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The structure of phenotypic personality traits

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... Conceived first by [28], the Five Factor Model (Big Five), developed by [97], is one of the most widely used personality typology models to measure individuals' personality dimensions to examine and explain the relations between personality dimensions and the individual differences in perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors [98][99][100]. The Five-Factor Personality Model is considered to be the most common tool used to determine individuals' personality characteristics [101,102]. ...
... The Five-Factor Personality Model is considered to be the most common tool used to determine individuals' personality characteristics [101,102]. The Five-Factor Model (Big Five) model comprises five personality dimensions namely, extroversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience [97,103,104]. The model originally started with 924 IPIP (International Personality Item Pool) [105] items being transformed into a personality inventory which is constructed of 15 sub-dimensions based on the Five-Factor Personality Model [28,97]. ...
... The Five-Factor Model (Big Five) model comprises five personality dimensions namely, extroversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience [97,103,104]. The model originally started with 924 IPIP (International Personality Item Pool) [105] items being transformed into a personality inventory which is constructed of 15 sub-dimensions based on the Five-Factor Personality Model [28,97]. The Big Five Personality Traits model is sometimes called the OCEAN (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) model, named after the first letters of each dimension. ...
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Personality characteristics influence individuals' perceptions, evaluations, and behaviors toward external stimuli. This study aims to investigate the influence of the extroversion-introversion personality characteristics of hospitality customers on the amount of value they attached to the different service quality dimensions. The influence of customers' personality characteristics on the amount of value attached to the different service quality dimensions has not been previously studied by researchers. The data were obtained from 508 Turkish tourists staying at five-star hotels in holiday resorts located on the Aegean coast of Turkey. Partial least-squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the data. At the measurement model stage, the scales were subjected to reliability and validity tests. It was seen that all the variables in the measurement model met the reliability and validity criteria. The structural model and the hypotheses were tested to examine the relationships between the latent variables. The results show that while introvert customers tend to attach more value to the tangibles dimension of service quality, extrovert customers tend to attach more value to the empathy dimension of service quality.
... These heterogeneities are partly attributed to the individual differences in the perception of psychological drivers due to their differences in demographic factors (Han et al., 2011), cultural background (Choi et al., 2009) and values (Chen et al., 2018). Personality traits are the long-term stable patterns in cognition, thinking and feeling among people (Goldberg, 1993) and have been long recognised as a potential cause of the observed heterogeneity (Cao and Chen, 2021;Markowitz et al., 2012;Poškus and Ž ukauskienė, 2017). For instance, Wang et al. (2021a) reported the direct correlations between personality traits and all three TPB factors towards household energy-saving behaviour. ...
... The term personality traits refers to long-term stable sets of psychological characteristics that uniquely influence people's patterns in cognition, feelings and decision-making (Goldberg, 1993). The Big Five Personality Model is well-accepted in academia and underlies contemporary personality-based theories (Lynn, 2021). ...
... The Big Five Personality Model is well-accepted in academia and underlies contemporary personality-based theories (Lynn, 2021). The model identifies five traits: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeable, neuroticism (Goldberg, 1993). Over the past decade, by employing Big Five Personality Model, academia has investigated the roles of personality traits in several typical PEBs (Liu et al., 2021;Poškus and Ž ukauskienė, 2017;Wang et al., 2021b). ...
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Guest behaviour is important in driving hotel energy consumption, operating cost and environmental issues. Promoting energy-saving behaviours of guests is a promising strategy for the sustainable development of the hospitality industry. This research aims to explore the roles of personality profiles in individual heterogeneity in drivers of energy-saving behaviours among hotel guests. The study is based on a three-step research roadmap: First, we review existing literature on hotel energy-saving behaviour and intervention and construct an extended theory of planned behaviour model to explore the relationship between personality and energy-saving behaviours. Second, the research conducts a survey to identify the critical factors in the model and sets up four personality profiles for the respondents and compares the effects of critical factors upon respondents' energy-saving behaviours among different personality profile groups. Third, the study further conducts a follow-up survey on the subjective promoters and barriers of hotel energy-saving behaviours, where a descriptive analysis is employed to validate the findings. The findings reveal that personality profiles lead to varying effects of all critical factors in influencing the energy-saving behaviours of hotel guests. The research empirically demonstrates the important roles of personality profiles and household habits in shaping the energy behaviours of hotel guests and provides a novel view of understanding the heterogeneity of energy-saving behaviours in the hospitality industry. The study contributes to environmental behavioural theory by adding normative indicators and habit factors. Also, the study classifies the respondents into groups according to personality characteristics and demonstrates the significant role of personality. The research applies a follow-up study that can provide factual evidence to support the result of previous hypothetical testing. The findings provide valuable references to the development of tailored smart energy intervention measurements and management tools for hotel buildings.
... Each question consists of a short phrase and participants endorse their level of agreement with the statement on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 "strongly disagree" to 5 "strongly agree"). The BFI is based on the work of Goldberg (1993). ...
... To examine the discriminant validity of the CHI-T in relation to normal personality variables, we conducted bivariate correlation analyses between the CHI-T subscale raw scores and raw scores obtained using the Big Five inventory (Goldberg, 1993;John & Srivastava, 1999) Thus, the CHI-T subscale shared less than 16% variance with any of the Big Five dimensions. We also conducted these analyses using an ESEM approach because of the strong item cross-loading for the scales of both the CHI-T and Big Five measurement instruments (Marsh et al., 2010). ...
Article
Compulsivity has potential transdiagnostic relevance to a range of psychiatric disorders, but it has not been well-characterized and there are few existing measures available for measuring the construct across clinical and nonclinical samples that have been validated at large population scale. We aimed to characterize the multidimensional latent structure of self-reported compulsivity in a population-based sample of British children and adults ( N = 182,145) using the Cambridge–Chicago Compulsivity Trait Scale (CHI-T). Exploratory structural equation modeling provided evidence for a correlated two-factor model consisting of (a) Perfectionism and (b) Reward Drive dimensions. Evidence was obtained for discriminant validity in relation to the big five personality dimensions and acceptable test–retest reliability. The CHI-T, here validated at extremely large scale, is suitable for use in studies seeking to understand the correlates and basis of compulsivity in clinical and nonclinical participants. We provide extensive normative data to facilitate interpretation in future studies.
... Research has demonstrated the utility of a conceptual and analytical framework for theorizing and exploring environmental practices among individuals. Environmentalism has also been examined in terms of the Big Five personality trait taxonomy, which describes variations in human personality along five dimensions, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness (Goldberg, 1993). These traits can be used to predict more specific attitudes and value orientations (McCrae and Costa, 2008). ...
... A short version of the BFI (Big Five) questionnaire, known as the BFI-S, is used to assess personality traits, which assesses five main personality factors -Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Following the pattern of similar research, each characteristic domain is represented by 3 descriptive items to which respondents must rate their agreement on a scale of 1 to 5 (Goldberg, 1993;Lang et al., 2011). ...
... Kişilikteki ayırt edici özelliklerin araştırmacılara kişilik ve kazaya karışma arasındaki ilişkiyi daha iyi anlama konusunda katkıda bulunacağını söylemek mümkündür. Bu bağlamda Beş Faktör Kişilik Modeli ya da Üç Faktör Modeli temel bireysel farklılıkları incelemede yararlı olabilir (Goldberg, 1993). Bu çalışmada Beş Faktör Kişilik Modelindeki kişilik boyutlarının makinistlerin kazaya, olaya veya riskli davranışa karışmaları üzerindeki yordayıcı etkisi üzerinde durulmaktadır (üç faktör kişilik ve kaza için bkz. ...
... Son on yılda, Beş Faktör Modeli geniş ve daha kapsamlı bir kişilik modeli olarak önerilmiş ve yaygın olarak kurumsal davranıştan (örn., Salgado, 2002) kazaya karışmaya kadar çeşitli sonuç değişkenlerini yordamada kullanılmıştır (örn., Arthur & Graziano, 1996). Beş Faktör Modeli'nde, Büyük Beş Kişilik Özellikleri sabit, nispeten ortogonal (dik doğrusal), ve her biri birkaç alt faktör içeren kişilik boyutlarını kapsayan: (1) Duygusal Denge (yani, olumsuz duyuş ve endişe yaşama eğilimi); (2) Dışa Dönüklük (yani, sıcaklık, girginlik, heyecan arayışı); (3) Uyumluluk (yani, yardımseverlik, şefkat, güven); (4) Sorumluluk (yani, güvenilirlik, sorumluluk, öz disiplin); ve (5) Açıklık (yani, maceraperestlik, geniş fikirlilik, değerler) üst düzey tipolojisi olarak gösterilmiştir (Goldberg, 1993;Costa ve McCrae, 1995). ...
Technical Report
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Genel olarak, bu çalışmada kapsamlı bir kuramsal çerçeve kullanılmıştır. Demiryolları ulaşımında makinist ve yardımcıları açısından insan faktörünün değişkenleri farklı seviyelerde niteliksel ve niceliksel olarak ele alınmıştır. Elde edilen bulgular temelinde önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Önerilerde yer alan hedeflere ulaşmak için çeşitli engellerle karşılaşılacağı tahmin edilebilir. Ayrıca, önerilerin tümünün bir anda gerçekleştirilmesi ya da böyle bir beklentiye girilmesi gerçekçi ve adil bir yaklaşım olmayacaktır. Yine de, var olan sorunların ve iyileştirme unsurlarının tespiti ve farkındalık yaratarak gerekli iyileştirmeler için çalışanların ve tüm ilgililerin cesaretlendirilmesi ilk adımdır. Bu çalışma sonucunda; tüm sorunların bertaraf edileceği tek bir çözüm yoktur. Önerilerin birleşiminin ve bütününün gösterdiği bir ‘yol haritası’ mevcuttur. Buna göre, gerekli adımlar atılmalı ve belli bir zaman sonrasında durum değerlendirmesi yapılarak gelinen nokta değerlendirilmeli ve yeni hedefler belirlenmelidir. Bu uzun yolda, kararlı bir duruş, yeterli kaynak, dikkat ve her seviyeden katılım aşılması gereken engellere rağmen iyileştirme ve ilerlemeyi beraberinde getirecektir.
... Kişilikteki ayırt edici özelliklerin araştırmacılara kişilik ve kazaya karışma arasındaki ilişkiyi daha iyi anlama konusunda katkıda bulunacağını söylemek mümkündür. Bu bağlamda Beş Faktör Kişilik Modeli ya da Üç Faktör Modeli temel bireysel farklılıkları incelemede yararlı olabilir (Goldberg, 1993). Bu çalışmada Beş Faktör Kişilik Modelindeki kişilik boyutlarının makinistlerin kazaya, olaya veya riskli davranışa karışmaları üzerindeki yordayıcı etkisi üzerinde durulmaktadır (üç faktör kişilik ve kaza için bkz. ...
... Son on yılda, Beş Faktör Modeli geniş ve daha kapsamlı bir kişilik modeli olarak önerilmiş ve yaygın olarak kurumsal davranıştan (örn., Salgado, 2002) kazaya karışmaya kadar çeşitli sonuç değişkenlerini yordamada kullanılmıştır (örn., Arthur & Graziano, 1996). Beş Faktör Modeli'nde, Büyük Beş Kişilik Özellikleri sabit, nispeten ortogonal (dik doğrusal), ve her biri birkaç alt faktör içeren kişilik boyutlarını kapsayan: (1) Duygusal Denge (yani, olumsuz duyuş ve endişe yaşama eğilimi); (2) Dışa Dönüklük (yani, sıcaklık, girginlik, heyecan arayışı); (3) Uyumluluk (yani, yardımseverlik, şefkat, güven); (4) Sorumluluk (yani, güvenilirlik, sorumluluk, öz disiplin); ve (5) Açıklık (yani, maceraperestlik, geniş fikirlilik, değerler) üst düzey tipolojisi olarak gösterilmiştir (Goldberg, 1993;Costa ve McCrae, 1995). ...
Technical Report
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Kazalar ve olaylar, çevre, araç ve insan faktörü unsurlarının birbirlerinden bağımsız veya etkileşimleri sonucu meydana gelirler. Demiryolları gibi ileri teknoloji kullanılan esaslı, bileşik ve bütünlük arz eden yapılarda sistemin merkezinde insan faktörü unsuru daha fazla öne çıkmaktadır. İnsan faktörü, hem işi/görevi ilk elden yerine getiren operatörü hem de sistemin başka bir yerinde çalışan kişileri içermektedir. İnsan hataları; tüm bu çalışanların hatalarının bir ürünü olan kurumların ‘açıkkeskin’ ve‘gizil-kör’ aksaklıklarının bir sonucudur. Bu nedenlerle, demiryollarında insan faktörü farklı seviyelerde ve alanlarda kavramsal bir çerçevede değerlendirilmelidir. Bu çalışmada kullanılan kavramsal çerçeve beş farklı seviyeden oluşan İnsan Faktörü Analizi ve Sınıflandırma Sistemi’dir.
... Different personality subtype definitions and the scales used to determine them have evolved into different shapes over time. First of all, the Big Five Personality theory [17], developed by D.W. Fiske in 1949, was later expanded by other researchers such as Norman [18], Smith [19], Goldberg [20], and McCrae and Costa [21] and became an important subject of research. Another personality classification theory was developed by Eysenck in 1967 [22] and called the Super Three Factor theory. ...
... *Since the data did not show the normal distribution in the groups, the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test was used to compare the two groups, and if the p value was less than 0.05, it was considered statistically significant. Statistically different data are indicated using bold font TNM tumor, Node metastasis *A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant and shown in bold font **It is an anti-cancer therapy that includes parenterally and orally administered chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs 20.51 (0-90) 6 (3 -12) 2 (2-8) 3 (2-8) 1 (1-4) 2 (1-4) 1 (1-4) 1 (1-4) 1 (1-4) Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
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Self-esteem is a way of coping with stress for cancer patients and this improves their quality of life. It was aimed to determine the relationship between type A personality traits and self-esteem and quality of life in women with breast cancer and to determine the effective factors. 154 women with breast cancer and 78 healthy women were included. Bortner's Rating scale, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem scale, and EORTC QOL-C30 scale were used. The relationship between the presence of hobbies, self-esteem, quality of life, and personality type was examined. Mann–Whitney U, Kruskal–Wallis, Fisher's Exact, and Spearman Rank correlation tests were performed. Independent factors affecting personality type, self-esteem, and quality of life were determined by multivariate logistic (binary) regression analysis. The p < 0.05 value was significant in the SPSS v19 program. There was no age difference between the patients (54 ± 11 years) and the control group (42 ± 8 years) (p = 0.108). The rate of type A personality was 69% in patients and 58% in controls (p = 0.093). Similarly, the rate of high self-esteem was 93% in patients and 96% in controls (p = 0.098). Besides personality type and self-esteem, there was no relationship between personality type and quality of life in cancer patients (p = 0.960 and p = 0.946, respectively). A relationship was established between self-esteem and quality of life (p = 0.018) in patients. In patients with type A personality, hobbies providing socially active communication were common (p = 0.039), and had more than two hobbies (p = 0.015). Type A personality trait was independently effective on self-esteem (p = 0.046). Hobby orientation and the number of hobbies had independent effects on self-esteem (p = 0.032, p = 0.041), quality of life (respectively, p = 0.004, p = 0.007), and personality type (respectively, p = 0.014, p = 0.027). Hobbies that provide active social communication may have important effects on changes in personality traits, self-esteem, and quality of life in patients with breast cancer.
... This despite longstanding interest among personality psychologists in understanding the "individual differences that are of most significance in the daily transactions of persons with each other" (Goldberg, 1981, p. 141), as well as their role in shaping folk lexicons of personality terms and descriptors (Ashton and Lee, 2005;John, Angleitner, and Ostendorf, 1988). For nearly a century, multivariate dimension reduction techniques such as factor analysis have been used in combination with this lexical approach to personality measurement (Cattell, 1943;Goldberg, 1993), helping to tame the unwieldy complexity of the thousands of partially redundant personality terms observed in many human languages (Allport and Odbert, 1936;Angleitner et al., 1990). Studies of personality ratings from individuals and their close social partners have repeatedly shown that only a few major factor dimensions-usually five or six-are necessary to describe much of the variation observed in personality across human societies (Goldberg, 1993;Digiman, 1996;Ashton and Lee, 2007;John et al., 2008). ...
... For nearly a century, multivariate dimension reduction techniques such as factor analysis have been used in combination with this lexical approach to personality measurement (Cattell, 1943;Goldberg, 1993), helping to tame the unwieldy complexity of the thousands of partially redundant personality terms observed in many human languages (Allport and Odbert, 1936;Angleitner et al., 1990). Studies of personality ratings from individuals and their close social partners have repeatedly shown that only a few major factor dimensions-usually five or six-are necessary to describe much of the variation observed in personality across human societies (Goldberg, 1993;Digiman, 1996;Ashton and Lee, 2007;John et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Personality is essential for understanding the evolution of cooperation and conflict in behavior. However, personality science remains disconnected from the field of social evolution, limiting our ability to explain how personality and plasticity shape phenotypic adaptation in social behavior. Researchers also lack an integrative framework for comparing personality in the contextualized and multifaceted behaviors central to social interactions among humans and other animals. Here we address these challenges by developing a social evolutionary approach to personality, synthesizing theory, methods, and organizing questions in the study of individuality and sociality in behavior. We critically review current measurement practices and introduce social reaction norm models for comparative research on the evolution of personality in social environments. These models demonstrate that social plasticity affects the heritable variance of personality, and that individual differences in social plasticity can further modify the rate and direction of adaptive social evolution. Future empirical studies of frequency- and density-dependent social selection on personality are crucial for further developing this framework and testing adaptive theory of social niche specialization.
... Prior study has revealed that several features of life as associated with personality, comprising job achievement (Judge et al., 1999), good looks (Byrne et al., 1967), satisfaction of one with family life setup (Kelly and Conley, 1987) and level of pleasure (Ozer and Benet-Martinez, 2006). Inside the examination we used the BFFM peak extensive and normally accepted representation of personality (Goldberg, 1993;Russell and Karol, 1994). To incorporate the majority recognised personality traits this model was revealed and it is requested for representation of 'basic structure' primary variety of human behaviour and first choices, given a theoretical structure and a terminology which amalgamate most study discoveries inside the psychology of human changes. ...
... To incorporate the majority recognised personality traits this model was revealed and it is requested for representation of 'basic structure' primary variety of human behaviour and first choices, given a theoretical structure and a terminology which amalgamate most study discoveries inside the psychology of human changes. Here we fleetingly define the five personality traits (Goldberg, 1993;Russell and Karol, 1994). ...
Article
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The current study tries to find out the relationship between various characteristics of students personality and selfies posting behaviour among the students of University of Science and Technology Bannu (USTB) and National University of Modern Languages (NUML). The reason of selecting two universities from deferent culture is to validate the concept of the moderating role of culture. For this purpose data was collected from 220 students of both universities. It was analysed through SPSS via regression and correlation, while moderating role of culture was assessed through Preacher and Hayes (2008) macros. Results indicate that extraversion and openness to experience is significantly associated with selfies posting, while culture did not show any moderating effect between personality traits and selfie posting behaviour. Based on the results of the current study it is recommended to assess students personality through social media and be investigated through more detailed list of variables.
... Furthermore, there is the worry that personality psychology relies on the truth of the assumption that all of the relevant trait descriptions in our psychology have been sedimented into natural language, i.e., that our real psychological traits are accurately and fully described by our language (Cattell 1943). If this is not the case, then we may have to re-evaluate our claim that the five-factor model correlates 13 See Goldberg (1993), for historical review. ...
... Nor do they use the five-factor model to determine how we will act or how we should act (cf. Goldberg, 1993). Debate over whether character traits are 'real' by reference to scepticism induced by Myers-Briggs is not so much a legitimate debate as a common misunderstanding over what constitutes useable work in psychology. ...
Thesis
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We make character trait attributions to predict and explain others’ behaviour. How should we understand character trait attribution in context across the domains of philosophy, folk psychology, developmental psychology, and evolutionary psychology? For example, how does trait attribution relate to our ability to attribute mental states to others, to ‘mindread’? This thesis uses philosophical methods and empirical data to argue for character trait attribution as a practice dependent upon our ability to mindread, which develops as a product of natural selection acting on culture instead of genes. This analysis carves out trait attribution’s distinct place within an emerging complex and mature scholarship on pluralistic social cognition.
... Several psychological theories about personality are used as a framework in robotics. The Big Five Personality traits by Goldberg [6] is one of those. This theory categorizes personality in terms of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism [6]. ...
... The Big Five Personality traits by Goldberg [6] is one of those. This theory categorizes personality in terms of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism [6]. This theory is one of the most frequently used guidelines for modeling, predicting, and simulating personality (or prediction in social robotics) [7]. ...
Conference Paper
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Robot personality design is an essential aspect in Social Robotics, where humans and robots interact in a social context. Social robots with expressive behaviors can demonstrate human-like behaviors through voice, speech, gestures, and non-verbal cues. In this study, we focus on designing robot personalities based on non-verbal cues. More specifically, we investigate how and why human experts on movement analysis perceive different personalities of robots (introvert vs. extrovert) based on the robot's movement and other dynamic features, e.g., the position of joints, head and torso, voice pitch, speed, etc. We present our results from a thematic analysis of the data collected during the focus group with the movement analysis experts who observed designed extrovert and introvert robot behaviors performed by a Pepper robot. Our findings translate to new guidelines for designing different robot movement features, emphasizing body symmetry, consistency of personality traits and congruence of social cues during the interaction that were emphasized by the movement analysts. Based on the focus group findings and literature study, we summarise the design guidelines for extrovert and introvert robot behaviors in a social context. M. v. Otterdijk, H. Song, K. Tsiakas, I. van Zeijl and E. Barakova, "Nonverbal Cues Expressing Robot Personality - A Movement Analysts Perspective," 2022 31st IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), 2022, pp. 1181-1186, doi: 10.1109/RO-MAN53752.2022.9900647.
... Neuroticism is operationally defined as a personality trait that does not interfere with everyday function but is characterized by a chronic negative emotional state or emotional instability, and increased irritability, anger, sadness, anxiety, worry, self-consciousness, and vulnerability to environmental stressors (Costa and McCrae, 1992;Goldberg, 1993). Moreover, individuals with increased neuroticism experience the environment as unsafe and distressing, and they are frequently self-critical, sensitive to the criticism of others and punishment, they feel personally inadequate, and experience negative affect (Watson et al., 1994;Lamb et al., 2002). ...
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Neuroticism, a personality trait, can predict major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study aims to determine whether a) neuroticism is a feature of the acute state of MDD, including suicidal behaviors (SB); and b) adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with neuroticism in MDD. This study included 133 participants, 67 normal controls and 66 MDD patients, and assessed the Big 5 Inventory (BFI), ACEs using the ACE Questionnaire, and the phenome of depression using the Hamilton Depression (HAMD) Rating Scale (HAMD), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Train Anxiety (STAI) and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) scores to assess current SB. Neuroticism was significantly higher in MDD than controls, and it explained 64.9% of the variance in the depression phenome (a latent vector extracted from HAMD, BDI, STAI, and current SB scores). The other BFI domains had much less (extraversion, agreeableness) or no effect (openness, conscientiousness). One latent vector could be extracted from the phenome, lifetime dysthymia, lifetime anxiety disorders and neuroticism scores. Neglect (physical and emotional) and abuse (physical, neglect and sexual) account for approximately 30% of the variance in this latent vector. Partial Least Squares analysis showed that the effects of neglect on the phenome were partially mediated by neuroticism, whereas the effects of abuse were completely mediated by neuroticism. Neuroticism (trait) and the MDD phenome (state) are both manifestations of the same latent core, with neuroticism being a less severe manifestation of major depression, which in fact is a multiplicative manifestation of neuroticism.
... Серед цих психологів були Дональд Фіске, Норман Сміт, Голдберг, МакКрей та Коста [3]. Зокрема, Льюїс Голдберг активно виступав за п'ять основних факторів особистості [6]. Його робота була розширена МакКреєм і Костою, які підтвердили правильність моделі та представили модель, яка використовується сьогодні: сумлінність, доброзичливість, невротизм, відкритість досвіду та екстраверсію, як базові риси особистості. ...
... Personality traits are relatively enduring internal characteristics of people that are reflected in their responses, behaviors, attitudes, and feelings [15,16]. The theory postulates that five dimensions (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to new experiences, Agreeableness, and Continuousness) account for underlying stable patterns of human behavior, emotions, and cognition. ...
Article
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Virtual reality (VR) presents numerous opportunities for training skills and abilities through the technology’s capacity to simulate realistic training scenarios and environments. This can be seen in how newer research has emphasized how VR can be used for creating adaptable training scenarios. Nevertheless, a limited number of studies have examined how personality traits can influence the training effectiveness of participants within VR. To assess individual preferences in a virtual environment, the current study examines the associations of Big Five personality traits with training effectiveness from VR, as well as sense of presence and cybersickness. Our results show that traits of high agreeableness and low conscientiousness are predictors of training transferability in the VR environment in relation to the real world. Furthermore, the results also showed that trainees experiencing higher levels of cybersickness incurred worse training outcomes.
... During this period, adolescents experience various psychosocial functions, such as life satisfaction, happiness, depressive mood, and anxiety (Schwartz & Petrova, 2018). Personality traits, which are well described by the Big Five model (Goldberg, 1993), have been strongly associated with these psychosocial functions. The Big Five model measures personality using five broad domains: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. ...
Article
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While patterns of adolescent personality development are country-specific, previous studies that have examined them have been limited to the Netherlands and Finland. This study aimed to identify the patterns of personality development and examine the relationship between these patterns and psychosocial functioning among Japanese adolescents. Overall, 618 Japanese adolescents (49.5% girls; 16 years) participated in the annual longitudinal survey from 2013 to 2016. Using latent class growth analysis, the following four patterns of personality development were identified: resilient, over-controlled, vulnerable, and moderate. Although the mean-level changes in the Big Five domains were generally insignificant among the four patterns, the vulnerable pattern showed a progressive increase in conscientiousness, and the moderate pattern showed a decrease in neuroticism and an increase in conscientiousness. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance tests indicated that the resilient pattern showed higher subjective well-being and lower psychosocial problems than the other personality patterns; the over-controlled pattern showed higher internalizing problems than the resilient pattern; the vulnerable pattern showed lower subjective well-being and higher internalizing problems than the other patterns; and the moderate pattern scored between the resilient, over-controlled, and vulnerable patterns in both subjective well-being and psychosocial problems. These findings suggest that the vulnerable and moderate patterns, which are immature patterns compared to the resilient and over-controlled ones, showed positive changes to the direction of maturity from middle to late adolescence in Japan.
... To learn the traits of participants, at the beginning of the pilot, the participants were required to finish a series of entry questionnaires including the Big Five personality traits [71], health awareness, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) [69]. The Big Five (i.e., extroversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, conscientiousness, neuroticism) questionnaire is a widely accepted personality measurement tool that reflects the key parts of how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. ...
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The ubiquity of smartphones equipped with multiple sensors has provided the possibility of automatically recognizing of human activity, which can benefit intelligent applications such as smart homes, health monitoring, and aging care. However, there are two major barriers to deploying an activity recognition model in real-world scenarios. Firstly, deep learning models for activity recognition use a large amount of sensor data, which are privacy-sensitive and hence cannot be shared or uploaded to a centralized server. Secondly, divergence in the distribution of sensory data exists among multiple individuals due to their diverse behavioral patterns and lifestyles, which contributes to difficulty in recognizing activity for large-scale users or ’cold-starts’ for new users. To address these problems, we propose DivAR, a diversity-aware activity recognition framework based on a federated Meta-Learning architecture, which can extract general sensory features shared among individuals by a centralized embedding network and individual-specific features by attention module in each decentralized network. Specifically, we first classify individuals into multiple clusters according to their behavioral patterns and social factors. We then apply meta-learning in the architecture of federated learning, where a centralized meta-model learns common feature representations that can be transferred across all clusters of individuals, and multiple decentralized cluster-specific models are utilized to learn cluster-specific features. For each cluster-specific model, a CNN-based attention module learns cluster-specific features from the global model. In this way, by training with sensory data locally, privacy-sensitive information existing in sensory data can be preserved. To evaluate the model, we conduct two data collection experiments by collecting sensor readings from naturally used smartphones annotated with activity information in the real-life environment and constructing two multi-individual heterogeneous datasets. In addition, social characteristics including personality, mental health state, and behavior patterns are surveyed using questionnaires. Finally, extensive empirical results demonstrate that the proposed diversity-aware activity recognition model has a relatively better generalization ability and achieves competitive performance on multi-individual activity recognition tasks.
... 25 Theories of personality propose a hierarchical model with broad-domain superfactors comprised of lower-order aspects or facets linked to individual psychological behaviors. [26][27][28] Personality domains that may influence voice use and adherence to a VR protocol (ie, sustained self-regulation) could include Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to New Experiences, and Emotional Stability. 25,[29][30] The Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) is a brief instrument used to measure these personality parameters and has been previously used in studies on barriers to voice therapy. ...
Article
Objective: This case comparison explored the relation between personality, perceived present control, and postoperative voice rest (as estimated by self-report and objective voice use) following surgery for benign vocal fold lesions. Method: Two participants were included. Both participants were diagnosed with benign vocal fold pathology, underwent phonosurgery, and were assigned to either complete voice rest (CVR) or relative voice rest (RVR) postoperatively. During voice rest (VR), a visual analog scale (VAS) and a dosimeter (the Vocalog2) were used daily to estimate self-perceived and objective voice use, respectively. The participants also completed questionnaires on voice-related demographics, the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), and Perceived Present Control (PPC). After 7 days of CVR or RVR, participants completed a postoperative questionnaire and a final VAS for overall voice use. Results: A wide discrepancy was observed in one of two participant's subjective perception of voice use (using the VAS) versus objective dosimetry data wherein she reported significantly more voice use than was observed objectively. Differences in personality and PPC between the participants did not appear to affect their voice use following the VR protocols. Conclusion: The amount of voice use in both VR protocols for these two participants suggests that personality and PPC did not affect their adherence to recommendations of VR. Patients may perceive their voice use differently across time, which might play a role in their adherence to voice rest recommendations: voice use measured as instances versus a unit of time (seconds).
... It encompasses five main personality traits, namely Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness [49,50]. Accordingly, personality traits are sometimes represented as bipolar categories (Extraversion versus Introversion; Emotional stability versus Neuroticism; Agreeableness versus Antagonism; Conscientiousness versus Undependability; Openness to experience versus Closedness) [51] or labeled with diverse terms (Extraversion may be labeled Energy, Openness may be labeled Intellect). However, they are the same five dimensions [52]. ...
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In this study, we investigated the relationship between the four humor styles (Affiliative, Self-enhancing, Aggressive, and Self-defeating) assessed via the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) and the ten facets of the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) through network analysis. Four hundred and sixty-two Italian workers (61.3% women; Mage = 48.59; SD = 10.75) participated in the study and filled out the HSQ and the BFQ. Both centrality indexes (Expected Influence [EI]) and bridge nodes were calculated. In addition, the stability and accuracy of the network were checked. The network analysis revealed that HSQ Self-enhancing (EI = 0.63) showed the highest centrality among the HSQ styles, whereas BFQ Emotion Control (EI = 1.10) showed the highest centrality among BFQ facets; it also revealed that they were positively linked. Furthermore, HSQ Self-defeating emerged as the second-most-central humor style, negatively associated with BFQ Emotion Control. Concerning Bridge dimensions, four nodes were identified: HSQ Aggressive Humor, BFQ Emotion Control, BFQ Dynamism, and BFQ Dominance, with positive links between humor and personality except for Aggressive humor and Emotion Control, which showed negative links. On the basis of these results, the high centrality of HSQ Self-enhancing indicates the possibility of using this node as a starting point to foster positive and adaptive humor styles. The centrality of HSQ Self-defeating suggests that strength-based interventions could be focused to increase adaptive humor styles and to decrease them in order to enhance health-promoting humor styles. Furthermore, the bridge node of the HSQ Aggressive humor style with specific personality facets shows its possible use in intervention to both resize to adaptively improve relationships between humor and personality.
... For decades, researchers have been mapping and partitioning the stable individual differences that constitute temperament, with the goal of better understanding how behavior is determined by deep-down character and how behavior is determined by the situation. A number of different approaches have been identified for characterizing personality, including the Five Factor model of personality (Goldberg, 1993) and the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (Tellegen, 1982). Here, we examine personality differences by focusing on the concept of character, which is particularly central in positive psychology. ...
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We aggregated data from 28 studies (total N=13,386) to assess the relationship between individual differences in character strengths, as described by the VIA model of character, and economically-relevant behaviors and cognition. Factor analyzing the character strength inventory responses revealed four factors – Caring, Leadership, Inquisitiveness, and Self-control – each of which correlated with a variety of measures. Caring was associated with the willingness to pay costs to benefit others, as well as reliance on intuitive decision-making; Leadership was associated with inefficient, anti-social behaviors, risk taking, and trusting one’s intuitions while also liking to reason; Inquisitiveness was associated with efficient behaviors in both the social and risk domains, and reliance on deliberative decision-making; and Self-control was associated with delaying gratification, risk aversion, and a reliance on reason. These results help shed light on the relationship between character – and personality more generally – and economic behaviors. In doing so, we give some indication of which types of people will be most successful in which decision-making contexts.
... Self-congruity theory suggests that a consumer's attitudes towards a brand depend on the mental comparison concerning the similarity between the brand's image and self-image (Dolich, 1969). The self-image refers to the big five traits of human personality, namely, openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism (Goldberg, 1993). Congruence could probably reduce cognitive dissonance and increase consumer's affinity for a brand. ...
... Bu boyutlardan yeniden satın alma niyeti, sadakatin temel ve net bir görünümü olarak belirtilebilir (Oliver, 1999). Ancak, Seiders vd., (2005) (Kızgın & Benli, 2013;Yenen & Kızgın, 2022), sadakate dair Bowen & Chen, 2001;Cook, 2012;Mattila, 2004;Oliver, 1999), müşteri memnuniyetine dair(Bou-Llusar, Camisón-Zornoza & Escrig-Tena, 2001; Choi, Cho, Lee, Lee & Kim, 2004;Patterson & Spreng, 1997), kişiliğe dair (Uslu & Huseynli, 2018;Goldberg, 1993;Justus & Ali, 2014;Temeloğlu, 2015;Semiz, 2017;Karaca, 2020) yaşam tarzına dair (Erdal, 2001;Haro, 2020;Kowel, 2015 ...
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Özet Müşteriler, satın almış oldukları ürün ve hizmetlerden duydukları memnuniyetsizlikleri işletmelere şikâyet adı verilen geri bildirimler ile iletirler. Geri bildirimler işletmelerin sürekli öğrenerek gelişmelerine katkı sağlayan armağanlardır. Şikâyetlerin işletmeler tarafından göz ardı edilmesi memnuniyetsizliğe ve buna bağlı olarak kar kaybına neden olurken, işletmelere ulaşan şikâyetlerin çözülmesi ve iyi yönetilmesiyle müşteri memnuniyet ve sadakati sağlanabilmektedir. Bu anlamda müşteri şikâyet yönetim sistemleri, problemlerin bir daha şikâyet konusu olmayacak şekilde çözülerek müşteri memnuniyeti ve sadakat oluşturmaya hizmet eden yapılardır. Araştırmada ISO 10002 Müşteri Memnuniyet Yönetim Sistemi kapsamındaki Müşteri Şikâyet Yönetim Performans Standartları kullanılmıştır. Türkiye'nin en kalabalık illerinden İzmir İl'inin 11 ilçesi arasından kota örneklemesiyle belirlenen Karabağlar, Göztepe, Karşıyaka, Basmane ilçelerinde Türkiye'de faaliyet gösteren bankaların ürün ve hizmetlerini kullanan banka müşterilerinden kolayda örnekleme yöntemi ve gönüllülük esasına dayanılarak ulaşılan 562 denekten veri toplanmıştır. Toplanan veriler SPSS ve AMOS istatistik programları ile analiz edilmiştir. Analizler sonucunda işletmelerin şikâyet yönetim performanslarının müşterilerin yeniden satın alma niyeti üzerine etkisinin olduğu, yaşam tarzı ve sadakatin müşteri şikâyet yönetim performansı değerlendirmesinde etkili olduğu ve ayrıca sadakate göre müşteri şikâyet yönetim performansının müşterilerin yeniden satın alma niyetleri üzerine etkisinin olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Abstract Customers convey their dissatisfaction with the products and services they have purchased to businesses with feedback called complaints. Feedbacks are gifts that contribute to the development of businesses by constantly learning. While ignoring the complaints by the businesses causes dissatisfaction and accordingly loss of profit, customer satisfaction and loyalty can be achieved by solving the complaints reaching the businesses and managing them well. In this sense, customer complaint management systems are structures that create customer satisfaction and loyalty by solving problems so that they will not be the subject of complaints again. Customer Complaint Management Performance Standards within the scope of ISO 10002 Customer Satisfaction Management System were used in the research. Data were collected from 562 subjects, who were reached on the basis of convenience sampling method and volunteerism, from bank customers using the products and services of banks operating in Turkey in Karabağlar, Göztepe, Karşıyaka and Basmane districts, which were determined by quota sampling among the 11 districts of İzmir, one of the most populated cities in Turkey. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS and AMOS statistical programs. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that the complaint management performance of the businesses has an effect on the customers' repurchase intention, lifestyle and loyalty are effective in the evaluation of the customer complaint management performance, and also the customer complaint management performance according to the loyalty has an effect on the customers' repurchase intentions.
... Regarding personality variables, we use the personality traits and their facets from the Five-Factor Model (FFM). The FFM is the most widespread and generally accepted model of personality [8], [29], [30], since it provides a nomenclature and a conceptual framework that unifies much of the research findings in the psychology of individual differences 1 . This model consists of five general traits to describe personality and 30 facets of personality as follows: ...
... The steady-state heart rate and workload recorded were put in the equation to determine an estimation of VO2max (Macsween, 2001). For the characterisation of the personality type Big Five Inventory was used, which is a 44-item inventory that measures an individual on the dimensions of personality namely, extraversion, agreeableness, openness, neuroticism and conscientiousness (Goldberg, 1993). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used for the measurement of trait and state anxiety levels (Spielberg et al., 1983). ...
... Além de estados momentâneos, o mind-reading favorece a detecção de traços de personalidade (REALO, 2003;GOLDBERG, 1993), papéis (sociais, psicológicos), atributos de identidade e status (DAVIS; KRAUS, 1997). Por favorecer a previsão de comportamentos alheios, o mind-reading também favorece o desenvolvimento de estratégias para o engano, mediante a manipulação de expectativas individuais (visando um indivíduo em particular, como Capitu faria com Pádua) ou genéricas (MORIN; RACY, 2021;MALLE, 2002). ...
Article
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A partir do contraste entre passagens de A mão e a luva e Dom Casmurro, analisamos a crescente complexificação da prosa machadiana em seus estímulos ao processamento mental da leitura. Mais precisamente, analisamos o modo como obras das duas fases da sua produção solicitam de maneiras diferentes a participação interpretativa do leitor, buscando apoio, para tanto, em conceitos de “complexidade”, “priming” e “mind reading”. De acordo com os indícios selecionados para a comparação entre as duas fases, nota-se o crescimento do repertório de estímulos cognitivos que os textos machadianos ofereciam a seus leitores. Ao final, o artigo deriva as implicações dessa observação para a descrição da trajetória de Machado de Assis como um processo de aprendizado literário, uma possibilidade ainda pouco explorada na sua fortuna crítica.
... Con respecto a los saberes y actividades, estos se orientan, tomando como base lo estipulado por Laney (1993( , citado en Denegri et al. , 2006, con referencia a los 4 momentos del aprendizaje: a) la experiencia, con respecto al análisis de las situaciones económicas de la vida cotidiana rural y sus niveles de actuación; b) el cuestionamiento, frente a los interrogantes planteados por el facilitador y frente a la actuación económica cotidiana rural en el corto y mediano plazo y la perspectiva global de las problemáticas abordadas; c) el refuerzo, a través de la reflexión guiada y el refuerzo conceptual, con apoyo de los medios tecnológicos y de otras actividades complementarias; y d) la aplicación y ejercicio de competencias, planificando didácticas, procedimientos de ejecución y sistemas de evaluación que integren el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, así como el fomento de valores y actitudes para la vida. ...
... Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism are personality trait domains that affect thought and behavior (Goldberg, 1993). Personality traits such as emotional regulation and coping styles may affect stress reactivity (Carver and Connor-Smith, 2010). ...
Article
Since the beginning of time, we have had to deal with stress. Stress has been reported to be on the rise in the public sector because of new work strategies and a demand for excellence. According to the Congress of Unions of Employees in the Public and Civil Service of Malaysia (CUEPACS), nearly 400,000 civil servants in Malaysia have been identified as experiencing many types of stress. This study investigated the influence of team conflict and personality on job stress, as well as the mediating role of job demands in the context of stress in public service organizations (PSOs). The data for this study was gathered using a questionnaire survey administered to 656 public officials in seven PSOs in Putrajaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The findings suggested a statistically significant association between personality and job demands and job stress. Additionally, this research exposes the mediating role of task demands in the relationship between team conflict, personality, and employee job stress in the public sector.
... We also did additional analyses to incorporate individual traits that may affect individual creativity including learning goal orientation (Hirst, Van Knippenberg et al., 2009; 5-item scale, a sample item: "I often look for opportunities to develop new skills and knowledge, 1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree; α = .77) in study 1 and openness to experience (Goldberg, 1993; 10-item scale; sample item: "is curious about many different things, 1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree; α = .71), and positive affectivity (Amabile et al., 2005; 10-item scale; sample adjectives: "excited, strong, inspired"; 1 = not at all; 5 = very much; α = .83) ...
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Creativity is important for a group’s success, and thus, groups often demand that their members contribute creativity by setting up group goals. Group goal external regulation arises when individual members feel that their behavior is externally initiated and enforced. While research from the self-determination perspective suggests that such external regulation undermines creativity, emerging research also suggests the opposite: external regulation has motivational functions boosting creativity. To integrate these seemingly contradictory perspectives, we developed a contingency model (based on social dilemma theory) to explain the impacts of group goal external regulation. Specifically, conceiving creativity in the individual-group context of multiple goals, we suggest that group goal external regulation can prompt or hinder individual member creativity, depending on their individual goal progress (“concern for me”) and group identification (“concern for us”). We found support from two studies that when group identification is high, individuals demonstrate higher levels of creativity, irrespective of their individual goal progress and group goal external regulation experienced. When group identification is low, individuals demonstrate more contingent responses—that is, external regulation is positively (negatively) related to individual member creativity when their individual goal progress is poor (good).
... Therefore, we included the Big 5 as a control in our study. The Big 5 were assessed using the NEO-PI (Costa & McCrae, 1992a, b;Digman, 1990;Goldberg, 1993;John, 1990). Gender was the only demographic variable included and coded as 1 = female, 2 = male. ...
... A final way in which we wish to propose that STEs may support ecological wellbeing is by encouraging the personality trait of 'openness' (Goldberg, 1993). Openness has been linked to outcomes that are beneficial for planetary health. ...
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In recent years, much has been written on the role of different mental states and their potential to influence our way of thinking and, perhaps more importantly, the way we act. With the recent acceleration of environmental and mental health issues, alongside the limited effectiveness of existing interventions, an exploration of new approaches to deliver transformative change is required. We therefore explore the emerging potential of a type of mental state known as self-transcendent experiences (STEs) as a driver of ecological wellbeing. We focus on four types of STEs: those facilitated by experiences of flow, awe, and mindfulness, as well as by psychedelic-induced experiences. Some of these experiences can occur naturally, through sometimes unexpected encounters with nature or during immersion in everyday activities that one intrinsically enjoys, as well as through more intentional practices such as meditation or the administration of psychedelics in controlled, legal settings. We explore the evidence base linking each of the four types of STE to ecological wellbeing before proposing potential hypotheses to be tested to understand why STEs can have such beneficial effects. We end by looking at the factors that might need to be considered if STEs are going to be practically implemented as a means of achieving ecological wellbeing.
... These personality traits are very important characteristics of a human being and play a substantial role in work commitment (Macey & Schneider, 2008). Goldberg (1993) elaborated on five dimensions of personality which are commonly known as the Big Five personality traits. The traits are "openness vs. cautious"; "extraversion vs. introversion"; "agreeableness vs. rational"; "conscientiousness vs. careless"; and "neuroticism vs. resilient". ...
Article
The advent of technology in education has seen a revolutionary change in the teaching–learning process. Social media is one such invention which has a major impact on students’ academic performance. This research analyzed the impact of social media on the academic performance of extraversion and introversion personality students. Further, the comparative study between these two personalities will be analysed on education level (postgraduate and undergraduate) and gender (male and female). The research was initiated by identifying the factors of social media impacting students’ academic performance. Thereafter, the scale was developed, validated and tested for reliability in the Indian context. Data were collected from 408 students segregated into 202 males and 206 females. Two hundred and thirty-four students are enrolled in postgraduation courses, whereas 174 are registered in the undergraduate programme. One-way ANOVA has been employed to compare the extraversion and introversion students of different education levels and gender. A significant difference is identified between extraversion and introversion students for the impact of social media on their academic performance.
... Relatably, conscientiousness is about describing task-directed and goal-directed behaviors (John & Srivastava, 1999). Goldberg (1993) postulates that conscientiousness includes traits such as organisation, thoroughness and reliability which are traits favoured in the working world. Individuals with conscientiousness have positive and negative impacts at work. ...
Article
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Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) has become an on-going important aspect in Human Resource Management. OCB is essential in improving organisations in terms of performance and productivity. The objectives of this study are two-fold: (1) to investigate the relationship among conscientiousness and organisational citizenship behaviour, and (2) to investigate the relationship among person supervisor fit and organisational citizenship behaviour. With this study, the negative outcomes of OCB can be reduced while enhancing the better outcomes of OCB. This study was applied among the employees in the finance and insurance industry in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia with a sample of 185. The participants were chosen in a purposive sampling method to ensure they are working in the relevant industry. A mono design that is a quantitative method was applied through google form questionnaires. This study is being formulated at a theoretical level and tested at an empirical level with SPSS 27 and SmartPLS 3.0. This study revealed that both conscientiousness and person-supervisor fit have positive effects on organisational citizenship behaviour. This study recommended that the Ministry of Finance should focus on the enhancement of organisational citizenship behaviour with the relation of personality and the fit between an employee and a supervisor.
... However, personal statements as categorised within the report did not predict performance in medical training (year 1) whereas previous academic ability did. The paper also looked at the role of personality variables in selection, with candidates self-reporting using the Goldberg (1995) 35 bipolar adjective markers, resulting in measures of emotional stability, surgency, intellect, agreeableness and conscientiousness (the Big Five personality traits, used widely in psychology to describe human personality) (Goldberg 1993). These personality variabilities accounted for some variance in performance in training although only conscientiousness contributed independently. ...
Article
The United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) Consortium was established in 2005 with the aims of achieving greater fairness in selection to medicine and dentistry, widening participation in medical and dental training and improving the evidence base around selection in the UK. The UKCAT was first used in selection in 2006. This thesis aimed to determine the impact UKCAT had on selection to medicine and dentistry in the UK, to document the development of the organisation and to establish the extent to which UKCAT had achieved its original aims. Having established the research evidence base in existence in 2005, documents were reviewed to present a picture of both organisational and test development. A further literature review specific to UKCAT was undertaken alongside a systematic review of the literature relating to the predictive validity of the test. Drawing on data collected on an annual basis from universities, how the use of the test in selection had changed was described. A qualitative analysis of interviews with admission tutors was used to further evaluate the impact of the test and in particular the extent to which UKCAT had met its original aims. Findings indicate that UKCAT now plays a significant part in decisions made regarding most applicants to medical and dental training. The test has largely replaced the scoring of personal statements in selection processes and there is evidence that it predicts performance in medical school. The test is both an effective and efficient tool for discriminating between the many high performing candidates. Use of the test has not widened participation and universities have increasingly used the test differently in selection for this candidate subgroup. The landscape around selection continues to develop, impacted by developments in technology, COVID, increasing applicant numbers and the potential of post-qualification admissions. Drawing on the findings in the thesis, proposals regarding the development of the test, priorities for future research and the candidate experience are put forward to inform future developments in UKCAT. These include further evaluation of subgroup performance differences in the test, commissioning of future predictive validity cohort studies and exploring coaching effects on test performance.
... The steady-state heart rate and workload recorded were put in the equation to determine an estimation of VO2max (Macsween, 2001). For the characterisation of the personality type Big Five Inventory was used, which is a 44-item inventory that measures an individual on the dimensions of personality namely, extraversion, agreeableness, openness, neuroticism and conscientiousness (Goldberg, 1993).The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used for the measurement of trait and state anxiety levels (Spielberg, Gorsuch, Lushene, & Vagg, Jacobs, 1983). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to categorize various physical, physiological, and psychological variables that discriminated among Indian elite male athletes participating in endurance sports (Group A, n=34, age=16.88±2.44 years), combat sports (Group B, n=35, age=17.40±1.37 years) and skill sports (Group C, n=34, age= 8.91±2.24 years) and non-athletic control group (Group D, N=33, years=18.48±2.03 years). Physical parameters included height, body weight, body fat percentage, lean body mass, muscle content, and total water content. Physiological parameters included heart rate variability and maximal aerobic power (VO2 max) measured using the Astrand protocol. Various psychological parameters were evaluated using Big Five Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Discriminant analysis revealed three significant functions (P<0.05) contributing 65.7%, 25.8%, and 8.5% respectively to the model. After cross-validation, the resulting equation correctly classified 72.8% of endurance, combat, skill athletes, and control group. Total thirteen variables significantly (P<0.05) contributed to the discriminant analysis. The interpretation of the acquired discriminant functions was also based on the examination of the structure coefficients greater than 0.30. The athletes and control were discriminated mainly on VO2 max (structure coefficient, SC=0.741) in Function 1, body weight (SC=0.424), Lean body mass (SC=0.430), and muscle content (SC=0.574). This model substantiates the fact that elite male athletes show physical and physiological differences because of the different training regimens in their respective sports that conditioned them differently. In conclusion, these discriminant models could help in athlete’s induction, talent identification process and improving training programs.
... By the same token, high scores in conscientiousness might be associated with risk 7 A number of rating instruments have been produced to measure the Big 5 dimensions. The most comprehensive is the 240-item structure proposed by Costa and McCrae (1992), but the 100-item inventory (Goldberg 1993), the 60-item inventory (Costa and McCrae 1992), and the 44-item Big 5 inventory (John and Srivastava 1999) have also been investigated. ...
Article
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It is now well accepted that human capital is a heterogeneous aggregate and that noncognitive skills are at least as relevant as cognitive abilities. In spite of this growing interest in the labour market consequences of personality traits, the relationship between these and educational and skill mismatch is scant. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the five main personality traits (Big 5) on educational and skill mismatch in Italian graduates. To this aim, we use the 2018 wave of the INAPP-PLUS survey, which contains information on skill mismatch, on the Big 5 personality traits, and on a large number of other individual and job-specific characteristics. The empirical analysis takes into account both demand and supply variables mediating the effect of personality on skill mismatch and controls for non-random selection into employment and tertiary education. We find that some personality traits reduce the probability of overeducation, suggesting complementarity between cognitive and noncognitive skills. In addition, we find a positive effect of conscientiousness on both overeducation and overqualification. The evidence regarding job satisfaction suggests that individuals with high scores for conscientiousness voluntarily decide to be mismatched when this entails higher satisfaction in other dimensions of the job.
... Die Erhebung einer depressiven Symptomatik erfolgte anhand des Beck-Depressions-Inventars-II (BDI-II) [ [20]. Korrelationen von Neurotizismus und Depression werden im Allgemeinen als hoch beschrieben [30,36]. ...
Article
Einführung: Depressionen sind weltweit eine der Hauptursachen für krankheitsbedingte Behinderung. Ein erster Erkrankungsgipfel wird in den jungen Erwachsenenjahren verzeichnet. Unter den epidemiologischen Untersuchun-gen junger Menschen liegen vor allem Studien für Studierende vor. Die psychische Gesundheit Zahnmedizinstudierender wurde bisher in der Forschung wenig thematisiert. Viele Studierende berichten subjektiv von psychischen Beschwerden, während die Studienlage dazu national und international dürf-tig ist. Dies vorliegende Studie untersucht die psychische Gesundheit von Stu-dierenden der Zahnmedizin einer mittelgroßen deutschen Universität. Methodik: Eine Stichprobe von n = 153 Zahnmedizinstudierenden beantwortete das Beck-Depressions-Inventar-II zum Erfassen depressiver Symptome, das NEO-Fünf-Faktoren-Inventar zur Erhebung des Persönlichkeitsmerkmals Neu-rotizismus und einen Fragebogen zur Selbstbeschreibung und zum Studium, der 8 Risikofaktoren, 5 studienbezogene Belastungsfaktoren und 8 Resilienzfa-toren enthielt, die in der Literatur beschrieben wurden. Ergebnisse: 41,8 % der Studierenden zeigten milde (18,3 %), moderate (17,0 %) oder schwere (6,5 %) depressive Symptome. Es wurden 5 potenzielle Risikofaktoren, 4 Belastungsfaktoren und 5 Resilienzfaktoren identifiziert, die einen kumulativen Effekt hatten: Je mehr Risikofaktoren bzw. Belastungsfak-toren die Studierenden angaben, dest mehr depressive Symptome wiesen sie auf. Umgekehrt verhielt es sich mit den Resilienzfaktoren. Diskussion: Die Prävalenz depressiver Symptome Zahnmedizinstudierender übersteigt sowohl die der Allgemeinbevölkerung als auch die in vorangegange-nen nationalen und internationalen Studien über Depressivität bei Studieren-den. Neurotizismus und der Konsum von Drogen und Medikamenten sind potenzielle Risikofaktoren, Überforderung und Leistungsdruck studienbezoge-ne Belastungsfaktoren. Emotionale Unterstützung und Zufriedenheit mit dem Studium wirken protektiv gegen depressive Symptomatik. Schlussfolgerung: Von Bedeutung sind die Ergebnisse nicht nur wegen des aktuellen Leidensdrucks der Zahnmedizinstudierenden, sondern auch im Hin-blick auf ihre potenzielle Rolle im Gesundheitswesen. Studierende sollten hin-sichtlich dieser Thematik informiert und sensibilisiert werden. Eine Aufklä-rung zum Thema Depressionen ist sinnvoll, um zu entstigmatisieren und das Auch unter Zahnmedizinern sind Depressionen und andere psychische Erkrankungen häufig. Sie frühzeitig-bereits im Studium-zu erkennen und ihnen zu begegnen stellt eine wichtige Voraussetzung für eine lange und erfolgreiche Berufsausübung dar. WISSENSCHAFT / RESEARCH ORIGINALARBEIT / ORIGINAL ARTICLE 308 © Deutscher Ärzteverlag | DZZ | Deutsche Zahnärztliche Zeitschrift | 2022; 77 (5)
... Big-Five Personality described personality through five dimensions or main factors, including: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness [14], [15]. This five-factor model (FFM) of personality provides structure for personality differences [16], [17]. ...
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Professional accountants take an important role in the business and economic activities, and university accounting students are potential candidates of professional accountant in future. As such, to be successful in the accounting profession, it might be that an individual must have certain personality characteristics and skills. One such trait recently proposed in personality literature is that of psychopathy. Data from 105 college accounting students in China were collected and underwent descriptive statistics and correlation analysis on the triarchic psychopathy personality dimensions of boldness, disinhibition, and meanness. Findings of this study suggested that university accounting students mostly possess boldness personality; a finding which aligns well with the personality characteristics of those who work in the accounting field. In addition, findings indicated that the personality dimensions of boldness are significantly correlated with meanness, which in turn was significantly correlated with disinhibition. The findings of the correlation among the three personality dimensions align with the required characteristics to fulfill the role of a professional accountant. The results however cannot be generalized to all accounting students in China due to its conservative sample size and used of non-probability sampling. Nevertheless, findings reported here provide information to the accountancy professional bodies on their members recruitment and continuous professional development strategies. As for the students who would like to choose accounting as their major or those who would like to enter the accounting profession, the findings from this study helps to assess their suitability of becoming a professional accountant in future.
... It is also known as Big Five Personality Traits Model [3], It is also called as OCEAN model. It is based on Five Factor Model of personality that describes the qualities of the person, which helps to identity his or her behavioral properties. ...
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Health and wealth of the society is directly proportional to the activities conducted based on healthy personality traits of the citizens and their social behavior’s. Hence, the diagnosis and its preventive measures play a very important role and may be challenge for medical and engineering domains. The proposed paper is trying to analyze the personality traits based on Five Factor Model by processing the twitter dataset. The classification models are trying to give number of solutions corresponding to large amount of data (Big data). Classification technique may predict the personality qualities of the user based on their interaction with the system. This diagnosis may support the society in bringing up healthy environment for better lifestyle of everybody.
... Additionally, recent study warrants the need to deep dive into understanding the relationship between personality traits and e-mavenism which would guide marketers who may have intentions to target e-mavenism to acquire their communal influence (Awais et al., 2020). In this study, we have adopted the big-five personality traits developed under 'trait theory of personality' (Goldberg, 1993). Thus, bigfive traits constitutes agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, openness, and neuroticism which are elucidated as follows: ...
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1. ‫اإلعدادية‬ ‫المرحمة‬ ‫طمبة‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫العنف‬ 2. ‫اإلعدادية.‬ ‫المرحمة‬ ‫طمبة‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫السائدة‬ ‫لمشخصية‬ ‫الكبرى‬ ‫الخمسة‬ ‫امل‬ ‫العو‬ 3. ‫الجنس‬ ‫متغير‬ ‫وفق‬ ‫العنف‬ ‫في‬ ‫الفروق‬ ‫اسي‬ ‫الدر‬ ‫التخصص‬ ‫و‬) ‫إناث‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ذكور‬ (‫لدى‬) ‫أدبي‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫عممي‬ (‫المرحمة‬ ‫طمبة‬ ‫اإلعدادية.‬ 4. ‫اسي‬ ‫الدر‬ ‫التخصص‬ ‫و‬) ‫إناث‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ذكور‬ (‫الجنس‬ ‫متغير‬ ‫وفق‬ ‫لمشخصية‬ ‫الكبرى‬ ‫الخمسة‬ ‫امل‬ ‫العو‬ ‫في‬ ‫الفروق‬ ‫اإلعدادية.‬ ‫المرحمة‬ ‫طمبة‬ ‫لدى‬) ‫أدبي‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫عممي‬ (5. ‫اإلعدادية.‬ ‫المرحمة‬ ‫طمبة‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫لمشخصية‬ ‫الكبرى‬ ‫الخمسة‬ ‫امل‬ ‫العو‬ ‫و‬ ‫العنف‬ ‫بين‬ ‫العبلقة‬ 6. ‫إسيام‬ ‫مدى‬ ‫اإلعدادية.‬ ‫المرحمة‬ ‫طمبة‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫العنف‬ ‫في‬ ‫لمشخصية‬ ‫الكبرى‬ ‫الخمسة‬ ‫امل‬ ‫العو‬ (‫من‬ ‫العينة‬ ‫تألفت‬ 444 ‫الطبقية‬ ‫ائية‬ ‫العشو‬ ‫يقة‬ ‫بالطر‬ ‫اختيارىم‬ ‫تم‬ ، ‫اإلعدادي‬ ‫الخامس‬ ‫الصف‬ ‫من‬ ‫وطالبة‬ ‫طالبا‬) (‫اقع‬ ‫بو‬ ،) ‫الثالثة‬ ‫و‬ ‫الثانية‬ ‫و‬ ‫األولى‬ (‫الكرخ‬ ‫بية‬ ‫تر‬ ‫يات‬ ‫مدير‬ ‫من‬ ، ‫المتناسب‬ ‫يع‬ ‫التوز‬ ‫ذات‬ 247) ، ‫الذكور‬ ‫من‬ ‫و(‬ 193 (‫اقع‬ ‫وبو‬ ، ‫اإلناث‬ ‫من‬) 226 ‫و(‬ ، ‫العممي‬ ‫الفرع‬ ‫من‬ ‫وطالبة‬ ‫طالبا‬) 174. ‫األدبي‬ ‫الفرع‬ ‫من‬ ‫وطالبة‬ ‫طالبا‬) ، ‫أداتين‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫في‬ ‫م‬ ‫ستخد‬ ‫أ‬ ‫األولى‬ (‫من‬ ‫ن‬ ‫تكو‬ ‫العنف‬ ‫مقياس‬ : 45 (‫من‬ ‫ة‬ ‫فقر‬) 3 ، ‫المادي‬ ‫العنف‬ (‫مجاالت‬) ، ‫المباشر)‬ ‫العنف‬ ، ‫المفظي‬ ‫العنف‬ ‫الثانية‬ : ‫تم‬ ‫التي‬) ‫وماكري‬ ‫كوستا‬ (‫ـ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫لمشخصية‬ ‫الكبرى‬ ‫الخمسة‬ ‫امل‬ ‫العو‬ ‫قائمة‬ ‫عام‬ ‫األنصاري‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫من‬ ‫يبو‬ ‫تعر‬ 1997 (‫من‬ ‫وتتكون‬ 56 ‫لبلداتين‬ ‫ية‬ ‫السايكومتر‬ ‫الخصائص‬ ‫من‬ ‫التحقق‬ ‫وتم‬. ‫ة‬ ‫فقر‬) ‫الن‬ ‫ئة‬ ‫التجز‬ ‫يقة‬ ‫وطر‬ ، ‫االختبار‬ ‫عادة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫يقتين‬ ‫بطر‬ ‫الثبات‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫البناء‬ ‫وصدق‬ ‫الظاىري‬ ‫الصدق‬ ‫من‬. ‫صفية‬ ‫معادلة‬ ، ‫بيرسون‬ ‫تباط‬ ‫ار‬ ‫معادلة‬ ، ، ‫مستقمتين‬ ‫لعينتين‬ ‫التائي‬ ‫(االختبار‬ ‫اآلتية:‬ ‫اإلحصائية‬ ‫الوسائل‬ ‫استعمال‬ ‫تم‬ ، ‫كرونباخ‬ ‫ألفا‬ ‫معادلة‬ ، ‫شيفيو‬ ‫اختبار‬ ، ‫الثنائي‬ ‫التباين‬ ‫تحميل‬ ، ‫احدة‬ ‫و‬ ‫لعينة‬ ‫التائي‬ ‫االختبار‬ ‫التصحيحية‬ ‫اون‬ ‫بر‬ ‫سبيرمان‬) ‫المتعدد‬ ‫االنحدار‬ ‫تحميل‬. ‫اآلتية‬ ‫النتائج‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫وتوصل‬ 1. ‫تفع‬ ‫مر‬ ‫مستوى‬ ‫لدييم‬ ‫اإلعدادية‬ ‫المرحمة‬ ‫طمبة‬ ‫من‬. ‫العنف‬ 2. ‫العصابية.‬ ‫عامل‬ ‫في‬ ‫سيادة‬ ‫لدييم‬ ‫اإلعدادية‬ ‫المرحمة‬ ‫طمبة‬ 3. ‫حيوية‬ ، ‫االنفتاح‬ ، ‫الطيبة‬ ، ‫االنبساطية‬ (‫الشخصية‬ ‫امل‬ ‫عو‬ ‫في‬ ‫منخفض‬ ‫مستوى‬ ‫لدييم‬ ‫اإلعدادية‬ ‫المرحمة‬ ‫طمبة‬ .) ‫الضمير‬ 4. ‫فروق‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫الذكور.‬ ‫لصالح‬ ‫العنف‬ ‫مستوى‬ ‫في‬ ‫اإلناث‬ ‫و‬ ‫الذكور‬ ‫بين‬ 5. ‫األدبي.‬ ‫لصالح‬ ‫العممي‬ ‫و‬ ‫األدبي‬ ‫الفرعين‬ ‫طمبة‬ ‫بين‬ ‫العنف‬ ‫سموك‬ ‫في‬ ‫فروق‬ ‫وجود‬ 6. ‫العنف.‬ ‫مستوى‬ ‫في‬ ‫التخصص‬ ‫و‬ ‫الجنس‬ ‫بين‬ ‫لمتفاعل‬ ‫أثر‬ ‫ال‬ 7. . ‫اإلناث‬ ‫من‬ ‫عصابية‬ ‫أكثر‬ ‫الذكور‬ 8. ‫اال‬ ، ‫االنبساطية‬ (‫الشخصية‬ ‫امل‬ ‫عو‬ ‫في‬ ‫الجنس‬ ‫في‬ ‫فروق‬ ‫توجد‬ ‫ال‬) ‫الضمير‬ ‫حيوية‬ ، ‫الطيبة‬ ، ‫نفتاح‬ 9. . ‫لمشخصية‬ ‫الكبرى‬ ‫الخمسة‬ ‫امل‬ ‫العو‬ ‫في‬ ‫اسي‬ ‫الدر‬ ‫لمتخصص‬ ‫أثر‬ ‫ال
Thesis
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Bu çalışmanın amacı çalışanların psikolojik sermayeleri ile dönüşümcü liderlik ilişkisinde çalışanların gelişime açıklıklarının düzenleyici rolünü incelemektedir. Ölçüm araçları olarak Psikolojik Sermaye Ölçeği, Dönüşümcü ve Etkileşimci Liderlik Ölçeği ve Beş Faktör Envanteri’nin gelişime açıklık alt boyut soruları kullanılmıştır. Çeşitli sektörlerden 252 kişinin katıldığı araştırma bulgularına göre, psikolojik sermaye ile dönüşümcü liderlik arasında ve dönüşümcü liderlik ile pozitif psikolojik sermayenin tüm bileşenleri arasında ayrı ayrı pozitif ilişki olduğu belirlenmiştir. Analizler sonucunda psikolojik sermaye ile dönüşümcü liderlik arasındaki ilişkide gelişime açıklığın düzenleyici rolüne rastlanmamıştır. Ancak gelişime açıklığın, dönüşümcü liderlik ile psikolojik sermayenin iyimserlik alt boyutu arasındaki ilişkide pozitif yönlü, dönüşümcü liderlik ile psikolojik sermayenin öz yeterlilik alt boyutu arasındaki ilişkide de negatif yönlü düzenleyici rol oynadığı tespit edilmiştir.
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Objective: Climate change is a serious threat. Personality psychologists can help address this threat by understanding what kind of people tend to endorse proenvironmental attitudes and engage in sustainable behavior. Previous research supports reliable associations between proenvironmental attitudes and personality traits. However, this research has generally aggregated different kinds of attitudes into a single composite and has focused on the domain level of personality traits. Method: This study explored how 10 lower-order aspects of the Big Five personality traits were related to eight different proenvironmental attitudes in three convenience samples from the United States (N = 1,234; 1,000) and the United Kingdom (N = 538). Results: All five trait domains were related to at least one proenvironmental attitude across all three samples. Seven of eight proenvironmental attitudes could be predicted by one or more traits in all three samples. We also found evidence that the Openness aspect of Openness to Experience was a more consistent predictor of proenvironmental attitudes than the Intellect aspect. In contrast, there was little benefit in distinguishing between the aspects of other trait domains. We did not find evidence that age or political orientation moderated the associations between proenvironmental attitudes and personality. Conclusion: Results point to the need for more fine-grained research on individual differences in proenvironmental attitudes and behavior.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the ways in which biological and genetic factors can influence individual attitudes, cognition, and behavior at work. We argue that there are substantial genetic components to a number of individual difference factors. These effects can then relate directly or indirectly to affect, cognition, and behavior at work, with important implications for outcomes of interest to employees and employers. To illustrate this point, we summarize the available research on genetics in the workplace, and discuss how it relates to extant theories of workplace functioning. We also provide a primer on traditional methods used to examine the influence of genetic factors, discuss how individual differences in attitudes, emotional states, and behavioral tendencies interrelate, and provide general directions for future research.
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In the present study, the neuroticism extroversion openness personality inventory (IPIP NEO-PI) short form (Goldberg, 1992) was adapted and translated for the evaluation of personality dynamics of Madrassah students in Pakistan. Through factor analysis and back-translation technique, the IPIP-NEO personality inventory was validated and translated into Urdu. Further, on the sample of bilingual adolescents’ linguistic equivalence of the scale was also determined. Madrassah students with the age ranging from 16 to 28 years (N = 350; Mage = 12.98 years), with 175 males (Mage = 12.98 years) and 175 females (Mage = 12.97 years) evaluated themselves on the Urdu NEO personality inventory. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed. To confirm the authors’ model and findings of previous research, one, two, three, four, and five-factor models were analysed. In addition, the gender and education system of the participants were also investigated with their IPIP-NEO personality inventory scores. The IPIP-NEO personality inventory scores exhibited significant differences for these variables. It was revealed that males and females belonging to different education systems scored differently on IPIP-NEO sub-scales. The reported alpha coefficients for the Urdu IPIP-NEO personality inventory subscales ranging from .79 to .93. Exploratory Factor analysis generated a five-factor solution for the Urdu IPIP-NEO personality inventory.
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Gaining insight is considered one of the relevant purposes of visual data exploration, yet studies that categorize insights are rare. This paper reports on a study to understand if the categorization model used to describe insights and personality factors affect insight-based evaluations' findings. Participants completed a set of tasks with three hierarchical visualizations and then reported what insights they could gather from them. Results show that the insight categorization taxonomies produce different descriptions of insights based on the same corpus of responses. In addition, our findings suggest that the openness to experience trait positively influences the number of reported insights. Both these factors may create obstacles to the design of insight-based evaluations and, consequently, should be controlled in the experimental design. We discuss the study implications, lessons learned, and future work opportunities.
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