hz), a force platform (1500 Hz), and a wireless electromyography (EMG) system (Noraxon, 1500 Hz) were used to measure the biomechanical parameters during the jump rope exercise. The biceps femoris %MVC of barefoot participants was significantly greater than that of those wearing the 45 Shores C (p = 0.048) and 55 Shores C (p = 0.009) midsole 100 ms before landing. The vastus medialis %MVC of barefoot participants was significantly greater than that of those wearing the 55 C midsole (p = 0.005). Nonsignificant differences in vertical stiffness were found between midsole hardnesses and barefoot. Lower extremity muscle activation differed between conditions. The results of this study indicate that for repetitive activities that entail multiple impacts, sports shoes with a low midsole hardness (e.g., 50 Shores C or 45 Shores C) may be appropriate. It is important to provide customers with information regarding midsole hardness in shoe product labeling so that they properly consider the function of the shoes.
... During initiation of this skipping rope, arms rotate the rope and both legs would perform repeated jumping, at the same time it aims to maintain constant vertical take-off and landing phases and body also needs to control the balance and force through a coordinated action of upper and lower body muscle groups. The role of skipping rope exercises within training programs has been proved that it gives positive effects on physiological parameters of cardiovascular and respiratory systems (8,9,10) . Epidemiological study has shown that sedentary life style will lead to onset and progression of life threatening disease such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease and obesity (11) . ...
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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To determine the effect of skipping rope exercise on physical fitness and cardiovascular fitness among collegiate males. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: Sedentary life style is contributing to the early onset and progression of life style disease such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Cardiovascular fitness reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases like diabetes or Hypertension. Skipping rope is a low-cost physical activity. Thus, its impact on the physical fitness is being studied by various researchers. Skipping rope involves the muscles in arms and legs, and it also improves cardiovascular function. METHODOLOGY: This experimental study was conducted among collegiate males of age group between 18 and 25 years at Faculty of physiotherapy. Study duration was twelve weeks. Subjects were selected by simple random sampling method. Inclusion criteria were inactive subjects based on IPAQ-S. Exclusion criteria were minimally active and active subjects based on IPAQ-S, sports population, those with heart disease, any lung disease and anemia. Outcome measure for cardiovascular fitness is VO2 max by step test and Physical fitness by FMS (Functional Movement Screening) and by IPAQ-S (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short form). PROCEDURE: International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-S) was given to participants initially Inactive subjects were recruited based on IPAQ-S values and randomly divided into two groups Group A (experimental) and Group B (control group). Subjects were selected based on inclusion criteria. Pre-Assessment of the cardiovascular fitness and physical fitness were noted. Experimental group received skipping rope exercise two sessions per day from moderate to vigorous intensity based on target heart rate including warm up and cool down period to avoid injuries. Exercise began with 55% of target heart rate and then progressed to 65% by 2 nd week and progressed to 70% by 3 rd week and 75 % by 4 th week and finally 85% by 5 th week. Group B (control group) were suggested to do their as usual routine activities. Heart Rate was periodically noted. Post test scores were recorded after 12 weeks of intervention. RESULT: On comparing the pre and post test values between groups, it shows statistically significant improvement in Group A (Experimental group) at p ≤ 0.001 on VO2 max and FMS.
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Six male and six female subjects performed maximal bicycle ergometer work and skipped rope at selected rates. Measures included oxygen uptake (VO2), oxygen debt (VO2 debt), blood lactate, and heart rate (HR). Mean values for males for the maximum test and while skipping at 120, 140, and 160 turns . min-1 were, respectively: VO2-50.2, 38.3, 39.7, and 44.3 ml . kg-1 . min-1; HR-185, 166, 168, and 178 beats . min-1; VO2 debt--5.70, 3.65, 3.50, and 4.04 liter; and lactate--12.7, 7.4, 7.6, and 9.2 mM . 1(-1). For females: VO2--42.8, 39.8, 39.4, and 39.4 ml . kg-1 . min-1; HR--185, 181, 181, and 181 beats . min-1; VO2 debt--4.71, 4.27, 4.22, and 4.15 liter; and lactate--11.5, 11.5, 12.2, and 11.9 mM . l-1. No significant differences were found between treatments for females for any measure. Rope skipping placed high demands on both aerobic (females, 92% VO2max, males, 76-88%) and anaerobic capacities (females, 100-106% lactate values after maximum bicycle exercise; males, 58-72%). In males, who did not reach VO2max during rope skipping, it was verified that the VO2 requirement does not increase with skipping rate over a relatively wide range, but that extremely high rates do require more energy from both aerobic and anaerobic sources. Differences in tolerance of males and females to rope skipping were attributed to the lower aerobic power and higher body fat of females.
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The purpose was to study the effects of skipping rate on energy expenditure and sex differences in response to rope skipping. Responses of 19 males and 11 females were measured while skipping for 5 min at 125, 135 and 145 skips . min-1. Expired air was routed through a hollow handle to collection bags to provide uninterrupted exercise. Values at the respective rates for the total sample were: VO2 (l . min-1) 2.79, 2.83, 2.85; VO2 (ml . kg-1 . min-1) 41.1, 42.0 42.5; HR (beats . min-1) 176, 177, 177; VE (l . min) 102.2, 103.5, 106.3; R 1.09, 1.07, 1.05; energy expenditure (kj . min-1) 58.6, 59.4, 60.3. Sex differences were found in that females had significantly lower VO2 both in l . min-1 and ml . kg-1 . min-1 but higher HR values than males. Comparison of VO2 values of the females to VO2max values reported for females in the literature suggested that they may have been exercising close to their maximum. There were no differences in any of the values due to skipping rate nor was there interaction between sex and rate. Retrospective cinematographic analysis on two subjects suggested that the failure to find significant differences due to rate may be due to a decrease in vertical displacement resulting in a relatively constant work output as skipping rate increased. Average MET values at the different rates ranged from 11.7 to 12.5, which supported findings from other studies that rope skipping is very strenuous exercise.
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In this study, the intensities of activity and movement patterns during men's basketball were investigated by videoing the movements and monitoring the heart rate and blood lactate responses of eight elite players during competition. The results are expressed according to 'live time', which is actual playing time, and 'total time', which includes live time as well as all stoppages in play. The mean (+/- S.D.) frequency of all activities was 997 +/- 183, with a change in movement category every 2.0 s. A mean total of 105 +/- 52 high-intensity runs (mean duration 1.7 s) was recorded for each game, resulting in one high-intensity run every 21 s during live time. Sixty percent of live time was spent engaged in low-intensity activity, while 15% was spent in high-intensity activity. The mean heart rate (HR) during live time was 169 +/- 9 beats min-1 (89 +/- 2% peak HR attained during laboratory testing); 75% of live time was spent with a HR response of greater than 85% peak HR. The mean blood lactate concentration was 6.8 +/- 2.8 mM, indicating the involvement of glycolysis in the energy demands of basketball. It is concluded that the physiological requirements of men's basketball are high, placing considerable demands on the cardiovascular and metabolic capacities of players.