In the present review article, we have compiled and analysed ethnomedicinal knowledge on the plants used to manage CNS and memory-related problems by various indigenous communities of the two Union Territories of India viz., Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), and Ladakh. Ethnomedicinal studies conducted in J&K and Ladakh, India up till the year 2020, were searched from journals, edited books, and scientific databases such as Google Scholar, SciFinder, Scopus, CAB international, DOAJ, Science direct, PubMed and Web of Science. More than 100 ethnobotanical studies were reviewed during the present study. The reviewed studies covered various indigenous communities from the study area, such as Gujjar, Bakerwal, Amchis, Dard, Pathan, Gaddi, Pahari, and other local and ethnic communities. A total of 116 plants belonging to the 94 genera of 32 families were found to be used by different communities of the study area to manage CNS and memory-related problems. Some of the most used plant species were Centella asiatica, Cannabis sativa, Datura stramonium, Valeriana jatamansi, Hyoscyamus niger, Hypericum perforatum, Heracleum candicans, Euphorbia wallichii, Potentilla multifida, Atropa acuminata, and Prunella vulgaris. The maximum numbers of plant species used in the study area belonged to the family Asteraceae (15 spp.), followed by family Apiaceae (9 spp.), Lamiaceae (9 spp.), Solanaceae (6 spp.), Rosaceae (5 spp.), and so on. The whole plant of 34 plant species was used, followed by roots, leaves, seeds, fruits, and flowers for the treatment of CNS and memory-related ailments. The majority of the plants were used as a sedative or narcotic. Large numbers of plants were used to manage epilepsy, memory, or as a brain/nerve tonic. Further scientific validation studies are required to prove claimed neuroprotective uses of some of the highly used plant species in the region, such as E. wallichii, P. multifida, A. acuminata, P. vulgaris, Malva neglecta, Plantago himalaica, Pedicularis pectinata, and Nepeta leucolaena.