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The Psychology of Sex Differences

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... Parent-child teaching is closely related to the dynamics and composition of the family: specifically, parents' and children's gender and sibling birth order (Maccoby and Jacklin, 1974;Block, 1984;McGillicuddy-De Lisi, 1988). Researchers have studied approaches of maternal and paternal teaching and documented mothers to be more alert to children's cues and to use more reasoning strategies with their child than fathers, whereas fathers employed more direct statements to control behavior (McLaughlin et al., 1980;Power, 1985). ...
... Relatedly, McGillicuddy-De Lisi (1988) documented based on a paper folding task that parents demanded high-level cognitive skills (inferencing, generalizing, finding alternative) from children of the opposite sex from that of the parents. This finding is contrary to Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) study of parental demands during teaching highlighting the "same-sex severity, opposite-sex indulgence rule" (p. 158); namely, fathers are more demanding of sons and more permissive of daughters (also see Bell et al., 1981). ...
... Third, to address how fathers or mothers approach teaching based on child birth order, we speculated parents would teach younger more than older siblings, following a Vygotskian approach according to competency (Pellegrini et al., 1985). In relation to gender, we predicted fathers would teach skills more with sons (Block, 1983), whereas mothers would teach skills more with daughters, based on the same-sex severity, oppositesex indulgence notion (Maccoby and Jacklin, 1974). Fourth, to establish the context of teaching certain domains of learning, we predicted based on Farhat et al. (2021), knowledge and skills would be taught more often during games and dispositional behavior during conflict or contingent activity. ...
Article
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Children’s sociocultural experiences in their day-to-day lives markedly play a key role in learning about the world. This study investigated parent–child teaching during early childhood as it naturally occurs in the home setting. Thirty-nine families’ naturalistic interactions in the home setting were observed; 1033 teaching sequences were identified based on detailed transcriptions of verbal and non-verbal behavior. Within these sequences, three domains of learning (knowledge, skills, and dispositions) and subtopics were identified and analyzed in relation to gender, child birth order, context, teaching strategies, and learner response. Findings show knowledge, skills, and dispositions were taught equally, marked by the most prominent subtopics taught within each domain, including cognitive (skill), game rule (knowledge), and social rule (disposition). Further, mothers and fathers were found to teach their children equally, however, fathers taught knowledge more than mothers, whereas mothers taught dispositions more than fathers. Differences between domains of learning and subtopics also existed between mother’s and father’s teaching based on child birth order and gender. This study also assessed the contrast between teaching knowledge, skills, and dispositions by context, parent teaching strategies, and child learner response. Results support the notion that family interactions in the home setting set a stage for children’s rich informal learning experiences. Vygotskian sociocultural conceptions underpin this research and findings are discussed using this central theoretical lens.
... Generally, discussion of human sex differences has been met with resistance from Developmental Psychologists. Consider that the number of citations (according to Google Scholar) for Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) volume The Psychology of Sex Differences is close to 15,000. The book emphasizes socialization factors involved in sex differences in most behaviors, including aggression. ...
... Recognizing sex differences is fundamental for understanding the development of visual-spatial skills (Maccoby and Jacklin, 1974;Hoyenga and Hoyenga, 1993;Kimura, 1999;Geary, 2020). Silverman and Eals (1992) and Eals and Silverman (1994), in a series of observational experiments, found that male undergraduate students were superior at wayfinding, while female undergrads were superior at remembering objects and their placement in a two-dimensional array. ...
... Many books document human sex differences ably (e.g., Maccoby and Jacklin, 1974;Hoyenga and Hoyenga, 1993;Mealey, 2000;Lippa, 2005;Geary, 2020). We see heuristic value when a book provides, not just a massive listing of such sex differences, but a story told by the differences. ...
Article
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Developmental Psychology is the branch of psychology that studies, not only human behavior, but how and why human behavior changes over time. This essay seeks to review to what extent Developmental Psychology has failed to perceive human behavior through the lens of evolutionary theory in general, and in particular sexual selection as first described by Darwin and later elaborated on by many, including Robert Trivers and Geoffrey Miller; the essay asserts that this failure has resulted in many wrong turns and missed opportunities. In some cases, major developmental theorists (e.g., Freud, Erikson) were bedeviled by sex-based differences which they saw but could not explain and which compromised the parsimony of their stage theories. In the case of stage theories of moral development, some major theorists (e.g., Piaget, Kohlberg) were able to offer simpler explanations of moral development only by limiting their studies to male subjects. And, while Developmental Psychology textbooks thoroughly describe sex differences in the timing of morphological changes in puberty, writers seldom discuss why the timing is different in the two sexes, universally, and functionally. On the other hand, several domains of developmental focus, including play, mate choice, parenting, and spatial cognition, have seen successful research efforts that utilized sexually selected predispositions as foundational assumptions. The essay concludes with a discussion of how a more evolutionary and functional view of human behavior might move the field of Developmental Psychology to an even more robust and accurate understanding of how humans change over the course of a lifetime.
... Gender plays an important role in determining smelling capabilities, too, and prior literature gives evidence of women's superiority in and sensitivity to olfaction (e.g., Brand & Millot, 2001). This superiority and sensitivity of women are biological (Maccoby, 1974), and goes back to the first few days after birth (Doty, 1991). Maccoby (1974) takes the stance that "changes in estrogen levels during the normal fluctuations of these hormones in women are associated with changes in the acuity of the sense of smell"; hence, "there ought to be sex differences in smell sensitivity" (p. ...
... This superiority and sensitivity of women are biological (Maccoby, 1974), and goes back to the first few days after birth (Doty, 1991). Maccoby (1974) takes the stance that "changes in estrogen levels during the normal fluctuations of these hormones in women are associated with changes in the acuity of the sense of smell"; hence, "there ought to be sex differences in smell sensitivity" (p. 19). ...
Article
The evolutionary definition of intelligence has made it a ‎multifaceted concept. Emo-sensory ‎intelligence (ESQ), as integration ‎of emotional intelligence (EQ) and sensory intelligence ‎‎(SQ) is the ‎sensitivity to the emotions evoked by sensory inputs. It puts ‎emphasis on ‎individuals’ ability to recognize, label, monitor, and ‎manage sense-induced emotions to guide ‎one’s behavior and ‎establish emo-sensory communication. Among the studies done ‎on ‎different types of intelligence and effective communication, ‎gender differences have been a ‎recurring theme. The purpose of this ‎study was to investigate the role of gender in emo-‎sensory ‎intelligence and emo-sensory communication. To this aim, the emo-‎sensory ‎intelligence scale (ESIS) was distributed to 1500 participants. ‎The results revealed significant ‎differences between the two genders ‎in ESQ for visual, olfactory, and tactile senses, ‎demonstrating the ‎superiority of females over males. Moreover, a significant difference ‎was ‎found between the two genders in their ability to identify the ‎basic emotions triggered by ‎their senses, and use them in their ‎communications, with females being better than males.
... However, the differences by gender in creativity found, were not confirmed by the analysis of differences in percentage of change. In this sense, we are forced to affirm that, although the above is true, and we were able to verify that creativity improved in the posttest, preferably in women, our study could not confirm these differences in change by gender and their data is more aligned with those of others researchers such as Maccoby and Jacklin (1974), Wright and Stone (1998) This situation accounts for the difficulty of finding conclusive data on gender differences in creativity and invites us to continue investigating possible explanations and determinants of the heterogeneity of these results. ...
... Finally, studies that have analyzed gender differences in creativity offer contradictory data Sánchez Ruiz, 2020). There are researchers such as Maccoby and Jacklin (1974), Wright and Stone (1998), De Zubiría et al. (2003), Chacón and Moncada (2006), Matud et al. (2007), Baer and Kaufman (2008), Limiñana-Gras and Javier (2010), Bermejo et al. (2013), and Ramírez et al. (2019) who conclude that creative potential is not influenced by the gender variable. ...
Article
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There is an increasing demand by society that university students demonstrate competitive skills to enable them to achieve greater success when entering the workplace. Creativity and life satisfaction correlate positively with academic performance, productivity, and excellence in the working environment. The presence of creativity and emotional intelligence in the curriculum and teaching methods in Spanish universities, however, is surprisingly lacking. Studies that examine gender differences in these variables provide conflicting results. The purpose of our research is to analyse the changes produced in both creativity and life satisfaction in university students by a positive emotional and creative intervention and explore individual differences by gender. The methodology used was a quasi-experimental pre- test/post- test design with experimental/control groups. Three hundred university students (23% men and 77% women) from the Community of Madrid (Spain) completed three exercises that evaluated creativity and life satisfaction. The results show significantly higher results in creativity and life satisfaction in women, who continued to achieve high results after the intervention. Finally, we discuss the need for emotional and creative education in universities and focus on the employability and the guarantee of equal opportunities through the development of these competencies.
... In contrast, the motor component is the time between the onset of muscle activity to the onset of the braking response and represents the time it takes to execute the response (i.e., motor processes). Although no study has investigated sex differences in the speed or accuracy of braking with advancing age, the studies investigating sex differences in reaction time and goal-directed task suggest that women are slower, more variable, and less accurate than men (Maccoby and Jacklin 1974;McGuinness 1976;Watson and Kimura 1991;Moreno-Briseño et al. 2010;Casamento-Moran et al. 2017). While most of these studies did not examine the components of reaction time, the few that did, found that women had faster pre-motor times and men had faster motor times (Landauer et al. 1980). ...
... We measured braking response time and accuracy during a car-following task in a simulated driving environment. Based on sex differences reported in reaction time and goal-directed tasks (Maccoby and Jacklin 1974;Landauer et al. 1980;Watson and Kimura 1991;Moreno-Briseño et al. 2010;Casamento-Moran et al. 2017), we hypothesized that women would have slower and less accurate braking than men. Furthermore, based on previous findings suggesting sex differences in cognitive-motor processes (Landauer et al. 1980;Zhang et al. 2007;Schmidt and Lee 2019), we expected that cognitive-motor components of the braking response will be different in men and women. ...
Article
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Fast and accurate braking is essential for safe driving and relies on efficient cognitive and motor processes. Despite the known sex differences in overall driving behavior, it is unclear whether sex differences exist in the objective assessment of driving-related tasks in older adults. Furthermore, it is unknown whether cognitive-motor processes are differentially affected in men and women with advancing age. We aimed to determine sex differences in the cognitive-motor components of the braking performance in older adults. Fourteen men (63.06 ± 8.53 years) and 14 women (67.89 ± 11.81 years) performed a braking task in a simulated driving environment. Participants followed a lead car and applied a quick and controlled braking force in response to the rear lights of the lead car. We quantified braking accuracy and response time. Importantly, we also decomposed response time in its cognitive (pre-motor response time) and motor (motor response time) components. Lastly, we examined whether sex differences in the activation and coordination of the involved muscles could explain differences in performance. We found sex differences in the cognitive-motor components of braking performance with advancing age. Specifically, the cognitive processing speed is 27.41% slower in women, while the motor execution speed is 24.31% slower in men during the braking task. The opposite directions of impairment in the cognitive and motor speeds contributed to comparable overall braking speed across sexes. The sex differences in the activation of the involved muscles did not relate to response time differences between men and women. The exponential increase in the number of older drivers raises concerns about potential effects on traffic and driver safety. We demonstrate the presence of sex differences in the cognitive-motor components of braking performance with advancing age. Driving rehabilitation should consider differential strategies for ameliorating sex-specific deficits in cognitive and motor speeds to enhance braking performance in older adults.
... In Maccoby and Jacklin's (1978) classic monograph of sex differences, they critically review findings showing that male and female infants behave differently beginning early in life. For example, they conclude that infant males are more active, aggressive, and independent than females. ...
... For example, they conclude that infant males are more active, aggressive, and independent than females. Consistent with Maccoby and Jacklin's (1978) conclusions, in a meta-analysis of 16 studies investigating sex differences in overall infant activity, Campbell and Eaton (1999) found a sex difference in activity, with boys more active than girls. Female infants coo, vocalize, and are more attentive to social cues than are males, although Campbell and Eaton (1999) conclude that this difference in social attention and interactions is small in effect size. ...
Article
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A μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) single-nucleotide-polymorphism, found in both humans and rhesus macaques mediates the mother-infant attachment bond. Because mothers treat their sons and daughters differently, it is somewhat surprising that the role of infant sex has not been assessed in the context of a maternal-OPRM1-genotype-by-infant-sex interaction. The present study investigates the effect of maternal-OPRM1-genotype and infant sex on mother-infant behaviors. Over the first 6 months of offspring life, mother-infant behavioral data assessing attachment quality was collected twice weekly from a large number of rhesus monkey mother-infant pairs (N = 161 dyads; n = 64 female infants, n = 97 male infants). Mothers were genotyped for OPRM1 variation. Factor analysis of the observed behaviors showed two factors: Attachment (maternal-infant cradling, rejections, and infant approaches and leaves), and Maternal Restraints (mother restrains infant, preventing exploration). Further analyses showed a two-way, maternal-genotype-by-infant-sex interaction for both factors. For Attachment, mothers with the CC genotype cradled and restrained (Maternal Restraints) their female infants more and rejected them less, when compared to female infants of CG mothers. Perhaps as a consequence, female infants of CC genotype mothers approached and left their mothers less often, when compared to female infants of CG mothers, likely an indication that female infants from mothers with CG genotype play a greater role in maintaining the mother-infant bond than do female infants from CC genotype mothers. This finding may also indicate a more secure attachment in infants from CC genotype mothers. Unlike female infants, on average, the mother-infant relationship of dyads with a male infant was largely undifferentiated by maternal genotype. These findings suggest that, in contrast to female infants from CG mothers, CC mothers and their female infants appear to have a closer mother-infant relationship which may portend close life-long bonds, as mothers and female offspring remain together throughout life. Male offspring appear to have a more aloof mother-infant bond regardless of OPRM1-genotype. The results of this study indicate that maternal-OPRM1 variation mediates mother-infant attachment behaviors for female infants and has less effect for male infants. This suggests that offspring sex should be included in studies investigating the effect of maternal-OPRM1 genotype on the mother-infant attachment relationship.
... This type of attitude change has been accompanied by behavioral shifts that coincide with changes in trait expectations and shifts in personal identity for men and women. Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) conducted the first major review of research on sex-related differences in cognition, temperament, and social behavior in children and adults. They concluded that men are more assertive and less anxious than women. ...
... However, in this study, no differences were found for two other traits analyzed, locus of control and self-esteem. Feingold (1994) used meta-analysis to confirm the gender differences in adult personality traits reported by Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) and explored other gender differences in normative data from the most widely used personality inventories. He concluded that women scored lower than men on assertiveness and higher on extraversion, anxiety, trust, and tender-mindedness (nurturance). ...
Article
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This paper aims to present the initial analysis as a part of a methodology development in help for young people, students and graduates. The methodology aims to provide means for useful and critical self-evaluation, and based on it-to choose the most appropriate career path for them. The presented methodology emphasizes on the importance of self-awareness and understanding about oneself combining a variety of personal factors. Through theoretical analysis on existing evaluation tests and criteria in psychology, biology, social science, neuroscience, neuro-linguistic programming, business coaching, behavioural models and others, the right elements in the process of self-evaluation are identified. Further, the findings that this paper presents, allow for a more sophisticated and objective testing methodology, which consequently leads to better usability and application of the research.
... Prior research on male-female differences has been extensively examined in the field of psychology and neurophysiology (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974;Ekstrand, 1980). The relevance of sex differences in second and foreign language learning is still understudied and under researched. ...
... In a more extensive review of sex differences in relation to learning, Ekstrand (1980) cites evidence from Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) indicating that girls score significantly higher on tests measuring verbal abilities. In this survey, Ekstrand (1980) enumerates a list of large number of studies where it has been shown that thirty-six investigations have reported results favoring girls, while only thirteen of other studies have given results favoring boys. ...
Article
The aim of this paper is to unravel some of the controversies which have often shaped the findings drawn from prior studies germane to the area of male-female differences in relation to language learning. Educationalists in Morocco have hardly looked at the sex variable as a potential parameter which may explain some of the differential success of students in schools, and little if not daring to say none is known about it in the Moroccan context where there is still much to be done in terms of research and investigations. This study sets out to fill in this gap in research by analyzing male-female differences in language leaning. Using results of a test battery, regional exam GPA, and a standard EFL achievement test, quantitative data of a large group of senior high school students constituting a non-probability convenience sample (N = 152) drawn from the official records of Zerktouni high school, Beni Mellal directorate, have been explored to gather information about the issue in question. The results from the Chi-Square test and the independent samples t-test prove very convincingly that female learners unequivocally outperform their male peers at almost all basic language skills. The paper ends up with a conclusion and some pedagogical recommendations.
... Prior research on male-female differences has been extensively examined in the field of psychology and neurophysiology (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974;Ekstrand, 1980). The relevance of sex differences in second and foreign language learning is still understudied and under researched. ...
... In a more extensive review of sex differences in relation to learning, Ekstrand (1980) cites evidence from Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) indicating that girls score significantly higher on tests measuring verbal abilities. In this survey, Ekstrand (1980) enumerates a list of large number of studies where it has been shown that thirty-six investigations have reported results favoring girls, while only thirteen of other studies have given results favoring boys. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to unravel some of the controversies which have often shaped the findings drawn from prior studies germane to the area of male-female differences in relation to language learning. Educationalists in Morocco have hardly looked at the sex variable as a potential parameter which may explain some of the differential success of students in schools, and little if not daring to say none is known about it in the Moroccan context where there is still much to be done in terms of research and investigations. This study sets out to fill in this gap in research by analyzing male-female differences in language leaning. Using results of a test battery, regional exam GPA, and a standard EFL achievement test, quantitative data of a large group of senior high school students constituting a non-probability convenience sample (N = 152) drawn from the official records of Zerktouni high school, Beni Mellal directorate, have been explored to gather information about the issue in question. The results from the Chi-Square test and the independent samples t-test prove very convincingly that female learners unequivocally outperform their male peers at almost all basic language skills. The paper ends up with a conclusion and some pedagogical recommendations.
... Prior research on male-female differences has been extensively examined in the field of psychology and neurophysiology (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974;Ekstrand, 1980). The relevance of sex differences in second and foreign language learning is still understudied and under researched. ...
... In a more extensive review of sex differences in relation to learning, Ekstrand (1980) cites evidence from Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) indicating that girls score significantly higher on tests measuring verbal abilities. In this survey, Ekstrand (1980) enumerates a list of large number of studies where it has been shown that thirty-six investigations have reported results favoring girls, while only thirteen of other studies have given results favoring boys. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to unravel some of the controversies which have often shaped the findings drawn from prior studies germane to the area of male-female differences in relation to language learning. Educationalists in Morocco have hardly looked at the sex variable as a potential parameter which may explain some of the differential success of students in schools, and little if not daring to say none is known about it in the Moroccan context where there is still much to be done in terms of research and investigations. This study sets out to fill in this gap in research by analyzing male-female differences in language leaning. Using results of a test battery, regional exam GPA, and a standard EFL achievement test, quantitative data of a large group of senior high school students constituting a non-probability convenience sample (N = 152) drawn from the official records of Zerktouni high school, Beni Mellal directorate, have been explored to gather information about the issue in question. The results from the Chi-Square test and the independent samples t-test prove very convincingly that female learners unequivocally outperform their male peers at almost all basic language skills. The paper ends up with a conclusion and some pedagogical recommendations.
... Загальноприйняті уявлення щодо особливостей емоційної сфери жінок і чоловіків останнім часом починають переглядатися та критично оцінюватися: експериментально-психологічні дослідження свідчать про наявність значного опосередковуючого впливу ГЕНДЕРНІ ОСОБЛИВОСТІ ПРОЯВУ ТРИВОГИ ТА ДЕПРЕСІЇ на емоційну сферу жінок і чоловіків рольових норм і соціокультурних вимог. Певним доказом зазначеної позиції є експериментально доведена відсутність відмінностей емоційних проявів у немовлят різної статі та поява такої різниці у дітей старшого віку [1]. Крім того, як показують інші дослідження, у країнах із переважанням гендерної рівності психоемоційні відмінності між представниками різних статей значною мірою зменшуються [2]. ...
... Despite large cultural variation, females engaged in less frequent and severe direct aggression than males did (Fry, 1998;Locke, 2011). The sex difference in direct aggression occurred across diverse cultures by age 2 years and continued through adolescence (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974). In non-human primates as well, females typically engaged in less intense physical aggression than males (Sabbi et al., 2021;Smuts, 1987). ...
Article
Many male traits are well explained by sexual selection theory as adaptations to mating competition and mate choice, whereas no unifying theory explains traits expressed more in females. Anne Campbell's “staying alive” theory proposed that human females produce stronger self-protective reactions than males to aggressive threats because self-protection tends to have higher fitness value for females than males. We examined whether Campbell's theory has more general applicability by considering whether human females respond with greater self-protectiveness than males to other threats beyond aggression. We searched the literature for physiological, behavioral, and emotional responses to major physical and social threats, and found consistent support for females’ responding with greater self-protectiveness than males. Females mount stronger immune responses to many pathogens; experience a lower threshold to detect, and lesser tolerance of, pain; awaken more frequently at night; express greater concern about physically dangerous stimuli; exert more effort to avoid social conflicts; exhibit a personality style more focused on life's dangers; react to threats with greater fear, disgust and sadness; and develop more threat-based clinical conditions than males. Our findings suggest that in relation to threat human females have relatively heightened protective reactions compared to males. The pervasiveness of this result across multiple domains suggests that general mechanisms might exist underlying females’ unique adaptations. An understanding of such processes would enhance knowledge of female health and well-being.
... Finally, despite it not being a specific aim of our study, we found a significant effect of infant gender on language outcomes, with higher scores in girls than in males. This result informs an open debate in literature, where several authors [84,[87][88][89][90][91] consider gender to be strongly associated with verbal abilities, with others instead only suggesting a marginal effect [92][93][94]. The inconsistencies among studies are often associated with differences in infant age, with a limited number of studies recruiting preschool children [88][89][90] to investigate differences in emerging language skills. ...
Background: After preterm birth, infants are at high risk for delays in language development. A promising intervention to reduce this risk is represented by the exposure to parental voices through book-reading in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). This study investigated the possible advantages of book-reading to preterm neonates during their NICU stay on their subsequent language development. Methods: 100 families of preterm infants were recruited. The parents of 55 preterm infants (Reading Group) received a colored picture-book on NICU admission and were supported to read to their neonate as often as possible and to continue after hospital discharge. Forty-five infants (Control Group) were recruited before the beginning of the intervention. Infant language development was assessed with the Hearing and Language quotients of the Griffith Mental Development Scale at the corrected ages of 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Results: Regardless of group membership, Hearing and Language mean quotients decreased between 9 and 18 months; nevertheless, this decrease was considerably reduced in the Reading group, compared to the Control Group. Conclusions: Reading in NICUs represents a suitable intervention that could positively influence language development and parent-infant relationships in preterm children. The study findings support its implementation as a preventive measure.
... Thus, with an increase in the intensity and frequency of negative emotional experiences, the ability to adequately assess the emotional state of others and their own in male decreases, while in female it increases. In the latter case, this can be explained by the fact that negative emotions strengthen the attitude towards the perception of details that are important for women (Maccoby, Jacklin, 1974). ...
... Men and women undeniably have biological differences. Biological differences are accentuated and influenced by students' social and cultural environment, hence the social construction of gender (Brannon 1999;Durut-Bellat 1990;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974). During the process of socialization -modeling, reinforcement, imitation -the child acquires and assimilates attitudes and behaviors that typically belong to his or her gender. ...
Article
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The objective of this study seeks to shed light on gender stereotypes conveyed by high school teachers with regard to classroom management. Using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) (Flanagan, 1954), we interviewed 429 high school students in the Quebec City area (Canada) and asked them to recall an event in which they had witnessed a behavior from a teacher that is deemed to perpetuate gender stereotypes. We then asked students to explain the reported behavior. The results of this research enabled us to identify the focal areas of these gender stereotypes, and the reasons why teachers exhibited stereotypical behaviors in their social relation with students. We discuss strategies that can be implemented by teachers to avoid conveying gender stereotypes in the classroom.
... Furthermore, a decolonial feminist approach foregrounds in very important ways, how conceptualisations of gender and sexuality are central to our understandings of power relations in contemporary contexts. Indeed, psychologists have been complicit in legitimising fixed gender identities (Halpern, 1992;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974). Multiple studies have attempted to show differences in abilities between men and women, generally accrediting men as rational and women as emotional and the pathologisation of those who fall outside of such categorisations (i.e. ...
Chapter
Although in most countries there are laws and policies in place to prohibit discrimination in education, the dominant institutional climates endemic to education settings are frequently at odds with broader commitments to the equitable provision of education, and can often be hostile, unwelcoming and alienating to students who do not fit the status quo. Structural inequalities in the system of education act as barriers to success for many students. Students’ experiences of discrimination, stereotyping and prejudice in education have profound implications for their educational outcomes and as well as their psychological and physical wellbeing. When examining how students might cope with, resist and challenge prejudice and discrimination in education, theories and methodologies from outside of the mainstream of social psychology have much to offer. Drawing on decolonial and feminist approaches to psychology, in this chapter, we discuss some findings from a Photovoice study conducted with students at a historically “white only” university in South Africa. This study foregrounds students’ agency in navigating the institutional culture of their university and introducing change. The participants produce narratives of resistance to exclusionary race, gender, and class dynamics and serve to disrupt the colonial legacies of standards and merit in educational institutions.
... And the described differences between girls and boys continue or reoccur beyond infant age in terms of e.g. punctuation or comprehension (Chipere, 2014;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1978). Female respondents are also more likely to have positive beliefs about linguistic and cultural heterogeneity in school and teaching (Fischer & Ehmke, 2019). ...
... Many other studies note spatial ability differences between males and females, with females having lower spatial abilities. While there is a difference of opinion between whether these differences appear prior to or after puberty (for example, Maccoby and Jacklin [33] provide evidence of differences appearing in adolescence while Newcombe, Bandura, and Taylor. [34] suggest male-female differences exist prior to adolescence), all of these studies do confirm differences by the time students become adolescents. ...
... Δίνουμε στα παιδιά τη δυνατότητα μέσα από στρατηγικές προσέγγισης να εκφράζουν τις απόψεις τους, να διαπραγματεύονται με τους συμμαθητές και το δάσκαλο τους τις ιδέες τους για το θέμα, ώστε να ανακαλύψουν τη νέα γνώση οικοδομώντας πάνω στα δικά τους νοητικά σχήματα. (Ράπτης, A. & Ράπτη, A., 2004) Το σενάριο λαμβάνει υπόψιν τις θεωρίες κοινωνικοποίησης που σχετίζονται με την ανάπτυξη των γνωστικών ικανοτήτων του παιδιού (Maccoby, E.E.-Jacklin, C. 1974),τη θεωρία της συμβολικής αλληλεπίδρασης, του (Mead, G.H. 1962) Διδακτική Προσέγγιση με Τ.Π.Ε. ...
Article
Αγγελάκη, Ρ. (2021). «Λογοτεχνία, Ιστορία και Σχολείο. Ο πατέρας της Ιστορίας στην έτερη ‘οικογένεια’ των μαθητών». Νέος Παιδαγωγός, 23: 226-232.
... Gender differences in VS ability are among the largest and most robust found in human cognition. Male advantage in VS skills, and especially mental rotation, is strong and persistent (Halpern et al., 2011;Hyde, 2014;Kimura, 2000;Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974;Peters et al., 2007;Voyer et al., 1995). Moreover, this gender gap translates into the gender gap in STEM by early adolescence (Ganley et al., 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Visuospatial (VS) skills are one of the cornerstones of STEM enrollment, retention, and achievement. Even though they are malleable, few comprehensive training programs exist, especially for younger populations. The current study proposes a new direction of VS training focusing on the development of visuospatial self-efficacy (VSSE) and describes the implementation and results of a digital game-based VSSE intervention. A total of 169 students in 3 Mid-Western middle schools participated in the study. The results revealed that the intervention significantly increased students’ VS self-efficacy but not their VS performance or grades in STEM courses.
... Partially consistent with previous studies, the present study found that male freshmen do significantly better than female freshmen in career choice adaptability and environmental general adaptability, although there was no significant gender difference in the other five aspects. One possible reason is differing parental expectations concerning the roles of boys and girls (Maccoby and Jacklin, 1974;Mathur and Berndt, 2006;Hibbard and Buhrmester, 2010). Specifically, parents generally teach boys to be more independent and stronger, which encourages men to constantly adopt these characteristics. ...
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Few studies have actually explored the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in college students, although many studies have suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic poses a great threat to people’s mental health in many cohorts. Furthermore, college students may be a particularly vulnerable cohort that needs more attention and access to psychological services due to the psychological changes involved in the transition to college and the characteristics of college students’ study habits and lifestyle. Therefore, investigating the basic characteristics of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on college freshmen is of great practical importance and has theoretical implications for the identification and provisioning of services to vulnerable cohorts. A total of 5,818 college freshmen completed the College Student Adaptability Inventory. The results suggest that the mean detection rate of the seven dimensions of undergraduate maladjustment to university is 27.13%. Specifically, livelihood self-management adaptability has the highest detection rate (48.93%), while environmental general evaluation has the lowest detection rate (9.81%). Moreover, the school adaptation of college freshmen is impacted by gender, number of siblings, and family socioeconomic status (SES). Specifically, students who are female, an only child, and have a lower SES have lower levels of school adaptation. However, the school adaptation of college freshmen is not influenced by minority status or left-behind status. The findings of the present study suggest that the maladaptation of college freshmen has been a common phenomenon in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Prevention programs may be most helpful if they pay more attention to effective intervention efforts for students who are female, an only child, and have a lower SES.
... In terms of intellectual/cognitive skills, some studies find that, while women show a high degree of verbal competence, men are better at solving abstract mathematical and visuospatial problems (Maccoby and Jacklin, 1974;Jones, 2008). ...
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One of the most striking developments of the last half-century has been the huge rise in the labour market participation of women. Two out of every three net new jobs created over the last two decades in the EU were taken by women. At the same time, sharply rising employment rates among older workers due to population ageing and policy changes have increased the share of older workers in the labour market. This report examines the impacts of the changing contours of labour supply on the employment structure over the last quarter-century in Europe (1995–2019). The primary focus is on gender, with a secondary focus on ageing. Among the main findings are that employment shares in gender-balanced jobs have declined despite the rising female share of employment and that gender pay gaps are highest in well-paid jobs.
... Along with fear, sexual differentiation has also been established in risk-taking and exploratory behavior, a characteristic that is also relevant to interacting with a novel object. In most species, males are more aggressive and competitive in nature, react less fearfully to stressful or novel stimulants, and engage in more risk-taking behavior than females, which tend to be more fearful and cautious (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974). In ungulates, males show patterns of being less fearful than females in response to novel or fear-inducing stimuli and are therefore more willing to explore novel environments or novel stimuli in familiar environments (Vandenheede, 1993a). ...
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http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/85236/1/ajweiner.pdf
... There have been conflicting reports on the issue of gender, cognitive ease and academic performance. While Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) believed that gender differences in mathematics performance were small or nonexistent in childhood and that the male gain advantage at the beginning of puberty, Hyde, Fennema, and Lamon (1990) found a small gender difference favouring girls in computation in elementary school and middle school and no gender difference in computation in the high school years. In Nigeria, Afuwape and Oludipe (2008) studied the integrated science achievement of graduating pre-service teachers for a period of three years. ...
... As observed in Maccoby and Jacklin's review (Maccoby 1974), early work on sex difference assumed binary, biology-based, psychological differences -those males and females are diametrically opposed. In reality, dichotomous sex differences are commonly taken to suggest that males and females should be treated differently. ...
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... It is evident from males' and females' mean scores that females are better comprehenders of English passages. This supports Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) view that females are outstandingly superior in reading skills, and it is known that remedial reading classes contain significantly higher proportions of males. This finding is also in line with Brantmeier's (2002Brantmeier's ( , 2004bBrantmeier's ( , 2007 studies in which females outperformed males in their comprehension of given passages in a written recall task. ...
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... It is evident from males' and females' mean scores that females are better comprehenders of English passages. This supports Maccoby and Jacklin's (1974) view that females are outstandingly superior in reading skills, and it is known that remedial reading classes contain significantly higher proportions of males. This finding is also in line with Brantmeier's (2002Brantmeier's ( , 2004bBrantmeier's ( , 2007 studies in which females outperformed males in their comprehension of given passages in a written recall task. ...
... The significance of this observation relates to the focus and findings in Donkor and Nwagwu's (2019) study, which Application programmes 3 17 5 5 highlighted the significance of personal factors in PIM. Evidently, the search for how to ease the difficulty of finding kept information has focused more on technology applications, despite early studies that highlighted the roles of other factors (Fuller et al., 2008;Maccoby and Jacklin, 1974). The 1281 keywords in this period were categorized into 10 clusters. ...
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... It can be noted that if rape (sexual assault) is rarely conjugated in the feminine, it is because, for women, the assault is associated with a loss of self-control and guilt. Men are more aggressive than women (Short and Simeonsson, 1986;Olweus et al., 1980;Maccoby and Jacklin, 1974). Rape is essentially conjugated in the masculine. ...
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Rape is an event that induces an existential crisis by exerting a major impact on living for oneself, living together and living connected. It causes psychological and physical sufferings. Even after many years, most raped women have a traumatic memory of the event. The consequences of rape on the alteration of female identity are indisputable. The purpose of this article is to study the consequences of rape on the identity of victims; describe the feelings developed by the victims during and after the rape; understand how a victim manages to overcome the trauma of rape.
... The study of personality is particularly important for understanding how men and women differ in the ways in which they think, feel, and behave (Weisberg, DeYoung and Hirsh, 2011) since this might influence their consumption patterns. Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) conducted the first extensive review of research on gender differences with respect to personality. They found that men were more assertive and less anxious than women; however, no differences were noticed with regard to locus of control and self-esteem. ...
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This study explores package holiday travelers' perceptions of tourism product attributes from the gender perspective. The research results reveal that significant differences exist in perceived levels of tourism product attributes between men and women. The perceptions of females were higher than those of males for all the statistically significant features in each of two categories of tourism product attributes. Tour package features such as hotels, price/quality relationship, and standard of the bus as well as selected experience attributes, including tourist attractions, nature/countryside, shopping opportunities, safety, cleanliness, tourist information, and possibility to communicate in English were evaluated significantly higher by females. Several managerial implications for both tourism marketing strategists and tourism marketing product providers are discussed in this study.
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Discusses the concept of multiculturalism in South African schools and how the principles of Nelson Mandela, as reflected in his 'Madiba Magic', forms a point of departure for multiculturalism practice.
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The subject of this research is the means of representing sexuality in advertising campaigns for Calvin Klein Jeans (1980 – 2016). The object of this research is the use of gender stereotypes (masculinity/femininity) in advertising as a way to manipulate collective consciousness for solution of marketing tasks. The aim of this article consists in determination of advertising strategies of the Calvin Klein brand for the period 1980 – 2016 and the techniques of representation of sexuality for the effective impact of advertising upon the target audience. Analysis is conducted on Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaigns for the past 40 years by decade, revealing the methods of suggestive effect on the consumer for promoting the product. The main following conclusions were made: 1) selecting provocation as the advertising strategy since 1980 to the present, the Calvin Klein brand employs diverse methods of suggestive effect on the recipient, programming their needs and behavioral attitudes, thereby manipulating collective consciousness; 2) kinesic, proxemic, coloristic, phonatory, and speech means for representation of sexuality testify to the use of gender stereotype (masculinity/femininity) in order to produce effective impact upon the target audience; Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaigns feature similar strategies for 40 years, which are intended to solve marketing tasks via provocation. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that the identified provocation techniques in Calvin Klein advertisings based on the use of gender stereotypes allowed creating the “portrait” of the brand and tracing the patterns in arrangement of advertising campaigns. The author's special contribution consists in analysis of the means for representation of sexuality used in jeans advertising, techniques influencing the recipient through arbitrary interpretation of gender stereotypes, as well as manipulative methods of creating Calvin Klein PR-campaigns.
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The social environment has long been recognized as an important context for human development in general and gender development in particular. Children’s environments are replete with cues about gender appropriateness and models of gendered behavior. Children receive direct and indirect feedback about their gendered behavior such as the reward of social approval by peers or parents. As a result, gender role differences appear early, especially in domains where the environment is strongly gender-differentiated such as in the realm of play or children’s media. From early in life, boys and girls show gender-differentiated preferences for color, toys, and same-gender peers. In this chapter we review classic and contemporary theories of gender development with a focus on Social Cognitive Theory (Bussey & Bandura, 1999) and a newer developmental model of persuasion (Buijzen et al., 2010). We then discuss environmental contexts in which social influences operate to produce gender role development, including parents, peers, school, toys and play, and children’s media.KeywordsSocial Cognitive TheoryDevelopmental Persuasion ModelGender developmentGender socialization
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Pourquoi les nouvelles enceintes sportives n’atteignent-elles pas les objectifs escomptés, notamment en termes de taux de remplissage ? Pour répondre à cette question, étudier le processus d’attachement au club et d’attachement au stade nous semble particulièrement porteur, notamment dans les chaînages conceptuels proximité → valeur perçue → attachement et attachement à l’ancien stade → proximité → valeur perçue → attachement au nouveau stade.Vingt-trois hypothèses sont formulées et testées auprès de 1 446 spectateurs de stade Yves-du-Manoir de Colombes, 668 spectateurs de la Paris La Défense Arena et 328 spectateurs des deux enceintes. Les résultats obtenus confirment la validité des deux chaînages conceptuels testés et offrent des pistes de réflexion managériale pour les professionnels de l’industrie du sport professionnel qui souhaiteraient améliorer le taux de remplissage de leur enceinte.
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En este trabajo presentamos los resultados de un proyecto que estamos desarrollando en la Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Nuestro proyecto analiza los estudios universitarios del grado de lengua y literatura y del máster de enseñanza de español como lengua extranjera (ELE) con el objetivo de determinar hasta qué punto se incluye la perspectiva de género en las competencias, contenidos, bibliografía y evaluación de las diferentes asignaturas que forman parte del currículum. El análisis realizado ha puesto de manifiesto carencias importantes que nos han llevado a proponer un protocolo de buenas prácticas para la inclusión de la perspectiva de género en la docencia de lengua, literatura y ELE.
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The tend and befriend theory characterizes a social response to stress that aligns specifically with female physiology and behavioral patterns. Tending behaviors include caring for and protecting offspring from harm, while befriending behaviors create and maintain social networks for purposes of protection and support. On a biological level, sex differences in stress responding patterns are attributed to the much larger role oxytocin plays in the female stress response compared to that observed in males. Additionally, unlike the males of most mammalian species, females are often required to protect themselves from harm in addition to caring for immature young. In order to ensure species survival, females must respond to stress in such a way that does not put offspring at risk. Finally, tending and befriending has positive consequences on the physical and mental health of both female parents and their offspring. The present chapter will discuss the origins of tend and befriend theory as well as the biological, evolutionary, and psychosocial aspects and implications of this pattern of stress responding observed in the female sex.KeywordsTend and befriendFight or flightSympathetic nervous system (SNS)Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis Allostasis/allostatic loadOxytocinOpioidsTending response patternBefriending response patternCortisolSecure attachment
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