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From Monument to Town and Country: Integrated Techniques of Surveying at Tilmen Höyük in South-East Turkey

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UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE MADRID
Proceedings of the 5th International Congress
on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Proceedings of the 5th International
Congress on the Archaeology of
the Ancient Near East
Madrid, April 3-8 2006
Edited by
Joaquín Mª Córdoba, Miquel Molist, Mª Carmen Pérez,
Isabel Rubio, Sergio Martínez
(Editores)
Madrid, 3 a 8 de abril de 2006
Actas del V Congreso Internacional
de Arqueología del Oriente Próximo Antiguo
VOL.I
Centro Superior de Estudios sobre el Oriente Próximo y Egipto
Madrid 2008
Colección Actas
©
ISBN (OBRA COMPLETA): 978-84-8344-140-4
ISBN (VOL. I): 978-84-8344-141-1
Depósito legal: GU-64/2008
Realiza: Palop Producciones Gráficas.
Impreso en España.
Diseño de cubierta: M.A. Tejedor.
5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
V Congreso Internacional de Arqueología del Oriente Próximo Antiguo
Scientific Committee Scientific Steering Committee
Comité Científico Organizador Comité Científico Permanente
Joaquín Mª Córdoba Manfred Bietak
Sergio Martínez Barthel Hrouda (honorary member)
Miquel Molist Hartmut Kühne
Mª Carmen Pérez Jean-Claude Margueron
Isabel Rubio Wendy Matthews
Paolo Matthiae
Diederik Meijer
Ingolf Thuesen
Irene J. Winter
Executive Commission
Comisión Ejecutiva
Ana Arroyo, Carmen del Cerro, Fernando Escribano, Saúl Escuredo, Alejandro Gallego,
Zahara Gharehkhani, Alessandro Grassi, José Manuel Herrero †, Rodrigo Lucía, Montserrat
Mañé, Covadonga Sevilla, Elena Torres
Technical collaborators
Colaboradores técnicos
Virginia Tejedor, Pedro Bao, Roberto Peñas, Pedro Suárez, Pablo Sebastagoítia, Jesús
González, Raúl Varea, Javier Lisbona, Carmen Suárez, Amanda Gómez, Carmen Úbeda,
Cristina López, José Mª Pereda, Rosa Plaza, Lorenzo Manso, Juan Trapero
Congress Venue
Sede del Congreso
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Facultad de Filosofía y Letras
Sponsorships
Apoyos y patrocinios
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia
Ministerio de Cultura
Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores
Comunidad de Madrid
Themes of the Congress
Temas del Congreso
1. History and Method of Archaeological Research
La historia y la metodología de la investigación arqueológica
2. The Archaeology and the Environment of the Ancient Eastern Cities and Villages
La arqueología y el entorno de las ciudades y las aldeas antiguas
3. Arts and Crafts in the Ancient Near East
La artesanía y el arte en el Oriente Antiguo
4. Reports on the Results from the Latest Archaeological Seasons
Informes sobre los resultados de las recientes campañas de excavación
Index - Índice
VOL.I
Á. Gabilondo Pujol, Prólogo...................................................................................... 17
P. Matthiae, Opening Speech........................................................................................ 21
J. Mª Córdoba, M. Molist, Mª C. Pérez, I. Rubio, S. Martínez, Bienvenida........ 25
Opening Lectures to Main Themes - Apertura de las sesiones temáticas
N. Chevalier, Considérations sur l’histoire de l’archéologie, ses origines et son développe-
ment actuel.............................................................................................................. 31
S. Mazzoni, Arts, crafts and the state: A dialectic process............................................ 37
Papers and posters - Comunicaciones y pósters
M. Abdulkarim, O. Olesti-Vila, Territoire et paysage dans la province romaine de
la Syrie. La centuriatio d’Emesa (Homs) ............................................................... 55
G. Affani, Astragalus bone in Ancient Near East: Ritual depositions in Iron Age
in Tell Afis ........................................................................................................... 77
A. Ahrens, Egyptian and Egyptianizing stone vessels from the royal tomb and palace
at Tell Mišrife/Qa
7
na (Syria): Imports and local imitations ................................... 93
B. Ajorloo, The neolithization process in Azerbaijan: An introduction to review............... 107
C. Alvaro, C. Lemorini, G. Palumbi, P. Piccione, From the analysis of the archaeo-
logical context to the life of a community. «Ethnographic» remarks on the Arslantepe
VIB2 village .......................................................................................................... 127
Sh. N. Amirov, Towards understanding religious character of Tell Hazna 1 oval ............. 137
Á. Armendáriz, L. Teira, M. Al-Maqdissi, M. Haïdar-Boustani, J. J. Ibáñez, J. Gonzá-
lez Urquijo, The megalithic necropolises in the Homs Gap (Syria). A preliminary
approach ................................................................................................................. 151
A. Arroyo, Akpinar.................................................................................................... 163
L. Astruc, O. Daune-Le Brun, A. L. Brun, F. Hourani, Un atelier de fabrication
de récipients en pierre à Khirokitia (Néolothique pré-céramique récent, VIIe millénaire
av. JC, Chypre........................................................................................................ 175
G. Baccelli, F. Manuelli, Middle Bronze Khabur Ware from Tell Barri/Kahat ..... 187
B. Bader, Avaris and Memphis in the Second Intermediate Period in Egypt (ca. 1770-
1770-1550/40 BC)............................................................................................... 207
F. Baffi, Who locked the door? Fortification walls and city gates in Middle Bronze Age
inner Syria: Ebla and Tell Tuqan .......................................................................... 225
L. Barda, El aporte de los mapas y descripciones antiguas en el ensayo de reconstrucción
de sitios arqueológicos, periferias y rutas (con uso del SIG)...................................... 245
C. D. Bardeschi, A propos des installations dans la cour du Temple Ovale de Khafajah..... 253
C. Bellino, A. Vallorani, The Stele of Tell Ashara. The Neo-Syrian perspective............ 273
D. Ben-Shlomo, Iconographic representations from Early Iron Age Philistia and their
ethnic implications................................................................................................... 285
A. I. Beneyto Lozano, Manifestaciones artísticas desde Oriente Próximo a Al-Andalus 305
L. Bombardieri, C. Forasassi, The pottery from IA II-III levels of Late-Assyrian
to Post-Assyrian period in Tell Barri/Kahat.......................................................... 323
B. Brown, The Kilamuwa Relief: Ethnicity, class and power in Iron Age North
Syria....................................................................................................................... 339
A. Brustolon, E. Rova, The Late Chalcolithic settlement in the Leilan region of Nor-
theastern Syria: A preliminary assessment .............................................................. 357
S. M. Cecchini, G. Affanni, A. Di Michele, Tell Afis. The walled acropolis (Middle
Bronze Age to Iron Age I). A work in progress..................................................... 383
B. Cerasetti, V. A. Girelli, G. Luglio, B. Rondelli, M. Zanfini, From monument to
town and country: Integrated techniques of surveying at Tilmen Höyük in South-East
Turkey.................................................................................................................... 393
N. Chevalier, Fouiller un palais assyrien au XIXe siècle: Victor Place à Khorsabad....... 403
L. Chiocchetti, Post-Assyrian pottery from the Italian excavations at Fort Shalmaneser,
1987-1990 ............................................................................................................ 417
X. Clop García, Estrategias de gestión de las materias primas de origen mineral en Tell
Halula: primera aproximación................................................................................ 441
A. Colantoni, A. Gottarelli, A formalized approach to pottery typology: The case of
some typical shapes from the Late Bronze Age in Northern Syria .......................... 455
A. M. Conti, C. Persiani, Arslantepe. The building sequence of the EB3 settle-
ment ....................................................................................................................... 465
C. Coppini, Mitannian pottery from Tell Barri ........................................................... 477
J. Mª Córdoba, Informe preliminar sobre las últimas campañas en al Madam (2003-2006).... 493
F. Cruciani, The atributes of Ishtar in Old Syrian glyptic and the Mesopotamian literary
tradition.................................................................................................................. 509
A. Daems, Alternative ways for reading some female figurines from Late Prehistoric
Mesopotamia and Iran............................................................................................ 519
10
Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
A. D’Agostino, Between Mitannians and Middle-Assyrians: Changes and links
in ceramic culture at Tell Barri and in Syrian Jazirah during the end of the 2nd
millennium BC....................................................................................................... 525
A. D’Agostino, S. Valenti, N. Laneri, Archaeological works at Hirbemerdon Tepe
(Turkey). A preliminary report or the first three seasons......................................... 549
M. B. D’Anna, R. Laurito, A. Ricci, Walking on the Malatya Plain (Turkey): Pre-
liminary remarks on Chalcolithic pottery and occupation. 2003-2005 Archaeological
Survey Project ......................................................................................................... 567
I. de Aloe, A preliminary report on the 1995 Tell Leilan survey: The pottery from
the Hellenistic to the Sasanian Period..................................................................... 575
F. Dedeoglu, Cultural transformation and settlement system of Southwestern Ana-
tolia from Neolithic to LBA: A case study from Denizili/Çivril Plain.................. 587
K. De Langhe, Early Christianity in Iraq and the Gulf: A view from the architec-
tural remains .......................................................................................................... 603
T. De Schacht, W. Gheyle, R. Gossens, A. De Wulf, Archaeological research
and CORONA: On the use, misuse and full potential of historical remote sen-
sing data................................................................................................................. 611
C. del Cerro, Life and society of the inhabitants of al Madam (UAE). Interdisciplinary
study of an Iron Age village and its environment.................................................... 619
G. M. Di Nocera, Settlements, population and landscape on the Upper Euphrates between
V and II millennium BC. Results of the Archaeological Survey Project 2003-2005
in the Malatya Plain .............................................................................................. 633
S. Di Paolo, Dalle straordinarie avventure di Lady Hester Stanhope alla «Crociata» archaeo-
logica di Butler: la politica «religiosa» dei viaggi delle esplorazioni scientifiche nella
regione di Damasco tra XIX e XX secolo.............................................................. 647
R. Dolce, Considerations on the archaeological evidence from the Early Dynastic Temple
of Inanna at Nippur.............................................................................................. 661
R. H. Dornemann, Status report on the Early Bronze Age IV Temple in Area E at
Tell Qarqur in the Orontes Valley, Syria ............................................................... 679
A. Egea Vivancos, Artesanos de lo rupestre en el alto Éufrates sirio durante la época romana.. 711
A. Egea Vivancos, Viajeros y primeras expediciones arqueológicas en Siria. Su contribución
al redescubrimiento de Hierapolis y su entorno ........................................................ 731
B. Einwag, Fortified citadels in the Early Bronze Age? New evidence from Tall Bazi
(Syria) .................................................................................................................... 741
M. Erdalkiran, The Halaf Ceramics in
H
irnak area, Turkey..................................... 755
F. Escribano Martín, Babilonia y los españoles en el siglo XIX................................. 767
M. Feizkhah, Pottery of Garrangu style in Azarbaijan (Iran).................................... 775
E. Felluca, Ceramic evidences from Bampur: A key site to reconstruct the cultural development
in the Bampur Valley (Iran) during the third millennium BC................................. 797
E. Felluca, S. Mogliazza Under-floor burials in a Middle Bronze Age domestic quarter at Tell
Mardikh – Ebla, Syria........................................................................................... 809
Index - Índice 11
VOL.II
S. Festuccia, M. Rossi, Recent excavations on the Ebla Acropolis (Syria).................. 17
S. Festuccia, M. Rossi Latest phases of Tell Mardikh - Ebla: Area PSouth Lower
Town ...................................................................................................................... 31
J.-D. Forest and R. Vallet, Uruk architecture from abroad: Some thoughts about
Hassek Höyük....................................................................................................... 39
M. Fortin, L.-M. Loisier, J. Pouliot, La géomatique au service des fouilles archéologiques:
l’exemple de Tell ‘Acharneh, en Syrie ...................................................................... 55
G. Gernez, A new study of metal weapons from Byblos: Preliminary work ..................... 73
K. T. Gibbs, Pierced clay disks and Late Neolithic textile production.......................... 89
J. Gil Fuensanta, P. Charvàt, E A. Crivelli, The dawn of a city. Surtepe Höyük excava-
tions Birecik Dam area, Eastern Turkey............................................................... 97
A. Gómez Bach, Las producciones cerámicas del Halaf Final en Siria: Tell Halula (valle
del Éufrates) y Tell Chagar Bazar (valle del Khabur)............................................. 113
E. Grootveld, What weeds can tell us Archaeobotanical research in the Jordan Valley ... 123
E. Guralnick, Khorsabad sculptured fragments............................................................ 127
H. Hameeuw, K. Vansteenhuyse, G. Jans, J. Bretschneider, K. Van Lerberghe,
Living with the dead. Tell Tweini: Middle Bronze Age tombs in an urban context... 143
R. Hempelmann, Kharab Sayyar: The foundation of the Early Bronze Age settle-
ment ....................................................................................................................... 153
F. Hole, Ritual and the collapse of Susa, ca 4000 BC................................................ 165
D. Homès-Fredericq The Belgian excavations at al-Lahun (biblical Moab region), Jordan.
Past and future....................................................................................................... 179
J. J. Ibáñez et al., Archaeological survey in the Homs Gap (Syria): Campaigns of 2004 and
2005....................................................................................................................... 187
A. Invernizzi, El testimonio de Ambrogio Bembo y Joseph Guillaume Grelot sobre
los restos arqueológicos iranios ................................................................................. 205
K. Jakubiak, Pelusium, still Egyptian or maybe Oriental town in the Western Synai.
Results of the last excavations on the Roman city................................................... 221
S. A. Jasim, E. Abbas, The excavations of a Post-Hellenistic tomb at Dibba, UAE..... 237
Z. A. Kafafi, A Late Bronze Age jewelry mound from Tell Dayr ‘Alla, Jordan......... 255
E. Kaptijn, Settling the steppe. Iron Age irrigation around Tell Deir ‘Alla, Jordan Valley .... 265
C. Kepinski, New data from Grai Resh and Tell Khoshi (South-Sinjar, Iraq) collected
in 2001 and 2002................................................................................................. 285
A. Klein-Franke, The site in Jabal Qarn Wu’l near
%
iziaz in the region of San
5
an
(Yemen) .................................................................................................................. 297
G. Kozbe, A new archaeological survey project in the South Eastern Anatolia: Report of
the Cizre and Silopi region ..................................................................................... 323
P. Kurzawski, Assyrian outpost at Tell Sabi Abyad: Architecture, organisation of
space and social structure of the Late Bronze settlement ......................................... 341
12
Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
R. Laurito, C. Lemorini, E. Cristiani, Seal impressions on cretulae at Arslantepe:
Improving the methodological and interpretative references........................................ 351
A. R. Lisella, Clay figurines from Tell Ta’anek ........................................................... 361
M. Lönnqvist, Kathleen M. Kenyon 1906-1978. A hundred years after her birth.
The formative years of a female archaeologist: From socio-politics to the stratigraphi-
cal method and the radiocarbon revolution in archaeology......................................... 379
K. O. Lorentz, Crafting the Head: The human body as art? ...................................... 415
C. Lorre, Jacques de Morgan et la question de l’origine de la métalurgie dans le Caucase.... 433
S. Lundström, From six to seven Royal Tombs. The documentation of the Deutsche
Orient-Gesellschaft excavation at Assur (1903-1914) – Possibilities and limits of
its reexamination .................................................................................................... 445
N. Marchetti, A preliminary report on the 2005 and 2006 excavations at Tilmen
Höyük.................................................................................................................... 465
O. Marder, I. Milevski, R. Rabinovich, O. Ackermann, R. Shahack-Gross, P. Fine,
The Lower Paleolithic site of Revadin Quarry, Israel............................................. 481
R. Martín Galán, An example of the survival of ancient Mesopotamian architectonical
traditions in Northern Jazireh during the Hellenistic period .................................... 491
A. C. Martins, Oriental antiquities and international conflicts. A Portuguese epi-
sode during the 1st World War ............................................................................... 515
K. Matsumura, Hellenistic human and animal sacrifices in Central Anatolia: Examples
from Kaman-Kalehöyük.......................................................................................... 523
P. Matthiae, The Temple of the Rock of Early Bronze IV A-B at Ebla: Structure,
chronology, continuity .............................................................................................. 547
M. G. Micale, The course of the images. Remarks on the architectural reconstructions
in the 19th and 20th centuries: The case of the Ziqqurrat........................................ 571
L. Milano, Elena Rova, New discoveries of the Ca’Foscari University – Venice Team
at Tell Beydar (Syria)............................................................................................. 587
I. Milevski, Y. Baumgarten, Between Lachish and Tel Erani: Horvat Ptora, a new
Late Prehistoric site in the Southern Levant ........................................................... 609
O. Muñoz, S. Cleuziou, La tombe 1 de Ra’s al-Jinz RJ-1: une approche de la
complexité des pratiques funéraires dans la peninsule d’Oman à l’Âge du Bronze ancien 627
L. Nigro, Tell es-Sultan/Jericho from village to town: A reassessment of the Early
Bronze Age I settlement and necropolis ................................................................... 645
L. Nigro, Prelimiray report of the first season of excavation of Rome «La Sapien-
za» University at Khirbet al-Batrawy (Upper Wadi az-Zarqa, Jordan).................. 663
A. T. Ökse, Preliminary results of the salvage excavations at Salat Tepe in the Upper
Tigris region............................................................................................................ 683
V. Orsi, Between continuity and tranformation: The late 3rd Millennium BC ceramic
sequence from Tell Barri (Syria) ............................................................................. 699
A. Otto, Organization of Late Bronze Age cities in the Upper Syrian Euphrates
Valley..................................................................................................................... 715
M. Özbaharan, Musular: The special activity site in Central Anatolia, Turkey................. 733
F. Pedde, The Assur-Project. An old excavation newly analysed .................................. 743
Index - Índice 13
C. Persiani, Chemical analysis and time/space distribution of EB2-3 pottery at Ars-
lantepe (Malatya, Turkey)...................................................................................... 753
L. P. Petit, Late Iron Age levels at Tell Damieh: New excavations results from the Jordan
Valley..................................................................................................................... 777
L. Peyronel, Making images of humans and animals. The clay figurines from the Royal
Palace G at Tell Mardikh-Ebla, Syria (EB IVA, c. 2400-2300 BC)................. 787
P. Piccione, Walking in the Malatya Plain (Turkey): The first Half of the III millennium
BC (EBA I and II). Some preliminary remarks on the results of the 2003-2005
Archaeological Survey Project.................................................................................. 807
VOL. III
F. Pinnock, Artistic genres in Early Syrian Syria. Image and ideology of power in a
great pre-classical urban civilisation in its formative phases...................................... 17
A. Polcaro, EB I settlements and environment in the Wadi az-zarqa Dolmens and ideo-
logy of death........................................................................................................... 31
M. Pucci, The Neoassyrian residences of Tell Shekh Hamad, Syria............................ 49
P. Puppo, La Tabula «Chigi»: un riflesso delle conquiste romane in Oriente ................ 65
S. Riehl, Agricultural decision-making in the Bronze Age Near East: The development of
archaeobotanical crop plant assemblages in relation to climate change....................... 71
A. Rochman-Halperin, Technical aspects of carving Iron Age decorative cosme-
tic palettes in the Southern Levant .......................................................................... 93
M. Rossi, Tell Deinit-Syria MEDA Project n. 15 (2002-2004). Restoration training
programs................................................................................................................. 103
M. Sala, Khirbet Kerak Ware from Tell es-Sultan/ancient Jericho: A reassessment in
the light of the finds of the Italian-Palestinian Expedition (1997-2000)............... 111
S. G. Schmid, A. Amour, A. Barmasse, S. Duchesne, C. Huguenot, L. Wadeson,
New insights into Nabataean funerary practices...................................................... 135
S. Silvonen, P. Kouki, M. Lavento, A. Mukkala, H. Ynnilä, Distribution of
Nabataean-Roman sites around Jabal Harûn: Analysis of factors causing site
patterning ............................................................................................................... 161
G. Spreafico, The Southern Temple of Tell el-Husn/Beth-Shean: The sacred ar-
chitecture of Iron Age Palestine reconsidered ........................................................... 181
M. T. Starzmann, Use of space in Shuruppak: Households on dispaly....................... 203
T. Steimer-Herbet, H. Criaud, Funerary monuments of agro-pastoral populations
on the Leja (Southern Syria)................................................................................... 221
G. Stiehler-Alegría, Kassitische Siegel aus stratifizierten Grabungen........................... 235
I. M. Swinnen, The Early Bronze I pottery from al-Lahun in Central Jordan: Seal
impressions and potter’s marks................................................................................ 245
H. Tekin, The Late Neolithic pottery tradition of Southeastern Anatolia and its vicinity ....... 257
H. Tekin, Hakemi Use: A newly established site dating to the Hassuna / Samarra pe-
riod in Southeastern Anatolia................................................................................. 271
14
Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
D. Thomas, The ebb and flow of empires – Afghanistan and neighbouring lands in the
twelfth-thirteenth centuries ....................................................................................... 285
Y. Tonoike, Beyond style: Petrographic analysis of Dalma ceramics in two regions
of Iran ................................................................................................................... 301
B. Uysal, The technical features of the Ninevite 5 Ware in Southeastern Anatolia ...... 313
C. Valdés Pererio, Qara Qûzâq and Tell Hamîs (Syrian Euphrates valley): Up-
dating and comparing Bronze Age ceramic and archaeological data ......................... 323
S. Valentini, Ritual activities in the «rural shirines» at Tell Barri, in the Khabur
region, during the Ninevite 5 period ........................................................................ 345
K. Vansteenhuyse, M. al-Maqdissi, P. Degryse, K. Van Lerberghe, Late Helladic
ceramics at Tell Tweini and in the kingdom of Ugarit............................................ 359
F. Venturi, The Sea People in the Levant: A North Syrian perspective ........................ 365
V. Verardi, The different stages of the Acropolis from the Amorite period at Tell
Mohammed Diyab.................................................................................................. 383
V. Vezzoli, Islamic Period settlement in Tell Leilan Region (Northern Jaz
í
ra): The
material evidence from the 1995 Survey.................................................................. 393
O. Vicente i Campos, La aplicación de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la
comunicación en el yacimiento arqueológico de Tell Halula....................................... 405
N. Vismara, Lo sviluppo delle metodologie della scienza numismatica e la scoperta di
una nuova area di produzione monetale: il caso dell’identificazione della emissioni della
Lycia in epoca arcaica............................................................................................. 417
T. Watkins, Natural environment versus cultural environment: The implications of creating
a built environment ................................................................................................. 427
N. Yalman, An alternative interpretation on the relationship between the settlement
layout and social organization in Çatalhöyük Neolithic site: A ethnological research
in Central Anatolia................................................................................................ 439
E. Yanai, Ein Assawir, Tel Magal and the peripheral settlement in the Northern Sharon
from the Neolithic period until the end of the Early Bronze Age III ...................... 449
E. Yanai, Cemetery of the Intermediate Bronze Age at Bet Dagan.............................. 459
E. Yanai, The trade with Cypriot Grey Lustrous Wheel Made Ware between Cyprus,
North Syrian Lebanese coast and Israel.................................................................. 483
Workshops - Talleres de debate
Workshop I
Houses for the Living and a Place for the Dead
N. Balkan, M. Molist and D. Stordeur
(eds.)
Introduction: House for the living and place for the dead. In memory of Jacques
Cauvin ................................................................................................................... 505
P. C. E dw ar ds, The symbolic dimensions of material culture at Wadi Hammeh 27.......... 507
Index - Índice 15
F. R. Valla, F. Bocquentin, Les maisons, les vivants, les morts: le cas de Mallaha (Eynan),
Israël ...................................................................................................................... 521
E. Guerrero, M. Molist, J. Anfruns, Houses for the living and for the dead? The case
of Tell Halula (Syria)............................................................................................ 547
D. Stordeur, R. Khawam, Une place pour les morts dans les maisons de Tell Aswad
(Syrie). (Horizon PPNB ancien et PPNB moyen).................................................. 561
I. Kuijt, What mean these bones? Considering scale and Neolithic mortuary variability...... 591
B. S. Düring, Sub-floor burials at Çatalhöyük: Exploring relations between the
dead, houses, and the living ..................................................................................... 603
P. M. M. G. Akkermans, Burying the dead in Late Neolithic Syria .......................... 621
T. Watkins, Ordering time and space: Creating a cultural world ................................... 647
Workshop III
The Origins of the Halaf and the Rise of Styles
O Niewenhuyse, P. Akkermans, W. Cruells and M. Molist
(eds.)
Introduction: A workshop on the origins of the Halaf and the rise of styles .................. 663
W. Cruells, The Proto-Halaf: Origins, definition, regional framework and chronology.............. 671
O. Nieuwenhuyse, Feasting in the Steppe  Late Neolithic ceramic change and the rise
of the Halaf........................................................................................................... 691
R. Bernbeck, Taming time and timing the tamed......................................................... 709
M. Le Mière, M. Picon, A contribution to the discussion on the origins of the Halaf
culture from chemical analyses of pottery................................................................. 729
B. Robert, A. Lasalle, R. Chapoulie, New insights into the ceramic technology
of the Proto-Halaf («Transitional») period by using physico-chemical methods........ 735
H. Tekin, Late Neolithic ceramic traditions in Southeastern Anatolia: New insights from
Hakemi Use........................................................................................................... 753
M. Verhoeven, Neolithic ritual in transition ............................................................... 769
Programme - Programa
16
Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
From monument to town and country: Integrated
techniques of surveying at Tilmen Höyük
in South-East Turkey
Barbara Cerasetti – Valentina A. Girelli – Giampaolo Luglio –
Bernardo Rondelli – Massimo Zanfini, Bologna*
Abstract
Different survey methods are needed on archaeological sites: philological surveying of a
monument, use of a total station combined with low altitude shots (through a kite) and
photomosaics (through a pole), Close-Range Photogrammetry, absolute georeferencing,
topographical and morphological surveys and remote sensing methodologies, allowing for
a GIS archive. The case study of Tilmen Höyük (Turkey) is briefly examined in the article.
Keywords: Turkey, Topography, Geodesy, Surveying, Photogrammetry, GIS, Tilmen
Höyük.
Through their application on the case study of Tilmen Höyük (a 2nd mill.
BC town in south-eastern Turkey excavated by the Alma Mater Studiorum –
University of Bologna), this work stresses the close connection of
different survey methods, effective and of limited cost. They are all needed at
the same time if one aims at fully extracting the historical information carried
by ancient monuments and their landscape. The philological surveying of a
monument is a goal in itself: building techniques and structural details add sub-
stantially to the information from the excavations. The use of a total station
combined with low altitude shots (through a kite) and photomosaics (through
a pole) allow to create the basis for detailed surveying, after processing in
monoscopic photogrammetry for orthorectification. Close-Range Photogram-
metry is applied for 3D description of the monument. Absolute georeferencing
of the site, by means of spatial geodesy (through long GPS static observation),
must be coupled to topographical and morphological surveys (through kine-
matic and fast-static GPS methodologies). The setting of the site within its
landscape is done, at survey level, not only with GPS, but also through remote
sensing methodologies, working on high and medium resolution satellite images
(multispectral and radar), allowing for a GIS archive.
*We wish to thank Prof. N. Marchetti for his help and support throughout our field research and for
setting an interdisciplinary and stimulating research environment for the Tilmen project. We also thank the
General Directorate for Cultural Heritage and Museums in Ankara for the permissions granted and the
Madrid staff of the 5th ICAANE for their warm reception. G. Luglio has written § 1, M. Zanfini § 2, V. A.
Girelli § 3, B. Cerasetti and B. Rondelli § 4. For some excavation reports and studies on Tilmen Höyük, see
Marchetti in this volume; id. 2005; id. 2006a; id. 2006b. This research was made possible by a FIRB 2003
grant of the Italian Ministry for Universities and Research.
1. Surveying of monuments
Archaeological drawing is traditionally considered the graphical representation
of a monument or a stratum. Only in recent years it has been approached «philo-
logically», thus in a way not invasive but essential for the interpretation and the
analysis.
The archaeological drawing consists of both technical and interpretative
aspects. The first ones require the placing of the object in the space (trilateration),
the knowledge and the integration of instrumental methodologies, the choice of
the reference graphic scale (general, detailed, single phase or composite plans, etc.),
and the tools for graphic characterization. These elements allow a clear under-
standing «sostituibile al testo descrittivo» (Giuliani 1976, 9). The interpretative
phase needs to apply skilful observation and critical analysis, and carries an inter-
action with the monument.
The combination of these aspects allow not only a detailed analysis of the
monument and its phases, from planning and building to reuse and abandonment,
but it also provides useful data for identifying its function and its relations with the
nearby structures (Giuliani 1990, 19).
The adoption of this methodology at Tilmen Höyük has lead to a detailed
interpretation of a great quantity of structural aspects and the decoding of the
numerous building phases on the site. Much new data came, for example, from
the new surveying in area K5 (fig. 1), excavated in the late sixties by the Turk-
ish Expedition (Duru 2003, 54). The data helped in understanding aspects use-
ful for a new interpretation of the structures. In particular, the detailed archae-
ological drawing of the sector L.765-L.774 has lead to the individuation of the
door socket and the reconstruction of the drainage system (D.782). Another
example is supplied by the surveying of the sections (vertical plans) in area K5:
thanks to photogrammetric techniques, it has been possible to recognize and
distinguish the traces of ancient repairs and restorations. In other area at
Tilmen Höyük, direct survey has allowed to single out the different building
techniques employed.
This new methodological approach –which especially considers details such as
thickness, bulging and collapses– provides also useful elements for the study of
structural stability and the determination of possible physico-structural collapses,
caused by site morphology and man-made interventions. Further observations,
such as working traces on the ortostats of buildings C and A, are contributing to
the understanding on quarrying techniques and procedures of stone cutting
(Adam 1984, 23-60; Rockwell 1989, 15-207).
2. Topography
Concerning the topographical survey, the preliminary work in 2003 has been
to surround the acropolis through a closed polygon by using a Total Station, allow-
ing a good visibility from each side of the mound. In this first phase, the closed
polygon was conventionally pointed towards magnetic North within a relative sys-
tem of coordinates, because of the lack of an accurate GPS device, which was
then used during the 2005 campaign (see § 3). A network of secondary stations
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Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
has been derived from the main polygon, which is made by five stations which
have been fixed with concrete.
The morphological survey of the mound has been also created by a Total Sta-
tion, producing topographic plans characterized by 50 cm contour lines. In order
to correctly describe the surface of the site, more than 3000 topographical points
have been necessary, taken at an interval between 50 cm and 300 cm according to
the complexity of the terrain, producing also the 3D model of the mound.
The Total Station topographical survey has been integrated through mono-
scopic photogrammetry by using the software Rolley MSR 3.0 ©, used for the
detailed survey of single pieces of evidence (such as the casemates in the north-
ern part of the lower town) and for the general survey of the excavation area. In
the latter case, both kite photography (Medri 2003, 68-69) and photos taken by a
3 meters high camera on a pole (Zanfini 2003) were used: the resulting photo-
planes were digitalized and then checked again stone by stone on the field, repre-
senting a fast but exteremely accurate day-by-day survey methodology.
A kite with a non digital camera with remote control exploits the flying area
between the maximum height that can be reached by staff or poles, about 10 m,
and the minimum flying height of an aircraft, about 100 m. This photogrammet-
ric system guarrantees the coverage of the whole archaeological site, at low cost
and limited time investment. All the excavations at Tilmen have been been pho-
tographed between 10-12 m and 150-200 m in height, also documenting the
progress of the work year by year. These photos will be used to create a photo-
graphic mosaic of the entire mound, with a degree of detail that no single shot can
obtain (fig. 2). The choice of the techniques for topographical surveying at Tilmen
Höyük has been made bearing in mind speed and low cost applications, preserv-
ing at the same time a great working accuracy, defining a standard set of proce-
dures applicable to any other archaeological site (Docci – Maestri 1994).
3. Geomatic techniques for the survey of cultural heritage
The field of Cultural Heritage surveying is probably the most emblematic of the
potentialities offered by the integration of geomatic technologies, because of spe-
cific peculiarities presented by each case of study and because frequently working
conditions push towards a short acquisition time, a requirement that a multi-tech-
nique surveying approach can today partially address and solve (Bitelli et al. 2005).
The new digital techniques and technologies offer, indeed, the possibility of
obtaining new products not only from surveying activity but also in representation
and visualization, with the aim to have a metrically rigorous description of terri-
tory, structures and objects; they provide also powerful instruments for object
analysis and in support of reconstruction and restoration activities (fig. 3). Data
recording and processing must be performed following appropriate methodolo-
gies, taking in account the characteristics of each technique either in terms of
intrinsic capabilities (precision, accuracy, data dimensionality, etc.) and of suitabil-
ity for mutual integration, with the aim of insert all the products in a common
shared database useful for many applications: divulgation, documentation, struc-
tures stability studies, etc.
From monument to town and country: Integrated techniques of surveying ... 395
In the case of Tilmen Höyük, we are following a methodological approach
adopted in many works on archaeological contexts: it usually includes different
techniques integrated together with the aim of performing in a quick and rigorous
way a multiscale survey from the territory to the site area and excavations, and
finally to single objects (Bitelli et al. 2005), characterized by having all the data and
results in a common well established reference system.
Therefore a first phase always consists in the definition of reference points or a
reference network pre-signalized in the interested area; this usually involves the adop-
tion of spatial geodesy, e.g. for the connection to international GPS networks for the
absolute georeferencing of a site if local geodetic points are not existing or, as in this
case, data are not available. GPS is also used in kinematic mode for morphological
description of areas and surveying of structures, sometimes coupled with topo-
graphical instruments and aerial, low height, or close-range photogrammetry. The
same points used for satellite remote sensing image georeferencing are used for map-
ping purposes, for thematic interpretation and classification, or as a base for the other
surveys of the site and its surrounding territory. Classical topographical methods by
using Total Station (see § 2), terrestrial laser scanning and close-range photogramme-
try are used at the site scale for structures and object surveying; all the methods
require to realize a preliminary orientation within the common system. Photogram-
metry, used by itself or in connection with laser scanning, with its products like
orthophotos, 3D vector drawing or Digital Surface Models with texture mapping,
provides important instruments for visual inspection and structures analysis (e.g. for
diagnosis or restoration purposes), combining accurate metric informations with the
high level of qualitative description of photographic contents. Finally, the knowledge
of a site is greatly facilitated if the means for virtual exploration are provided, using
visual or virtual reality techniques, based on photographic data (e.g. QTVR technolo-
gy) or vector/raster structures (e.g. VRML products), considering that this kind of
products are highly interactive, especially if made available on the WEB.
For single objects, the study can be performed using different techniques,
depending on the characteristics of the object (size, location, shape, etc.) and on the
purposes of the work. Digital photogrammetric surveys are frequently an optimal
solution because of their characteristics to perform the survey without contact with
the object and in a very short time, thus without interrupting for a significant period
the excavation process. The use of consumer digital cameras allows the acquisition of
data with cheapness and handiness, although in this case the photogrammetric pro-
cessing becomes more difficult, requiring the use of appropriate algorithms and pro-
cedure especially in the calibration phase. Laser scanning is also an emerging tech-
nique to perform the survey of an object with a very high density of 3D information,
and with the possibility to couple the point data with their radiometric attributes (e.g.
colours) acquired by calibrated cameras. The availability of a laser scan instrument on
a site during the excavation is however highly unusual, due to complex logistic prob-
lems and the high cost of the instrumentation.1
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Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East
1For instance, the surveying of a late MB II stela discovered at Tilmen (Marchetti 2006b, fig. 12) has
been realized, with the greatest accuracy possible, through a 3D laser scan on a gypsum mould taken on
the field (Bitelli et al. in press).
4. Remote sensing in Archaeology and GIS archives
In recent years the use of GIS for archaeology has increased because of the
development of commercial systems and the quick access to data obtained
through GPS and remote sensing. From macro level point of view, GIS is a funda-
mental instrument for representation, analysis and management of cultural land-
scape, such as «the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the
influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their nat-
ural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both
external and internal» (in according with UNESCO definition, see
www.unesco.org).
The fundamental question for such a cultural landscape information system is
how «landscape» can be operationalised in order to assign a value to the diachronic
approach for direct applications within the planning process. Landscapes can be
seen as topological variations of «historical processes», and it is possible to deter-
mine these landscape units based on the various forms of anthropic use. The
analysis of cultural landscape change is generally based on a variety of sources,
including topographic and historical maps, aerial and satellite photographs, land
registers with geodetic survey maps and land plot records. A state of the land-
scape, which represents the traditional land use system, should be the starting
point for the diachronic analysis of landscapes. We assume that analyses of cul-
tural landscapes ultimately require operationalisation with the help of a GIS in
order to successfully manage the abundant information about land units, attribute
data, and temporal layers.
One of the main aims of the Tilmen project is to recover and organize the col-
lected data in a single digital corpus, whereas new field surveys make possible to obtain
more detailed mapping of the archaeological remains around the main site. High and
medium resolution remote sensing data (multispectral and radar) and GIS methodolo-
gies have been really useful for the investigation of Tilmen Höyük and its landscape.
In order to investigate the cultural landscape (from archaeological point of view)
of Tilmen Höyük area, the first step should be the creation of thematic maps with
other archaeological sites, in the perspective to analyze the dynamics and trajectories
of settlement evolution and population interactions in Middle Bronze Age.
At the beginning the main aim of the present research was to obtain a solid
basis, using all available new methodologies and supports, composed by the data
coming from older researches the Islahiye valley (i.e. the survey carried out by B.
Alkιm in the late Fifties)2and the new results.
The historical maps and survey have been interpolated with satellite images as
KH-4 CORONA, panchromatic QuickBird3and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography
Mission) (Donoghue et al. 2006; Galiatsatos et al. in press) to obtain important
insights about ancient hydrography and the relationship between sites and topog-
raphy (fig. 4) (Rondelli and Tosi 2006).
From monument to town and country: Integrated techniques of surveying ... 397
2For a sketch map of the sites surveyed by Alkιm, see most recently Duru 2004: folder at the end of
the volume.
3We would like to thank Nik Inhaat Ticaret Ltd. Hti (Istanbul) for supplying the QuickBird images for
the Islahiye valley.
Thanks to the high resolution satellite images, archaeologists have been great-
ly helped in reconstructing, studying and understanding even the territory where
the acquisition of aerial photos and small scale topographical maps is, for differ-
ent reasons, impossible. Finally Google Earth software, with its impressive num-
ber of high and medium remote sensing data, has made available to scientists a
notable amount of different data, while everybody can «have a look» around the
world (Beck 2006). At the end, the GIS archive will contain layers of cartograph-
ic data (old and new maps, satellite images, aerial photos, plans, etc.) in order to
combine and overlay maps for large scale hypothetical models based on different
analytical elaborations and distributive analysis, to obtain a «territorial matrix» for
historical and geographical processes of landscape.
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Fig. 1: Detailed composite map of the K5 staircase drawn in 2005 after cleaning and
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From monument to town and country: Integrated techniques of surveying ... 401
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Chapter
Full-text available
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The first space mission to provide stereoscopic imagery of the Earth's surface was from the American CORONA spy satellite program from which it is possible to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEMS). CORONA imagery and derived DEMS are of most value in areas where conventional topographic maps are of poor quality, but the problem has been that until recently, it was difficult to assess their accuracy. This paper presents a methodology to create a high quality DEM from CORONA imagery using horizontal ground control derived from Ikonos space imagery and vertical ground control from map-based contour lines. Such DEMS can be produced without the need for field-based ground control measurements which is an advantage in many parts of world where ground surveying is difficult. Knowledge of CORONA image distortions, satellite geometry, ground resolution, and film scanning are important factors that can affect the DEM extraction process. A study area in Syria is used to demonstrate the method, and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data is used to perform quantitative and qualitative accuracy assessment of the automatically extracted DEM. The SRTM data has enormous importance for validating the quality of CORONA DEMS, and so, unlocking the potential of a largely untapped part of the archive. We conclude that CORONA data can produce unbiased, high-resolution DEM data which may be valuable for researchers working in countries where topographic data is difficult to obtain.