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The role of deliberate practice in the acquistion of expert performance

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Abstract

The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 years. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning.

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... This complements Dhakal et al. 's (2018) observation of a small difference in typing speed between formally trained and untrained typists in their sample. Deliberate practice has been hypothesized to be crucial to reach high levels of expertise (Ericsson et al., 1993), but its effects are increasingly debated (Ericsson & Harwell, 2019;Hambrick et al., 2020;Macnamara et al., 2014). Other types of practice, such as "naïve" practice ("just doing something repeatedly, and expecting that the repetition alone will improve one's performance"; Ericsson, 2016), could be as or perhaps even more efficient. ...
... Continuous predictors are centred and scaled not be specifically potentialized by deliberate practice. In that perspective, irrespective of practice being deliberate or naïve, an important determinant of performance would rather be the amount of accumulated practice, in agreement with studies of other types of expertise (Ericsson et al., 1993;Keith & Ericsson, 2007). In support of this view, the most and least proficient typists of our sample did differ in their amount of daily practice and in their age and number of years of practice. ...
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Typing has become a pervasive mode of language production worldwide, with keyboards fully integrated in a large part of many daily activities. The bulk of the literature on typing expertise concerns highly trained professional touch-typists, but contemporary typing skills mostly result from unconstrained sustained practice. We measured the typing performance of a large cohort of 1301 university students through an online platform and followed a preregistered plan to analyse performance distributions, practice factors, and cognitive variables. The results suggest that the standard model with a sharp distinction between novice and expert typists may be inaccurate to account for the performance of the current generation of young typists. More generally, this study shows how the mere frequent use of a new tool can lead to the incidental development of high expertise.
... Performing rote work that does not challenge you and expand your horizons will not improve your skills beyond being able to do the same thing automatically. To really improve, deliberate practice is needed (Ericsson et al. 1993;Ericsson et al. 2007). This means performing challenging work just beyond your comfort zone, receiving feedback that allows you to learn and improve, and doing this over the over again. ...
... This means performing challenging work just beyond your comfort zone, receiving feedback that allows you to learn and improve, and doing this over the over again. If this is not done, achievements tend to "flatten out" after several years (Newell and Rosenbloom 1981;Heathcote et al. 2000;Ericsson et al. 1993). Assuming this is often the case, a useful threshold for tagging subjects as "experienced" can be as low as 3-5 years of professional experience. ...
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Understanding program code is a complicated endeavor. As a result, studying code comprehension is also hard. The prevailing approach for such studies is to use controlled experiments, where the difference between treatments sheds light on factors which affect comprehension. But it is hard to conduct controlled experiments with human developers, and we also need to find a way to operationalize what “comprehension” actually means. In addition, myriad different factors can influence the outcome, and seemingly small nuances may be detrimental to the study’s validity. In order to promote the development and use of sound experimental methodology, we discuss both considerations which need to be applied and potential problems that might occur, with regard to the experimental subjects, the code they work on, the tasks they are asked to perform, and the metrics for their performance. A common thread is that decisions that were taken in an effort to avoid one threat to validity may pose a larger threat than the one they removed.
... Virtual simulation uses clinical scenarios for deliberate practice, a highly customizable, repetitive and structured activity with explicit learning objectives, to enhance learners' performance in clinical decision-making skills in identifying patient problems and in care management that emphasizes decision-making with consequences ( Ericsson et al., 1993 ;LaManna et al., 2019 ;Levett-Jones et al., 2019 ). The scenarios can be ad-justed in complexity to allow for repetition and deliberate practice in a safe and controlled environment ( Borg Sapiano et al., 2018 ). ...
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to more virtual simulation training. This study aimed to review the effectiveness of virtual simulations and their design features in developing clinical reasoning skills among nurses and nursing students. Method A systematic search in CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ProQuest, PsycINFO, and Scopus was conducted. The PRISMA guidelines, Cochrane's risk of bias, and GRADE was used to assess the articles. Meta-analyses and random-effects meta-regression were performed. Results The search retrieved 11,105 articles, and 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated a significant improvement in clinical reasoning based on applied knowledge and clinical performance among learners in the virtual simulation group compared with the control group. Meta-regression did not identify any significant covariates. Subgroup analyses revealed that virtual simulations with patient management contents, using multiple scenarios with nonimmersive experiences, conducted more than 30-minutes and postscenario feedback were more effective. Conclusions Virtual simulations can improve clinical reasoning skill. This study may inform nurse educators on how virtual simulation should be designed to optimize the development of clinical reasoning.
... Efficient learning requires reliable feedback (Stewart et al., 2012). What complicates decision-making in avalanche terrain is limited or absent feedback (Hogarth et al., 2015), making it difficult to develop relevant skills through experiential learning (Elwin, 2013;Ericsson et al., 1993). Backcountry recreationalists might therefore develop a false sense of confidence in their risk management and assessment skills because yet so often wrong or flawed decisions provide positive feedback: no avalanche triggered (Bonini et al., 2019;Stewart et al., 2012). ...
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Avalanche decision-making falls into two general categories; probabilistic approaches and analytical approaches. Analytical approaches have traditionally been considered applicable to experts only, as they require assessing risk factors precisely and understanding their relevance in each situation. In this study we question this assumption. We asked 1, 220 amateur backcountry recreationalists how relevant they rated and how precisely they could assess 11 avalanche risk factors. We investigated how their avalanche education and experience with avalanche incidents influenced their judgment of precision and relevance, and if avalanches become more predictable with more knowledge. Most recreationalists considered avalanches as predictable. These five factors were judged as highly relevant: signs of instability, distinguishing avalanche terrain from non-avalanche terrain, slope inclination, terrain traps, and distribution of weak layers. Relevance was independent of avalanche education and experience of incidents for all factors but danger level. Amateur recreationalists rated the relevance of the factors like that of experts. Rating of precision increased with more avalanche education, in particularly for these factors: distribution of the weak layers, terrain traps, avalanche size, recognizing avalanche terrain and stopping at safe spots. We recommend adopting an analytical approach for amateur backcountry recreationalists and discuss implications for avalanche forecasting and education.
... Aus didaktischer Perspektive geht es bei der Inszenierung solcher Übungsphasen um die gezielt, taktvolle Fokussierung auf Momente der negativen Erfahrung. Dieser Prozess kann beispielsweise (eher sprachlich orientiert) unterstützt werden, indem Lernende vor der Auseinandersetzung mit einem Bewegungsproblem angehalten werden, ihre Erwartungen in Bezug auf die Aufgabenlösung explizit zu formulieren, indem beispielsweise Vermutungen anzustellen sind, mit welcher Bewegungsausführung im Wasser besonders viel Vortrieb erzeugt werden kann oder indem Lernende (eher vorsprachlich orientiert) dazu angehalten werden, eigene Sicherungssysteme fürs Klettern selbst zu bauen und auszutesten (Giese, 2009 wöhnliche Leistungen im Schach, in der Musik und im Sport empirisch untersucht und auf gezieltes Üben zurückgeführt werden können (Ericsson et al., 1993). Die Untersuchungen zeigen, dass im Alter von 20 Jahren die besten Expert*innen ungefähr 10 Jahre und insgesamt etwa 10.000 Stunden geübt haben, wobei sich die täglich vier Stunden gezielter Übung mit Ruhezeiten abwechselten. ...
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In Anlehnung an den Einführungsbeitrag möchte dieser Text aus einer unterrichtspraktischen Perspektive zeigen, wie sich Übungsprozesse im Sportunterricht produktiv gestalten lassen. Zentral erscheint dabei vor allem, die Lernenden in den Lernprozess so weit wie möglich zu verwickeln und Fehler im Lernprozess als produktive Lernanlässe – und nicht als Scheitern – zu verwenden. In diesem Sinne werden unterschiedliche Möglichkeiten vorgestellt, wie Üben im Sportunterricht systematisch variiert werden kann, um die kreativen Potentiale der Übenden zu aktivieren und den Lernprozess zu befördern.
... When executing an action plan that aims to help children develop so they may pursue a professional career, many players experience anxiety, which has diverse effects on their sports performance (Listea et al., 2017). It is best if children begin learning the game around 6 or 7 years of age, as the players can possibly master the game if they invest a significant amount of time in practice (Ericsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer, 1993). The numerous hours spent training to improve performance have multiple beneficial effects. ...
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Scientific research focusing on ice hockey is growing, although a complex model describing team performance is yet to be added to the knowledge base. The purpose of the study is to finalize the authors’ proposed model of ice hockey team performance and gain insights on how the included factors contribute to the operation of the team and the coach. Based on the processed literature, it was assumed that the psychological aspect is among the key factors contributing to team performance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with highly qualified experts on Hungarian ice hockey (five national team coaches and five senior national team players). The results indicate that the psychological factors of the coach and the team are essential for high team performance, along with the influence ability of both sides, creating two-way communication and feedback loops. The practical knowledge of the coach was emphasized over theoretical knowledge, and the team’s tactical knowledge was emphasized over technical knowledge. It also emerged that the coach must know the team well in order to make appropriate decisions. The role of the coach is no longer to act as a stressor, but rather to set a good example as a role model while remaining open to feedback from the team’s side. It was concluded that although many psychological methods are available to improve performance, the use of these methods has not yet been sufficiently exploited. While the use of these methods could improve performance, the team could experience more success and make sporting activity a fundamental part of players’ health through bonding and belonging.
... Thousands of hours of lessons, practice and performing over many years are necessary to become a professional musician (Ericsson et al., 1993). Researchers have been interested in determining to what extent MPA varies as a function of measures of musical experience and practice. ...
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Music performance anxiety (MPA) is a multifaceted phenomenon occurring on a continuum of severity. In this survey study, we investigated to what extent the affective (anxiety), cognitive (catastrophizing), and somatic (bodily complaints) components of MPA prior to solo performances vary as a function of age, gender, instrument group, musical experience, and practice as well as how these MPA components relate to self-rated change in performance quality from practice to public performance. The sample comprised 75 male and 111 female classical music university students, aged 15–45 years. Age was positively associated with anxious feelings and bodily complaints. Compared to male students, female students reported significantly more anxious feelings and catastrophizing. Singers reported less anxious feelings and catastrophizing than instrumentalists. Breathing-, mouth- and throat-related complaints were highest among singers and wind players; hand- and arm-related complaints were highest among string players and pianists. The indices of musical experience and practice had marginal effects. An average of four bodily complaints bothered the participants strongly to very strongly. Worsening in performance quality from practice to public performance was reported by almost half of the participants and was best predicted by anxious feelings and breathing-related complaints. We conclude that age, gender and instrument play a significant role in understanding the phenomenology of MPA. Musicians should be examined according to these characteristics rather than as one homogenous population. In particular, it might be valuable to develop assessment tools for MPA that incorporate items related to the bodily complaints that are most relevant to the different instrument groups. Breathing-related complaints could add an important dimension to the investigation of MPA and music performance. Finally, the high percentage of students reporting worsening of their performance quality from practice to public performance highlights the need of professional support to help music students be able to perform at their best and thrive as artists.
... In general, learning describes the process of psychological change based on experience (Anderson 2000;Kiesel and Koch 2012). Optimal learning requires high motivation to solve and repeat tasks that require prior knowledge and provide immediate feedback (Ericsson et al. 1993). Direct feedback shows the learner that every step towards the overall learning goal counts, which in turn gives the learner a sense of competence . ...
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Learning is a central component of human life and essential for personal development. Therefore, utilizing new technologies in the learning context and exploring their combined potential are considered essential to support self-directed learning in a digital age. A learning environment can be expanded by various technical and content-related aspects. Gamification in the form of elements from video games offers a potential concept to support the learning process. This can be supplemented by technology-supported learning. While the use of tablets is already widespread in the learning context, the integration of a social robot can provide new perspectives on the learning process. However, simply adding new technologies such as social robots or gamification to existing systems may not automatically result in a better learning environment. In the present study, game elements as well as a social robot were integrated separately and conjointly into a learning environment for basic Spanish skills, with a follow-up on retained knowledge. This allowed us to investigate the respective and combined effects of both expansions on motivation, engagement and learning effect. This approach should provide insights into the integration of both additions in an adult learning context. We found that the additions of game elements and the robot did not significantly improve learning, engagement or motivation. Based on these results and a literature review, we outline relevant factors for meaningful integration of gamification and social robots in learning environments in adult learning.
... This general task dependent difference in postural variability was present despite the substantial gymnastic experience and skill level of the participants. It is possible that more advanced performers with longer time periods of practice experience and higher levels of skill would narrow to varying degrees this general task difference in angle and position of joint variability and, moreover, change their relation and contribution to CP and CM motions [36]. ...
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The preservation of static balance in both upright- and hand-stance is maintained by the projection of center of mass (CM) motion within the region of stability at the respective base of support. This study investigated, from a degrees of freedom (DF) perspective, whether the stability of the CM in both upright- and hand-stances was predicted by the respective dispersion and time-dependent regularity of joint (upright stance—ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, neck; hand stance—wrist, elbow, shoulder, neck) angle and position. Full body three-dimensional (3D) kinematic data were collected on 10 advanced level junior female gymnasts during 30 s floor upright- and hand-stands. For both stances the amount of the dispersion of joint angle and sway motion was higher than that of the CM and center of pressure (CP) with an inverse relation to time-dependent irregularity (SampEn). In upright-standing the variability of neck motion in the anterior–posterior direction was significantly greater than that of most joints consistent with the role of vision in the control of quiet upright posture. The findings support the proposition that there are both task specific and general properties to the global CM control strategy in the balance of upright- and hand-standing induced by the different active skeletal-muscular organization and the degeneracy revealed in the multiple distributional variability patterns of the joint angle and position in 3D.
... These observations lead to two conclusions: either "early" talent is overrated, as proponents of the nurture position and deliberate practice would likely argue (Colvin 2010;Ericsson et al. 1993), or the commonly held conceptualization and operationalization of talent remains vague (cf. Abbott and Collins 2002). ...
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Talent identification, selection, and development represent critical areas of inquiry for sport scientists as indicated in the large amount of research attention dedicated to these topics. However, talent researchers rarely explicitly discuss their underlying conceptual understanding of “talent”. Within this article, we approach the construct “talent” from the perspective of social constructivism. We consider talent as a social construction that is historically changing and contextually embedded. Organizations that act as “purchasers” of talent (sports clubs, youth squads, etc.) have to develop ideas about which athletes represent the best fit against the background of the performance conditions within the respective sport (in the sense of possessing the set of characteristics that is most promising for future success). The purpose of these organizational “talent” descriptions is to try to ensure that the person with the highest chance of being successful is promoted. However, multidimensionality, asynchronicity, and discontinuity of talent development make the prediction of sporting success extremely difficult. Talent development needs to be thought of as an iterative process that is highly individualized and idiosyncratic. To make a person fit to the expectations of an organization requires a high degree of flexibility, reflexivity, and, not least, patience from talent development programs. Using the example of athletic talent, we show that the principles of constructivism provide a useful terminological, theoretical, and methodological basis for the empirical analysis of the complex process of talent emergence and development. Methodologically, idiographic approaches are needed that explore the intrinsic dynamics of talent development pathways.
... However, in the study of Tutu and Constantin [41] found no correlation between them. Nevertheless, it can be affirmed with the present work, that Motivational Persistence is related to sport improvement [26]. ...
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Background: An important aspect of achievement goals is the persistence and determination that the person possesses in order to achieve it. Spain does not have an adequate instrument for its measurement. First, this article had the aim of adapt and validate the Motivational Persistence Scale of Constantin et al. in a Spanish population and athletes. Second, it had the aim of prove the relationship with deliberate practice and performance. Methods: In this study, 384 university students participated, where the factor structure was analyzed by means of a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). In study 2 of 169 athletes was used to confirm its validity in a homogeneous population and its predictive capacity on the hours of deliberate practice (DP) and performance. Results: The AFC showed a two-factor structure, reducing the original three-factor structure, presenting a good fit in both Spanish and homogeneous population of athletes and achieving a significant predictive capacity on deliberate practice. The new dimensions were Purpose Pursuing (PP) and Recurrence of Unattained Purposes (RUP). Conclusions: Overall, our results provide evidence that this scale could be a useful tool for the assessment of Persistence in the Spanish adult and athlete population.
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The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of personality traits and different types of motivation to explaining individual differences in piano student performance and satisfaction of basic psychological needs in an academic context. The research was conducted in 2017 on a sample of piano students (N = 92) attending four music academies (Music Academy in Zagreb, Arts Academy in Split, Music Academy in Osijek, and Music Academy in Pula), making up about 90% of the whole piano-student population in Croatia. Self-assessment instruments were used to examine five personality traits from the Big Five Model, types of motivation according to the continuum of self-determination, the satisfaction of three psychological needs according to the self-determination theory in the context of music academies, and three categories of performance – piano success in the academic year, piano competition achievements, and public performances. The results showed that personality traits and motivational determinants could not predict piano success at the academy. Still, conscientiousness and emotional stability do play a significant role in public performances and piano competitions. Identified motivation proved to be important for these criteria as well. The relationship between psychological needs, motivation, and personality traits pointed to the significant role of the intellect, agreeableness, and intrinsic motivation, which proved to be important for satisfying the needs for relatedness and autonomy.
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This study followed a longitudinal design to objectively monitor practice behaviors of professional and semi-professional esports players over a year. Publicly available data were collected from 30 male Counter-Strike: Global Offensive players (age: 23.76 ± 2.88y). Players were classified into two groups: professional (n = 18) or semi-professional (n = 12). The total hours of practice (all game-specific practice) and the competitive hours of practice (time spent in competitive modes only) were collected weekly. Generalised Estimating Equations were used to compare the practice behaviors of the two groups. Professional and semi-professional esports players completed an average of 30.9 ± 8.2 h and 24.7 ± 3.6 h per week of total game-specific practice, respectively, and 19.6 ± 6.9 and 15.0 ± 2.7 h of competitive practice, respectively. A significant week∗group interaction was observed for total practice time (Wald χ2 = 9.48, p = 0.002) and total competition practice time (Wald χ2 = 7.54, p = 0.006). Specifically, professional esports players completed 6.6 (SE = 2.2) hr per week more of total practice hours than semi-professional players, of which 4.8 (SE = 1.8) hr were competitive practice. This sample of expert esports performers complete high volumes of practice which can be monitored via publicly accessible repositories.
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IMPORTANCE Proficiency-Based Progression (PBP) training is a form of training in which the trainee has to achieve a benchmark that has been quantitatively defined. This is contrary to conventional training where progression benchmarks are arbitrary, This form of training may find its place in surgery and procedural medicine with some studies finding it to be effective while others claim to have seen no impact on trainees. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed and Cochrane library and 15 eligible RCTs were extracted in which proficiency-based progression (PBP) training was compared with traditional surgical training methods. RESULT 15 RCTs were included (412 participants from all RCTs). The PBP group demonstrated a reduced number of procedural errors as compared to the non-PBP group (Weighted Mean Difference: —6.14 errors, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) —8.63 to —3.65, p < 0.00001), as well as a reduction in procedural time in the PBP group as compared to the non-PBP group (Weighted Mean Difference: —5.46, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) —8.56 to —2.37, p = 0.0005) but the non-PBP group performed more procedural steps than the PBP group (Weighted Mean Difference: 2.18, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) —1.31 to 5.66, p < 0.00001). CONCLUSION Our meta-analysis shows that PBP-trained groups outperform their traditional counterparts by completing procedures quicker and making fewer errors. This model of training may be an effective training tool of the future.
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The effectiveness of (physical education [PE]) teachers on students’ school performance (as well as the effectiveness of PE teacher education [PETE]) has been studied within different research paradigms. The evidence shows that the quality of students’ school performance is strongly dependent on the (PE) teacher and the quality of their teaching. Consequently, research into the effectiveness of PE teachers and the effectiveness of PETE has become a central subject of PE research. In this regard, there has been a competence-orientated shift in research on the effectiveness of PE teachers and PETE over the past 15 years. Focusing on competence-oriented PE teacher research, it becomes apparent that this is in a consolidation phase and that the advantages of the competence construct is not fully understood. In addition, the term ‘competence’ is used differently within PE teacher research. Accordingly, this theoretical article aims to clarify the concepts within competence-oriented PE teacher research, to present the different competence-oriented PE teacher research traditions, and to generate a typology and topology model of Professional Competence of Physical Education Teachers (Compe-PET model). The model assumes that the improvement of real-world performance is achieved through the following three developmental components: (1) the qualitative improvement of the aspects of competency (e.g., professional knowledge); (2) the improvement of the situated perception, interpretation, and decision-making skills (P-I-D); (3) through the deliberative practice of implementation of the quality criteria in one’s own teaching practice. Results are discussed with implications focusing on PETE and PE teacher research.
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Figurenotes is a simplified visual music notation system developed in Finland in the mid-1990s for people challenged by the abstract nature of conventional music notation. The system facilitates music reading and instrument playing, thus allowing active participation in music-making. The use of Figurenotes in both educational and therapeutic settings is now spreading to other countries. This thesis examines specifically the effectiveness and applicability of Figurenotes as a tool to facilitate music-making by children with autism in Australia, through the lens of a journey in reflective practice by the researcher-practitioner. The study involved three phases: in the first phase, eight individual children aged 6 to 13 years with autism participated in eight weekly sessions; in the second phase, two school groups of children with autism participated in an eight-week phase, and finally the families of the initial eight individuals participated in an additional phase of four weekly sessions each. Sessions involved the use of Figurenotes in rhythmic and creative activities, participating in ensembles, and developing playing technique using digital keyboards and tuned percussion instruments. The action research methodological approach allowed flexibility in study design, incorporating cycles of reflecting, planning, acting, and observing within the three phases of the study. Data were obtained through video observation, interviews, and researcher notes on participants’ development. Case studies of selected participants were compared with outcomes for the cohort as a whole. Thematic analysis combined with observer ratings to enable the investigation of four key focus areas: music-making skills, social interaction, self-concept, and reflective practice. Figurenotes was found to be an effective tool that allows children with autism to engage successfully in music-making independently, with peers, and with family members. The action research approach allowed novel interventions using Figurenotes which facilitated the development of participants' music-making skills and also their creativity. Participation in musical interactions was found to be associated with improved social interactions with peers and family members. Development of music-making skills was also associated with improvements in participants' self-concept through positive changes in participants' self-perception of their competence. Additionally, action research was found in this study to be an effective methodology in facilitating reflective practice when working with children with autism. The multiple beneficial outcomes demonstrated in this research warrant the further use and development of Figurenotes, and point to the value of further research in the development of music-making skills and creativity in children with autism.
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Background Studies and tests to assess the tactical domain of young soccer players are recent, and few instruments meet the majority of quality criteria. Objective To adapt and validate the Test de Conocimiento Táctico Ofensivo en Fútbol (TCTOF) for the Brazilian context (TCTOF-BRA). Methods The article consists of two studies. Study 1 ( n = 111) included the translation, theoretical/semantic analysis, back translation, cross-cultural equivalence, and content and face validity (pre-test). In study 2 ( n = 768), a theoretical and empirical item analysis was carried out, followed by construct validity [exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and the known-groups method] and reliability (internal consistency and repeatability). Results In the cross-cultural evaluation, the Coefficient of content validity total (CCV t ) of the instrument was 0.96 and in the content validity, the CCV t of the instrument was 0.87. The face validity was confirmed (>95%). After theoretical and empirical analysis, 15 questions were included in the Teste de Conhecimento Tático Ofensivo no Futebol (TCTOF-BRA). The EFA showed a model with adequate fit (KMO = 0.69; Bartlett p < 0.001), with a factor structure considered very good, composed of four factors (decision making, operational tactical principles, collective tactical-technical elements, and rules). The CFA by the Asymptotically Distribution-Free estimation method demonstrated good and very good goodness of fit indices ( X ² / df = 1.54, GFI = 0.99, CFI = 0.94, TLI = 0.92, PGFI = 0.71, PCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.03, and ECVI = 0.26). The known-groups method showed significant differences ( p < 0.01) and effect sizes varying from small-to-medium to large. With respect to reliability, coefficients of 0.89 (CR) and 0.74 (KR20) for internal consistency and 0.85 for repeatability were found. Conclusion The TCTOF-BRA presented satisfactory evidence, demonstrating it to be an instrument with valid and reliable measures for the evaluation of tactical knowledge (declarative and theoretical procedural), based on specific knowledge and decision making (cognitive domain), of Brazilian young soccer players from 12 to 17.9 years old.
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One of the most unique and impressive feats of the human mind is its ability to discover and continuously refine its own cognitive strategies. Elucidating the underlying learning and adaptation mechanisms is very difficult because changes in cognitive strategies are not directly observable. One important domain in which strategies and mechanisms are studied is planning. To enable researchers to uncover how people learn how to plan, we offer a tutorial introduction to a recently developed process-tracing paradigm along with a new computational method for measuring the nature and development of a person’s planning strategies from the resulting process-tracing data. Our method allows researchers to reveal experience-driven changes in people’s choice of individual planning operations, planning strategies, strategy types, and the relative contributions of different decision systems. We validate our method on simulated and empirical data. On simulated data, its inferences about the strategies and the relative influence of different decision systems are accurate. When evaluated on human data generated using our process-tracing paradigm, our computational method correctly detects the plasticity-enhancing effect of feedback and the effect of the structure of the environment on people’s planning strategies. Together, these methods can be used to investigate the mechanisms of cognitive plasticity and to elucidate how people acquire complex cognitive skills such as planning and problem-solving. Importantly, our methods can also be used to measure individual differences in cognitive plasticity and examine how different types (pedagogical) interventions affect the acquisition of cognitive skills.
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Purpose: Limited data exist on advanced critical care echocardiography (CCE) training programs for intensivists. We sought to describe a longitudinal echocardiography program and investigate the effect of distributed conditional supervision vs predefined en-bloc supervision, as well as the effect of an optional echocardiography laboratory rotation, on learners' engagement. Methods: In this mixed methods study, we enrolled critical care fellows and faculty from five University of Toronto-affiliated intensive care units (ICU) between July 2015 and July 2018 in an advanced training program, comprising theoretical lectures and practical sessions. After the first year, the program was modified with changes to supervision model and inclusion of a rotation in the echo laboratory. We conducted semistructured interviews and investigated the effects of curricular changes on progress toward portfolio completion (150 transthoracic echocardiograms) using a Bayesian framework. Results: Sixty-five learners were enrolled and 18 were interviewed. Four (9%) learners completed the portfolio. Learners reported lack of time and supervision, and skill complexity as the main barriers to practicing independently. Conditional supervision was associated with a higher rate of submitting unsupervised echocardiograms than unconditional supervision (rate ratio, 1.11, 95% credible interval, 1.08 to 1.14). After rotation in the echocardiography laboratory, submission of unsupervised echocardiograms decreased. Conclusion: Trainees perceived lack of time and limited access to supervision as major barriers to course completion. Nevertheless, successful portfolio completion was related to factors other than protected time in the echocardiography laboratory or unconditional direct supervision in ICU. Further research is needed to better understand the factors promoting success of CCE training programs.
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Objective: Virtual reality (VR) simulation-based training effectively improves novices' mastoidectomy skills. Unfortunately, learning plateaus at an insufficient level and knowledge on optimizing mastoidectomy training to overcome this plateau is needed. In this study, we aim to investigate how training on anatomically different temporal bone cases affects learning, including the effect on retention and transfer of skills. Study design: Randomized controlled trial of an educational intervention. Setting: The Simulation Center at Copenhagen Academy for Medical Education and Simulation. Participants: Twenty-four medical students from the University of Copenhagen. Intervention: Participants were randomized to practice mastoidectomy on either 12 anatomically varying (intervention group) or 12 identical (control group) cases in a VR simulator. At the end of training and again ~ 3 weeks after training (retention), learners were tested on a new VR patient case and a three-dimensional printed model. Main outcome measure: Mastoidectomy performance evaluated by blinded expert raters using a 26-item modified Welling Scale. Results: The intervention and control groups' performance results were comparable at the end of training. Likewise, retention and transfer performances were similar between groups. The overall mean score at the end of training corresponded to approximately 70% of the possible maximum score. Conclusions: Simulation-based training using anatomical variation was equivalent to training on a single case with respect to acquisition, retention, and transfer of mastoidectomy skills. This suggests that efforts to expose novices to variation during initial training are unnecessary as this variation has limited effect, and-conversely-that educators can expose novices to naturally different anatomical variations without worry of hindered learning.
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It is well established that academic performance (AP) depends on a number of factors, such as intellectual capacities, practice, and previous knowledge. We know little about how these factors interact as they are rarely measured simultaneously. Here we present mediated-Factors of Academic Performance (m-FAP) model, which simultaneously assesses direct and indirect, mediated, effects on AP. In a semester-long study with 118 first-year college students, we show that intelligence and working memory only indirectly influenced AP on a familiar, less challenging college course (Introduction to Psychology). Their influence was mediated through previous knowledge and self-regulated learning activities akin to deliberate practice. In a novel and more challenging course (Statistics in Psychology), intellectual capacities influenced performance both directly and indirectly through previous knowledge. The influence of deliberate practice, however, was considerably weaker in the novel course. The amount of time and effort that the students spent on the more difficult course could not offset the advantage of their more intelligent and more knowledgeable peers. The m–FAP model explains previous contradictory results by providing a framework for understanding the extent and limitations of individual factors in AP, which depend not only on each other, but also on the learning context.
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Operational demands in safety‐critical systems impose a risk of failure to the operators especially during urgent situations. Operators of safety‐critical systems learn to make decisions effectively throughout extensive training programs and many years of experience. In the domain of air traffic control, expensive training with high dropout rates calls for research to enhance novices' ability to detect and resolve conflicts in the airspace. While previous researchers have mostly focused on redesigning training instructions and programs, the current paper explores possible benefits of novel visual representations to improve novices' understanding of the situations as well as their decision‐making process. We conduct an experimental evaluation study testing two ecological visual analytics interfaces, developed in a previous study, as support systems to facilitate novice decision‐making. The main contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we describe the application of an ecological interface design approach to the development of two visual analytics interfaces. Second, we perform a human‐in‐the‐loop experiment with forty‐five novices within a simplified air traffic control simulation environment. Third, by performing an expert‐novice comparison we investigate the extent to which effects of the proposed interfaces can be attributed to the subjects' expertise. The results show that the proposed ecological visual analytics interfaces improved novices' understanding of the information about conflicts as well as their problem‐solving performance. Further, the results show that the beneficial effects of the proposed interfaces were more attributable to the visual representations than the users' expertise.
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This study investigates the potential of rehearsal interjections to provide opportunities for novice teachers and teacher educators to discuss topics related to teaching the practice of mathematical defining. Through analysis of video recordings of seven elementary novice teachers’ rehearsals about geometric definitions, we identified the problems of practice that initiated rehearsal interjections, the topics discussed during rehearsal interjections, and relations between initiating problems of practice and topics discussed. We found that initiating problems of practice focused overwhelmingly on pedagogical issues, with most related to aspects specific to the teaching of mathematical defining. Likewise, discussions during interjections tended to focus on definitional pedagogical topics. Although epistemic topics were mentioned, they were only conveyed implicitly and at times in conflicting manners. Moreover, few opportunities arose for novices to make sense of student thinking about definitions and the mathematics of shape. Our results illustrate ways in which the goal of improving pedagogy, although important, can overshadow learning of other aspects for teaching mathematical practice.
Conference Paper
Argues that unusual ability in multiple successive generations suggests an inherited genetic element. Quantitative assessment has required standardized testing. Quantitative studies (e.g., S. G. Vanderberg, 1962) have shown that music ability is not a monolithic trait but is composed of discrete abilities that show different degrees of heritability. Comparisons of identical and nonidentical twins provide evidence for a large inherited component. Identification of specific genes is needed. A specific example is that of tune deafness, inherited as a single dominant gene. Studies recommended for the future include further fragmentation of music ability into discrete components, devising tests minimally influenced by experience, application to unselected populations, selecting individuals who score both very high and very low in ability, and conducting family studies on those individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)