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Fluid and cristallized intelligence and the Berlin Model of Intelligence Structure (BIS)

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... We additionally had access to an extended version of a previously published dataset (BEAU02; Beauducel & Kersting, 2002). This extended dataset included the published data as well as additional data. ...
... Operation facets of the Berlin model of intelligence structure (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002;Jäger, Süß, & Beauducel, 1997;Süß & Beauducel, 2005) a broad reasoning factor that primarily captures the ability to think logically, a memory factor, a fluid ability factor that taps the ability to generate diverse ideas and material like words or figural shapes, and a speed factor that captures the ability to process material and quickly solve simple tasks. 5 ...
... It should be noted that the radex model could only be calculated by means of smallest space analysis (Guttman, 1968), which leads to a representation of the data that can usually not be found by means of factor analysis. Furthermore, the distinction between reasoning and speed abilities is also a key building block of the Berlin model of Intelligence structure (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002;Jäger et al., 1997;Schulze, 2005;Süß & Beauducel, 2005). However, this model does not consider knowledge abilities. ...
Article
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Research on the structure of psychometric intelligence has used hierarchical models like the higher-order and the bi-factor model and has studied the hierarchical relationship between factors within these models. In contrast, research on the structure of personality has not only used hierarchical models but has also studied hierarchies of factor solutions. We clarify the theoretical and conceptual differences between hierarchical models and the solutions-hierarchy approach used in the field of personality research, and suggest that the solutions-hierarchy perspective can provide a novel perspective for intelligence research. We used the solutions-hierarchy approach to study four correlation matrices (N= 230 to 710; 38 to 63 tests), and a large dataset (N= 16,823; 44 tests). Results provided (a) insights into relationships between intelligence constructs across the hierarchy of factor solutions, and (b) evidence that intelligence has a 1-2-3-5 hierarchy of factor solutions with a g factor at the top, gc and gf factors at the second level, a speed-reasoning-knowledge taxonomy at the third level, and possibly a speed-reasoning-fluency-knowledge-memory/perception taxonomy at the fifth level.
... Numerous studies support the construct validity and the test-criterion validity of the BIS-HB (e.g., Freund, Holling, & Preckel, 2007;Preckel, Holling, & Wiese, 2006;Preckel, Wermer, & Spinath, 2011;Vock, Preckel, & Holling, 2011). The BIS-HB is based on the Berlin Intelligence Structure model (BIS; Jäger, 1984;Süβ & Beauducel, 2005; see Fig. 1), which is historically the most prominent and influential intelligence model in German-speaking countries (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002). The BIS is a faceted model comprised of an operation facet for Reasoning (R), Processing Speed (S), Creativity (C), and Memory (M) and a content facet for Figural (F), Numerical (N), and Verbal (V) ability. ...
... The two facets are conceptualized as orthogonal to each other, forming 12 cells defined by one operation and one content domain (e.g., reasoningverbal, RV). Beauducel and Kersting (2002) investigated the relations between BIS operations and the model of fluid and crystallized intelligence. They found that Reasoning and Memory were closely associated with fluid intelligence, whereas Creativity and Processing Speed were associated with both fluid and crystallized intelligence. ...
Article
Individuals' general intelligence is highly stable over time and strong empirical evidence supports its validity for diagnostic purposes. Frequently, general intelligence is assessed as a composite of different specific cognitive abilities (e.g., verbal, numerical, figural ability). In previous research, these specific abilities only showed marginal stabilities, challenging their validity for diagnostic purposes. However, this research was conducted with samples of predominantly average or low ability individuals. According to Spearman's law of diminishing returns, high ability individuals show more pronounced differences between subtest scores or intelligence profiles than regular ability individuals. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the stabilities of specific abilities and intelligence profiles in high ability individuals. Using the Berlin structure-of-intelligence test (BIS-HB), we investigated the 6-month mean-level change, individual-level change, differential continuity, and ipsative continuity of specific abilities in a sample of 114 students (28.9% female; age M = 14.11, SD = 0.84) attending special gifted classes. We found significant mean-level change for all specific abilities. Reliable individual-level increases in performance were observed for, on average, 15.4% of the participants on each specific ability (based on SEpred). Differential continuity of specific abilities ranged from 0.72 to 0.84. Intelligence profiles replicated across test–retest occasions significantly above chance levels (Mdnκ = 0.32). The results render more precisely the usefulness of interpreting intelligence profiles, which has previously been called into question in general.
... Crystallized abilities have been shown to increase linearly with age, and in previous research, a peak in crystallized intelligence was observed at age 60 to 70 (Rönnlund, Nyberg, & Bäckman, 2005;Schaie, 1996). However, positive effects of age on crystallized intelligence can also be found in younger age groups and in samples with smaller age ranges (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002;Beauducel, Liepmann, Felfe, & Nettelnstroh, 2007). ...
... Political knowledge can be considered one domain of declarative knowledge and is significantly related to crystallized intelligence (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002). Political knowledge has been shown to be an important outcome variable because it is bound to participation and deliberation (Delli Carpini, 2004). ...
Article
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Using the theory of fluid-crystallized intelligence, we argue that with growing age, political discussion becomes less important as a complement to news exposure in political knowledge building. We applied moderated mediation analyses to the survey data of N = 69,125 German respondents. The data supported the hypothesis that news exposure influences political discussion, which in turn leverages political knowledge. As expected, we showed that news exposure is more strongly associated with political discussion for younger age groups. The results are discussed with regard to how to integrate a psychological lifespan perspective into further research on knowledge acquisition.
... We contrasted the effects of FI (measured by RAPM; Raven, 1958) with those of NI (measured by Berliner Intelligenzstruktur-Test, BIS; Jäger, Süß, & Beauducel, 1997) to compare their impact on solving different mathematical problems. Both intelligence measures are partly related to each other (for details concerning the link between FI and NI, see Beauducel, Brocke, & Liepmann, 2001;Beauducel & Kersting, 2002), and are associated with mathematical abilities. Due to this overlap, one could expect similar effects of NI and FI not only on task performance, but also on cognitive resource allocation in mathematical cognition. ...
... The numerical subtests of the four operations facets (processing capacity, memory, fluency, and processing speed) of the BIS (Jäger et al., 1997) were applied in order to assess NI. Considering the association between FI and NI mentioned above (see Beauducel et al., 2001;Beauducel & Kersting, 2002), we expected a positive correlation between the ascertained scores of FI and NI. Pearson's bivariate correlation revealed a moderate relationship between the RAPM IQ and the numerical BIS score (r = .32, ...
Article
This study investigates cognitive resource allocation dependent on fluid and numerical intelligence in arithmetic/algebraic tasks varying in difficulty. Sixty-six 11th grade students participated in a mathematical verification paradigm, while pupil dilation as a measure of resource allocation was collected. Students with high fluid intelligence solved the tasks faster and more accurately than those with average fluid intelligence, as did students with high compared to average numerical intelligence. However, fluid intelligence sped up response times only in students with average but not high numerical intelligence. Further, high fluid but not numerical intelligence led to greater task-related pupil dilation. We assume that fluid intelligence serves as a domain-general resource that helps to tackle problems for which domain-specific knowledge (numerical intelligence) is missing. The allocation of this resource can be measured by pupil dilation.
... Several tests measuring fluid reasoning based on content factors have been developed for a specific purpose. For example, Berliner Intelligenzstruktur-Test der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Personalwesen (BIS-r-DGP); (Beauducel et al., 2001;Beauducel & Kersting, 2002), Cognitive Abilities Test Form 7 (CogAT 7), (Lohman, 2011) and the series and matrix test (Kyllonen et al., 2018). The benefit of measuring the three content factors of Gf is that it allows the test to align well with the reasoning demands of specific jobs or classroom activities, including considerable quantitative, verbal, and abstract reasoning (Beauducel et al., 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fluid reasoning (Gf) is a central component of human abilities and has been shown to be statistically indistinguishable from general cognitive ability. However, measuring fluid reasoning is not that easy since the operationalization of the construct itself is not conclusive. This situation is exacerbated if the measurements and comparisons are carried out in groups with different cultural and language abilities. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the fluid reasoning construct as well as measurement practices that have been carried out in Indonesia. My review would mention the positioning of fluid reasoning in several intelligence theories, how researchers conceptualize fluid reasoning, how researchers measure fluid reasoning in a multicultural context, and outline critical future directions for test development. In conclusion, I emphasize the importance of using a multi-processes figural fluid reasoning test as a proxy for a culture fair intelligence test that can be used in cross-cultural assessments.
... In the future, it would be informative to include multiple intelligence or academic achievement test batteries or narrower measures. If CHC ability clusters and academic content clusters could be more balanced (e.g., each CHC ability and academic area is measured with each response mode), correlations sampled more ability areas (i.e., more CHC narrow abilities), or included more variety within clusters (e.g., four ways to measure Gv) cross-battery comparisons would be more accurate and implications could extend beyond the boundaries of a given test battery (Beauducel and Kersting 2002;Süß and Beauducel 2015). More balance among measures could also help to eliminate alternative explanations for some findings in this research, such as having a disproportionate number of reading tests in the analysis, which may affect the findings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used as an alternate multivariate procedure for investigating intelligence and academic achievement test score correlations. Correlation coefficients among Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-5) and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third Edition (WIAT-III) validity sample scores and among Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition (KTEA-2) co-norming sample scores were analyzed using multidimensional scaling (MDS). Three-dimensional MDS configurations were the best fit for interpretation in both datasets. Subtests were more clearly organized by CHC ability and academic domain instead of complexity. Auditory-linguistic, figural-visual, reading-writing, and quantitative-numeric regions were visible in all models. Results were mostly similar across different grade levels. Additional analysis with WISC-V and WIAT-III tests showed that content (verbal, numeric, figural) and response process facets (verbal, manual, paper-pencil) were also useful in explaining test locations. Two implications from this study are that caution may be needed when interpreting fluency scores across academic areas, and MDS provides more empirically based validity evidence regarding content and response mode processes.
... In fact, latent factors for verbal abilities and fact knowledge were found to be correlated near unity (Schipolowski et al. 2014), which supports this view. Indeed, measurement instruments used for indicating Gc increasingly employ broadly sampled tests of fact knowledge André (Beauducel and Kersting 2002;Schipolowski et al. 2014;Schroeders et al. 2020), depicting a broad factor of Gc covering knowledge that individuals accumulate during their lifetime through acculturation and learning (Cattell 1971(Cattell , 1987. ...
Article
Full-text available
Declarative fact knowledge is a key component of crystallized intelligence. It is typically measured with multiple-choice (MC) items. Other response formats, such as open-ended formats are less frequently used, although these formats might be superior for measuring crystallized intelligence. Whereas MC formats presumably only require recognizing the correct response to a question, open-ended formats supposedly require cognitive processes such as searching for, retrieving, and actively deciding on a response from long-term memory. If the methods of inquiry alter the cognitive processes involved, mean-changes between methods for assessing declarative knowledge should come along with changes in the covariance structure. We tested these assumptions in two online studies administering declarative knowledge items in different response formats (MC, open-ended, and open-ended with cues). Item difficulty clearly increases in the open-ended methods although effects in logistic regression models vary slightly across items. Importantly, latent variable analyses suggest that the method of inquiry does not affect what is measured with different response formats. These findings clearly endorse the position that crystallized intelligence does not change as a function of the response format.
... In fact, latent factors for verbal abilities and fact knowledge were found to be correlated near unity (Schipolowski et al., 2014), which supports this view. Indeed, measurement instruments used for indicating Gc increasingly employ broadly sampled tests of fact knowledge (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002;Schipolowski et al., 2014;Schroeders et al., 2020), depicting a broad factor of Gc covering knowledge that individuals accumulate during their lifetime through acculturation and learning (Cattell, 1971(Cattell, , 1987. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Declarative fact knowledge is a key component of crystallized intelligence. It is typically measured with multiple-choice (MC) items. Other response formats, such as open-ended formats are less frequently used, although these formats might be superior for measuring crystallized intelligence. Whereas MC-formats presumably only require recognizing the correct response to a question, open-ended formats supposedly require cognitive processes such as searching for, retrieving, and actively deciding for a response from long-term memory. If the methods of inquiry alter the cognitive processes involved, mean-changes between methods for assessing declarative knowledge should come along with changes in the covariance structure. We tested these assumptions in two online studies administering declarative knowledge items in different response formats (MC, open-ended, and open-ended with cues). Item difficulty clearly increases in the open-ended methods although effects in logistic regression models vary slightly across items. Importantly, latent variable analyses suggest that the method of inquiry does not affect what is measured with different response formats. These findings clearly endorse the position that crystallized intelligence does not change as a function of the response format.
... Zwischen kristalliner Intelligenz und dem Alter findet sich ein linear positiver Zusammenhang, der etwa im Alter zwischen 60 und 70 Jahren seinen Höhepunkt erreicht (Rönnlund, Nyberg, Bäckman, & Nilsson, 2005). Demnach ist sowohl das höhere Vorwissen, das Ältere auch im Kontext von Nachrichten und Politik aufweisen (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002;Beier & Ackerman, 2001) als auch die Verarbeitung von Informationen, die in diesen Kontext passen, bei Älteren besser ausgeprägt als bei Jüngeren. ...
Book
Durch das Internet hat sich der Zugang zu Nachrichten maßgeblich verändert. Informationen stehen nicht nur unbegrenzt zur Verfügung, sondern sie sind auch zu einem omnipräsenten Bestandteil in digitalen Informationsumgebungen geworden. Dadurch werden Internetnutzer*innen, auch ohne bewusst danach zu suchen, wiederholt mit tagesaktuellen Schlagzeilen konfrontiert, z.B. wenn sie ihren Browser öffnen, oder sich auf sozialen Netzwerkseiten bewegen. Diese kurzen Nachrichtenkontakte haben aufgrund der geringen Informationsmenge wenig Potential für Lerneffekte, können jedoch das Gefühl vermitteln, sich mit einem Thema auszukennen. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt sich die Frage, inwiefern Nachrichten in digitalen Informationsumgebungen die Entstehung einer Wissensillusion begünstigen, wie sich dieser Prozess erklären lässt und mit welchen Folgen dies verbunden ist. Im theoretischen Teil der Arbeit werden dazu Erkenntnisse zum Gedächtnis, dem Metagedächtnis und der Rolle von Medien für Wissen und Wissenswahrnehmung aufgearbeitet. In Studie 1 wird mit einer experimentellen Studie untersucht, wie sich Nachrichten auf sozialen Netzwerkseiten im Vergleich zu vollständigen Nachrichtenartikeln auf objektives und subjektives Wissen auswirken. Außerdem werden Effekte einer Wissensillusion für Einstellungen und Verhalten untersucht. Studie 2 untersucht mit qualitativen Leitfadeninterviews, welche Rolle Medien für Wissen und Lernen aus Sicht der Nutzer*innen spielen. Diese Erkenntnisse liefern Erklärungen dafür, weshalb und aufgrund welcher Merkmale unterschiedliche Nachrichtenkontakte eine Wissensillusion begünstigen können.
... Jäger later became a professor at the University of Berlin and focused on more fundamental intelligence research. However, a revised version of his more modern test-the BIS-r-DGP is still widely used in selection in Germany (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002). ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the development of modern testing in the Dutch, German, and French-speaking parts of Europe (France, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, most parts of Switzerland, Austria, and the South Tirol region of Italy). Some early forms of selection testing in this region of the world can be traced back as far as the Roman empire where officers and soldiers were selected through systematic assessment procedures during a period of probation before they were fully accepted into the Roman army (Stout, 2018). However, the start of modern psychometric testing happened much more recently toward the end of the 19th and early 20th century, and the region has played a pivotal role. The purpose of this chapter is to highlight some key moments in this history.
... Second, crystallized intelligence is increasingly measured with indicators capturing broadly sampled domains of declarative fact knowledge (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002). The inclusion of knowledge and achievement was taken by some researchers to endorse a novel factor labeled "General knowledge" (McGrew, 2009) but it is now mostly accepted that indicators capturing knowledge, scholastic achievement, and language command could be subsumed below an overarching factor of crystallized intelligence (Schipolowski, Wilhelm, & Schroeders, 2014). ...
Article
There is a widely held consensus in the field of intelligence research that the broad factors identified by Cattell, Horn, and Carroll are an adequate summary of individual differences in human cognitive abilities. Most researchers would agree that the redundancy among these factors is best accounted for by an overarching general factor. We think the best way to acknowledge major accomplishments is to build upon them with the goal to challenge the status quo. Here we want to do so by discussing six broad ability factors that are either considered in Carroll's epochal book or could be candidates for future inclusions to the list of established cognitive ability factors: fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, cognitive speed, creativity, social and emotional intelligence, and collaborative problem solving. We conclude with four pleas: reunite correlational and experimental research, enrich construct interpretations, reunite educational and psychological measurement of maximal cognitive effort, and reconsider the sampling of indicators and content validity.
... It must not be overlooked that by asking participants to produce many ideas, a DT test resembles verbal fluency tasks . Beauducel and Kersting's (2002) view that verbal fluency tasks are markers for g c would have suggested that DT and g c correlate more strongly (as compared to the DT-g or DT-g f correlations) when be-fluent instruction and fluency scoring are used to assess DT. However, this specific proposition was not supported in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides a meta-analytic update on the relationship between intelligence and divergent thinking (DT), as research on this topic has increased, and methods have diversified since Kim’s meta-analysis in 2005. A three-level meta-analysis was used to analyze 875 correlation coefficients from 112 studies with an overall N = 33,897. The overall effect showed a significant positive correlation of r = .25. This increase of the correlation as compared to prior meta-analytic findings (Kim 2005) could be attributed to the correction of attenuation because a difference between effect sizes prior-Kim vs. post-Kim was non-significant. Different moderators such as scoring methods, instructional settings, intelligence facets, and task modality were tested together with theoretically relevant interactions between some of these factors. These moderation analyses showed that the intelligence–DT relationship can be higher (up to r = .31–.37) when employing test-like assessments coupled with be-creative instructions, and considering DT originality scores. The facet of intelligence (g vs. gf vs. gc) did not affect the correlation between intelligence and DT. Furthermore, we found two significant sample characteristics: a) average sample age was positively associated with the intelligence–DT correlation, and b) the intelligence–DT correlation decreased for samples with increasing percentages of females in the samples. Finally, inter-moderator correlations were checked to take potential confounding into account, and also publication bias was assessed. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive picture of current research and possible research gaps. Theoretical implications, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed.
... Numerous studies support the construct validity and the test-criterion validity of the BIS-HB (e.g., Freund, Holling, & Preckel, 2007;Preckel, Holling, & Wiese, 2006;Preckel, Wermer, & Spinath, 2011;Vock, Preckel, & Holling, 2011). The BIS-HB is based on the Berlin Intelligence Structure model (BIS; Jäger, 1984;Süß & Beauducel, 2005; see Figure 1), which is historically the most prominent and influential intelligence model in Germanspeaking countries (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002). The BIS is a faceted model comprised of an (Wechsler, 2014). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Individuals’ general intelligence is highly stable over time and strong empirical evidence supports its validity for diagnostic purposes. Frequently, general intelligence is assessed as a composite of different specific cognitive abilities (e.g., verbal, numerical, figural ability). In previous research, these specific abilities only showed marginal stabilities, challenging their validity for diagnostic purposes. However, this research was conducted with samples of predominantly average or low ability individuals. According to Spearman’s law of diminishing returns, high ability individuals show more pronounced differences between subtest scores or intelligence profiles than regular ability individuals. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the stabilities of specific abilities and intelligence profiles in high ability individuals. Using the Berlin structure-of-intelligence test (BIS-HB), we investigated the 6-month mean-level change, individual-level change, differential continuity, and ipsative continuity of specific abilities in a sample of 114 students (28.9% female; age M = 14.11, SD = .84) attending special gifted classes. We found significant mean-level change for all specific abilities. Reliable individual-level increases in performance were observed for, on average, 17% of the participants on each specific ability. Differential continuity of specific abilities ranged from .72 to .84. Intelligence profiles replicated across test–retest occasions significantly above chance levels (Mdnκ = .28). The results render more precisely the usefulness of interpreting intelligence profiles, which has previously been called into question in general.
... When three to five operation homogenous task aggregates per operation factor were formed, this resulted in 13 to 16 operation homogeneous aggregates. When these operation-homogeneous aggregates were entered into EFA, the four operation factors clearly emerged (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002;Jäger, 1982Jäger, , 1984Jäger et al., 1997). Similarly, when nine content homogenous task aggregates were entered into EFA, the three content factors could be demonstrated in these studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated by means of a simulation study how well methods for factor rotation can identify a two-facet simple structure. Samples were generated from orthogonal and oblique two-facet population factor models with 4 (2 factors per facet) to 12 factors (6 factors per facet). Samples drawn from orthogonal populations were submitted to factor analysis with subsequent Varimax, Equamax, Parsimax, Factor Parsimony, Tandem I, Tandem II, Infomax, and McCammon’s minimum entropy rotation. Samples drawn from oblique populations were submitted to factor analysis with subsequent Geomin rotation and a Promax-based Tandem II rotation. As a benchmark, we investigated a target rotation of the sample loadings toward the corresponding faceted population loadings. The three conditions were sample size ( n = 400, 1,000), number of factors ( q = 4-12), and main loading size ( l = .40, .50, .60). For less than six orthogonal factors Infomax and McCammon’s minimum entropy rotation and for six and more factors Tandem II rotation yielded the highest congruence of sample loading matrices with faceted population loading matrices. For six and more oblique factors Geomin rotation and a Promax-based Tandem II rotation yielded the highest congruence with faceted population loadings. Analysis of data of 393 participants that performed a test for the Berlin Model of Intelligence Structure revealed that the faceted structure of this model could be identified by means of a Promax-based Tandem II rotation of task aggregates corresponding to the cross-products of the facets. Implications for the identification of faceted models by means of factor rotation are discussed.
... When three to five operation homogenous task aggregates per operation factor were formed, this resulted in 13 to 16 operation homogeneous aggregates. When these operation-homogeneous aggregates were entered into EFA, the four operation factors clearly emerged (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002;Jäger, 1982Jäger, , 1984Jäger et al., 1997). Similarly, when nine content homogenous task aggregates were entered into EFA, the three content factors could be demonstrated in these studies. ...
Preprint
Until now there has been no successful exploration of a priori unknown faceted structure by means of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the measured variables (items or tasks). For this reason, we investigate by means of a simulation study how well methods for factor rotation can identify a two-facet orthogonal simple structure. Samples were generated from orthogonal two-facet population factor models with 4 (2 factors per facet) to 12 factors (6 factors per facet) and submitted to factor analysis with subsequent Varimax, Equamax, Parsimax, Factor Parsimony, Tandem I, Tandem II, Infomax, and McCammon’s Minimum Entropy rotation. As a benchmark, orthogonal target rotation of the sample loadings towards the corresponding faceted population loadings was also investigated. The conditions were sample size (n = 400, 1,000), number of factors (q = 4-12), and main loading size (l = .40, .50, .60). Mean congruence coefficients of the sample loading matrices with the corresponding population loading matrices and the root mean squared error between sample loading matrices and corresponding population loading matrices were used as dependent measures. For less than six factors Infomax and McCammon’s Minimum Entropy rotation and for six and more factors Tandem II rotation yielded the highest similarity of sample loading matrices with faceted population loading matrices. Analysis of data of 393 participants that performed a test for the Berlin Model of Intelligence Structure revealed that the faceted structure of this model could be found by means of target rotation of task aggregates corresponding to the cross-products of the facets. Moreover, McCammon’s Minimum Entropy rotation resulted in a loading pattern corresponding to the model, although the factor for figural intelligence was only weakly represented. Implications for the identification of faceted models by means of factor rotation are discussed.
... Para hacer posible la comparación inter-edades los puntajes brutos de las subpruebas que componen cada índice los transformamos a puntaje Z, sumándolos y, sobre los valores obtenidos, normalizamos nuevamente con media 0. Considerando este último valor, comparamos las medias por edad. Los resultados corresponden a lo reportado previamente (Baltes, Cornelius, Spiro, Neseelroade & Willis, 1980;Beauducel & Kersting, 2002). Para el componente cristalizado observamos un incremento en los jóvenes que aún están expuestos a la educación formal, produciéndose después un mínimo decremento con la edad (Figura 5a). ...
... General knowledge (in terms of crystallized intelligence; see Carroll, 1993;) is not part of the original BIS model or the BIS test (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002;Süß & Beauducel, 2011). However, crystallized intelligence is an integral facet of several intelligence models (e.g., CHC theory; McGrew, 2009). ...
Thesis
The founding fathers of Complex Problem Solving (CPS) research utilized the advent of computer-technology to connect problem solving research to the affordances of everyday life. During the last decades, this tradition has led to a thriving field of CPS research with interesting implications for a number of applied settings. The goal of this thesis is (re-)connecting CPS research to a specific area of application: Organizational Psychology (OP). To this end, the first core paper of the thesis explores the relation of CPS to one of the most important psychological constructs in OP, namely intelligence, thereby complementing the nomological network of the construct (Chapter 2). The second core paper of the thesis is closer aligned with the practical side of utilizing a construct in OP and considers the valid and reliable assessment of CPS with the help of finite state automata (Chapter 3). The third core paper of the thesis builds on this foundation in terms of construct and assessment and explores the connections between CPS and OP in a discussion of researchers and practitioners from both fields (Chapter 4). In summary, the thesis aims at complementing the current state of insights within CPS research in light of an application in OP and the start of an exchange between both domains. Full text available at: http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/23799/
... 810-811). Related models of intelligence that anticipated such divisions-or that used a similar approach-include Guilford's structure of intellect model and the Berlin model of intelligence both of which pair operators with contents (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002;Guilford, 1966Guilford, , 1988. ...
Article
This article presents seven principles that have guided our thinking about emotional intelligence, some of them new. We have reformulated our original ability model here guided by these principles, clarified earlier statements of the model that were unclear, and revised portions of it in response to current research. In this revision, we also positioned emotional intelligence amidst other hot intelligences including personal and social intelligences, and examined the implications of the changes to the model. We discuss the present and future of the concept of emotional intelligence as a mental ability.
... 810-811). Related models of intelligence that anticipated such divisions-or that used a similar approach-include Guilford's structure of intellect model and the Berlin model of intelligence both of which pair operators with contents (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002;Guilford, 1966Guilford, , 1988. ...
Chapter
One of the more recently proposed hot intelligences is emotional intelligence. This chapter briefly explores the many meanings of EI and then focuses attention on EI as an intelligence. EI predicts a set of outcomes related to health and well-being as well as to longer-term relationships. This chapter expands upon research that demonstrates the validity of EI and also incorporate research on the influence of programs to enhance EI. It focusses on the ability-based approach to EI. The chapter also outlines the four-branch model of EI: perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thought, understanding emotions, and managing emotions in a way that enhances personal growth and social relations and consider some issues in its assessment. Finally, it considers the key findings, limitations, and opportunities for future research. The next phase of research should include the development of integrative models and objective measures of a wide range of emotional abilities.
... The second is that we do not consider measurement invariance or latent variable increases or decreases on the NIT (e.g., Shiu, Beaujean, Must, te Nijenhuis, & Must, 2013). However, arguably the factor struc- ture of intelligence is faceted (e.g., Beauducel & Kersting, 2002); thus finding poor model fit to a model that suggests gains in the latent vari- ables most salient within a cohort is arguably understandable (see Clarke, 2015). As pointed out by Fox and Mitchum (2014, p. 8), "a purely statistical approach to establishing measurement invariance is less able to uncover differences like the one reported in this paper. ...
... General knowledge (in terms of crystallized intelligence; see Carroll, 1993;McGrew, 2009) is not part of the original BIS model or the BIS test (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002;Süß & Beauducel, 2011). However, crystallized intelligence is an integral facet of several intelligence models (e.g., CHC theory; McGrew, 2009). ...
... Para hacer posible la comparación inter-edades los puntajes brutos de las subpruebas que componen cada índice los transformamos a puntaje Z, sumándolos y, sobre los valores obtenidos, normalizamos nuevamente con media 0. Considerando este último valor, comparamos las medias por edad. Los resultados corresponden a lo reportado previamente (Baltes, Cornelius, Spiro, Neseelroade & Willis, 1980;Beauducel & Kersting, 2002). Para el componente cristalizado observamos un incremento en los jóvenes que aún están expuestos a la educación formal, produciéndose después un mínimo decremento con la edad (Figura 5a). ...
... Para hacer posible la comparación inter-edades los puntajes brutos de las subpruebas que componen cada índice los transformamos a puntaje Z, sumándolos y, sobre los valores obtenidos, normalizamos nuevamente con media 0. Considerando este último valor, comparamos las medias por edad. Los resultados corresponden a lo reportado previamente (Baltes, Cornelius, Spiro, Neseelroade & Willis, 1980;Beauducel & Kersting, 2002). Para el componente cristalizado observamos un incremento en los jóvenes que aún están expuestos a la educación formal, produciéndose después un mínimo decremento con la edad (Figura 5a). ...
Article
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The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults, fourth edition (WAIS-IV) is the gold standard for assessing cognitive abilities in adults from 16:00 to 90:11 years of age. Given the need to adjust this instrument to specific cultural characteristics, its standardization for Chilean population was undertaken. A purposive sample of 887 subjects was used, stratified by age, educational level and gender, and grouped into 7 clusters by geographical region. Upon the basis of the parameters set out in the Standards for Psychological and Educational Assessment (American Educational Research Association et al., 1999), analyses of internal consistency and validity were performed. The internal consistency of the test is 0.941, analyzed with Cronbach’s alpha. Each subtest shows good levels of internal consistency. There is evidence of content, construct, and convergent validity. Bias was found in the verbal tests in favor of people with better socio-economic status. The main limitation of the study is the absence of evidence in clinical groups.
... As shown in Table 2, the correlations between RIT performance and the Masselon test were lower than for the other three tests. A likely explanation for these findings is that the Masselon test, which asked participants to form sentences that include three given words, captures verbal ability in addition to divergent production (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002). By contrast, the other three BIS subtests indicate that an object (Possible Applications test), a person (Insight test), or an occupation (Characteristics and Abilities test) were perceived from many different perspectives. ...
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... As shown in Table 2, the correlations between RIT performance and the Masselon test were lower than for the other three tests. A likely explanation for these findings is that the Masselon test, which asked participants to form sentences that include three given words, captures verbal ability in addition to divergent production (Beauducel & Kersting, 2002). By contrast, the other three BIS subtests indicate that an object (Possible Applications test), a person (Insight test), or an occupation (Characteristics and Abilities test) were perceived from many different perspectives. ...
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basic concepts of reliability theory / multivariate extensions of reliability concepts foundations of a general measurement and research strategy synthesizing the experimental and the psychometric traditions in psychology set correlation, the mathematical-statistical tool for relating different data boxes / possibilities for solving the problem of parameter or factor inflation / principle of symmetry in reliability as a necessary prerequisite for successful validation approaches unreliability of difference scores / dependent variable reliability and power of experiments relationships to other approaches, implications, and conclusions (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Many new [intellectual] assessment instruments and techniques have been developed and new and revised theories of intelligence have emerged. This . . . volume provides a comprehensive conceptual and practical overview of the current state of the art of the field. Bridging the gap between applied intelligence testing and the latest in cognitive science, the book covers major theories of intelligence, methods of assessing human cognitive abilities, and issues related to the validity and utility of current test batteries. Contributors, who include leading theorists, researchers, and scientist-practitioners, as well as many of the test developers themselves, give special attention to ways in which emerging conceptions of intelligence diverge from traditional paradigms. Taken together, the chapters provide the knowledge needed to effectively use new batteries and to make up-to-date, empirically supported interpretations of older tests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Parallel analysis, one of the most promising methods to determine the number of principal components or factors to retain (Velicer, Eaton, & Fava, 2000), has been shown to underestimate the number of components to retain when the first eigenvalue is large (Turner, 1998). In order to further explore the potential problems with parallel analysis, orthogonal and oblique 4-, 8-, and 12-component solutions with four different degrees of simple structure were computed for simulated data. Since the first eigenvalue of the oblique solutions was generally large, parallel analysis was expected to underesti-mate the number of components to retain in these solutions. This was confirmed in the present simulation study. Even in solutions with pronounced oblique simple structure, parallel analysis tended to result in underextraction for the 8-and 12-component solu-tions. Thus, one should be aware of the possibility of underextractions when parallel analysis is used with data yielding components or factors with oblique simple structure.
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The bimodal structure of intelligence as proposed in the ‘Berlin model of intelligence structure’ (BIS) (Jäger, 1982) and measured by the BIS-4 test was analysed in a sample of 182 subjects. According to this theory two modalities characterize the structure, both emerging from results in 45 mental tasks and containing a total of seven components: Operations (processing speed, memory, creativity, processing capacity), and contents (verbal, numerical, figurai ability), as well as the general factor (g). Exploratory analysis following Jäger's approach revealed the existence of four operations and three contents. The simultaneous examination of the bimodality in the structure of the BIS was performed by means of confirmatory factor analysis. The theoretically proposed bimodal model (four operations and three contents) was compared with a unimodal model involving seven correlated factors of the same level and with other alternative unimodal models. In these analyses a slight superiority of operations over contents was observed. The reasons for our preference of the bimodal BIS structure compared to other unimodal solutions are clarified and the role of operations and contents in the construct of intelligence is discussed.
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A theory is proposed to account for some of the age-related differences reported in measures of Type A or fluid cognition. The central hypothesis in the theory is that increased age in adulthood is associated with a decrease in the speed with which many processing operations can be executed and that this reduction in speed leads to impairments in cognitive functioning because of what are termed the limited time mechanism and the simultaneity mechanism. That is, cognitive performance is degraded when processing is slow because relevant operations cannot be successfully executed (limited time) and because the products of early processing may no longer be available when later processing is complete (simultaneity). Several types of evidence, such as the discovery of considerable shared age-related variance across various measures of speed and large attenuation of the age-related influences on cognitive measures after statistical control of measures of speed, are consistent with this theory.
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This study documents age trends, interrelations, and correlates of intellectual abilities in old and very old age (70-103 years) from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516). Fourteen tests were used to assess 5 abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the mechanic (broad fluid) domain and knowledge and fluency from the pragmatic (broad crystallized) domain. Intellectual abilities had negative linear age relations, with more pronounced age reductions in mechanic than in pragmatic abilities. Interrelations among intellectual abilities were highly positive and did not follow the mechanic-pragmatic distinction. Sociobiographical indicators were less closely linked to intellectual functioning than sensory-sensorimotor variables, which predicted 59% of the total reliable variance in general intelligence. Results suggest that aging-induced biological factors are a prominent source of individual differences in intelligence in old and very old age.
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Models of the structure of cognitive abilities suggested by Spearman, Thurstone, Guilford, Vernon and Cattell-Horn are reviewed. It is noted that some of the models include a general intellectual factor (g) while others do not. It is also noted that some models are nonhierarchical, while in others more narrow abilities are subsumed under broader abilities in a hierarchical pattern. An empirical study in which a test battery of 16 tests was administered to some 1000 subjects in the 6th grade is reported. Using the LISREL technique to test different models, good support is obtained for oblique primary factors in the Thurstone tradition as well as for the second-order factors fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, and general visualization hypothesized by Cattell and Horn. It is also found, however, that the second-order factor of fluid intelligence i is identical with a third-order g-factor. On the basis of these results a three-level model (the HILI-model) is suggested, with the g-factor at the top, two broad factors reflecting the ability to deal with verbal and figural information, respectively, at the second-order level, and the primary factors in the Thurstone and Guilford tradition at the lowest level. It is argued that most previously suggested models are special cases of the HILI-model.
Chapter
When one looks for a studied moment at the myriad of abilities that humans display, it’s as if one were to look into the heavens on a clear night and become stirred by the ceaseless drift of the clouds of the Milky Way. On such a night one might be dimly aware that there is order and system in the celestial white. But where among the drifting haze might one draw dimensions to represent this order? At first there is no answer to this question, only befuddlement. The same is true for human abilities. They appear as free-floating swarms emerging from spaces of unknown many dimensions. Is there genuine order in this throng, or can one at least impose an order that will not do great injustice to the complexity and still enable one to organize thinking and talking about it? That is the major question of this chapter.
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Entwicklung von Gc nach der Schule (S. 143, siehe auch Ackerman, 1996, 234f): , One must not forget that nine-tenths of generalizations and theorizing about intelligence and intelligence tests are based on observations in school (p. 142)
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Selecting the correct number of factors to retain in a factor analysis is a crucial step in developing psychometric tools or developing theories. The present study assessed the accuracy of parallel analysis, a technique in which the observed eigenvalues are compared to eigenvalues from simulated data in which no real factors are present. Study 1 investigated the effect of the presence of one real factor on the size of subsequent noise eigenvalues. The size of real factors and the sample size were manipulated. Study 2 examined the effect that the pattern of structure coefficients and continuousness of the variables have on the size of real and noise eigenvalues. Study 3 compared the results of Studies 1 and 2 to actual psychometric data. These examples illustrate the importance of modeling the data more closely when parallel analysis is used to determine the number of real factors.
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Processing speed, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence were assessed in a large sample (N = 214) of children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 7 to 19 years) Results of path analyses revealed that almost half of the age-related increase in fluid intelligence was mediated by developmental changes in processing speed and working memory and nearly three fourths of the improvement in working memory was mediated by developmental changes in processing speed Moreover, even when age-related differences in speed, working memory and fluid intelligence were statistically controlled, individual differences in speed had a direct effect on working memory capacity which, in turn was a direct determinant of individual differences in fluid intelligence
Article
Fluid intelligence is often measured with figural tests, whereas crystallized intelligence is often assessed with verbal tests. It is argued that construct-irrelevant figural variance is included in fluid intelligence and construct-irrelevant verbal variance is included in crystallized intelligence. The specification of a content facet comprising verbal, numerical, and figural abilities for fluid and crystallized intelligence would reduce the construct irrelevant variance. This faceted view of fluid and crystallized abilities is regarded as more convincing than a purely hierarchical structure. Although the present approach is partly similar to Guttman’s Radex model, no radial partitioning of the tasks is expected. Seven hundred and six German participants aged between 14 and 50 years were tested with the I-S-T 2000, a test comprising verbal, numerical, and figural reasoning tasks, as well as verbal, numerical, and figural knowledge tests. In smallest space analysis, a simplex for fluid and crystallized intelligence emerged as well as a radial or a polar facet for verbal, numerical, and figural content. The faceted structure for fluid and crystallized intelligence was also shown in confirmatory factor analysis and fitted the data more completely than the hierarchical model. The implications for the conceptualization and the assessment of fluid and crystallized intelligence are discussed.
Article
The purpose of the paper is to describe a more generally applicable method of factor analysis which has no restrictions as regards group factors and which does not restrict the number of general factors that are operative in producing the intercorrelation. Applications of the method to different types of correlation problems are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Questions the validity of fluid and crystallized intelligence ( gf and gc, respectively) as promoted by J. L. Horn and R. B. Cattell (see record 1966-13188-001). Gf is said to be more largely determined by heredity and gc more by environmental conditions. Horn and Cattell cite factor analyses to support these 2 abilities, which they regard as 2nd-order factors, demonstrated from intercorrelations of scores representing 1st-order factors. In at least 1 of these analyses, the tested Ss varied widely in age and education and other conditions that are likely to bias intercorrelations of test scores. The 2 obtained factors purported to represent gf and gc could thus have been spurious. In other analyses with better controls, however, 2 such factors did also appear, with 2 or 3 in addition. However, the present author interprets these factors to be 2nd- or 3rd-order abilities differing along the lines of the categories of the present author's structure-of-intellect model. The fanciful names do not appear to represent valid constructs. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews several approaches to structural research on intelligence, divergent structural models, and empirical studies of their replicability. On the basis of testing 545 high school students with a representative sample of 191 task-blocks, the author's (1967) model is extended to form the "Berlin model of intelligence structure." This model provides for 2 modalities: operations such as speed, memory, creativity, and complex information processing; and contents, including verbal, numerical, and figural classes. The product of operations and contents represents general intelligence. The validity of the model was confirmed by different methods of analysis, by a new set of data, and by the high temporal stability resulting from a repeated test of 347 Ss after 4 yrs. Implications for the relation between psychometric research on intelligence and experimental research on the processes of problem solving are discussed. (42 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence propounded 20 years ago by the author has since accumulated support. However, the crucial issue of whether 1 or 2 general factors subtend intellectual performances has lacked an experiment adequately designed for accurate, determinate, simple-structure rotation at the 2nd order. By factoring culturally embedded with culture-fair intelligence measures on a background of pure personality primaries (N = 277 7th and 8th grade boys and girls), it is shown that 2 general factors indeed exist. A review, with some mathematical formulations, is given of the theory's implications for the nature-nurture ratio, brain injury, standard deviaiton of the IQ, growth curves, the concept of a relational difficulty hierarchy, test standardization, and the relative validities of traditional and culture-fair intelligence tests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
There are "two unfortunate tendencies in recent work on human abilities: the proliferation of factors and the tendency to think of only the first-order factors as the primary ones. An alternative model is to place factors in hierarchical order as advocated by the British psychometricians, especially Vernon. The application of the hierarchical model to a logical hierarchy of possible tests of mechanical information is presented, some hypothetical correlations are factored in several orders, and the Schmid-Leiman transformation is used to convert the factors back into a single orthogonal matrix manifesting the hierarchical principle. Facet analysis would enable one to define a population of tests… [and] helps restate the need for homogeneity in a test." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous work has suggested that the well-known primary mental abilities (e.g., verbal ability and spatial ability) exhibit relationships among themselves that can be understood in terms of higher-stratum or more general ability constructs. In the present study, 280 11th–12th graders were measured on 20 primary abilities using the newly standardized Comprehensive Ability Battery. A factor analysis produced 6 oblique 2nd-stratum factors. Four of these were identified as the capacities in R. B. Cattell's triadic theory of ability structure; Fluid Intelligence, Crystallized Intelligence, Visualization Capacity, and General Retrieval Capacity. The correlations among the 6 factors yielded 3 oblique 3rd-stratum factors. Results at both strata permit integration with previous research and have implications for a hierarchial conceptualization of human abilities. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Since present analytical methods have certain limitations, the maxplane method has been developed with these 5 important characteristics: (a) permits obliqueness, (b) works directly maximizing the hyperplane count, (c) put no restriction on the factor patterns and their relationships, (d) permits parameters to be inserted conveniently into the program in response to statistical and other properties of the given research, (e) tends to select first the hyperplanes bearing the factors of largest variance. "… simple structure is that which maximizes the total number of zero loadings for k hyperplanes in k space." This definition distinguishes "maxplane" from oblimax, quartimax, varimax, and minimax. General and technical descriptions of the maxplane program are given. Actual use of the program has revealed some limitations which must be overcome before a "fully effective and dependable automatic rotation program" will be available. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two centuries of investigation suggest that decision times on simple laboratory tasks can sometimes partially reflect speed of elementary neurophysiological processes. Consequently, findings that decision times on a variety of simple tasks also modestly correlate with scores on intelligence tests have been taken as evidence that individual differences in general fluid ability also reflect individual differences in neurophysiological efficiency. A further questions is whether these differences are “global,” in the sense that they affect all cognitive systems equally, or “local” in the sense that they affect some cognitive systems more than others. A finding that test scores have constant proportional effects on decision times for all cognitive tasks, irrespective of their demands, would suggest a “global” effect, whereas a finding that test scores have different effects on different tasks would suggest local effects. Comparisons by many eminent psychometricians have suggested local specificity of effects. However, when replotted, their published data seem to offer equally strong support for a “global” hypothesis. So does a new analysis of data from 15 different cognitive tasks taken by 93 volunteers with scores on the Cattell Culture Fair test ranging from 11 to 40 points. However, further inspection of these results shows that rather than having equal, scalar effects on all tasks differences in Cattell scores systematically affected performance on some tasks more than on others. This article discusses implications of demonstrations of “local” rather than “global” individual differences for recent models of the relationship between general ability and information processing speed.
Article
Several measures of the speed of information processing were related to ability factors derived from the Cattell-Horn theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Ninety-one college students took a battery of paper and pencil tests designed to measure four ability factors: fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), spatial visualization (Gv), and clerical perceptual speed (CPS). They also performed paper and pencil and computerized versions of three information processing tasks: mental rotations, letter matching, and sentence verification. Correlations among the ability measures, among the information processing measures, and between the two domains were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The four ability factors were found to be largely independent in this college population. Speed of letter-matching and sentence verification were highly correlated, but neither was related to speed of mental rotation. Mental rotation speed was strongly correlated with Gv; letter matching speed was correlated with CPS; and sentence verification speed was correlated with both Gc and CPS.
Article
Working-memory capacity is conceptually differentiated according to functions and contents. The resulting two-faceted structure parallels the structure of intellectual abilities in the Berlin Intelligence Structure Model (BIS) [Diagnostica 28 (1982) 195.]. A battery of 17 working-memory tasks, chosen to represent the proposed facet structure of working memory, was administered together with a test for the BIS to 128 young adults. General working-memory capacity was highly related to general intelligence. The prediction of intellectual abilities by working-memory capacity was also tested by differentiating predictor and criterion according to the functional and to the content facet. Moreover, the paths from working memory to intelligence factors appear to be highly specific. This suggests that specific working-memory resources, as opposed to a general capacity, are the limiting factors for their corresponding counterparts in the structure of mental abilities.
Article
A major problem confronting users of principal component analysis is the determination of how many components to extract from an empirical correlation matrix. Using 30 such matrices obtained from marketing and psychology sources, the authors provide a comparative assessment of the extraction capabilities exhibited by five principal component decision rules. These are the Kaiser-Guttman, scree, Bartlett, Horn, and random intercepts procedures. Application of these rules produces highly discrepant results. The random intercepts and Bartlett formulations yield unacceptable component solutions by grossly under- and overfactoring respectively. The Kaiser-Guttman and scree rules performed equivalently, yet revealed tendencies to overfactor. In comparison Horn's test acquitted itself with distinction, and warrants greater attention from applied researchers.
Article
Self-regulation is a complex process that involves consumers’ persistence, strength, motivation, and commitment in order to be able to override short-term impulses. In order to be able to pursue their long-term goals, consumers typically need to forgo immediate pleasurable experiences that are detrimental to reach their overarching goals. Although this sometimes involves resisting to simple and small temptations, it is not always easy, since the lure of momentary temptations is pervasive. In addition, consumers’ beliefs play an important role determining strategies and behaviors that consumers consider acceptable to engage in, affecting how they act and plan actions to attain their goals. This dissertation investigates adequacy of some beliefs typically shared by consumers about the appropriate behaviors to exert self-regulation, analyzing to what extent these indeed contribute to the enhancement of consumers’ ability to exert self-regulation.
Article
Although simple structure has proved to be a valuable principle for rotation of axes in factor analysis, an oblique factor solution often tends to confound the resulting interpretation. A model is presented here which transforms the oblique factor solution so as to preserve simple structure and, in addition, to provide orthogonal reference axes. Furthermore, this model makes explicit the hierarchical ordering of factors above the first-order domain.
Article
This experiment addressed the effect of precue information, which may be either familiar or novel, and either relevant or irrelevant, on the solution of inductive reasoning problems. Sixty undergraduate students each completed 216 verbal inductive reasoning problems and five psychometric ability tests. The reasoning problems were equally divided among analogies, classifications, and series completions, with half of each kind of item presented in a standard, uncued format, and half presented with a precue. With respect to internal validation, it was found that for analogies and classifications, subjects take longer to process irrelevant than relevant information if the precue is familiar, but they take longer to process relevant than irrelevant information if the precue is novel. For series completions, this relation does not hold; rather, both novelty and irrelevance add time to the processing of information, with the time for irrelevance greater than that for novelty. The utility of precues for different tasks was explored, and it was found that familiar relevant precues facilitated solution of the more difficult kinds of items (classifications and series completions), but hampered solution of the easier, more automatically solved items (analogies). With respect to external validation, it was found that the nonentrenched induction tasks overlapped with psychometric tests in terms of abilities measured, that the abilities measured were fluid rather than crystallized, and that the precued (more nonentrenched) items were better measures of fluid abilities than were the uncued items.
Article
The 23 factors previously identified as representing primary mental abilities and 8 factors previously defined as general personality dimensions were factored, using a sample of 297 adults, to provide evidence for hypotheses stipulating that general visualization, fluency, and speediness functions, as well as fluid and crystallized intelligence functions, are involved in the performances commonly said to indicate intelligence. 9 principal axes factors were sufficient to account for the observed, generally positive, intercorrelations among the 31 primary factors. These were rotated blindly to oblique simple structure. The resulting structure was consistent with predictions based upon refinements of the general theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Positive manifold for the intercorrelations among the 2nd-order factors was interpreted as indicating a social fact of interdependence between intraperson and environmental influences determining behavioral attributes. (30 ref.)
Replikationsanalyse zum Cattellschen Intelligenzkonzept [Replicative analysis of Cattell's concept of intelligence]
  • R Gilardi
  • H Holling
  • J U Schmidt
Gilardi R., Holling, H., & Schmidt, J.U. (1983). Replikationsanalyse zum Cattellschen Intelligenzkonzept [Replicative analysis of Cattell's concept of intelligence]. Psychologische Beiträge, 25, 369–384.
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André Beauducel Universität Mannheim Lehrstuhl Psychologie II Schloss Ehrenhof Ost D-68131 Mannheim Germany Tel
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Dr. André Beauducel Universität Mannheim Lehrstuhl Psychologie II Schloss Ehrenhof Ost D-68131 Mannheim Germany Tel. +49 621 181-2131