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New radiocarbon dates for the Early Starčevo Culture confi rm that the process of Neolithization in continental Croatia began already around the year 6000 BC. Evidence of this includes discovery of settlements in Zadubravlje and Slavonski Brod that belong to the initial phases of Starčevo Culture development - Linear A phase. The long duration of the Starčevo Culture is demonstrated by over one hundred recorded settlements from all phases of its development, from Linear A to the closing Spiraloid B phase. This confirms that the territory of continental Croatia was an integral component of the central Starčevo Culture zone and one of the key such zones in its emergence and existence. Typological and stylistic analyses of archaeological material from the settlement at Galovo in Slavonski Brod established that it belongs to the Linear A phase, which lasted for a considerable period of time. The first radiocarbon dating of a Starčevo Culture settlement in Croatia have determined a more precise chronological status of Slavonski Brod and Zadubravlje within the chronological scale of Early Neolithic settlements of the Starčevo Culture complex. Archaeological methods applied resulted in the discovery of two construction phases (vertical stratigraphy), while the third phase (horizontal stratigraphy) could only be determined using the 14C dating method. The dating of residential pit-house 37 and burial pit 15 in the most recent structures in this part of the settlement allowed, for the first time, a scientifically-founded portrayal of the horizontal stratigraphy of one of the oldest Early Neolithic settlements in continental Croatia.
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5
Izvorni znanstveni rad
Prapovijesna ar heo lo gi ja
Ori gi nal scien ti c pa per
Prehistoric ar chaeo lo gy
UDK/UDC 903.26(497.5)”6343”
Primljeno/Recieved: 14. 04. 2006.
Prihvaćeno/Accepted: 11. 09. 2006.
Dr. sc. KORNELIJA MINICHREITER
Institut za arheologiju
Ulica grada Vukovara 68
HR - 10000 Zagreb
kornelija.minichreiter@iarh.hr
Dr. sc. INES KRAJCAR BRONIĆ
Laboratorij za mjerenje niskih aktivnosti
Institut «Ruđer Bošković»
Bijenička cesta 54
HR - 10000 Zagreb
krajcar@irb.hr
Novi radiokarbonski datumi rane starčevačke kulture
u Hrvatskoj
New Radiocarbon Dates for the Early Starčevo Culture in
Croatia
Novi radiokarbonski datumi rane starčevačke kulture potvrđuju početke procesa neolitizacije
u prostoru kontinentalne Hrvatske već oko 6000. god. pr. Kr. Kao dokaz tomu su otkrića nase-
lja u Zadubravlju i Slavonskom Brodu, koja pripadaju vremenu početnih stupnjeva razvitka
starčevačke kulture – stupnju Linear A. O dugotrajnosti starčevačke kulture svjedoči više od
sto evidentiranih naselja iz gotovo svih stupnjeva njezina razvitka od Linear A do završnog Spi-
raloid B. Ovo potvrđuje da je tlo kontinentalne Hrvatske bilo integralni dio središnjeg prostora
starčevačke kulture i jedan od ključnih u njezinu postanku i trajanju. Tipološke i stilske analize
arheološke građe naselja na Galovu u Slavonskom Brodu opredijelile su ga u stupanj Linear
A koji je trajao dulje razdoblje. Prva datiranja naselja starčevačke kulture metodom 14C u
Hrvatskoj utvrdila su određeniju vremensku pripadnost Slavonskog Broda i Zadubravlja unutar
kronološkog slijeda ranoneolitičkih naselja starčevačkog kulturnog kompleksa. Arheološkom
metodom otkrivene su dvije faze izgradnje (vertikalna stratigra ja), dok se treću fazu (hori-
zontalna stratigra ja) jedino moglo utvrditi metodom 14C. Datiranje stambene zemunice 37 i
grobne jame 15 u najmlađe izgrađene objekte u ovom dijelu naselja, omogućilo je po prvi put,
znanstveno utemeljen prikaz horizontalne stratigra je jednog od najstarijih ranoneolitičkih
naselja kontinentalne Hrvatske.
Ključne riječi: radiokarbonsko datiranje, rani neolitik, Linear A stupanj, starčevačka kultura,
Zadubravlje, Slavonski Brod, Hrvatska
New radiocarbon dates for the Early Starčevo Culture con rm that the process of Neolithiza-
tion in continental Croatia began already around the year 6000 BC. Evidence of this includes
discovery of settlements in Zadubravlje and Slavonski Brod that belong to the initial phases
of Starčevo Culture development – Linear A phase. The long duration of the Starčevo Culture
is demonstrated by over one hundred recorded settlements from all phases of its development,
from Linear A to the closing Spiraloid B phase. This con rms that the territory of continental
Croatia was an integral component of the central Starčevo Culture zone and one of the key
such zones in its emergence and existence. Typological and stylistic analyses of archaeologi-
cal material from the settlement at Galovo in Slavonski Brod established that it belongs to the
Linear A phase, which lasted for a considerable period of time. The rst radiocarbon dating of
a Starčevo Culture settlement in Croatia have determined a more precise chronological status
of Slavonski Brod and Zadubravlje within the chronological scale of Early Neolithic settlements
of the Starčevo Culture complex. Archaeological methods applied resulted in the discovery of
two construction phases (vertical stratigraphy), while the third phase (horizontal stratigraphy)
could only be determined using the 14C dating method. The dating of residential pit-house 37
and burial pit 15 in the most recent structures in this part of the settlement allowed, for the rst
time, a scienti cally-founded portrayal of the horizontal stratigraphy of one of the oldest Early
Neolithic settlements in continental Croatia.
Key words: radiocarbon dating, Early Neolithic, Linear A phase, Starčevo Culture, Zadubrav-
lje, Slavonski Brod, Croatia
Izvorni
znanstveni
radovi
6
K. MINICHREITER, I. KRAJCAR BRONIÊ,
NOVI RADIOKARBONSKI DATUMI RANE STAR»EVA»KE KULTURE U HRVATSKOJ
, Pril. Inst. arheol. Zagrebu, 23/2006, str. 5-16.
Razvojem prve neolitičke kulture – starčevačke, počinje
dugotrajan proces neolitizacije, ne samo južnopanonskih,
nego i europskih prostora. Na tlu kontinentalne Hrvatske
otkrivena su naselja vremenske pripadnosti početnim stup-
njevima starčevačke kulture, što potvrđuje njezin razvitak
u ovim prostorima već u pretklasičnim stupnjevima1, podu-
darno s razvojem u ostalim regijama rasprostiranja njezinog
kulturnog kompleksa (Dimitrijević 1979, 237-251). Ovo je
dokaz da je prostor kontinentalne Hrvatske bio integralni dio
središnjeg prostora starčevačke kulture i jedan od ključnih u
njezinu postanku i trajanju. O njezinoj dugotrajnosti svjedoči
više od sto evidentiranih naselja2 iz gotovo svih stupnjeva
razvitka, od Linear A do završnog Spiraloid B.
Dosadašnja višegodišnja sustavna arheološka istraživanja
na Galovu u Slavonskom Brodu otkrila su dio naselja u kojem
arheološka građa, prema stilskim odlikama lončarstva, pripa-
da Linear A stupnju starčevačke kulture (Minichreiter 2001,
208-210). Pokapanje mrtvih unutar naselja između stambenih
i radnih zemunica bilo je uobičajeno u starčevačkoj kulturi.
Međutim, u Galovu je po prvi put otkriven ukopni prostor –
jame s pokojnicima i kultni objekti koji su bili izdvojeni unu-
tar naselja drvenim ogradama, što ukazuje na dosad nepoznat
način organizacije života plemenske zajednice. Arheološkim
istraživanjima objekata u naselju, izgrađenih jedan iznad dru-
gog, uočene su dvije faze izgradnje, dok je ostalo otvoreno
pitanje vremenskog odnosa okolnih samostojećih objekata u
naseljenom prostoru. Jedino rješenje mogle su pružiti interdi-
sciplinarne analize.
Jedna od najpoznatijih i najčće korištenih metoda za
određivanje apsolutne starosti je metoda pomoću radioaktiv-
nog ugljika 14C. Ova metoda koristi se za određivanje starosti
materijala biološkog porijekla, kao što su drvo, kosti, drveni
ugljen, žito. Koncentracija aktivnosti 14C u cijeloj atmosferi i
biosferi je približno konstantna, jer je uspostavljena ravnoteža
između prirodne produkcije i radioaktivnog raspada tog izoto-
pa. Međutim, nakon uginuća, odnosno smrti organizma, dolazi
samo do raspada 14C, pa se mjerenjem preostale koncentra-
cije aktivnosti 14C u nekom materijalu može odrediti vrijeme
proteklo od prestanka života organizma. Vrijeme poluraspada
14C iznosi 5730 godina, te se primjenom ove metode mogu
odrediti starosti do približno 50 000 godina. Izmjerena 14C sta-
rost se izražava kao konvencionalna 14C starost u godinama
prije sadašnjosti (BP), pri čemu je za “sadašnjost” dogovorom
proglašena 1950. godina. Precizna mjerenja pokazala su da
se u prošlosti mijenjala koncentracija izotopa 14C u atmosfe-
ri, zbog čega dolazi do određenih odstupanja izmjerene kon-
vencionalne 14C starosti od kalendarskih godina te je uvedena
dendrokronološka kalibracija 14C starosti. Kao rezultat kalibra-
cije dobiva se vremenski raspon izražen u godinama cal AD/
cal BC, s pripadnom vjerojatnošću (Bronk Ramsey 2005).
1
Prema podjeli S. Dimitrijevića: pretklasični stupnjevi – monokrom i
Linear A, ranoklasični stupnjevi – Linear B i Girlandoid i kasnoklasični
stupnjevi – Spiraloid A i B.
2 Brojnim arheološkim rekognosciranjima i zaštitnim arheološkim
istraživanjima na trasama budućih autocesta u sjevernoj Hrvatskoj, u
proteklih nekoliko godina evidentirano je 30-ak naselja starčevačke
kulture
.
The development of the rst Neolithic culture, the Starčevo
Culture, marked the commencement of the long-lasting Neoli-
thization of Southern Pannonia, but also of Europe in general.
Settlements from the Early Starčevo Culture were discovered
in continental Croatia, which con rms that its development in
this region began already in the pre-classical phases1, parallel
to its development in other regions of the distribution of this
cultural complex (Dimitrijević 1979, 237-251). This proves
that continental Croatia was an integral component of the cen-
tral Starčevo Culture zone and one of the key areas in its emer-
gence and existence. Over one hundred recorded settlements2
from almost all developmental phases, from Linear A to the
concluding Spiraloid B, testify to its long duration.
All previous systematic archaeological research at Galovo
in Slavonski Brod conducted over many years has uncovered
a portion of a settlement, in which the archaeological material
– based on the stylistic features of the pottery – place it in
the Linear A phase of the Starčevo Culture (Minichreiter 2001,
208-210). Interment of the deceased within the settlement,
between the residential and work pit-houses, was customary
during the Starčevo Culture. However, in Galavo a burial loca-
tion was discovered for the rst time: pits containing deceased
and cult structures that were inside the settlement but separa-
ted by wooden fences, which indicates a previously unknown
method of organisation of tribal community life. Archaeolo-
gical research of buildings in the settlement, erected on top of
each other, ascertained two construction phases. However, the
question of the chronological relationship with the surrounding
stand-alone structures in the settlement remained unanswered.
Only an interdisciplinary analysis could provide a solution.
One of the best known and most frequently used metho-
ds to determine absolute age is the so-called radiocarbon da-
ting. This method is used to determine the age of materials
of biological origin, such as wood, bones, charcoal or grain.
The concentration of 14C activities in the entire atmosphere
and biosphere is relatively constant, because there is a balance
between the natural production and radioactive decay of this
isotope. However, after expiration or death of an organism, 14C
only decays, so measurement of the remaining concentration of
14C activity in a given material can determine the time that has
elapsed since the organism ceased living. 14C has a half-life of
5,730 years, so this method can be used to determine ages up to
approximately 50,000 years. Radiocarbon dates are expressed
as conventional radiocarbon age in years before present (BP),
with the year 1950 deemed to be the “present” by convention.
Precise measurements have shown that in the past the concen-
tration of the 14C isotope in the atmosphere has changed, which
leads to certain deviations in the measured conventional radio-
carbon ages from calendar years. For this reason, the dendro-
chronological calibration of radiocarbon ages was introduced.
As a result of such calibration, a range expressed in years cal
AD/cal BC is obtained, with the associated probability (Bronk
Ramsey 2005).
1 Based on classi cation by S. Dimitrijević: pre-classical phases – Mono-
chrome and Linear A, early classical phases – Linear B and Girlandoid
and late classical phases – Spiraloid A and B.
2
Roughly 30 Starčevo Culture settlements were recorded over the past seve-
ral years as a result of numerous archaeological eld surveys and rescue
excavations on future motorway routes in northern Croatia.
7
K. MINICHREITER, I. KRAJCAR BRONIÊ,
NEW RADIOCARBON DATES FOR THE EARLY STAR»EVO CULTURE IN CROATIA
, Pril. Inst. arheol. Zagrebu, 23/2006, str. 5-16.
Metodom radioaktivnog ugljika 14C obavljene su tijekom
2000. godine prve analize uzoraka ugljena3 iz naselja Galovo
u Slavonskom Brodu (Krajcar-Bronić et al. 2004, 229-243).
Daljnje analize ugljena iz objekata otkrivenih u istraživanjima
2003., 2004. i 2005. godine potvrdile su vremenske razlike
dvije faze izgradnje, no veliko iznenađenje bilo je datiranje
jedne stambene zemunice i grobne jame u najmlađu (treću)
vremensku fazu u istraženom dijelu naselja.
U prvoj fazi, u kojoj su objekti bili izgrađeni između
6100 i 5700 cal BC (sl. 1-2), obredno-ukopni prostor je u
svojem zapadnom dijelu zauzimao mnogo veću površinu
unutar naselja, što je vidljivo po položaju dviju drvenih
ograda koje su dijelile stambeni od ukopnog dijela naselja.
Drvene ograde 7 i 73 okruživale su veliku grobnu jamu 9
s tri pokojnika, zapadni kultni objekt 149 (možda i kultni
objekt 17) i južnu zemunicu 205, odvajajući ih od sjevernog
dijela naselja. U sjevernom dijelu velike grobne jame 9 (17
x 5 m) bile su izgrađene, uz dva kostura (muškarac 40-50 g.
i žena bez glave 35-40 g.)4, dvije obredne peći (Minichrei-
ter 1999, sl. 6,8-9). Uz kosture su kao dar pokojnicima bili
priloženi lonci i zdjele na nozi obojeni crvenom bojom s
tamnosmeđim i bijelo slikanim motivima, tri male žrtvene
posudice (minijaturne zdjele na nozi)5 i jezičasta kamena
sjekira. U južnom dijelu grobne jame kostur muškarca bez
glave (dobne starosti blizu 25-30 g.) okruživale su tri skupi-
ne glinenog posuđa, među kojima su bile i posude sa slika-
nim uzorcima. Ispred kostura nađena je grudica okera, mali
zoomorfni žrtvenik (Minichreiter 1999, 15, T. 2), žrtvenik
četverokutnog postolja sa životinjskim protomama na uglo-
vima (Minichreiter 2002, 18, T. 3,5) i kameno dlijeto, osta-
vljeni kao dar pokojniku. U središnjem prostoru jame, neda-
leko njezina ulaza, nađena je skupina velikih lonaca grublje
fakture, zdjela i zdjela na nozi ne fakture, površine oboje-
ne crvenom bojom s bijelo i tamno slikanim uzorcima. U
posuđu se možda čuvala hrana kao dar za pokojnike ili su se
ovdje odvijale obredne gozbe. Kultnom značenju ove sku-
pine posuda pridonose još i kamene alatke među njima. To
su četiri klina i dvije trapezaste sjekire, koje ovdje svjedoče
o postojanju kulta sjekire, kojeg A. Benac opisuje na Obri-
ma II u Bosni (Benac 1971, 76-77). Ovi predmeti u grob-
noj jami su kao simboli moći ukazivali na naglašen položaj
pokojnika u plemenskoj zajednici. Ispod skupine posuđa
bio je u dno jame ukopan goveđi rog – kultno žrtvovanje
životinje. Ovakav običaj označavanja istaknutog položaja
jame ili zemunice otkriven je u ranoneolitičkim naseljima
u zemunici 10 u Zadubravlju (Minichreiter 1992, 31) i u
kući K-1 u Obrima I u Bosni (Benac 1973, 16). Na izgled
pokrova iznad ove velike grobne jame upućuju bankovi uz
3 Sve analize obavljene su u Laboratoriju za mjerenje niskih aktivnosti,
Zavoda za eksperimentalnu fiziku u Institutu “Ruđer Bošković” u
Zagrebu.
4 Antropološke analize obavili su dr. sc. Mario Šlaus i mr. sc. Mario Novak
u Odsjeku za arheologiju HAZU-a u Zagrebu.
5 Valja naglasiti da su žrtvene posudice u obliku minijaturnih zdjela na
nozi otkrivene samo uz pokojnike u grobnim jamama, dok su ostali tipovi
žrtvenika otkriveni u stambenim i radnim zemunicama. Suprotno tomu,
antropomorfni idoli nađeni su samo u stambenim i radnim zemunicama,
a niti jedan nije bio priložen uz pokojnike u grobnim jamama.
The rst radiocarbon dating of charcoal samples3 from the
Galavo settlement in Slavonski Brod was carried out in 2000
(Krajcar-Bronić et al. 2004, 229-243). Further analysis of char-
coal from the structures discovered during the excavations in
2003, 2004 and 2005 have con rmed chronological differences
between the two construction phases, but a major surprise was
dating of a residential pit-house and burial pit in the latest (third)
chronological phase in the explored portion of the settlement.
In the rst phase the structures were built between 6100 and
5700 cal BC (Fig. 1-2). During this period, the ritual/burial zone in
the western section occupied a much larger surface-area within the
settlement, which is apparent from the position of the two wooden
fences that separated the residential section from the burial section
of the settlement. Wooden fences 7 and 73 surrounded the large
burial pit 9, containing three bodies, the western cult structure 149
(perhaps also cult structure 17), and southern pit-house 205, sepa-
rating them from the northern part of the settlement. In the nor-
thern portion of large burial pit 9 (17 x 5 m), besides two skeletons
(male, 40-50 years of age, and headless female, 35-40 years)4, two
ritual ovens (Minichreiter 1999, Fig. 6,8-9) were built. Next to the
skeletons, grave goods were discovered, which consisted of pots
and footed bowls painted red with dark brown and white motifs,
three small sacri cial vessels (miniature footed bowls)5 and a ton-
gue-shaped stone axe. In the southern portion of the burial pit, the
3
All analyses were conducted in the Low-level Radioactivity Measure-
ment Laboratory of the Ruđer Bošković Institute’s Experimental Phy-
sics Division in Zagreb
.
4 Anthropological analysis was conducted by Mario Šlaus, Ph.D. and
Mario Novak, MA in the Department of Archaeology of the Croatian
Academy of Arts and Science in Zagreb.
5
It should be noted that sacri cial vessels shaped like miniature bowls on
legs were discovered only next to the deceased in burial pits, while the
remaining altar types were found in residential and work pit houses. By
contrast, anthropomorphic idols were only found in residential and work
pit houses, while not one was deposited with the deceased in burial pits.
Sl. 1 Slavonski Brod, Galovo: zračna snimka naselja u fazi
istraživanja (snimio M. Hucaljuk)
Fig. 1 Slavonski Brod, Galovo: an aerial photo of the settlement
excavation (photo by M. Hucaljuk)
8
K. MINICHREITER, I. KRAJCAR BRONIÊ,
NOVI RADIOKARBONSKI DATUMI RANE STAR»EVA»KE KULTURE U HRVATSKOJ
, Pril. Inst. arheol. Zagrebu, 23/2006, str. 5-16.
rubove sjevernog prostora. Možda je jama s dva pokojnika
u ovom dijelu bila prekrivena vodoravno (ili plitko na dvije
vode) složenim oblicama prekrivenim zemljom, slamom ili
trskom. Rupe od velikih drvenih stupova uz rub središnjeg
prostora vjerojatno su držale šatorastu konstrukciju u kojoj
se moglo kretati oko skupine velikog obrednog posuđa.
Ostaci ugljena iz sjevernog dijela grobne jame datirani su u
vrijeme od 5810 do 5620 cal BC.
Zapadno od velike grobne jame 9 bila su dva kultna objek-
ta (ili samo jedan), od kojih je samo zapadni kultni objekt 149
i njegova obnovljena konstrukcija datirana metodom
14C
.
Dvostruke drvene ograde, za koje pretpostavljamo da su bi-
li kultni objekti, bile su promjera 15 m, izgrađene tlocrtno u
obliku mjesečeva srpa. Vrijeme nastanka istočnog kultnog
objekta 17 još nije utvrđeno, ali pretpostavljamo da je podi-
gnut u drugoj fazi izgradnje naselja nakon prestanka funkcije
zapadnog kultnog objekta 149. Iz prostora zapadnog kultnog
objekta datirani su ostaci ugljena triju različitih dijelova, jer je
vidljivo da su bili obnavljani na istome mjestu, ukopavajući
skeleton of a headless male (aged approximately 25-30 years) was
surrounded by three groups of clay vessels, including some vessels
with painted patterns. In front of the skeleton, a lump of ochre, a
small zoomorphic altar (Minichreiter 1999, 15, Pl. 2), an altar with
rectangular pedestal and animal protomes at the corners (Minichrei-
ter 2002, 18, Pl. 3,5) and a stone chisel were found. These items
were also left as grave goods. In the central area of the pit, not far
from its entrance, a group of large roughly shaped pots was found,
together with a bowl and a nely worked footed bowl with a red
surface and white and dark patterns painted on it. The wares may
have been used for holding food that was buried as grave goods, or
they may have played a role in ritual feasts that were held here. The
signi cance of this group of vessels for some cult is further enhan-
ced by the stone tools discovered among them. These include four
wedges and two trapezoidal axes, which in this context testify to the
existence of an axe cult, described A. Benac at Obre II in Bosnia
(Benac 1971, 76-77). In a burial pit, these items served as symbols
of power and indicated the elevated status of the deceased in the tri-
bal community. Below the group of vessels a bull’s horn was buried
in the bottom of the pit – indicating an animal sacri ce. This type of
Fig. 2 Slavonski Brod, Galovo: layout of the rst-phase structure
with radiocarbon dates for the residential and burial area
(drawing by M. Gregl)
Sl. 2 Slavonski Brod, Galovo: tlocrt objekata s 14C datiranjem prve
faze u stambenom i ukopnom prostoru (crtež M. Gregl)
Oznaka
Sample
code
Naziv uzorka
Sample name
Konvencionalna
14C starost (BP)
Conventional
14C age (BP)
Raspon kalibracije
(% vjerojatnosti)
Calibration range
(% probability)
Z-3586 Zapadni kulturni objekt 89, kv.F/12-d, PU312
Western ritual object 89, q.F/12-d, PU312 7060 ± 150 6070 - 5770 cal
BC (68.2%)
Z-3584 Zapadni kulturni objekt 149, kv.E/11-a, PU150-151
Western ritual object 89, q.E/11-a, PU150-151 7000 ± 140 6000 - 5740 cal
BC (68.2%)
Z-3587 Zapadni kulturni objekt 389, kv.G/12-a, PU331
Western ritual object 389, q.G/12-a, PU331 6865 ±65 5850 - 5710 cal
BC (68.2%)
Z-2936 Zemunica 09, peć 032, kv. C/3
Pit 9, oven 032, q C/3 6835 ±110 5810 - 5620 cal
BC (68.2%)
Z-3574 Zemunica 205, PU 484
Pit 205, PU 484 6875 ±35 5800 - 5715 cal
BC (68.2%)
Z-3575 Zemunica 205, PU 496
Pit 205, PU 496 6850 ±60 5790 - 5660 cal
BC (68.2%)
9
K. MINICHREITER, I. KRAJCAR BRONIÊ,
NEW RADIOCARBON DATES FOR THE EARLY STAR»EVO CULTURE IN CROATIA
, Pril. Inst. arheol. Zagrebu, 23/2006, str. 5-16.
rovove za ogradu jednu nedaleko druge. Tako su uzorci ogra-
de 89 (6070 – 5770 cal BC) i 149 (6000 – 5740 cal BC) nešto
stariji od ograde 389 (5850 – 5710 cal BC).
U radnoj zemunici 205, tlocrtne veličine 7 x 5 m, otkriveni
su ostaci krušne peći, vertikalnog tkalačkog stana i izdužene
lončarske peći. Vrlo praktično i racionalno raspoređeni radni
prostori morali su zadovoljavati potrebama obavljanja raz-
novrsnih poslova, pečenja pogače, glinenog posuđa i izradi
tkanina. Kupolasta krušna peć bila je izgrađena uz zapadne
stijenke zemunice. Ostaci ugljena u pepelu ispred krušne peći
datirani su metodom
14C
u 5800 – 5715 cal BC. Na sjevernoj
strani zemunice nađeni su ostaci drvenog okvira od vertikal-
nog tkalačkog stana i dvije skupine glinenih utega pirami-
dalnog oblika (blizu 30 komada). Ostaci drvenog okvira ver-
tikalnog tkalačkog stana datirani su u 5790 - 5660 cal BC. U
istočnom prostoru zemunice 205, pored prilaznih stepenica,
bila je lončarska peć izdužena oblika, čiji je vrh bio u ravnini
gornjeg rubnog dijela zemunice.
U mlađoj fazi, datiranoj blizu 5700 cal BC (sl. 3), naselje
se proširilo prema jamama s pokojnicima i time smanjilo
površinu ukopnog prostora. Iznad zapadnog kultnog objekta
149 i njegove sjeverne lučne drvene ograde 73, koja je no-
vom izgradnjom izgubila svoju funkciju, bile su izgrađene
tri velike zemunice 64/107, 153 i 155. Poštivajući tradiciju i
značenje istočnog kultnog objekta, skupina novih zemunica
izgrađena je polukružno oko njega, a ne smjerom sjever-jug,
što je bilo pravilo u naselju pri izgradnji ostalih zemunica. U
toj mlađoj fazi proširenja naselja, između istočnog kultnog
marking of the distinguished position of a pit or pit-house was also
observed in Early Neolithic settlements in pit-house 10 at Zadubra-
vlje (Minichreiter 1992, 31) and in house K-1 at Obre I in Bosnia
(Benac 1973, 16). Shelves along the edge of the northern part of
this large burial pit suggest the possible form of its roo ng. The
pit containing two bodies in this section may have been covered
horizontally or with a shallow pitched roof made of logs covered by
dirt, straw or reeds. The holes for large wooden posts on the edge
of the central area probably held a tent-like structure that allowed
movement around the group of large ritual vessels. The remains of
charcoal from the northern section of the burial pit have been dated
to the period between 5810 and 5620 cal BC.
West of the large burial pit 9 there were two cult structures (or
just one), but only the western cult structure 149 and its renewed
construction have been radiocarbon dated. Double wooden fences,
which were presumably also cult structures, had a diameter of 15
m and were built in a crescent layout. The time of the construction
of the eastern cult structure 17 has not yet been ascertained, but
it is assumed that it was erected in the settlement’s second con-
struction phase, after the western cult structure 149 fell out of use.
The remains of charcoal from three different parts of the western
cult structure have been dated, because it is apparent that they
were rebuilt at the same site, and that trenches for fences were dug
close to one other. Thus samples of fence 89 (6070-5770 cal BC)
and 149 (6000-5740 cal BC) are somewhat older than fence 389
(5850-5710 cal BC).
In work pit-house 205, with ground-plan dimensions of 7 x 5
m, the remains of a bread oven, a vertical loom and an elongated
pottery kiln were found. The very practically and rationally ar-
Sl. 3 Slavonski Brod, Galovo: tlocrt objekata druge faze s 14C dati-
ranjem u stambenom i ukopnom prostoru (crtež M. Gregl)
Fig. 3 Slavonski Brod, Galovo: layout of the second-phase structu-
re with radiocarbon dates for the residential and burial area
(drawing by M. Gregl)
Oznaka
Sample
code
Naziv uzorka
Sample name
Konvencionalna
14C starost (BP)
Conventional
14C age (BP)
Raspon kalibracije
(% vjerojatnosti)
Calibration range
(% probability)
Z-3588 Zemunica 155, kv. G/13a, PU369
Pit 155, q G/13-a, PU369 6820 ± 70 5760 - 5630 cal
BC (68.2%)
10
K. MINICHREITER, I. KRAJCAR BRONIÊ,
NOVI RADIOKARBONSKI DATUMI RANE STAR»EVA»KE KULTURE U HRVATSKOJ
, Pril. Inst. arheol. Zagrebu, 23/2006, str. 5-16.
objekta i zemunica izgrađena je nova kratka drvena pregrada
87 radi odvajanja ukopnog od stambenog prostora, koja je
više na simboličan nego stvaran način razdvajala ova dva
prostora. Naselje starčevačke kulture na Galovu je među naj-
starijim primjerima širenja stambenog dijela naselja prema
prostoru za pokojnike, što je česti slučaj u brojnim naselji-
ma tijekom povijesti, pa i u današnjim velikim gradovima.
Stambena i radna zemunica 64/107 dužine 15 m i širine 4–7
m, nije datirana metodom
14C
, ali njezina izgradnja sjeverne,
manje prostorije, iznad jednog dijela drvene lučne ograde 73,
potvrđuje pripadnost mlađoj fazi izgradnje naselja. Zemuni-
ca se sastojala od sjeverne i južne prostorije nejednakih di-
menzija (Minichreiter 2002, 11-13, sl. 2). Inventar sjeverne
prostorije koji je sadržavao 715 kamenih predmeta iz svih fa-
za obrade (obluci, jezgre, odbojci, krhotine, pločice, sječiva,
brusno kamenje i sl.) upućuje na pretpostavku da je ovdje
bila radionica za izradu kamenih alatki. Raznolikost namje-
ne sjevernog radnog i južnog stambenog prostora potvrđuju i
dva ulaza u zemunicu na njezinoj istočnoj strani. Preko jedne
stepenice se ulazilo u sjeverni, a preko dvije u južni prostor.
Inače, sve zemunice u naselju, bez obzira na njihovu namje-
nu, imaju samo jedan ulaz na svojoj istočnoj strani. Iako
nije datirana metodom 14C, prema položaju sjeverozapadne
stambene zemunice 153 u naselju može se zaključiti da je
izgrađena u mlađoj fazi naselja. Dužine 9 i širine blizu 5 m, bi-
la je izgrađena svojom istočnom prostorijom iznad zapadnog
kultnog objekta između zemunica 64/107 i 155. U zemunici
su bile tri prostorije, od kojih je srednja (najveća) imala ulaz
na sjeveroistočnoj strani. Odsutnost peći, tkalačkog stana i
kamenih predmeta iz raznih faza obrade kao i raspored i oblik
prostorija ukazuju na njezin stambeni karakter (spavaonica).
Inventar zemunice sastojao se od raznovrsnog kuhinjskog
posuđa grube fakture (zdjele, lonci) i nog posuđa - zdjela
na nozi i lonaca obojenih crvenom bojom i tamno slikanim
motivima. Posebno se ističe desetak žrtvenika četverokutnog
postolja, nekoliko stupastih idola, realistički oblikovana gla-
va divlje svinje i gurica srne (Minichreiter 2004, 11-13, sl.
7,1a i b, sl. 8,2-5). Analize ugljena metodom
14C
odredile su
radnu zemunicu 155 u vrijeme 5760 – 5630 cal BC i opre-
dijelile, pored nje, skupinu susjednih zemunica u mlađu fazu
izgradnje naselja. To potvrđuje izgradnja njezine istočne pro-
storije iznad vanjskog jarka ograde zapadnog kultnog objekta
149. Zemunica je izgrađena usporedno sa zemunicom 153 s
njezine južne strane. Unutar zemunice dužine 11 m i širine
blizu 6 (odnosno 7 m), bile su dvije prostorije različite namje-
ne. U zapadnom dijelu radionice bile su četiri peći – dvije
lončarske i dvije krušne, a u istočnom radnom prostoru vje-
rojatno su oblikovani lončarski predmeti tijekom priprema za
pečenje. Kod istočnog ulaza u malom prostoru ostaci drve-
nog okvira i glinenih utega ukazuju da se ovdje proizvodila
tkanina na vertikalnom tkalačkom stanu (Minichreiter 2004,
5-18).
Trećoj, najmlađoj fazi ovog dijela naselja pripadaju stam-
bena zemunica 37 i mala grobna jama 15 datirani u vrijeme od
približno 5300 do 5000 cal BC (sl. 4). Stambena zemunica 37
bila je izgrađena sjeverno od skupine šest zemunica i sjevero-
zapadno od ograde 7 u naselju, dok je istodobna mala grobna
jama 15 izgrađena nasuprot njoj s unutarnje strane ograde 7
ranged work spaces had to meet the needs of performing various
tasks: baking of loaves, ring clay vessels and production of tex-
tiles. The dome-shaped bread oven was built along the western
wall of the pit-house. The charcoal found in the ash in front of the
bread oven was radiocarbon dated to 5800-5715 cal BC. On the
northern side of the pit-house, the remains of a wooden frame from
a vertical loom were found, together with two groups of pyramidal
clay weights (approximately 30). The remains of the vertical loom
frame were dated to 5790-5660 cal BC. In the eastern room of pit-
house 205, next to the access stairs, there was an elongated pottery
kiln, its top level with the upper part of the pit-house.
During its later phase, dated roughly to 5700 cal BC (Fig. 3),
the settlement expanded toward the burial pits and thereby reduced
the surface area intended for interments. Above the western cult
structure 149 and its arched wooden fence 73, which lost its func-
tion after new construction, the three large pit-houses 64/107, 153
and 155 were built. Respecting the tradition and signi cance of the
eastern cult structure, the new pit-houses were constructed around
it in a semi-circle, rather than in a north-south direction, which was
otherwise customary in the settlement when new pit-houses we-
re constructed. In this more recent phase of settlement expansion,
between the eastern cult structure and the pit-houses, the new woo-
den partition 87 was erected to separate the burial and residential
areas. The partition served more as a symbolic than actual dividing
line. The Starčevo settlement at Galovo is one of the oldest exam-
ples of expansion of a residential section of a settlement toward
the area for the deceased, which frequently occurred in numerous
settlements throughout history, and even in contemporary large
cities. Residential and work pit-house 64/107, 15 m long 4-7 m
wide, has not been radiocarbon dated, but the construction of its
northern, smaller room, above a part of the arched wooden fence
73, con rms that it belongs to a later construction phase of the se-
ttlement. The pit-house consisted of northern and southern rooms
of different dimensions (Minichreiter 2002, 11-13, Fig. 2). The in-
ventory of the northern room, which contained 715 stone items in
all phases of crafting (pebbles, cores, akes, fragments, platelets,
cutting edges, polishing stones, etc.), indicates that this was a stone
tool workshop. The diversity of uses of the northern work rooms
and southern residential rooms is con rmed by the two entrances
to the pit-house on its eastern side. One stair led to the northern
room, and two led to the southern room. Otherwise, all pit-houses
in the settlement, regardless of their purpose, have only a single
entrance on their eastern sides. Even though it has not been radio-
carbon dated, on the basis of the position of northern residential
pit-house 153 in the settlement, the conclusion may be drawn that
it was constructed in a later phase of the settlement. With a length
of 9 m and width close to 5 m, it was constructed in such a way that
its eastern room stood above the western cult structure between
pit-houses 64/107 and 155. The pit-house consisted of three rooms,
the middle one (which was also the largest) having an entrance on
the north-eastern side. The absence of an oven, loom and stone
items in various phases of crafting, and the arrangement and sha-
pe of the rooms indicate its residential character (bedroom). The
inventory of the pit-house consisted of various coarsely shaped
kitchen ware (bowls, pots) and some ne table ware – a footed
bowl and red pots with motifs painted in dark colours. Particular
attention is drawn by a dozen altars with rectangular bases, se-
veral pillar-shaped idols, a realistically rendered pig’s head and a
gurine of a deer (Minichreiter 2004, 11-13, Fig. 7,1a and b, Fig.
8,2-5). Radiocarbon analysis of charcoal has placed pit-house 155
at 5760-5630 cal BC and determined that, along with it, a group
11
K. MINICHREITER, I. KRAJCAR BRONIÊ,
NEW RADIOCARBON DATES FOR THE EARLY STAR»EVO CULTURE IN CROATIA
, Pril. Inst. arheol. Zagrebu, 23/2006, str. 5-16.
u ukopnom prostoru. Stambena zemunica 37, dužine 15 m i
širine 5 m, bila je u svojem sjeveroistočnom dijelu uništena
dotadašnjim iskopom Ciglane.6 Raspored unutarnjeg prostora
ove zemunice razlikovao se od ostalih stambenih zemunica u
naselju po tome što je cijela zemunica bila samo jedna prosto-
rija s plitko ukopanim neravnim dnom podjednake dubine u
cijelom prostoru (Minichreiter 1999a, sl. 7-8), što ukazuje da
je ovdje najvjerojatnije bila spavaonica za više članova obi-
telji. Na dnu zemunice nađene su rupe od velikih okomitih
stupova, ukopanih u zdravicu 20-30 cm, koji su u pravilnim
razmacima od po 2 m bili poredani u nizu po uzdužnoj osi
zemunice (smjerom SZ-JI). Na svaki od stupova uzdužne osi
nadovezao se pod pravim kutom poprečni niz manjih stupo-
va koji su mogli držati krovnu konstrukciju na dvije vode. U
zemunici su, uz brojne ulomke kućnog keramičkog posuđa,
otkriveni samo jedna noga žrtvenika i manji «žrtveni stol» -
ravna podloga na kojoj je moglo stajati posuđe ili drugi kultni
predmeti. Među litičkim nalazima otkrivena su i dva klina i
ulomak klina ili sjekire.7 Inventar u zemunici istovrstan je po
stilskim obilježjima arheološkoj građi u ostalim objektima na-
selja. Analize ugljena metodom
14C
datirale su ovaj objekt
kao najmlađi u istraženom dijelu naselja u vrijeme oko 5380-
5290 cal BC.
Nedaleko stambene zemunice 37 s južne i jugozapadne
strane na udaljenosti od 2 m, bila su dva popratna objekta
– dvije plitke jame 41 i 43 približno iste veličine. Široka pli-
tka jama 41, dimenzija 2,40 x 1,70 m, bila je ukopana oko
40 cm ispod razine naselja. Stranice jame bile su okomite sa
stepenicom na jugoistočnoj strani. U jami su nađeni nizovi
rupa od drvenih kolaca koji su iznad ulaznog dijela mogli
držati nadstrešnicu. Pretpostavci da je jama bila natkrivena
ide u prilog činjenica što je u središnjem dijelu jame otkrivena
kružna rupa od okomitog stupa promjera 30 cm. Inventar u
jami bio je malobrojan. Nekoliko ulomaka keramike, koma-
di pečene zemlje s otiscima šiblja, skupina odbojaka i ostaci
spaljenih životinjskih kostiju bili su grupirani u jugozapad-
nom proširenom dijelu jame. U središnjem dijelu jame bio
je na dno položen ulomak veće posude na kojem je pomoću
trake s otiscima prsta reljefno izveden stilizirani ženski lik s
uzdignutim rukama na molitvu (Minichreiter 2000, 9, sl. 1).
Jama 41 svojim oblikom kao i malobrojnim inventarom u
njoj, ukazuje da to nije bila obična jama za otpatke, nego pro-
stor u koji se moglo ući i boraviti u njemu obavljajući nekakve
obrede. Druga jama 43 bila je ukopana na praznom širokom
međuprostoru naselja na udaljenosti od oko 3 m jugoistočno
od jame 41, približno 2,5 m južno od stambene zemunice 39.
Promjera 2 m, bila je ukopana u svojem najdubljem dijelu oko
80 cm od površine naselja. Od površine prema dnu stranice su
bile blizu 30 cm, okomito ukopane prema ravnom dnu, dok su
na južnoj strani bile oblikovane dvije široke stepenice. Rupe
od kolaca nađene su u sredini jame i na njezinom rubnom dije-
6 Do 1997. god. Ciglana je za svoje potrebe koristila zemljište i tako
uništila veliku površinu naselja.
7
Analizu i znanstvenu valorizaciju glačanog kamenog oruđa obavila je
prof. dr. sc. T. Težak-Gregl, što će kao poseban rad biti objavljeno u
monogra ji K. Minichreiter, Galovo - Slavonski Brod, deset godina
arheoloških istraživanja
.
of neighbouring pit-houses also belong to a later phase of the set-
tlement’s construction. This is con rmed by the construction of its
eastern room above the outer ditch of the western cult structure
149. The pit-house was constructed parallel to pit-house 153, on
its southern side. Inside the pit-house which is 11 m long and 6-7
m wide, there were two rooms with different purposes. There were
two pottery kilns and two bread ovens in the western section of the
workshop, while in the eastern work room pottery items were pro-
bably shaped while they were prepared for ring. The remains of
a wooden frame and clay weights in the small room at the eastern
entrance indicate that fabric was made here using the vertical loom
(Minichreiter 2004, 5-18).
Residential pit-house 37 and small burial pit 15 belong to the
third, most recent phase of this part of the settlement, dated to ap-
proximately 5300 to 5000 cal BC (Fig. 4). Residential pit-house
37 was constructed north of the group of six pit-houses and nor-
thwest of fence 7 in the settlement, while the contemporaneous
small burial pit 15 was made opposite to it from the inside of fence
7 in the burial zone. The northeast portion of residential pit-house
37 of a length of 15 m and width of 5 m, was destroyed by pre-
vious excavation of the brick factory.6 The interior arrangement of
this pit-house differed from the other residential pit-houses in that
the entire pit-house consisted of only one room with a shallowly
excavated uneven oor of equal depth throughout the room (Mi-
nichreiter 1999a, Fig. 7-8). This indicates that there was probably
a bedroom here for several members of the family. Holes for large
vertical posts were found at the bottom of the pit-house. They were
dug 20-30 cm into sterile soil, and arranged in a series along the
longitudinal axis of the pit-house (northwest-southeast direction)
at uniform distances. A perpendicular series of smaller posts were
connected to each of the posts on the longitudinal axis, which may
have supported a pitched roof structure. Besides numerous frag-
ments of kitchen ware, only a single altar leg and a smaller “table
for sacri ces” (a at surface on which vessels and other cult items
may have stood) were found. Among the stone nds, two wedges
and a fragment of a wedge or axe were discovered.7 The pit-house’s
inventory is identical in stylistic terms to the archaeological mate-
rial found in the settlement’s other structures. Radiocarbon dating
indicated that this structure belongs to the most recent period of the
settlement and placed it to 5380-5290 cal BC.
Close to residential pit-house 37, on the south and southwest
side, at a distance of 2 m, there were two accompanying structures:
two shallow pits, 41 and 43, of approximately the same size. The
broad shallow pit 41, of 2.4 x 1.7 m, was dug at approximately
40 cm below the level of the settlement. The sides of the pit were
vertical with a step on the south-east side. A series of holes from
wooden posts were found in the pit, which may have supported an
awning above the entrance. The assumption that the pit-house was
covered is backed by the fact that a circular hole was found in the
centre of the pit, made by a vertical post with a 30 cm diameter.
The inventory in the pit was meagre. Several pottery fragments,
pieces of baked earth with reed imprints, a group of akes and the
remains of burned animal bones were grouped in the southwest
6 Up to 1997, the brick factory used the land and thus destroyed much of
the settlement’s surface.
7 Analysis and scienti c evaluation of polished stone tools were conducted
by Prof. T. Težak-Gregl Ph.D. The results of the analysis will be pub-
lished as a separate work in the monograph by K. Minichreiter, Galovo
– Slavonski Brod, deset godina arheoloških istraživanja.
12
K. MINICHREITER, I. KRAJCAR BRONIÊ,
NOVI RADIOKARBONSKI DATUMI RANE STAR»EVA»KE KULTURE U HRVATSKOJ
, Pril. Inst. arheol. Zagrebu, 23/2006, str. 5-16.
lu, pa je i ova jama najvjerojatnije bila natkrivena. Inventar
u jami bili su malobrojni ulomci keramike i nešto kamenih
izrađevina i to sve zatrpano crnom masnom zemljom – gore-
vinom. I ova jama kao i susjedna, slična oblikom i inventa-
rom, imala je vjerojatno istu namjenu, isključujući mogućnost
da je služila za otpad.
Nasuprot stambene zemunice 37, s unutarnje strane ogra-
de 7, u sjeverozapadnom ukopnom prostoru smjestila se
mala grobna jama 15, datirana
14C
metodom kao najmlađi
istraženi objekt, u vremenu 5300 - 4960 cal BC. Ova ma-
la grobna jama 15, promjera 5 m i ravnog dna ukopanog 50
cm u zdravicu, bila je izgrađena u sredini prazne površine
zapadnog prostora obredno-ukopnog dijela naselja. Udaljena
od ostalih objekata dominirala je ovim prostorom, okružena
velikom nadstrešnicom i trijemom iznad ulaza, koje su držali
nizovi drvenih stupova. Na njezinoj sjevernoj strani bio je
preko jedne široke stepenice, oblikovane kao mala platfor-
ma, ulaz u grobnu jamu. U zapadnom dijelu bio je pokopan
muškarac u dobi 35-40 godina u zgrčenom položaju, tako da
expanded part of the pit. In the central portion of the pit a fragment
of a large vessel was placed on the bottom. The vessel was decora-
ted with a nger-impressed band with a stylized female gure with
arms raised in prayer rendered in relief (Minichreiter 2000, 9, Fig.
1). The shape and meagre inventory of pit 41 indicate that it was
not an ordinary waste pit, but rather a space that could be entered
and in which a person could stay to perform certain rituals. The
second pit 43 was dug into an empty, broad space within the settle-
ment, approximately 3 m southeast of pit 41 and approximately 2.5
m south of residential pit-house 39. It was dug to a diameter of 2 m
at its deepest part, approximately 80 cm from the settlement’s sur-
face. From the surface to the bottom, the walls were approximately
30 cm, vertically dug toward the at bottom, while on the southern
side there were two wide steps. Holes for stakes were found in
the centre of the pit and at its edge, so this pit was probably also
covered. The inventory in the pit encompassed a small number of
pottery fragments and some stone items, all buried under black
oily soil – soot. This pit, like the neighbouring one, with similar
shape and inventory, probably served the same purpose, excluding
the possibility that it was used to discard waste.
Sl. 4 Slavonski Brod, Galovo: tlocrt objekata treće faze s 14C dati-
ranjem u stambenom i ukopnom prostoru (crtež M. Gregl)
Fig. 4 Slavonski Brod, Galovo: layout of the third-phase structure
with radiocarbon dates for the residential and burial area
(drawing by M. Gregl)
Oznaka
Sample
code
Naziv uzorka
Sample name
Konvencionalna
14C starost (BP)
Conventional
14C age (BP)
Raspon kalibracije
(% vjerojatnosti)
Calibration range
(% probability)
Z-3583 Zemunica 37, kv. b/10-c, PU044
Pit 37, q. b/10-c, PU044 6300 ± 80 5380 - 5290 cal
BC (68.2%)
Z-3574 Zemunica 015, kv D/2
Pit 015, q. D/2 6190 ± 130 5300 - 4960 cal
BC (68.2%)
13
K. MINICHREITER, I. KRAJCAR BRONIÊ,
NEW RADIOCARBON DATES FOR THE EARLY STAR»EVO CULTURE IN CROATIA
, Pril. Inst. arheol. Zagrebu, 23/2006, str. 5-16.
je ležao na lijevom boku, s glavom na sjevernoj, a nogama
na južnoj strani, okrenut prema sredini jame (Minichreiter
2000b, sl. 5). Muškarac je bio ukopan bez lica, jer su nađene
samo stražnje kosti lubanje. Kostur je bio zatrpan zemljom
izmiješanom s ulomcima grublje i ne slikane keramike,
ostacima životinjskih kostiju i s više od 100 komada kame-
na raznovrsnih oblika i namjene: jezgre, odbojci, brusni ka-
menovi, drobilice, dijelovi žrvnjeva, sitnih alatkica. Zemlja
je sadržavala veliki postotak gara (crna masna zemlja), a u
njoj su nađeni i komadi pečene zemlje glatke površine, na
jednoj strani s urezanim žljebovima neodređenog ornamenta.
Identični komadi nađeni su i u velikoj grobnoj jami 9 i to
ispod skupina keramike, što ukazuje na mogućnost njihove
namjene kao «žrtvenih stolova» za držanje glinenog posuđa.
Iznad kostura, među ulomcima keramike, nađeni su glineni
diskovi s rupom u sredini – po dva u paru, glinena glava patke
oko 30 cm iznad ostatka lubanje (Minichreiter 1999a, 7-15)
i šest žrtvenih posudica (male zdjelice na nozi). Na zapadnoj
strani ulaznih stepenica otkrivena je skupina od šest glačanih
kamenih sjekira i klinova različite veličine, što upućuje na
mogućnost obrednog prilaganja kamenih predmeta (nisu bile
upotrebljavane) odmah pokraj ulaza u grobnu jamu. Sjekire
i klinovi su mogli biti priloženi pokojniku svi odjednom pri
ukopu ili su prilagane jedna po jedna pri posjetu pokojniku u
određenim vremenskim razmacima, što i u ovoj grobnoj jami
kao i u susjednoj grobnoj jami 9, ukazuje na postojanje kulta
sjekire. Ovakva vrsta priloga uz pokojnika u maloj grobnoj
jami možda upućuje na njegov istaknut položaj u plemenu.
Tomu u prilog ide i činjenica da je u zemunici ukopana sa-
mo jedna individua. Inače se u grobnim jamama starčevačke
kulture uvijek ukopavaju zajedno skupine pokojnika. Prema
ostacima rupa od stupova vidljivo je da je iznad ove grobne
jame bila velika nadstrešnica i iznad ulaza posebno natkriti
trijem, što je davalo grobnoj jami posebno svečani karakter.
Ostaje otvoreno pitanje ukopa pokojnika bez lica. Ovakav
ukop možda je uzrokovan vjerovanjima da se na taj način
oduzima njegova moć djelovanja na ostale članove pleme-
na, pod pretpostavkom da je bio vođa plemena ili vrač. Na
mogućnost povezanosti male ukopne jame 15 i stambene
zemunice 37 ukazuje nekoliko činjenica, između ostalog i
datiranje u najmlađu fazu naselja i njihov blizak položaj s
nasuprotne strane ograde 7. Pritom treba naglasiti da su među
svim stambenim i radnim zemunicama u naselju jedino u
stambenoj zemunici 37 otkrivena dva klina i ulomak glačane
sjekire. Pored toga, nađen je još jedan ulomak klina (sjekire
?) uz ogradu 7, koja se nalazila između zemunice 37 i grobne
jame 15. Sve ovo upućuje na pomisao kako je u stambenoj
zemunici 37 živjela obitelj pokojnika ukopanog u grobnoj
jami 15, za kojeg pretpostavljamo da je bio istaknuti član ple-
mena (možda vođa ili vrač).
Rezultati mjerenja uzoraka ugljena iz starčevačkog na-
selja u Zadubravlju pokazali su vremenski raspon objekata
u istraženom dijelu od 6600 do 5300 cal BC (sl. 5). Stilsko
opredjeljenje arheološke građe iz Zadubravlja i Slavonskog
Broda u isti stupanj Linear A potvrdilo je datiranje metodom
14C
, pa zbroj kalibriranih datuma za Zadubravlje iznosi blizu
The small burial pit 15 is located just opposite to residential
pit-house 37, inside fence 7 in the north-western burial zone. It has
been radiocarbon dated to 5300-4960 cal BC, which makes it the
most recent explored structure at this site. The small burial pit 15,
with a diameter of 5 m and a at bottom, dug in 50 cm into steri-
le soil, was made in the centre of an empty surface in the western
part of the settlement’s ritual/burial zone. Separated from the other
structures, it dominated the area, surrounded by a large canopy and
porch above the entrance, supported by series of wooden posts. The
entrance to the burial pit was located on its northern side over a
wide step, shaped like a small platform. In the western portion a
man aged 35-40 was buried, in a contracted position, lying on his
left side, with the head toward the north and legs toward the south,
facing the centre of the pit (Minichreiter 2000b, Fig. 5). The man
was buried without his face, as only the rear skull bones were found.
The skeleton was covered by soil mixed with fragments of coarse
and ne painted pottery, animal bone remains and over 100 pieces
of stone of various shapes and uses: cores, akes, polishing stones,
crushers, parts of grindstones, small tools. The soil contained a large
percentage of soot (black oily soil), and pieces of red, smooth earth
were also found in it. The latter had grooves of some undetermined
ornamentation engraved on one side. Identical pieces were found
in large burial pit 9 under a group of pottery, which indicates the
possibility that they were used as “sacri cial tables” to hold clay
vessels. Above the skeleton, between pottery fragments, clay disks
with holes in the centre, two in a pair, were found; along with a clay
duck’s head that was discovered roughly 30 cm above the skulls
remains (Minichreiter 1999a, 7-15) and six small sacri cial vessels
(small footed bowls). On the western side of the entry stairs, a group
of six polished stone axes and wedges of varying sizes were found,
which indicates the possible ritual placement of stone items (they
had never been used) at the immediate entrance to the burial pit.
The axes and wedges may have been deposited all at once upon bu-
rial, or at speci c intervals, which indicates, as in the neighbouring
burial pit 9, the existence of an axe cult. These types of items next
to the deceased in a small burial pit may indicate his distinguished
position in the tribe. This is further con rmed by the fact that only
a single individual was buried in the pit-house. Otherwise, groups
of the deceased were always buried together in Starčevo Culture
graves. Based on the remaining holes for posts, it is apparent that
there was a large canopy above this grave and a separately covered
porch, which gave the grave a particularly ceremonial character. The
question remains as to the burial of a faceless man. This kind of bu-
rial may have been prompted by the belief that his power over other
tribe members is eliminated in this manner, assuming that he was
a tribal leader or shaman. Several facts point to a possible connec-
tion between small burial pit 15 and residential pit-house 37: among
others, their common dating to the most recent phase of settlement
and their proximity to fence 7. Here it should be emphasized that
among all residential and work pit-houses in the settlement, two we-
dges and remains of a polished axe were only found in pit-house
37. Additionally, one more wedge (axe?) fragment was found along
fence 7, between pit-house 37 and burial pit 15. All this leads to the
view that the family of the deceased buried in pit 15 lived in pit-
house 37, and the deceased is assumed to have been a distinguished
member of the tribe (perhaps its leader or shaman).
Results of charcoal sample measurements from the Starčevo
Culture settlement at Zadubravlje have shown a time span of the
structures in the researched section running from 6600 to 5300
cal BC (Fig. 5). The stylistic classi cation of the archaeological
material from Zadubravlje and Slavonski Brod in the same Linear
14
K. MINICHREITER, I. KRAJCAR BRONIÊ,
NOVI RADIOKARBONSKI DATUMI RANE STAR»EVA»KE KULTURE U HRVATSKOJ
, Pril. Inst. arheol. Zagrebu, 23/2006, str. 5-16.
Sl. 6 Raspodjela kalibriranih 14C starosti
nalazišta starčevačkog kulturnog komplek-
sa
Fig. 6 Distribution of calibrated radiocarbon
ages of the Starčevo Culture sites
zapadni kultni objekt 89 / western cult object 89
zapadni kultni objekt 149 / western cult object 149
zapadni kultni objekt 389 / western cult object 389
zemunica 9 / pit-dwelling 9
zemunica 205 (krušna peć) / pit-dwelling 205 (bread oven)
zemunica 205 (tkal. stan) / pit-dwelling 205 (vertical lom)
zemunica 155 / pit-dwelling 155
zemunica 37 / pit-dwelling 37
grobna jama 15 / burial pit 15
bunar / well
zemunica 10 / pit-dwelling 10
zemunica 6 / pit-dwelling 6
zemunica 9 / pit-dwelling 9
zemunica 12 / pit-dwelling 12
Sl. 5 Raspodjela kalibrira-
nih 14C starosti naselja
u Slavonskom Brodu i
Zadubravlju
Fig. 5 Distribution of calibra-
ted radiocarbon ages
of settlements in Sla-
vonski Brod and Zadu-
bravlje
15
K. MINICHREITER, I. KRAJCAR BRONIÊ,
NEW RADIOCARBON DATES FOR THE EARLY STAR»EVO CULTURE IN CROATIA
, Pril. Inst. arheol. Zagrebu, 23/2006, str. 5-16.
6600 cal BC za bunar8 i za zemunice blizu 5800 cal BC, dok
je za Slavonski Brod blizu 5900 cal BC (sl. 5).
Analize uzoraka ugljena metodom
14C
iz horizonta
Starčevo-Linear u Donjoj Branjevini, obavljene u Groninge-
nu i Oxfordu, datirale su objekte u raspon vremena od blizu
6100 do 5700 cal BC (Karmanski 2000, 186-188, gra kon 6;
Whittle et al. 2002, 114, Fig. 4).
Prema raspodjeli kalibriranih
14C
starosti nalazišta
starčevačkog kulturnog kompleksa (Obelić et al. 1999, 4, T.
1; Krajcar Bronić et al. 2004, sl. 8), Zadubravlje i Slavon-
ski Brod svojim datumima uvršteni su u sredinu vremen-
ske tablice ranoneolitičkih nalazišta (sl. 6). Tom vremenu,
približno od 6100 do 5200 cal BC, pripadala bi naselja
Veluška Tumba, Mogila, Topolčani (mlađa faza) i Anzabe-
govo u Makedoniji; Grivac, Divostin, Banja, Padina, Le-
penski Vir 2 i Odmut u Srbiji i Crnoj Gori; Obre 1 u Bosni;
te Desk, Gyalaret, Hodmezövasarhely, Endröd, Szarvas,
Battonya-Basaraga u Mađarskoj. Na području Hrvatske
datiran je sloj impreso kulture iz Vele Špilje na Korčuli u
Dalmaciji.
Novi radiokarbonski datumi ranoneolitičkih naselja u sje-
vernoj Srbiji i jugoistočnoj Mađarskoj, objavljeni 2002. godi-
ne, odredili su najstarija naselja u Šumadiji na oko 6200 BC, a
u Banatu i Bačkoj oko 6000 BC (Whittle et al. 2002, 93).
Nova datiranja naselja starčevačke kulture metodom 14C u
Hrvatskoj, donijele su višestruke znanstvene rezultate. Utvr-
dile su njihovu vremensku pripadnost unutar kronološkog
slijeda ranoneolitičkih naselja starčevačkog kulturnog kom-
pleksa i otkrila razvoj naselja Galovo u Slavonskom Brodu
tijekom tri faze izgradnje. Arheološkim metodama nije se
mogla utvrditi moguća vremenska razlika u izgradnji poje-
dinih naseobinskih cjelina, naročito u dijelu naselja gdje
su objekti izgrađeni jedan pored drugog. Ovo još otežava i
činjenica da inventar svih dosad otkrivenih objekata u na-
selju Galovo u Slavonskom Brodu pripada, po svojim stil-
skim obilježjima, samo jednom stupnju Linear A starčevačke
kulture, koji je u ovim prostorima trajao dulje razdoblje. U
ovakvom slučaju jedinu mogućnost otkrivanja vremenske
razlike u izgradnji naseobinskih objekata mogu pružiti da-
tiranja metodom 14C. Analize ovom metodom potvrdile su,
ne samo vremensku razliku između donjih i gornjih objekata
(prva i druga faza naselja), nego su još otkrile i treću fazu
izgradnje naselja. Datiranje stambene zemunice 37 i grobne
jame 15 u najmlađe izgrađene objekte u ovom dijelu naselja
omogućilo je, po prvi put, znanstveno utemeljen prikaz ho-
rizontalne stratigra je jednog od najstarijih ranoneolitičkih
naselja kontinentalne Hrvatske.
8 Analize ugljena u Zadubravlju datirale su bunar u objekte starije od
okolnih zemunica gotovo 500 godina. Ostaje otvoreno pitanje je li možda
bunar pripadao starijem dijelu naselja koje nije istraženo.
A phase were con rmed by radiocarbon dating, so the sum of ca-
librated dates for Zadubravlje is close to 6600 cal BC for the well8
and close to 5800 cal BC for pit-houses, while for Slavonski Brod
it is close to 5900 cal BC (Fig. 5).
Radiocarbon analysis of charcoal samples from the Starčevo-
Linear horizon in Donja Branjevina, conducted in Groningen and
Oxford, have dated the structures within a range from approxi-
mately 6100 to 5700 cal BC (Karmanski 2000, 186-188, chart 6;
Whittle et al. 2002, 114, Fig. 4).
According to the distribution of calibrated radiocarbon ages
of the Starčevo Culture sites (Obelić et al. 1999, 4, Pl. 1; Krajcar
Bronić et al. 2004, Fig. 8), the dates obtained for Zadubravlje and
Slavonski Brod have placed them in the middle of the Table of Ear-
ly Neolithic sites (Fig. 6). This period, ranging from roughly 6100
to 5200 cal BC, would encompass the settlements Veluška Tumba,
Mogila, Topolčani (later phase) and Anzabegovo in Macedonia;
Grivac, Divostin, Banja, Padina, Lepenski Vir 2 and Odmut in Ser-
bia and Montenegro; Obre 1 in Bosnia; and Desk, Gyalaret, Hod-
mezövasarhely, Endröd, Szarvas, Battonya-Basaraga in Hungary.
In Croatia’s territory, the stratum of Impresso Pottery Culture from
Vela Špilja on the island of Korčula in Dalmatia was so dated.
New radiocarbon analyses of Early Neolithic settlements in
northern Serbia and southeast Hungary, published in 2002, dated
the oldest settlements in Šumadija to approximately 6200 BC, and
those in Banat in Bačka to approximately 6000 BC (Whittle et al.
2002, 93).
The new radiocarbon dating of the Starčevo Culture settlements
in Croatia has generated multiple scienti c results. It has determi-
ned their chronological position within the range of Early Neolithic
settlements of the Starčevo Culture complex and established that
the development of the Galovo settlement in Slavonski Brod con-
sisted of three construction phases. Archaeological methods could
not ascertain possible chronological differences in the construction
of individual settlement units, especially in those segments of the
settlement where structures were built one next to the other. This is
additionally exacerbated by the fact that the inventory of all thus
far discovered structures in the Galovo settlement in Slavonski
Brod, in terms of its style, belongs to only one Linear A phase of
the Starčevo Culture, which lasted for an extended duration in this
region. In such a case, only radiocarbon dating may offer the pos-
sibility of detecting chronological differences in the construction
of settlement structures. This method of analysis has con rmed not
only that there is a chronological difference between the lower and
upper structures ( rst and second settlement phases), but also that
there is a third phase of settlement construction. Dating of residen-
tial pit-house 37 and burial pit 15 to the most recently constructed
part of the settlement has enabled for the rst time a scienti cally
founded presentation of the horizontal stratigraphy of one of the
oldest Early Neolithic settlements in continental Croatia.
8 Charcoal analysis in Zadubravlje has dated the well to structures older
than the surrounding pit houses for almost 500 years. The question re-
mains as to whether the well may belong to an older, as-yet unexplored
part of the settlement.
16
K. MINICHREITER, I. KRAJCAR BRONIÊ,
NOVI RADIOKARBONSKI DATUMI RANE STAR»EVA»KE KULTURE U HRVATSKOJ
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polju, GZMS XXVI, Sarajevo, 5-300.
Benac A., 1973, Obre I, Neolitsko naselje starčevačko-impresso i kakanjske
kulture na Raskršću, GZMS XXVII/XXVIII, Sarajevo, 1-173.
Bronk Ramsey Ch., 2005 The OxCal Program, v.3.10, http://www.rlaha.
ox.ac.uk/oxcal/oxcal.htm.
Dimitrijević S., 1979, Sjeverna zona, PJZ II Neolit, ur. A. Benac, Sarajevo,
229-363.
Karmanski S., 2000, Donja Branjevina, monogra ja, Odžaci
Krajcar Bronić et al., 2004, Krajcar Bronić I., Minichreiter K., Obelić B.,
Horvatinčić N., The oldest Early Neolithic (Starčevo culture) settle-
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Minichreiter K., 1999, Zoomorfna idoloplastika obredno-ukopnog pro-
stora starčevačkog lokaliteta na “Galovu” u Slavonskom Brodu,
PrilInstArheolZagrebu 13-14 (1996-1997), Zagreb, 7-22.
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starčevačkog kulturnog kompleksa, PrilInstArheolZagrebu 15-16
(1998-1999), Zagreb, 5-20.
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kulture, PrilInstArheolZagrebu 17, Zagreb, 5-15.
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settlements of the Starčevo culture in Northern Croatia, DocPraeh
XXVIII, Ljubljana, 199-214.
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Slavonskom Brodu, PrilInstArheolZagrebu 19, Zagreb, 11-24.
Minichreiter K., 2004, Radionica glinenih predmeta i tkanine u naselju
starčevačke kulture na “Galovu” u Slavonskom Brodu, PrilIn-
stArheolZagrebu 21, Zagreb, 5-18.
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LITERATURA/BIBLIOGRAPHY
... The main problem is the inconsistency in collecting and interpreting radiocarbon data, often used to date structures and not the remains of material culture. When dates are published and attempts made to firmly connect them with certain phases of known Neolithic cultures, some problems are not detected or are simply ignored (Obeliae et al., 2004; Minichreiter and Krajcar Broniae, 2006; Minichreiter, 2007; Krajcar Broniae and Minichreiter, 2007; Krznariae Škrivanko, 2011; Sraka, 2012). In this paper we are giving an alternative way of narrowing down the possible absolute dating of Neolithic cultures in this region. ...
... 1). At Galovo site, two structures were dated to 6835±110 BP (5810–5620 BC), 6875±35 BP (5800–5715 BC) and 6850±60 BP (5790–5660 BC) (Minichreiter and Krajcar Broniae, 2006) 3 . Two more structures from the same site, considered the cult structures by the excavator, were dated even earlier: 7060±150 BP (6070–5770 BC) and 7000±140 BP (6000–5740 BC) (Minichreiter and Krajcar Broniae, 2006). ...
... At Galovo site, two structures were dated to 6835±110 BP (5810–5620 BC), 6875±35 BP (5800–5715 BC) and 6850±60 BP (5790–5660 BC) (Minichreiter and Krajcar Broniae, 2006) 3 . Two more structures from the same site, considered the cult structures by the excavator, were dated even earlier: 7060±150 BP (6070–5770 BC) and 7000±140 BP (6000–5740 BC) (Minichreiter and Krajcar Broniae, 2006). Sopot site yielded even older dates: layer before sterile ground was dated to 7120±50 BP (6060–5900 BC) while the oldest structure, a pit-dwelling , was dated to 7100±50 BP (6060–5890 BC) (Krznariae Škrivanko, 2011). ...
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Southern outskirts of Carpathian basin, namely the region between Sava, Drava and Danube rivers, have specific climate conditions today partially influenced by geological structure and geographical position. In this region Neolithic Starčevo and Sopot cultures are observed. Radiocarbon dates for Neolithic cultures are used to build a time frame which is compared with climate proxies, especially with Holocene rapid climate events (8.2, 5.9 and 4.2 ka), to draw a conclusion on when and how these cultures developed in southern regions of Carpathian basin. Lacking firm geoarchaeological data the results are not conclusive but can provide some insight on how the climate may have directly and indirectly influenced development of Neolithic and beginning of Eneolithic period in the region.
... S obzirom na činjenicu da je dobiveni rezultat nekoliko stoljeća stariji od najranijeg neolitika u Podunavlju te da potječe iz bunara, ne smije se zanemariti mogućnost pogreške kao i moguća velika starost drveta, čiji je uzorak datiran (Boucquet-Appel, Naji, Vander Linden, Kozłowski 2009, 808). Bunar bi možda mogao pripadati nekome drugom naselju, s obzirom na svoj položaj u istraženom prostoru (Minichreiter, Krajcar-Bronić 2006). Svi su ostali rezultati u rasponu 5930-5040 cal BC: jama 6; Z-2921, 6710±115, cal BC 5720-5530 (68,2%); jama 9; Z-2922 6705±95 BP, cal BC 5720-5530 (68,2%); jama 10; Z-2923, 6995±115 BP, cal BC 5930-5740 (55,5%); i jama 12; Z-2925, 6260±130 BP, cal BC 5370-5040 (68,2%). ...
... 3. 1. Metode Cjelokupni litički materijal je defi niran prema 22 proizvodna tipa te nultom tipu (gomolj ili oblutak) koji nije zastupljen, kao što je to učinjeno za cijepani litički materijal Danubian Basin by several centuries, and that it comes from a well, one should not neglect the possibility of an error as well as the possible great antiquity of the wood that yielded the sample for dating (Boucquet-Appel, Naji, Vander Linden, Kozłowski 2009, 808). The well may have belonged to another settlement, considering its position in the investigated area (Minichreiter, Krajcar-Bronić 2006). All the other results show the time frame between 5930 and 5040 cal BC: pit 6; Z-2921, 6710±115, cal BC 5720-5530 (68,2%); pit 9; Z-2922 6705±95 BP, cal BC 5720-5530 (68,2%); pit 10; Z-2923, 6995±115 BP, cal BC 5930-5740 (55,5%); and pit 12; Z-2925, 6260±130 BP, cal BC 5370-5040 (68,2%). ...
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The paper presents the results of the lithic analysis of chipped stone artefacts from a Starčevo culture site at Zadubravlje. Blanks for tool production (flakes, blades and bladelets) were produced at the site itself, mostly on the surface, although pit 19 probably functioned as a working area. It was established that the blades were produced by indirect percussion. Predominant tools are pieces with partial retouch and those with one retouched edge. Geometric forms are also present, although in small percentage.
... In Serbia, Early-Middle Neolithic pottery is characterised as belonging to the Starčevo group, originally defined at the site of Starčevo Grad ( fig. 1). This pottery is typified by the dominant presence of jar and bowl shapes, usually with globular, conical, s-shaped, narrow-mouthed and biconical profiles, which display a varied range of distinctive surface finishes of Barbotine, pseudo-Barbotine (hereafter referred to as roughened), slipped, painted, and incised motifs, which have been used to define a range of relative chronological schemes and relationships (Table 1, Milojčič, 1950;Aranđelović-Garaš anin 1954;Srejović 1972;Garaš anin 1979;Dimitrijević 1979;Nikolova 2007;Pavuk 2016 These relative chronologies have been increasingly accompanied by absolute dates from sites across Serbia and neighbouring areas that contain Starčevo type pottery (Biagi et al 2005;Minichreiter and Bronić 2006;Fidanoski 2019;Porčic et al. 2020). Such work has made it increasingly clear that the adoption of the Neolithic way of life and variability in pottery assemblages across SE Europe relates to different rates of change in places at different times, which would have been dependant on a wide range of socio-economic, environmental, and cultural factors (Plog 1980;Braun 1983, 110-111;Fidanoski 2019;Naumov 2015Naumov , 2016Nikolova 2007, 96). ...
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During the summer of 2003, the Galovo site in Slavonski Brod saw the sixth stage of systematic archaeological research into a settlement from the Starčevo culture as a part of the scientific research project on "The Prehistoric Identity of Northern Croatia". Research efforts have so far covered an area of 2,200 m2, with the 2003 excavations focused on the western working pit (SU 155/156). The discovery of remains of four kilns as well as the layout of its interior rooms suggest that the working pit served as a workshop for the production of clay objects and pottery of smaller dimensions. The findings discovered in this settlement so far include 87 censers, 2 altars, 3 sacrificial vessels, 7 anthropomorhipc idols, a zoomorphic clay figurine and a zoomorphic clay protome. The fragments of censers, anthropomorhipc idols and sacrificial vessels discovered in Slavonski Brod during 2003 belong to the already known types published in a previous paper, including the noteworthy and unique findings of an animal protome (a realistically shaped porcine head) and a self-supporting zoomorphic sculpture (a figurine of a doe), which are among the most beautiful examples of presentations of these animals at the Early Neolithic sites. The archaeological research of the prehistoric settlement at Galovo in Slavonski Brod commenced in 1997 and will certainly continue as this site offers a unique opportunity for systematic research into early Neolithic populations in Southern Pannonian areas from the early Linear A phase of the Starčevo culture.
Obre I, Neolitsko naselje starčevačko-impresso i kakanjske kulture na Raskršću
  • A Benac
Benac A., 1973, Obre I, Neolitsko naselje starčevačko-impresso i kakanjske kulture na Raskršću, GZMS XXVII/XXVIII, Sarajevo, 1-173.
Obre II, Neolitsko naselje butmirske grupe na Gornjem polju
  • A Benac
Benac A., 1971, Obre II, Neolitsko naselje butmirske grupe na Gornjem polju, GZMS XXVI, Sarajevo, 5-300.