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Abstract

Voice recognition software allows computer users to bypass their keyboards and use their voices to enter text. While the library literature is somewhat silent about voice recognition technology, the medical and legal communities have reported some success using it. Voice recognition software was tested for dictation accuracy and usability within an agriculture library at the University of Illinois. Dragon Naturally Speaking 8.0 was found to be more accurate than speech recognition within Microsoft Office 2003. Helpful Web sites and a short history regarding this breakthrough technology are included.
 ฀฀฀฀฀฀ ฀฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀
฀    ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
 ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀  
   ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀
  ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀  ฀
฀ ฀   ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
  ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ 
 ฀    ฀  ฀ ฀
   ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀   
  ฀  
฀  ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀  ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀ ฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀  ฀ ฀
฀  ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ 
  ฀   ฀ ฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀       
฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  
   ฀ ฀ 
   ฀฀  ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀   ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀
   ฀ ฀ ฀  
฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀  ฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀
฀
฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀     ฀ 
 ฀ ฀    
฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀
   ฀   ฀ ฀
 ฀฀฀  ฀฀ ฀
฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀  ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀
฀฀
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 ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀  ฀     ฀
  ฀  ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀
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N ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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N ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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N ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀
N ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀฀฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀
N ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀
N ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀   ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀  
฀ ฀  ฀
฀ ฀  ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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   ฀  ฀ ฀
 ฀ ฀  
    
 ฀  
฀   ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀
฀   ฀ ฀ 

฀
 
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฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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 ฀   ฀  
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  
฀ ฀  ฀   ฀ ฀
฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀    ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀   ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀
฀ ฀     ฀  
   ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
 ฀  ฀ ฀    ฀ ฀ 
฀   ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀
฀      ฀ 
 ฀ ฀ ฀    ฀ ฀ ฀
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   ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀ ฀ ฀   ฀   
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฀   
฀   
฀   ฀
฀฀฀   
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฀  ฀
฀฀   
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฀฀ ฀฀฀ ฀฀฀ ฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀ 
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฀฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀ ฀ ฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀    ฀ 
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 ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀   ฀
฀ ฀ ฀  ฀  ฀ ฀  
฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀฀
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 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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 ฀   ฀ ฀
฀   ฀ ฀ ฀  
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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 ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀
 ฀ ฀   ฀
฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
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฀฀฀ ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀
 ฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
  
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀

 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀
  ฀ 
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀ ฀฀ ฀ ฀

 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀ ฀฀ 
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀

 ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
 ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
฀฀฀
 ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀

฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀ 
 ฀ ฀  ฀  ฀ 
 ฀ ฀ ฀   ฀
฀฀฀฀

฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀
฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀ ฀
฀฀
 ฀฀฀฀฀฀฀฀
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฀ ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀    ฀ 
฀ ฀  ฀  ฀ ฀  ฀ ฀
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... These interaction approaches are known as Natural User Interfaces (NUIs) which is defined by Blake [6] as "a user interface designed to reuse existing skills for interacting appropriately with content." The available alternatives include voice recognition [46], eye tracking [35], Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) such as the Kinect [19], Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) and touch interfaces [16]. Presently, touch enabled interfaces have become ubiquitous on mobile devices with most models removing the keypad all together. ...
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Natural user interfaces (NUIs) are alternatives to traditional input methods using different methods of interaction. The goal of NUIs is to provide a natural means of interaction that is effectively invisible to the user. Commercial Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have the potential to meet this need. Towards this end, it was investigated whether a user's experience with traditional input methods affects their efficiency with the Emotiv (a commercially available BCI). This was used as an indicator of the suitability of the headset as a NUI. Two groups of participants, categorised based on their differing access to traditional input methods, were tested navigating a pair of robots through a test course, first with the Emotiv and then using a standard keyboard. The conclusion reached is that the Emotiv would be suitable to use as a NUI, but only when used in a non-critical context. The findings are that the technology is presently not yet ready to replace the traditional approach utilising mouse and keyboard. However, the Emotiv would be suitable for use as a NUI as long as the tasks are non-critical and are not time sensitive.
... There are a number of alternative input interfaces to the traditional input method of the mouse and keyboard. These include eye tracking [21], voice recognition [30] and an EEG-based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) [5]. BCIs in particular offer an innovative alternative to a traditional input method such as the keyboard and could form a valuable addition to NUIs. ...
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Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) are traditionally used to assist disabled persons to communicate. These specialised systems are often designed to function for specific individuals with little regard for the use of a BCI with able bodied individuals. To help address the issue this study compared two groups of participants who were classified based on their varying exposure to traditional input methods. The usability metric effectiveness, in terms of error rate, was compared while using the Emotiv or a keyboard to move a robot. The results indicated that exposure to traditional input methods is not a factor in the effectiveness of the BCI. Thus a person can effectively use the BCI without prior knowledge of computers which broadens the acceptability of the interface. Therefore a BCI, like the Emotiv, could serve as an alternative communication channel for able bodied individuals.
... Despite the 70 year history of this technology there is little literature in the library or archives world on automatic voice-recognition. 10 Zumalt evaluated two types of voice-recognition software for use in cataloging 11 . Bertuca described OCLC's use of voice recognition software in cataloging tasks to avoid repetitive stress injuries 12 . ...
... The history of VRS, particularly the Dragon NaturallySpeaking © program, shows that each incarnation of the program has provided greater accuracy with fewer mistakes per read passage (Zumalt, 2005). Wade et al. (2001) examined the program's recognition of "aphasic speech". ...
Article
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Background: Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) has primarily been utilised for motor speech deficits or as an aid for communicating basic needs in the acute stages of aphasia rehabilitation. However, AAC strategies can be employed for individuals with aphasia across a wide range of severity levels and at different stages of recovery. For individuals with chronic impairments in language, voice recognition software can further enhance communication by providing an alternative means for written expression.Aims: To investigate the functional and linguistic effects of a treatment program that used voice recognition software to improve written communication in an individual with chronic aphasia.Methods & Procedures: A 65-year-old woman with conduction aphasia participated in a prospective case study. During baseline testing the individual was evaluated on measures of language (i.e., Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, 3rd edition, Goodglass, Kaplan, & Baressi, 2001; Boston Naming Test, Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001), computer skills, and functional communication (i.e., ASHA FACs, Frattali et al., 1995; Quality of Communication Life Scales, Paul et al., 2004). A cursory examination of the oral peripheral structure was administered. Treatment consisted of 10 one-hour sessions of training on the Dragon NaturallySpeaking Program. Following treatment, measures of language, computer skills, quality of life, and functional communication were re-administered. Further, to evaluate if skills in written expression could be utilised to communicate via e-mail, a distance-learning program was implemented.Outcomes & Results: Findings revealed that, with intensive instruction, the participant was able to independently access the computer and the Dragon NaturallySpeaking Program. At the conclusion of the treatment phase, functional writing abilities approximated spoken communication. Some minor changes in reading, repetition, and conversation were suggested on formal and informal assessment measures. The participant made substantial gains in using the program in her activities of daily living, but only achieved minor success in demonstrating her skills during distance learning.Conclusions: The potential benefits of AAC devices may change throughout the course of recovery from aphasia. New technologies may facilitate gains in communication in individuals with aphasia throughout their lifespan. This study demonstrated that intensive training in the use of voice recognition software can enhance functional writing in an individual with chronic aphasia. Although marked progress in written expression was achieved, transfer of skills for use on the Internet was limited. Clinical management should include assessment of various assistive technologies across different modalities of communication for people at different stages of recovery from aphasia.
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In this age of information technology, access of information in a convenient manner has gained importance. Since human beings use speech as a primary mode of communication, it is natural for people to expect to be able to carry out spoken dialogue with computer. Speech recognition (SR) system permits ordinary people to speak to the computer to retrieve information. This paper describes the existing tools developed for speech recognition. The objective of this paper is to summarize and compare the well known tools of speech recognition system which are at the forefront of this exciting and challenging field.
Book
This book is written to promote academic strategic management and envision future innovations for academic library resources, services and instructions in the digital age. It provides academic executives, consultants, instructors, IT specialists, librarians, LIS students, managers, trainers and other professionals with the latest information for developing trends of emerging technologies applied to student-centred and service-oriented academic learning environments. This book explores various fields where key emerging technologies may have great implications on academic library information technologies, academic library management, academic library information services, and academic library internal operations. Reflects most recent emerging technologies which might impact on library administrations, resources, services and instructions Draws a clear roadmap how and where to monitor emerging technologies which began to emerge under academic library environments Provides practical and realistic suggestions and solutions how to utilize emerging technologies in academic learning environments
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Efforts to improve healthcare by reducing medical errors often center on the accuracy of medical records. At the same time, the impact of new technologies such as speech recognition technology on the process of producing medical records has not been sufficiently examined. In this article we analyzed interview data from medical transcriptionists (MTs) describing how they do the work of transcription to produce accurate medical records from doctors' dictation. We found that medical transcriptionists rely on several types of skills that current speech recognition technology lacks. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these findings for the design and implementation of SRT systems for the production of medical records and for how the work of MTs can help reduce medical errors.
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Recently, Butler Memorial Hospital was chosen as the winner of the Health Data Management Nursing Information Technology Innovation Award.9 The recognition was given to the hospital ability to co develop a real-time documentation system that uses speech recognition technology. The facility took a transformational step in working with a vendor to co develop the documentation system. In giving the award, the executive editor of Health Data Management stated, " Now nurses can document their tasks by simply dictating into a headset, with their notes automatically populating a clinical information system. The system streamlined the tasks involved, replacing the use of pagers, phones, computers, and paper charts with simply dictating into the headset. And by saving time on administrative tasks, including retyping handwritten notes on a computer, the nurses now can devote more time to treating patients instead." 9 Physicians have had the luxury of dictating their assessments for years and are now using VRD. As nursing pioneer Vernice Ferguson said in 2004, " If it is good enough for physicians, then it is good enough for nurses. " 10
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In this paper, results are presented from a field study of individuals with disabilities who used voice recognition technology (VRT). Twenty-three individuals who were successful in the use of VRT and 17 who were unsuccessful were interviewed by the researcher. Qualitative results indicated that task-technology fit, training, the environment, and the disability limitations were the differentiating items. The ability to use the VRT for a trial period may be the major factor resulting in successful adoption of the technology.
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Increased demands on catalogers to increase productivity, while maintaining quality and accuracy, can be difficult to meet, and may even be hazardous to their health. OCLC Passport for Windows (PFW) and CatME provide some ability to create macros and shortcuts to speed cataloging activities, but do not solve the problems created by long work sessions. Voice recognition software, which works with most applications, is an effective way to input commands and data accurately into a computer. The software can be customized to provide single word input of complex commands, allowing the cataloger to concentrate more on the content of their records, rather than the input. This type of software is helpful not only to workers with repetitive strain injury (RSI) or physical disabilities, but also to anyone requiring accurate input during extended work sessions. This article explains how the software works, offers examples, and provides tips on working with using voice recognition.
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People with aphasia may experience difficulties that prevent them from demonstrating in writing what they know and can produce orally. Voice recognition systems that allow the user to speak into a microphone and see their words appear on a computer screen have the potential to assist written communication. This study investigated whether a man with fluent aphasia could learn to use Dragon NaturallySpeaking to write. A single case study of a man with acquired writing difficulties is reported. A detailed account is provided of the stages involved in teaching him to use the software. The therapy tasks carried out to develop his functional use of the system are then described. Outcomes included the percentage of words accurately recognized by the system over time, the quantitative and qualitative changes in written texts produced with and without the use of the speech-recognition system, and the functional benefits the man described. The treatment programme was successful and resulted in a marked improvement in the subject's written work. It also had effects in the functional life domain as the subject could use writing for communication purposes. Conclusions: The results suggest that the technology might benefit others with acquired writing difficulties.
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Automatic speech recognition technology is following the price-performance curve of much computing technology, namely, increasing functionality at decreasing price. When it also incorporates grammar and composition rules and, ultimately, natural language processing, we will see SUIs (speech-based user interfaces) overtaking GUIs, and conversational interfaces will be the standard. The author discusses her experiences of using the NaturallySpeaking speech recognition system