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Managing Legitimacy: Strategic and Institutional Approaches

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Abstract

This article synthesizes the large but diverse literature on organizational legitimacy, highlighting similarities and disparities among the leading strategic and institutional approaches. The analysis identifies three primary forms of legitimacy: pragmatic, based on audience self-interest; moral, based on normative approval: and cognitive, based on comprehensibility and taken-for-grantedness. The article then examines strategies for gaining, maintaining, and repairing legitimacy of each type, suggesting both the promises and the pitfalls of such instrumental manipulations.

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... Whereas, legitimation is a social process (Suchman, 1995;Bitektine and Haack, 2015), the acceptance of multi-polarity and innovation founded on non-occidental foundations are a social issue and ultimately a societal issue. Society plays a predominant role in legitimation (Chevalier, 1986;Wallerstein, 2012). ...
... There has been a strong occidental bias in the literature, but more and more studies with non-occidental perspectives are emerging (López-Duarte et al., 2016;Bangara et al., 2012). Legitimation is a social process (Suchman, 1995;Bitektine and Haack, 2015). The literature on legitimation has been founded on the occidental developed economies. ...
... Legitimation can be considered to be founded on cognition or discourse (Suchman, 1995;Suddaby and Greenwood, 2005;Vaara and Tienari, 2008), and both occur in the context of society. Society plays a decisive role in legitimation (Chevalier, 1986;Wallerstein, 2012). ...
... Bu açıdan en önemli hususlardan biri de toplumsal desteğin sekteye uğramasıdır. Meşruiyet sorunu ile birlikte temel olarak örgütün sosyal sistem içerisinde varlığı kabul görmeyecek, kaynak akışında ve sosyal destek noktasında önemli sorunlar ortaya çıkacaktır (Suchman, 1995). ...
... Örgütler açısından meşruiyet, örgütün faaliyetlerinin sosyal olarak inşa edilmiş kimi normlar, değerler, inançlar ve tanımlar sistemi içinde uygun ve arzu edilir olduğuna dair genel bir algı olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Suchman, 1995). Söz konusu algı örgütler tarafından edinilmiş değildir. ...
... Freeman, 1989). Kaynak bağımlılığı kuramı kapsamında ise meşruluğa stratejik açıdan yaklaşılmış bu süreçte yönetsel kontrole vurgu yapılmıştır (Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978). Kuramda örgütlerin koalisyon olarak gösterilmesi ya da yönetim kurullarında etkin ve sembolik mahiyetteki kişilerin yer alması bu araçsallığa örnek verilebilir (Hillman vd., 2009). Suchman (1995'ın stratejik meşruiyet olarak ifade ettiği bu yaklaşıma göre meşruiyet örgütler için işlevsel kaynaklara ulaşmada bir araç durumundadır. ...
... If a corporation has breached the expectations of society where it operates, its survival will be threatened (Deegan and Rankin, 1996). In other words, if a corporation wants to succeed in continuing its survival, its value system should be congruent with the value system of society, and this condition is referred as to legitimacy (Suchman, 1995). Legitimacy has been reserved in the CSR literature along two major lines, an institutional approach and a strategic approach (Suchman, 1995). ...
... In other words, if a corporation wants to succeed in continuing its survival, its value system should be congruent with the value system of society, and this condition is referred as to legitimacy (Suchman, 1995). Legitimacy has been reserved in the CSR literature along two major lines, an institutional approach and a strategic approach (Suchman, 1995). From an institutionalist perspective, legitimacy is stem from the conformity to the constructed systems of social values, norms, beliefs, and definitions (Suchman, 1995). ...
... Legitimacy has been reserved in the CSR literature along two major lines, an institutional approach and a strategic approach (Suchman, 1995). From an institutionalist perspective, legitimacy is stem from the conformity to the constructed systems of social values, norms, beliefs, and definitions (Suchman, 1995). Therefore, if operations, structures, and strategies of corporations are set up following the common patterns of these social constructs, the corporations would be perceived as legitimate organizations (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983;Scott, 2008). ...
Thesis
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This thesis examines three topical, yet contentious issues linked to tax avoidance using a sample of firms domiciled in the BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The three issues examined in this study are: the relationship between tax avoidance and (i) corporate social responsibility (CSR); (ii) earnings management; and (iii) accounting conservatism. Using listed firms domiciled in BRICS countries for the period from 2008 to 2015, the first study examines the relationship between tax avoidance and CSR. The results show that the effective tax rate is positively associated with scores on CSR performance, suggesting that firms domiciled in BRICS with higher CSR performance pay higher taxes at the same time. The results imply that firms in BRICS countries are willing to accept compromise in the pursuit of shareholder profit by pursuing a combined strategy of tax compliance and CSR engagement. This study also shows that audit expertise plays a significant role in the effect of CSR on the level of tax paid. Moreover, the findings are robust to different approaches, including the use of alternative measures of tax avoidance and the level of CSR performance, as well as using the 2SLS model to mitigate the endogeneity issues. The second study investigates the association between tax avoidance and the degree of earnings management. While most prior studies focus only on discretionary accruals, this study employs both accruals-based and real-activities techniques as proxies for earnings management. The results show a strong and positive relationship between tax avoidance and accruals-based earnings management. However, the relationship between tax avoidance and real-activity earnings management results is in the opposite direction. These results suggest that nonconformity between financial accounting standards and tax rules allows managers to make discretion only on accruals to manage book income upwards and taxable income downwards in the same reporting period. The findings are robust to different alternative analyses including a different level of earnings management, a different level of tax avoidance, and endogeneity concerns. The third study investigates the relation between tax avoidance and the degree of accounting conservatism, where conservatism refers to the delay in income recognition in the financial report. Specifically, the primary objective is to examine whether firms employ conservative accounting either through conditional conservatism or unconditional conservatism in reducing tax liability. Using a dataset of listed firms domiciled in BRICS during the period 2006–2018, the results show that conditional conservatism is positively and significantly associated with tax avoidance. In contrast, unconditional conservatism is negatively and significantly associated with tax avoidance. These findings suggest that the two forms of conservatism play a distinct role in tax incentives. This thesis provides important insights for policymakers that the inclusion of responsible tax payment as part of a global CSR agenda may motivate firms to align their behavior with respect to tax payment. Moreover, this thesis recommends to regulatory agencies that the high level of accrual-based earnings management and the high level of conditional conservative accounting could indicate tax avoidance engagement. Hence, it is vital for relevant parties to take into account the effects of tax avoidance when drafting new and updating old accounting standards. Finally, analysts and investors who are interested in firms’ tax avoidance activities and use the accounting numbers to evaluate the extent of tax avoidance when making investment decisions to adjust their portfolios should also take into consideration the effects of earnings management and accounting conservatism.
... Descriptive research was carried out through documental research, based on data published in the CAJU in the 2nd judicial section belonging to the western region of Paraná. Thus, the profile of experts registered on the site was collected in line with the strategy typologies determined by Suchman (1995). We found 133 experts' registrations and used the Excel software for the documental analysis and the Atlas.TI to compare the data found in the analysis with the accounting experts' perception. ...
... Com isso, este artigo analisa o perfil dos peritos cadastrados no Cadastro da Justiça do Paraná (CAJU) sob a ótica das Estratégias de Suchman (1995), bem como identificar a percepção dos peritos contábeis da região oeste do Paraná em relação às mudanças advinda da nova legislação na profissão. Assim, tendo em vista a discussão delineada e o tema de 1052 pesquisa apresentada, surge o seguinte problema de pesquisa: Quais são as estratégias de legitimidade de Suchman (1995) que os peritos contábeis evidenciam no Cadastro da ...
... Ela relaciona-se às estratégias das organizações utilizadas no ambiente em que estão inseridos, para controlar e notar as mudanças que acontecem ou podem vir a acontecer (Fank & Beuren, 2010). b) Legitimidade Pragmática: a forma pragmática da legitimidade tem foco no interesse próprio dos públicos mais imediatos de uma organização (Suchman, 1995). Além disso, outra forma construída socialmente de legitimidade pragmática se relaciona ao termo influência (Fank & Beuren, 2010). ...
Article
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Este artigo objetiva verificar quais as estratégias de legitimidade de Suchman evidenciadas no CAJU na atividade de perito contábil, bem como os impactos positivos e negativos nas mudanças ocorridas e na busca por educação continuada na perspectiva dos peritos. A pesquisa descritiva foi realizada por meio de pesquisa documental, a partir de dados publicados no CAJU na 2ª seção judiciária pertencente à região oeste do Paraná. Desse modo, coletou-se o perfil do perito cadastrado no site em consonância com as tipologias de estratégia determinada por Suchman (1995). Encontrou-se 133 cadastros de peritos e utilizou-se o software Excel para a análise documental e o Atlas.TI para confrontar os dados encontrados na análise realizada com a percepção dos peritos contábeis. Estipulou-se as categorias de análise, na qual buscaram subsidiar a coleta e análise dos dados. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos peritos cadastrados possuem até cinco anos de experiência e os profissionais possuem suas especializações na área pericial. Notou-se, também, que uma parcela significativa de profissionais ainda não se legitimaram nos dois cadastros (CAJU-PR e CNPC) tomados como base neste estudo. Na percepção dos peritos foi relatado que os benefícios são notórios, mas outros fatores devem considerados e monitorados. Além disso, a obrigatoriedade de se legitimar no site do CAJU levou-os a procurar mais cursos e especializações, elevando a qualidade dos serviços prestados pela classe.
... proper, and useful (Suchman, 1995). With strong legitimacy, firms can get good access to economic resources, attract and retain talented employees, improve relationships with stakeholders, and compete more effectively in the market (Oliver, 1991;Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978). ...
... Symbolic strategies drive a firm's engagement in superficial impressions to manage stakeholders concerns on sustainability-related issues rather than to bring meaningful improvements in environmental/social outcomes (Ashforth and Gibbs, 1990). In this case, firms with weak carbon/environmental performance are exposed to greater stakeholder pressures, and therefore, may undertake symbolic/greenwashing efforts in order to gain/maintain/repair legitimacy (Suchman, 1995), but such efforts might not improve carbon/environmental performance (Crossley et al., 2021). ...
... According to the legitimacy view, firms may engage in environmental management initiatives in order to achieve specific objectives, such as improving legitimacy, protecting reputation, gaining support from stakeholders, and facilitating access to critical resources (Ashforth and Gibbs, 1990;Suchman, 1995). In this regard, firms may seek to gain legitimacy for their business operations by implementing symbolic and/or substantive PCCIs. ...
Article
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We examine the interrelationships among board sustainability committees, process-based climate change initiatives, outcome-based carbon performance, and market value through the lens of economic-and social-based theoretical perspectives. Using a panel dataset of 8,408 observations from 35 countries between 2002 and 2019, we find that higher levels of actual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are negatively associated with market value. Further, we reveal a positive association between process-based climate change initiatives and market value. We then provide evidence that process-based climate change initiatives are positively related to increased levels of GHG emissions. We also observe that the presence of a board sustainability committee has a positive impact on market value, but does not seem to improve outcome-based carbon performance. Finally, we show that the predicted relationships vary across different country-groups, sector-groups, and periods. Our empirical findings are robust to alternative measures, endogeneities, and sample selection bias. Overall, our evidence supports the symbolic legitimation/greenwashing view in that firms are likely to employ process-based climate change initiatives under a symbolic approach to create positive impressions among stakeholders and protect their legitimacy.
... La réputation organisationnelle (RO) et la légitimité organisationnelle (LO) font l'objet d'un intérêt croissant de la part des chercheurs et des praticiens depuis un certain nombre d'années (Meyer et Rowan,1977;Pfeffer et Salanick, 1978;Fombrun et Shanley, 1990;Suchman, 1995;Roberts et Dowling, 2002;Deephouse et Carter, 2005;Rindova et al., 2005;Bitektine, 2011;Lange et al., 2011). Les deux concepts sont mobilisés par plusieurs théories des organisations et sont présentés comme deux ressources importantes pour la gestion organisationnelle de par leurs capacités à améliorer l'efficacité des décisions de l'organisation. ...
... Les chercheurs ont donné plusieurs définitions de la LO (Dowling et Pfeffer, 1975 ;Pfeffer et Salancik, 1978 ;Ashforth et Gibbs, 1990 ;Aldrich et Fiol, 1994 ;Boddweyn, 1995 ;Hybels, 1995;Suchman, 1995 ;Deephouse, 1996 ;Kostova et Zaheer 1999;Zimmerman et Zeitz, 2002 ;Washington et Zajac, 2005 ;Rindova et al., 2006 ;Bitektine, 2011 (Demaret et Meric, 2013;Petit, 2013). ...
... Dans son travail intégrateur des approches institutionnelles et stratégiques de la légitimité, Suchman (1995) formalise les différents types de légitimité au moyen de trois dynamiques: pragmatique, morale et cognitive. ...
Article
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La réputation et la légitimité organisationnelles sont souvent utilisées de manière interchangeable en sciences de gestion. Les travaux sur l'articulation de ces deux variables reconnaissent que la frontière est floue et que des chevauchements théoriques existent (Demaret, 2014). L'objectif de ce travail est de dépasser les confusions entre les deux concepts et de montrer leur complémentarité. Etudier et comprendre les similarités et les différences entre la réputation et la légitimité est une étape nécessaire pour appréhender la relation complexe entre les deux concepts (Deephouse et Carter, 2005), l'objectif étant de se situer dans le débat présentant la réputation et la légitimité comme deux variables interchangeables, similaires ou comme étant deux pôles opposés d'un continuum mettant ainsi en évidence une complémentarité et une continuité entre les deux concepts. La mobilisation des similarités et des différences entre réputation et légitimité organisationnelles est prise comme cadre d'analyse pour décrire leur interdépendance. L'analyse des similarités a montré que les deux concepts sont liés au même principe d'approbation sociale des actions organisationnelles. Cependant, des différences sont notées d'abord, au niveau de la nature et des dimensions d'évaluation, ensuite, au niveau de l'effet de l'isomorphisme et de la performance financière et enfin au niveau des conséquences concernant la rivalité et l'homogénéisation. L'étude de la complémentarité met en évidence le lien bidirectionnel étroit entre la réputation et la légitimité organisationnelles et leur relation avec le concept d'identité sociale. Les recherches futures pourront s'inspirer de ce cadre d'analyse pour opérationnaliser les concepts et éviter toute forme de confusion.
... Legitimacy is community acceptance of the firm's operational business. The firms need to gain and manage their legitimacy (Suchman, 1995) because of legitimacy influences a firm's sustainability (Ismail & Haddaw, 2014). CSR is a mechanism to motivate stakeholder and to manage social perception about the firm's role and utility to the community outside the main function of production and marketing of its products (H. ...
... Institutional theory is a theoretical framework for analyzing social phenomena (especially organizational) and viewing the social world as an institution that has significant rules, practices, and structures from a set of conditions in an action that continues to exist (Lawrence & Shadnam, 2007;Yanti et al., 2019). Legitimation is one of condition that assumed by institutional theory as a general perception for an entity to acts by the system of the socially formed norm, values, trust and belief (Suchman, 1995). ...
Article
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This research examines the influence of industry type, profitability, and size on corporate social responsibility reporting in Indonesian into three stages of isomorphism. The method purposive sampling of companies listed in Kompas100 Index from 2009 to 2016 resulting 327 coercive, 317 normative and 217 mimetic samples. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression. The results show that only size affected on firm’s tendency to adopted corporate social responsibility reporting by publishing sustainability report in coercive isomorphism stage. Meanwhile industry type, profitability, and size affected on firm’s tendency to adopted corporate social reporting by publishing sustainability report in normative isomorphism stage. The result also showed that industry type and size affected on a firm’s tendency to adopted corporate social responsibility reporting by publishing a sustainability report in mimetic isomorphism stage. The only size is constantly influenced by corporate social responsibility reporting. We can conclude that size as the most important factor to firm considers in issuing a sustainability report in Indonesia.
... Organizational legitimacy was characterized by Suchman (1995), who identifies three primary forms of legitimacy: (1) pragmatic, based on audience self-interest; (2) moral, based on normative approval; (3) cognitive, based on comprehensibility and taken-for-grantedness. Legitimacy is closely linked with Social Responsibility. ...
... Based on its Sustainability report from 2016, Philip Morris International utilizes a combination of all forms of legitimacy as identified by Suchman: pragmatic, moral, and cognitive. Cognitive legitimacy stands for measures that are dictated to be necessary and inevitable by the society (Suchman, 1995). The fields of CSR in which tobacco industries worldwide have been the most involved in, in the past years, include human rights, labour practices, and the environment (Hirschhorn, 2004), which will be demonstrated to be strongly in line with the CSR practices adopted by PMI. ...
... Understanding institutional arrangement also sheds light on legitimacy as well as emphasises why organisational behaviours in a specific society are similar or "isomorphic" (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983). Thus, why microfinance organisations operate the way they do in these countries is as a result of what is acceptable or unacceptable for their continual existence in corrupt regimes (Suchman, 1995). Correspondingly, DiMaggio & Powell (1983) divided institutional factors in three domains: mimetic, coercive, and normative. ...
... Institutionally writers (see Suchman, 1995;North, 1990) have observed that understanding the roles played by institutions in organisational and national practice and culture, can be instrumental in closing accountability, transparency and legitimacy "gap", a metonym for institutional voids (Mair & Marti, 2009). This is the preoccupation of this paper; and surprisingly, the volume of research in this direction is quite sparse on the African continent (Amaeshi et al., 2016). ...
Article
This article focuses on the role corrupt institutions (microfinance institutions) play in microfinance not being accessible for business development in Africa. It specifically sheds light on the contexts of Nigeria and Ghana to tease out the challenges and opportunities for small businesses consequent upon a culture of corruption in these countries and associated challenges for small business owners and entrepreneurs as well as microbusiness development. As well-known, in many developing countries with a high level of corruption, there is potentially a high incidence of institutional void, which presents setback and challenges for businesses to thrive. Microbusiness development relies largely on effective institutions to develop, and in situations where institutions are corrupt, these challenges are rather redoubled thus posing a threat to entrepreneurship development. Therefore, these contexts enable us to understand and interrogate the challenges facing microbusiness development, where corrupt microfinance institutions exist, as well as business opportunities if these corrupt institutions were not present. Thus this paper argues that for businesses to thrive enabling and effective institutional mechanisms are crucial, which will facilitate opportunities for microbusiness development.
... Looking into the actors, the Treasury staff are trained to operate with the rhetoric of rationality and logos. Their professional standard (Suddaby et al., 2007;Suddaby and Greenwood, 2005;Suchman, 1995) is performance. Instead, the elected politicians, the parliamentary actors, have probity as a professional standard and operate with the rhetoric of emotions (pathos) and moral (ethos). ...
... Accruals accounts were removed from consideration in all subsequent proposals for reform in government administration, accounting and auditing, until a Treasury WhitePaper of 1995 (Cmnd. 2629, 1995. ...
Article
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Purpose – This paper analyses public sector accounting and organization reforms, focusing on the departments in charge of defence, military procurement and war between 1850 and 2000 in Britain. Over this period, three parliamentary acts, resulting from a power struggle between the Treasury and Parliament, produced the shift between two institutional logics: probity (spending properly) and performance (spending well). The purpose of this paper is to describe how the acts produced a shift between two institutional logics. Design/methodology/approach – We adopt Quattrone’s (2015) procedural notion of institutional logics and the consequent concept of ‘unfolding rationality’. Using documents from the National Archives, we analyse three reforms: The Exchequer and Audit Departments Act 1866 (towards probity), The Exchequer and Audit Departments Act 1921 (towards performance), and the National Audit Office Act of 1983 (towards performance and probity). Findings – For a long time, the actors narrated in this story argued and acted as if probity and performance were incompatible. The two are now treated as compatible and equally important. Before that, the ‘incompatibility’ was a rhetorical, or ‘procedural’, device. We argue that a procedural rather than substantive notion of institutional logics is more suitable to explain the trajectory that was the result of constant negotiation among actors. Originality/value – The originality of this paper stands in highlighting the link between the institutional logic of public-administration accounting and military history. This link emerges also thanks to a very long time-horizon. Additionally, from a theoretical viewpoint, we have put Quattrone’s approach to the test in a context very different from the original one (the Jesuit order). Practical implications – Our study might contribute to understanding of the increase in national defence-spending at continental level and the call for a common EU military procurement strategy that followed the invasion of Ukraine. The war could produce changes in what is a traditional tension between two logics: sovereignty or efficiency. Keywords: Britain; defence; military history; accounting; audit; management and organizational history; probity; performance; Parliament; government; National Audit Office; Ministry of Defence
... The compliance strategy of brand internationalization can help the brand gain the acceptance of consumers in the host country, that is, the brand is placed within the existing institutional system of the host country and attached to its original order instead of challenging the established institutional logic (Meyer et al., 1991) [7]. The compliance strategy of brands involves responding to various stakeholder interests so as to meet practical functional needs, namely obtaining practical legitimacy (Suchman, 1995) [8]. Firat et al. (1995) argued that the post-modern era is characterized by the reversal of production and consumption: consumers are seizing the privileged position formerly belonging to producers and striving for a role in production [9]. ...
... The compliance strategy of brand internationalization can help the brand gain the acceptance of consumers in the host country, that is, the brand is placed within the existing institutional system of the host country and attached to its original order instead of challenging the established institutional logic (Meyer et al., 1991) [7]. The compliance strategy of brands involves responding to various stakeholder interests so as to meet practical functional needs, namely obtaining practical legitimacy (Suchman, 1995) [8]. Firat et al. (1995) argued that the post-modern era is characterized by the reversal of production and consumption: consumers are seizing the privileged position formerly belonging to producers and striving for a role in production [9]. ...
Article
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The internationalization of place brands has become a powerful weapon for cities, regions and countries to cope with global competition. Based on the perspective of practical legitimacy, this paper uses empirical analysis method to explore the composition dimension of open-up co-creation strategy in place brand internationalization and its influence mechanism on consumer acceptance in host countries. The results show that the place open-up co-creation strategy consists of three dimensions: place communication strategy, place reputation strategy and place quality strategy. At the same time, the place open-up co-creation strategy can promote the place brand to gain the trust of the host country consumers, and then gain their acceptance.
... Dichos cambios permiten la incorporación de la legitimidad, la cual es un elemento clave dentro de la lógica institucional, ya que ésta se encuentra enfocada hacia el grado en que las prácticas de la organización son vistas como apropiadas y por lo tanto, son evaluadas por los grupos de interés relacionados a la empresa, de acuerdo a su sistema de normas, creencias y valores (Massey, 2001;Suchman, 1995). De esta forma, las prácticas de la organización se encuentran influenciadas por las acciones de éstos grupos, ya que al poseer una legitimidad empresarial, ésta asegura su desarrollo y supervivencia en el largo plazo (Imtiaz et al., 2019;Li et al., 2015). ...
... Por consiguiente, la influencia coercitiva de las políticas ambientales son un motivador eficaz para la adopción de las acciones climáticas, lo cual demuestra la intención de atender las preocupaciones sociales climáticas, creando un cambio en la lógica institucional relacionada a la divulgación de las emisiones como una práctica organizacional, y así incrementar su legitimidad, la cual generara una percepción generalizada de que las acciones desarrolladas por la empresa son apropiadas dentro de las normas, valores y creencias aceptadas por la sociedad, en donde la empresa actuara dentro de los límites de dichas expectativas (Herold et al., 2018;Suchman, 1995). ...
Thesis
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Las empresas han iniciado en la última década la implementación de distintas prácticas hacía la mejora de su desempeño de carbono para atenuar su impacto en el cambio climático. Sin embargo, la efectividad de estas prácticas en la reducción de las emisiones de carbono continúa siendo debatible. Esta investigación explora el efecto que tiene cinco prácticas de gobernanza climática, i.e. la supervisión de la junta, la ejecución eficaz, la divulgación pública, la contabilidad de emisiones, y la planeación estratégica sobre el desempeño de carbono en las empresas de la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores del 2014-2018. Basado en la perspectiva de los grupos de interés, así como en la lógica institucional, se argumenta teóricamente que las presiones por una mejora en el desempeño climático de las empresas promueven una transición de lógica económica hacia una sustentable, la cual contribuya a la reducción de las emisiones de carbono e incrementar la legitimidad de sus operaciones. Para comprobar las hipótesis de investigación, se realiza un análisis longitudinal mediante Mínimos Cuadrados Generalizados Factibles (FGLS) con datos recabados de Bloomberg, Thomson Reuters, y los reportes de sustentabilidad. Los hallazgos sugieren que sólo la divulgación pública tiene un efecto positivo en la reducción de las emisiones de carbono, mientras que la supervisión de la junta, la ejecución eficaz, y la planeación estratégica incrementan dichos gases. Esta evidencia sugiere la necesidad de integrar de manera substantiva las prácticas de gestión climáticas por parte de los responsables de la toma de decisión, evitando así la impostura verde (greenwashing) para una efectiva implementación. De esta forma se contribuye a la identificación de aquellos mecanismos que coadyuven a la reducción de las emisiones de carbono dentro de la literatura de la gestión ambiental.
... 574). Obtaining legitimacy secures the stability and comprehensibility of firms' activities (Suchman, 1995). Firms can obtain LL by fulfilling formal institutional requirements and SL by honoring social values and norms immersed in informal institutions. ...
... LOF refers to the direct and indirect costs that arise from unfamiliar institutional environments and lead to a lack of legitimacy that local firms would not incur (Eden & Miller, 2004;Zaheer, 1995). Foreign mining companies often have limited knowledge about the unspoken or unwritten institutions in host countries (Suchman, 1995), and this can be an obstacle to obtaining SL at mining sites. To overcome this, mining MNEs often engage in CSR, through which they participate in a variety of environmental and social programs as members of society. ...
Article
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Although companies recognize the importance of social responsibility and community engagement, conflicts between companies and communities have been noticeably increasing. To better understand the role of institutional environments in company-community conflicts, we analyze two mining conflicts-Minera Yanacocha's Minas Conga extension project in Peru and Minera Los Pelambres' El Mauro Tailings Dam in Chile. Our findings imply that, to prevent negative consequences and alleviate company-community conflicts, mining companies should address underlying structural causes and pursue informal approaches in order to obtain and maintain their social license. We find that better formal institutional environments not only alleviate conflict intensity but also facilitate informal approaches through which companies and communities can cooperate to resolve conflicts. The best practice would be to start and continue dialogues between communities and companies, mediated by impartial governments, to understand the concerns of the counterparty and find means by which to address the causes.
... Legitimacy theory focuses on the interactions between companies and communities. Legitimacy is defined as a general perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, appropriate, or appropriate in some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs, and definitions [9]. [10], legitimacy theory believes in the idea that there is a "social contract" between an organization and the environment in which the organization operates. ...
... broadly acknowledged. For policymakers, they thus serve as an arena for frame competition as well as an indicator of the legitimacy of politics (Suchman, 1995;Wolfe, Jones, & Baumgartner, 2013). ...
Article
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This study investigates the German media’s framing of the 2015–2016 “migration crisis” and their support and criticism of the initial open-door policy. A standardized content analysis examines changes in media frames following the key event of assaults on New Year’s Eve (NYE) 2015. It is analyzed how changes in coverage differed between public broadcasting news and infotainment formats (talk and satirical shows) and how they were related to governmental communication. The findings contradict ideas of a state-conforming and uniform coverage of the “migration crisis.” Media coverage did not parallel the governmental switch from support for the open-door policy to ambivalence after the NYE incidents but challenged governmental communication with critical counter frames. Regarding support for the open-door policy, the news media showed some parallels to the government’s frames; however, the infotainment media deviated in their frame agenda from the news media and thus contributed to diversity in media discourse.
... The size and prominence of the FRC (as well-known all over the world as Coca-Cola, according to one of its regional leaders) make it an institutional entrepreneur (DiMaggio, 1988& Suckman, 1995, with the ability to influence public policy. An institutional entrepreneur is an actor with sufficient resources to contribute to the construction of a new environment or to negotiate the redefinition of the existing institutional environment (DiMaggio, 1988). ...
Chapter
This chapter questions the conditions required for sustainable cooperation between public and social economy organisations. First, it reviews the literature to identify the ideal type of sustainable cooperation, i.e. preserving the identity of social economy organisations and allowing a consensus regarding objectives, decisions, and the implementation of public policies. Secondly, we apply this framework to three case studies, the relationships between the French Red Cross and the State; between a social employers’ organisation and the local authorities; and finally, between the local authorities and non-profit organisations to which they addressed a call for expression of interest. In the first case, the cooperation, based on a partnership, enables the coconstruction of public policy. In the second case, the cooperation also appears founded on a partnership, but is oriented toward complementarity rather than coconstruction. In the third case, the cooperation based on contracting, leaves less room for the preservation of the non-profit organisations’ identity. The case studies reveal both the difficulties of cooperation, and some conditions for sustainable cooperation. These conditions include the strength of the social economy organisations’ identity, and its ability to influence the relationship towards exchange and co-construction.
... In the context of CSRRA, if CSR reporting is viewed as an effective management strategy for dealing with stakeholders, a positive relationship between stakeholder power, social performance and CSRRA is expected. Related to the stakeholder theory is the legitimacy theory which focuses on the generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions (Suchman, 1995). It is concerned with how organisational structures as a whole have gained acceptance from a key stakeholder such as society at large. ...
Chapter
This work seeks to augment policy directions on single-digit inflation rates convergence. The paper resorted to both univariate and multivariate forecasting procedures to predict the inflation rates of the member countries in the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) area, on the proposed date for the introduction of the Eco. Essentially, we did not find enough evidence that the introduction of the Eco will materialize on the set date. The paper cautions against a hasty introduction of the Eco. WAMI should therefore continue to create avenues for assisting member countries to improve their macroeconomic dynamics.
... Media attention provides a way for enterprises to obtain legitimacy, but also acts as a source of crisis regarding such legitimacy [34]. According to legitimacy theory, whether an enterprise's behavior is legal depends on its evaluation by the public [35]. As society closely observes environmental problems, environmental protections and the low-carbon transformation of enterprises have become important aspects of legitimacy; for example, high-carbon-emitting enterprises must improve their levels of carbon emissions to win the public's trust and establish a positive corporate image. ...
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Given the increasingly serious ecological and environmental problems in China, research on enterprises’ low-carbon sustainable development behavior (LCSDB) has become a heated discussion. This is also because enterprises are a primary source of carbon emissions and environmental pollution. From the perspective of the board of directors’ capital (BODC), this study considers empirical evidence from 286 enterprises listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges in China from 2008 to 2016 to examine the BODC’s impact on enterprises’ LCSDB and its mechanisms. A group test is conducted using the enterprise’s property, nature of rights, and region, among other factors, to investigate the heterogeneity of the impact of board capital on enterprises’ LCSDB and its regulatory role. The research indicates (1) an increase in BODC promotes enterprises’ LCSDB. (2) An awareness of social responsibility (AOSR) plays an intermediary role in the relationship between BODC and corporate LCSDB. (3) Media attention enhances the BODC’s role in promoting enterprises’ LCSDB. (4) Government regulatory factors promote the BODC’s positive impact on LCSDB. These findings significantly impact the effectiveness of decision-makers within the company, the governance mechanism to address climate change risks, and the possible connection between corporate governance reform and carbon-related policies.
... According to Du (2015), these programs are employed as misconduct dressing. As a result, they are classified as symbolic or ceremonial activities to gain reputation (Delmas & Burbano, 2011;Suchman, 1995) or social capital. These strategies are also called greenwashing activities in stark contrast to substantive CSR actions (Li et al., 2019). ...
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Using an international setting consisting of 5410 corporations domiciled in 24 countries, we test the insurance-like effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance in the era of the pandemic and confirm that CSR performance increases socially responsible companies’ resilience against the adverse effects of the crisis. Comparing stakeholders' responses to CSR activities during the pandemic and normal periods, we observe that the link between CSR performance and firm value is stronger during the crisis period. We also realize that the social aspect of CSR performance is the main driver for the mentioned effects. Finally, comparing the resilience of highly committed socially responsible companies with those with moderate and very low CSR ratings, we observe that best-in-class companies enjoy the greatest buffering effects, implying that the insurance-like effect of CSR performance is non-linear against systematic crises. Findings are robust to ceremonial CSR activities, extreme values of market-based instruments, endogeneity concern, etc.
... Community legitimacy is important for the institutionalization process where legitimacy will reveal boundaries that are the pressure point of the new norm. Suchman (1995) explained that "Legitimacy is a generalized perception of the action of an entity are desirable, proper or within a socially constructed system of norms, value, belief, and definition". Legitimacy is the ...
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In the last four years cases of HIV and AIDS in South Sulawesi Province continue to increase. So far, the use of condoms is quite effective for HIV and AIDS prevention but hypocritical actions against condoms are still found in the people of South Sulawesi. This study aims to determine the factors that influence hypocritical action on condom use in social transitions, the dimensions of each factor both partially and simultaneously, and the expected alternative solutions. This study used an analytical method with a multistage sampling technique, carried out in the Capital of South Sulawesi Province with a total sample of 400 people. The conclusions from the research on individual hypocritical actions toward condoms are caused by religious values, cultural norms, and previous experiences in condom use and have a simultaneous positive influence on one variable.
... D'après l'auteure, en vertu de cette légitimité, la société a le droit d'établir et de faire respecter un équilibre de pouvoir entre ses institutions et de définir leurs rôles légitimes (Wood, 1991). Pour Suchman (1995), la légitimité peut être définie comme « une perception ou une acceptation généralisée selon laquelle les actions d'une entité sont désirables, convenables et adéquates par rapport à un système socialement construit de normes, de valeurs, de croyances et de définitions ». Dans ce papier, nous avons bien retenu au niveau des principes institutionnels, le concept de légitimité au sens de Wood (1991de Wood ( , 2010 auxquels nous avons ajouté les apports des chercheurs du courant néoinstitutionnel. ...
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La RSE est devenue un thème majeur dans la littérature en sciences de gestion. L’objet du présent article est de proposer de nouvelles voies théoriques et méthodologiques pour une meilleure compréhension de l’engagement RSE des entreprises.S’inspirant des travaux de Wood (1991, 2010),il propose un nouveau modèle d’engagement sociétal des entreprises incluant les travaux des néo-institutionnalistes institutionnelles de (Meyer et Rowan, 1977 ;Powell et DiMaggio, 1983), le principe de solidarité générationnelle issu des théories du développement durable et l’outil PRESOR de Singhapakdi et al., (1996). La validation empirique a été effectuée en utilisant les Systèmes d’Équations Structurels, plus spécifiquement l’approche PLS PM(Partial Least Path Modeling) à l’aide d’un échantillon de 119 observations.Les résultats mettent en évidence le développement d’un nouvel outil de mesure fiable et valide pour évaluer les perceptions des acteurs sur l’engagement RSE au Sénégal et proposent une configuration de principes institutionnels, organisationnels et individuels comme déterminants. Mots clés:Principes RSE;Engagement RSE;Théorie institutionnelle;Modélisation par les Systèmes d’ÉquationsStructurelles;PLS PM (Partial Least Path Modeling).
... One factor determining how much Anne's authority as team leader might influence the course of the team's interactions would be the degree of legitimacy associated with that authority. We define authority as the ability of an actor to direct, regulate or evaluate others' behavior; and we define the legitimacy of that authority as the beliefs about whether the authority is appropriate (Dornbusch et al. 1975;Suchman 1995). Dornbusch et al. (1975) also distinguish between two different sources of legitimacy, the degree to which external, higher status others lend their support to the legitimacy of the authority (authorization) and the extent to which peer and lower status group members support the legitimacy of the authority (endorsement). ...
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David Gibson’s (2008) examination of research on conversational interaction highlighted methodological and theoretical gaps in current understanding – particularly around the localized construction of interaction and the reproduction of social structures. This paper extends extant formal models used by group process researchers to explain how exogenous status structures shape local interaction by incorporating insights from qualitative work examining the local production of conversational interaction. Relational events serve as a bridge between conversation analytic understandings of the deep structure of conversation and expectation states formal models of permeation. We propose a theoretical integration of the status organizing process (permeation) and local turn-taking rules (deep structure) as a more complete model of conversational behavior in task groups. We test a formalized construction of this preliminary theory by examining turn-taking using data from 55 task groups whose members vary in gender, authority, and legitimacy of that authority. This integrated model offers substantial improvements in prediction accuracy over using status information alone. We then propose ways to expand the integrated theoretical framework to advance current understandings of action and events in conversation. Finally, we offer suggestions for insights from group processes theories that could be incorporated into network models of interaction outside of this theoretical framework.
... Organizations are continually seeking to ensure that they operate with the bounds and norms of their respective societies (Deegan 2000). Legitimacy can be considered as a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions (Suchman 1995). To this end, organizations attempt to establish congruence between the social values associated with or implied by their activities and the norms of acceptable SN Bus Econ (2023) 3:51 Page 3 of 18 51 behavior in the larger social system of which they are part (Dowling and Pfeffer 1975). ...
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The purpose of the present paper is to study the effect of corporate governance variables on Human Resource Disclosure Index (HRDI) in Indian corporate sector. The sample contains the Indian firms listed on NSE-500 Index. The final sample contains 336 companies. The data of human resource disclosure are collected from annual reports using content analysis approach for the time period of 8 years (Financial Year 2012–13 to 2019–2020). In addition, the data of corporate governance variables are also gathered from annual reports of the sample companies. For analysis purpose, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation matrix and one-way least square dummy variable regression model have been used. The outcomes show that board size, board meeting and audit committee have significant positive effect on HR disclosure of the Indian listed companies. However, board independence and CEO duality have insignificant but positive effect on HRDI. Overall, it can be said that the HRDI constructed in the present study will be a useful tool and set as a benchmark for the companies to increase their human resource disclosure practices in the near future.
... El entorno en el que se desenvuelve la institución tiene un papel determinante en el sentido que genera inputs que aportan conformidad con la percepción que se tiene de sí misma y también con el cumplimiento de los fines para los que fue instituida. De esta manera, las instituciones adquieren estabilidad y forjan un comportamiento social en sintonía con las normas, valores, creencias y percepciones de una sociedad dada (MEYER; ROWAN, 1977;SUCHMAN, 1995). ...
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Em governos ditos democráticos a participação social tem se apresentado como estratégia para garantir a eficiência, na medida em que contribui para melhorar as respostas da administração pública e para aproximar os cidadãos dos tomadores de decisões. Entretanto, possíveis mitos que permeiam espaços de participação popular, especialmente os conselhos de políticas públicas, podem comprometer o potencial destes espaços de poder e inviabilizar a inserção social nos assuntos públicos. Em sua tese sobre o Conselho Municipal de Saúde de Belo Horizonte (CMSBH) - MG, Martins (2015) detectou, com base em entrevistas com atores envolvidos nos conselhos, a existência de um “suspeito” conjunto de mitos, produzidos e naturalizados como discursos dominantes. Os possíveis mitos podem representar ameaças à qualidade deliberativa no conselho, sendo: 1) A capacitação técnica é necessária para se alcançar a qualidade deliberativa; 2) A paridade na composição do conselho garante condições justas, e 3) O processo de decisão por si empodera o conselho. Nas discussões apresentadas foram revelados importantes desafios para a consolidação dos conselhos, enquanto espaço deliberativo, e constatado que os discursos mantidos contribuem para desconstruir a proposta original de mecanismo de participação, impondo limites à inovação no processo de gestão das políticas públicas. Há compreensão que somente por meio do processo deliberativo se pode encontrar soluções para as questões apresentadas como dilemas ou desafios. Este parece ser um caminho legítimo a ser percorrido para que o conselho possa de fato se revestir de poder para influenciar o sistema político administrativo.
... Evolution of the concept of organizational misconduct. (Deephouse, 1996;DiMaggio & Powell, 1983;Meyer & Rowan, 1977;Suchman, 1995). In developed countries, such formal and informal rules regarding right and acceptable organizational behavior are generally well established and clearly communicated, and the regulatory, legal, and sociocultural enforcement processes that sanction wrong and unacceptable behavior are transparent and effective. ...
Article
For three decades, scholars have investigated the phenomena of organizational misconduct (OM) in the fields of business ethics, management, and organization studies. In recent years, the construct has gained increased attention due to widely reported corruption, bribery, crime, violations, and other acts of immorality undertaken by organizations, especially in emerging markets. Despite its popularity, review studies on OM are sparse, and no systematic review of research on OM in the context of emerging markets exists. This article attempts to fill this void by analyzing the literature on OM in the specific context of emerging markets based on a systematic review methodology and integration approach. Based on the findings of our literature review, we develop an integrative model of the antecedents and consequences of OM in emerging markets and discuss important moderators that may curtail the development of OM and alleviate its consequences. In doing so, we provide scholars with a conceptual model and overview of the current knowledge and findings on the topic. We further discuss important gaps in the literature and provide fruitful avenues for future work that we believe are promising to advance our understanding of OM in the context of emerging markets.
... Changing the regulatory, culturalcognitive and normative structures by facilitating the constant flow of information can lead to the legitimation of new market creation (Humphreys, 2010;Kim and Mauborgne, 1999). Legitimation here means the process of making a practice or institution socially, culturally, and politically acceptable (Suchman, 1995). Transforming the regulatory structure requires a shift in the rule-setting and monitoring activities of authorities, while changing the cultural-cognitive structure implies shifting the taken-for-granted understandings about an organization or innovation. ...
Article
Purpose Successful commercialization is crucial to innovative firms, but further investigation is needed on how diverse stakeholders can contribute to the commercialization of a radical innovation that requires particular market creation support. This paper aims to, therefore, analyze the key stakeholders and their contributive activities in commercialization and market creation, particularly in the case of radical innovations. Design/methodology/approach This study relies on qualitative research design including interviews with key stakeholders, such as regulators, scientists, experts, licensing partners, core company representatives and extensive secondary data. This single-case study concerns a functional food product, which is a radical innovation requiring the development of a novel product category positioned between the food and medicine categories in global market settings. Since its market launch in 1995, the involvement of multiple stakeholders was needed for its successful commercialization in over 30 countries. Findings Results uncover the contributions of diverse stakeholders to commercialization and market creation, particularly of radical innovation. Stakeholders performed market creation activities such as regulating the marketing and labeling of food products, conducting safety assessments, revealing and validating the positive health effects of the novelty and raising awareness of healthy living and cardiovascular health. The commercialization activities included distributing the products overseas, applying the ingredient to different food products and making the products available for users. Research limitations/implications This single-case study provides an overview of the positive stakeholder activities with contributions to market creation and commercialization of functional food innovations. Although the user perspective was not included in the empirical part of this study because of our focus on B2B actors, users of the innovation can contribute to R&D activities to a great extent. Originality/value The developed framework of stakeholders’ contributive activities in radical innovation commercialization and market creation contributes to literature discussing market creation as well as commercialization within the marketing and innovation management research fields. This work also generates practical advice for managers who commercialize (radical) innovations.
... Institutional theory construes a firm's behavior as compliant with societal norms, values, and beliefs based on an implicit contract between the firm and society (Suchman, 1995). Environmental legitimacy then rests on the idea that a firm's environmental performance is desirable, proper, or appropriate (Campbell, 2007). ...
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The disclosure of corporate environmental performance is an increasingly important element of a firm’s ethical behavior. We analyze how the legal origin of foreign institutional investors affects a firm’s voluntary greenhouse gas emissions disclosure. Using a large sample of firms from 36 countries, we show that foreign institutional ownership from civil law countries improves the scope and quality of a firm’s greenhouse gas emissions reporting. This relation is robust to addressing endogeneity and selection biases. The effect is more pronounced in firms from non-climate-sensitized countries, for which the gap between firms’ environmental standards and investors’ environmental targets is potentially larger, and in less international firms. Firms with a higher level of voluntary greenhouse gas emissions disclosure also exhibit higher valuations.
... A FB is a commercial company where decisions are taken by family members of different ages who are associated by blood, marriage or adoption [1][2][3][4]. Many of these companies face periods of successions, which are referred to as transitions in a business's management and ownership [5]. ...
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Venture legitimacy refers to the generalised presumption or perception that a business entity's distinct procedures are proper and convenient or desirable within specific socially constructed systems of values and opinions. Entrepreneurial legitimacy is obtained by conforming to distinct normative, cognitive, and structural norms within entrepreneurship and communicating adherence to these norms. This concept has been widely used in entrepreneurship, including family businesses (FBs), which is the focus of this paper.
... To achieve this, organizations have to ensure that they have a positive social contract in place with society and all stakeholders. When this happens, companies are said to have achieved the requisite level of organizational legitimacy (afer Dowling and Pfefer 1975;DiMaggio and Powell 1983;Chafee 1985;Suchman 1995;Deephouse 1996;van Marrewijk 2003;Rayman-Bacchus 2006). Organizational legitimacy in some circles is referred to as the "social licence to operate" (Howard- Grenville et al. 2008;Wilburn and Wilburn 2011). ...
... Under the pressure of ER, heavily polluting enterprises face a crisis of legitimacy . According to stakeholder theory, when an enterprise commits an environmental violation, it may suffer penalties and the disclosure of violation information may damage its image and reputation, which may lead to the loss of stakeholders' approval (Suchman, 1995). In order to achieve legitimacy and gain stakeholders' approval, enterprises may consider internal environmental investment, which may be a more cost-saving approach than reducing production or suffering penalties. ...
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How heavily polluting enterprises achieve sustainable development has become an urgent issue to be solved. Based on the data of Chinese heavily polluting listed enterprises during the period of 2010–2020, this paper adopts the probit method to examine how heterogeneous environmental regulations affect green merger and acquisition (GMA) decision, and propensity score matching and difference-in-differences method to explore innovation performance of GMA. The findings are as follows: (1) Command-and-control environmental regulation (CMCER) can promote GMA, while there exists a U-shaped relationship between market-based environmental regulation (MBER) and GMA; (2) from a dynamic perspective, it turns out that GMA can promote green innovation (GI) in the first and second post-acquisition year, but this effect disappears in the third year; (3) compared with CMCER, MBER has a more pronounced positive effect on the relationship between GMA and GI; (4) heterogeneous analysis indicates that the above GMA performance is more persistent when the acquirer is state-owned, with high media attention, with high internal control or engages in vertical GMA. The findings further enrich the literature on GMA driver and performance and provide references for optimizing ER policies and promoting corporate sustainable development.
... Fake news (Kalsnes, 2019) and filter bubbles (Pariser, 2011) are 'wicked problems' that give LAMs a new possibility to display social responsibility and use their high levels of trust among the population to help underpin a sustainable public sphere (Larsen and Solheim, 2020). Following Suchman's (1995) definition of legitimacy, contributing to building a sustainable public sphere, not only by providing access to information but also by serving as an arena for public debate, is a desirable, proper and appropriate path to follow for Nordic LAMs. The new public governance regime can explain why the library and museum professionals across the three countries found that their institutions should serve as an arena for public debate, despite the fact that only the Swedish and Norwegian library legislation mentions this function. ...
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This article analyses how library, archive and museum professionals legitimize the use of scarce societal resources for maintaining their respective organizations, with a special emphasis on their role as public-sphere infrastructure. Drawing on data from a survey among professionals in libraries, archives and museums in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the authors investigate whether professionals across these institutions have similar expectations of their organizations to serve as public spheres. The analysis is contextualized with references to current library, archive and museum legislation across the three countries. The authors conclude that there are many similarities across the three countries, although national library, archive and museum legislation differs. This is interpreted in light of new public governance being a dominant regime of governance.
... Organizations that can respond to the different expectations of the environment can fill the entropy gap, can adapt to the environment and can gather the support of the environment. It is all about the adoption to the environment (Meyer and Rowan, 1977;DiMaggio and Powell, 1983;Suchman, 1995). ...
... (Halliday, 1987, p. 19) A partir da análise das apresentações ou autodescrições organizacionais, a autora identifica as credenciais usadas pelas multinacionais no intuito de autolegitimar-se perante seus públicos, como, por exemplo, a identidade, o status, as realizações, a capacidade, as opiniões, os sentimentos e os objetivos organizacionais. Halliday (1987) volontaire, une caricature de l'histoire" (Caron, 1987, p. 9 (Suchman, 1995), mas também implica a validação da existência e da continuidade empresarial (Hirsch & Andrews, 1984;Knoke, 1985), evidenciadas através de sua história. ...
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A obra apresenta a Abordagem Narrativa da Comunicação Organizacional, enfoque que nasce dos estudos precursores sobre a narratologia nas organizações. A narrativa é observada como processo, mas também como produto da comunicação organizacional. O caráter processual da narrativa, observado e apresentado na publicação, diz respeito ao trabalho de “narrativização” operado pelas organizações no intuito de comunicar sua trajetória aos diferentes públicos. Isto é, a história organizacional é submetida a um processo comunicacional graças ao qual ela se torna “narrável”. Por outro lado, abordar a narrativa como produto, significa focalizar nos relatos estratégicos construídos pelas organizações como objetos de análise por meio dos quais são reveladas suas estratégias discursivas e argumentativas, bem como, as escolhas estruturais que permitem dar coerência à história narrada. As análise e reflexões são tecidas sob a égide das Ciências da Informação e da Comunicação, como perspectiva a partir da qual os fenômenos são observados, mas entende-se que o livro seja de interesse do grande público que vise a compreensão das narrativas e sua emergência em contextos organizacionais.
Article
This paper tests for the presence of the symbolic management of women board directors. The data are based on companies in the UK FTSE All‐Share Index between 1996 and 2017. Our sample experiences a sharp increase in the number of women board directors after a major reform in 2011, known as the Davies Review. While the Davies Review has triggered a rise in the number of women in non‐executive director positions, these women continue to experience a disproportionate exit rate around 9 years of tenure. This is a symbolically significant moment because at 9 years directors are no longer considered ‘independent’ under the UK Governance Code. Notwithstanding the progress made following the Davies Review, the evidence presented here supports the view that women often serve on company boards for symbolic rather than substantive motives.
Article
On observe un intérêt croissant tant dans le monde académique que dans celui de l’entreprise pour les questions environnementales. Parallèlement, le besoin en informations sur ces questions augmente, comme le soulignent Adams et Frost (2004). Le rapport d’activité, un support traditionnel de divulgation des informations financières aux actionnaires, permet aussi aujourd’hui à de nombreuses entreprises de communiquer sur leurs actions environnementales. Notre question centrale dans cette communication est la suivante : Dans quelle mesure l’information environnementale diffusée dans le rapport d’activité se modifie-t-elle ? Pour répondre à sa question nous avons choisi de nous centrer sur un secteur particulier, celui de la prestation de services logistiques (PSL) et de nous centrer sur le prestataire classé n°1 des prestataires logistiques en France par le magazine professionnel Logistiques Magazine, DHL. DHL est aussi qualifié de "leader mondial de la logistique". Notre recherche se fonde d'abord sur une analyse comparative de la structure des rapports entre 1998 et 2009 puis sur une analyse du discours présent dans ces rapports. Nous aboutissons à la conclusion que le champ environnemental est une préoccupation de plus en plus importante pour Deutsche Post- DHL au moins si l'on en croit la place accordée à cette question dans les rapports de l'entreprise. L'analyse longitudinale permet de mettre en évidence comment les préoccupations sur le management durable ont évolué dans cette entreprise.
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Financial reporting fraud affects corporate organizations as stakeholders express lack of self-confidence in financial reports. The chapter assessed the effect of financial reporting fraud, improper expense recognition and fictitious revenue on the performance of firms in the Nigerian Exchange Group return on assets (ROA). Secondary data were collected from the firm annual accounts. Correlation and regression analysis were employed. The results revealed that improper expense recognition has a negative significant relationship with ROA. Also, fictitious revenue reflected a positive but insignificant relationship with ROA. The chapter concluded that financial reporting fraud somewhat affects the performance of firms as supported by a positive relationship reflected by fictitious revenue and negative relationships shown by improper expense recognition. The chapter recommended that financial reporting fraud needs to be investigated to reveal the fraud that affects the performance of firms to aid better and easier forensic accounting investigation.
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This chapter discusses how legitimacy has been constructed in university-based business schools throughout their history in different eras (modern university, multiversity, and managerial university). During the last decades, this process has increasingly legitimized the idea of managerialism as a normative guideline through which business schools have aimed to demonstrate that their organizational activities are desirable, proper, and appropriate. This shift to managerial university has resulted in a fundamental change within the broader context in which business schools operate in the present era. At the same time, the logic of managerialism has been increasingly questioned inside and outside academia, posing questions over its legitimacy and appropriateness in serving its constituents that have various needs.
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In the second half of the nineteenth century, the primary sector expanded in Ibiza as in other Mediterranean regions. However, it also overcame the protectionist crisis at the end of that century and fully integrated into the international trade channels that emerged in the twentieth century. Within a few years, the island’s economy became fully dependent on foreign markets, as feeding the population and generating agricultural products overwhelmingly required external foodstuffs and inputs. The growth of the primary sector substantially improved the living conditions of Ibiza residents and incentivized the growth of associated sectors, including commerce and a merchant navy. It also permitted the accumulation of financial, human, and social capital that paved the way for Ibiza to become a leading international tourism destination in the 1930s.
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This study explores the concept of authoritarianism. The author defi nes this concept as a form of a political system in which the power and material resources of the state have been centralised, appropriated and put at the disposal of either an individual or an elitist group in power. In this way, the possibilities of integrating the authoritarian state with global international relations are limited, and the vital administrative institutions of the state have been manipulated and appropriated. The applied research method allows for interpreting the discussed issues in a complex – albeit specifi c – systemic form, characteristic of not only politically fragile or declining countries and regions but also of politically stable and economically developed ones. The author’s analysis presents and reinterprets the issue of contemporary authoritarian regimes in the context of international relations in terms that not only defi ne but often legitimise some of the most despotic, autocratic and hegemonic forms of political systems in modern times.
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Literature shows manifold concepts of the ecosystem. A critical issue in social studies of science is that these concepts include different construct’s core elements. Recent reviews have set out to clarify the conceptual boundaries between ecosystem concepts. However, there are many inconsistencies to clarify the interaction of different concepts that have supported their scientific evolution to help scholars in scientific investigations and firms to achieve and sustain competitive advantage and other goals. This study endeavors to advance the understanding of the evolutionary pathways of different concepts of the ecosystem. In particular, here, we explore the scientific dynamics of the concept of ecosystem, using author co-citation analysis to clarify the interaction between different concepts in social communities of science. The findings show systematical differences in the ecosystem types considering their conceptual basis and goals. Especially, findings suggest that the current concept of ecosystem is being socially constructed based on different domains of knowledge of scholars and evolves from a master community started with the work by Moore in 2003, generating four evolutionary pathways with specific characteristics directed to: Entrepreneurial ecosystem, Innovation ecosystem, Service ecosystem, and the Platform ecosystem. Results seem to suggest fragmented and contradictory views of the concept of ecosystem, because of different evolution based on social and scientific interactions of scholars and their communities in shaping the dynamics of science in these fields of research. The splitting and merging of different social and scientific communities in an international collaboration network do not converge towards a consistent and unique perspective of the concept of ecosystem for a general analysis because of initial origins based on conceptual differences, different approaches of analysis and purposes of research and consequential various evolutionary pathways in complex scientific interactions between communities. Hence, these results clarify the science dynamics of the concepts of ecosystem to explain different applications in theoretical and practical contexts of organization and management studies.
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I explored the challenges facing work-affected states, especially their security system.
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Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify and explain the institutional mechanisms that shape performance measurement systems. In the empirical research of a system for evaluating the quality of scientific activities, measurement practices were explained using the constructs of contending legitimacy and counter-coupling. Methodology/approach: The research was conducted using a case study method. A very broad and diverse set of empirical material concerning the assumptions and application of selected measurement practices were analysed using the method of qualitative content analysis. Findings: The analysis of the empirical material revealed the impact of the divergent logics of an academic career in Poland. The multidimensional heterogeneity of the institutional environment was reflected in two identified layers of performance measurement practices related to logics: meritocratic and pragmatic-populistic. It has been shown that these layers were merged in the current evaluation system through blackboxing and legitimacy labelling tactics, creating a construction that is characteristic of counter-coupling. Research limitations/implications: The adopted research strategy means that the conclusions of the research should be verified by subsequent studies of the practices of measuring various types of achievement. Originality/value: The findings confirm that legitimacy in a heterogeneous and dynamic institutional environment has a specific impact on accounting practices, including performance measurement systems. The demonstrated mechanism of the influence of contending legitimacy explains why performance measurement practices may seem irrational from the perspective of normative recommendations.
Article
Purpose Once a corporate crisis is entangled with a social issue, how consumers make sense of the crisis can be impacted by issue-based opinion polarization. This study investigates the underlying mechanisms as consumers go through this process. This study also examines whether corporate social advocacy (CSA) can be an effective crisis-response strategy for mitigating reputational loss. Design/methodology/approach Theoretical inquiries were empirically tested using an online experiment ( N = 792). The experiment set the context in China, in a working-overtime-issue-related crisis. It had a 2 (online exposure: anti-issue opinion vs. pro-issue opinion) × 2 (CSA: absence vs. presence) between-subject design with a continuous variable (pre-existing issue attitudes) measured before the manipulation. Findings This study found that pre-existing issue attitudes can be directly and indirectly associated with corporate reputation, for the issue attitudes influence how consumers attribute crisis blame. Such a direct effect of pre-existing issue attitudes varies depending on which polarized opinion consumers were exposed to on social media. This study also found CSA to be a robust crisis response strategy, through multiple mechanisms, in protecting the corporate reputation. Originality/value Scholars are scarcely aware of the threats that issue-based opinion polarization poses to corporate reputation. This study serves as an early attempt to provide theoretical explanations. In addition to this, this study extends the current conceptual understandings of CSA during corporate crises that involve social issues while adding fresh insights into the established typology of crisis-response strategies.
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Focuses on the economic theory that views the economy based on positive feedback. Theory of choice for understanding modern high-technology companies; Difference from the conventional economic theory; Quantification of economic activity based on individual transactions; Importance of timing when undertaking research initiatives in new industries.
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Long a fruitful area of scrutiny for students of organizations, the study of institutions is undergoing a renaissance in contemporary social science. This volume offers, for the first time, both often-cited foundation works and the latest writings of scholars associated with the "institutional" approach to organization analysis. In their introduction, the editors discuss points of convergence and disagreement with institutionally oriented research in economics and political science, and locate the "institutional" approach in relation to major developments in contemporary sociological theory. Several chapters consolidate the theoretical advances of the past decade, identify and clarify the paradigm's key ambiguities, and push the theoretical agenda in novel ways by developing sophisticated arguments about the linkage between institutional patterns and forms of social structure. The empirical studies that followinvolving such diverse topics as mental health clinics, art museums, large corporations, civil-service systems, and national politiesillustrate the explanatory power of institutional theory in the analysis of organizational change. Required reading for anyone interested in the sociology of organizations, the volume should appeal to scholars concerned with culture, political institutions, and social change.
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In recent years increasing need has been felt for a body of systematic theoretical constructs which will discuss the general relationships of the empirical world. This is the quest of General Systems Theory. It does not seek, of course, to establish a single, self-contained "general theory of practically everything" which will replace all the special theories of particular disciplines. Such a theory would be almost without content, for we always pay for generality by sacrificing content, and all we can say about practically everything is almost nothing. Somewhere however between the specific that has no meaning and the general that has no content there must be, for each purpose and at each level of abstraction, an optimum degree of generality. It is the contention of the General Systems Theorists that this optimum degree of generality in theory is not always reached by the particular sciences.
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A simple theory of power relations is developed in an effort to resolve some of the ambiguities surrounding "power," "authority," "legitimacy," and power "structures," through bringing them together in a coherent scheme. After defining a reciprocal power-dependence relation, attention is focused upon properties of balance and "balancing operations" in such relations. The theory dictates exactly four generic types of balancing process, and discussion of these leads directly into processes of group formation, including the emergence of group norms, role structure and status hierarchy, all presented as the outcome of balancing tendencies in power relations. Within the framework of this theory, authority appears quite naturally to be legitimized power, vested in roles, and "legitimation" is seen as a special case of the coalition process through which norms and role-prescriptions are formed. Finally, through treating both persons and groups as actors in a power-network (two or more connected power-dependence relations) the door is opened for meaningful analysis of complex power structures. Brief reference is made to findings from two experiments pertaining to hypotheses advanced in this theory.
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This paper investigates the diffusion and institutionalization of change in formal organization structure, using data on the adoption of civil service reform by cities. It is shown that when civil service procedures are required by the state, they diffuse rapidly and directly from the state to each city. When the procedures are not so legitimated, they diffuse gradually and the underlying sources of adoption change overtime. In the latter case, early adoption of civil service by cities is related to internal organizational requirements, with city characteristics predicting adoption, while late adoption is related to institutional definitions of legitimate structural form, so that city characteristics no longer predict the adoption decision. Overall, the findings provide strong support for the argument that the adoption of a policy or program by an organization is importantly determined by the extent to which the measure is institutionalized — whether by law or by gradual legitimation.
  • Aldrich H. E.
  • Oliver C.
  • Neilsen E. H.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation
  • M C Suchman
  • Tuzzolino F.
  • Wood D. J.